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NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING

COURSE TITLE: MM-402: DESIGN AND SELECTION OF MATERIALS

FALL TERM: 2012

TEACHER: Engr. Humair Ahmed / Engr. Danish Majeed.

Text Book;
1) Materials Selection in Mechanical Design
Writer: Michael F. Ashby.

References;
x George E. Dieter, Linda C. Schmidt: ENGINEERING DESIGN.
x ASM Handbook volume 20: Materials Selection and Design.

Evaluation;

1. Popup Quizzes (approx 5): 5%


2. Test: 10%
3. Assignment: 5%.
4. Attendance: 5%
4. Final examination: 75%

SYNOPSIS OF COURSE:

This is course deals with one of the most important aspect in Materials Engineering i.e.
design as well as selection of different materials and Processes.
The specific objectives for the course are:
1. Describe, both conceptually and analytically, how system components work using
scientific engineering principles.
2. To gain experience in the selection of materials and optimization of behavior by
using a systematic methodology which combines materials properties with the
engineering function of the process or product design.
3. To defend materials selection effectively both orally and in written form.
4. To select and use appropriate industrial literature and library resources in the
solution of material selection and failure analysis problems.

REMEMBER!!!!
The true art of memory is the art of attention
Samuel Johnson
WHAT QUALITIES IN A GOOD ENGINEER? MINIMUM COMPUTER SKILLS?

x A sharp mind. x BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS.


x Refined knowledge x MS OFFICE
x Superb observational capabilities x WORD
x Great listening power x POWER POINT
x Reflexivity x EXCEL
x Attitude x PUBLISHER
x Computer skills. AUTOCAD.
PHOTOSHOP, CORELDRAW etc POSITIVE
POINT
PRO E.

JOB TITLE(s): Materials Designer, Design Engineer (Materials), Trainee Design Engineer.

The engineer is the key figure in the material progress of the world. It is his
engineering that makes a reality of the potential value of science by translating
scientific knowledge into tools, resources, energy and labor to bring them into the
service of man ... To make contributions of this kind the engineer requires the
imagination to visualize the needs of society and to appreciate what is possible as well
as the technological and broad social age understanding to bring his vision to reality

Sir Eric Ashby


DESIGN AND SELECTION OF MATERIALS

DESIGN SELECTION MATERIALS


x As many definitions as there are x The action or fact of carefully x The tangible substance that goes
designs. choosing someone or something as into the makeup of a physical
being the best or most suitable. object.
x Formal definition of design:
x Engineering Materials: Materials
Design establishes and defines x The selection of materials is a
of engineering applications.
solutions to and pertinent structures for critical stage in product
problems not solved before, or new development and manufacturing of
solutions to problems which have engineering component.
previously been solved in a different
way. x Vast materials processes available
and enormous varieties of design
x The ability to design is both a science requirements have been identified as
and an art. the root of the problems in materials
selection that challenges engineer.
x The science can be learned through
techniques and methods to be covered x From the manufacturing perspective,
in this text, but the art is best learned the sequence through which the
by doing design. component is manufactured is
considered more critical than design
x A design may or may not involve requirement. Therefore, the
invention. selection process is not only
determined by its function and
x The professional practice of shape, but also by the manufacturing
engineering is largely concerned with process.
design; it is often said that design is
the essence of engineering.
DES
SIGN vs DIISCO
OVER
RY
Desiggn should not be connfused witth discover
x Discoovery is getting
g the first sightt of, or thee first know
wledge off somethinng, as wheen
Coluumbus disccovered America
A orr Roentgenn discoverred the X-rray.
x We can
c discovver what has
h alreadyy existed but
b has nott been knoown beforre, but a deesign
is thee product of
o plannin
ng and wo
ork.

Just a Preliminaryy Examination of Students:


S What do you is the main Prroblem heere?

DESIGN (E
D ENGINE EERING DESIGN)
D ):
x A design may or may noot involve inventionn
x Goodd design reequires booth analysis and synnthesis.
x Typically we approach
a c
complex p
problems l design by decoomposing the
like t probleem into
manaageable paarts. Becauuse we neeed to undderstand hoow the paart will perrform in service,
s
we mmust be ab ble to calculate as much aboout the paarts expected behaavior as po ossible
beforre it existts in physsical formm by usingg the apprropriate disciplines
d s of science and
enginneering annd the neccessary co omputationnal tools. This is called analysis . It usually
u
invollves the siimplificatiion of the real worldd through models.
x Synthhesis invoolves the identificaation of the
t design n elementts that wiill compriise the
produuct, its deecomposition into parts,
p and the combbination off the part solutionss into a
total workable system.
SELECTION OF MATERIALS:

x The selection of a specific material for a particular use is a very complex process.
However, one can simplify the choice if the details about
(i) Operating parameters,
(ii) Manufacturing processes,
(iii) Functional requirements and
(iv) Cost considerations are known.

Factors affecting the selection of materials are summarized in Table below.

x There are thousands and thousands of materials available and it is very difficult for an
engineer to possess a detailed knowledge of all the materials. However, a good grasp of
the fundamental principles which control the properties of various materials help one to
make the optimum selection of material.
x In this respect, materials science and engineering draw heavily from the engineering
branches, e.g. metallurgy, ceramics and polymer science.

Relation of Materials Selection to Design


x The recognition of the importance of materials selection in design has increased in
recent years.
x Concurrent engineering practices have brought materials specialists into the design
process at an earlier stage.
x The importance given to quality and cost aspects of manufacturing in present-day
product design has emphasized the fact that materials and manufacturing are closely
linked in determining final product performance.
x Moreover, the pressures of worldwide competition have increased the level of
automation in manufacturing to the point where material costs comprise 60 percent or
more of the cost for most products.
x Finally, the extensive activity in materials science worldwide has created a variety of
new materials and focused our attention on the competition between six broad classes of
materials: metals, polymers, elastomers, ceramics, glasses, and composites.
x Thus, the range of materials available to the engineer is much broader than ever before.
x This presents the opportunity for innovation in design by utilizing these materials to
provide greater performance at lower cost.
x Achieving these benefits requires a rational process for materials selection.
x An incorrectly chosen material can lead not only to failure of the part but also to
excessive life-cycle cost.
x Selecting the best material for a part involves more than choosing both a material that
has the properties to provide the necessary performance in service and the processing
methods used to create the finished part.

x A poorly chosen material can add to manufacturing cost.


x Properties of the material can be enhanced or diminished by processing, and that may
affect the service performance of the part.
QUIZ NO. 1

What do you understand by:

1) This Figure

2) What do you understand by the following lines.


the most efficient structural designs are now generated by incorporating,
from the beginning, the complex properties of modern engineered
materials into the design synthesis step (matching form to function).

3) What according to you, the integrated product development (IPD) is?


4) Define in your own words:
i) Design of Materials
ii) Role of Materials Selection in Design.
iii) Importance of Analysis of any existing Design.
The Role of the Materials Engineer in Design
Introduction

The role of the materials engineer in the design and manufacture of today's highly
sophisticated products is varied, complex, exciting, and always changing.
Materials selection specialists have been practicing their art since the beginning of
recorded time.
The first caveman, searching for food, required an implement that would not break
during use.
Although wood, stone, and bone were the only structural materials available, there
were still choices: hard wood versus soft wood, and hard stones and flint, which
would sharpen when broken, versus soft stones.
While prehistoric man learned only from experience, learning nevertheless took place,
and the art of materials selection became a valued skill within the community.
As other materials, such as copper and iron, became available, the skill became almost
mystical, with knowledge passed down from father to son, until the middle to late
19th century. By then the blacksmith had replaced the alchemist.
At this point, the blacksmith had become the local expert in materials selection and
shaping and was recognized as a valuable and enabling member of the community.
The role of the materials selection expert has evolved.
Today when we think of materials selection specialists, we think of those who have
been formally trained as metallurgical or materials engineers.
Modern engineered materials are now available that have attractive but complex
properties.
Therefore, it is becoming essential to develop a much closer working relationship
between those who design a component and those who advise the designer on
materials selection.
In fact, the most efficient structural designs are now generated by incorporating, from
the beginning, the complex properties of modern engineered materials into the design
synthesis step (matching form to function).
The actual selection of a material to satisfy a design need is effectively performed
every day in literally dozens of different ways by people of many different
backgrounds.
 

The selection process can range from simply re-specifying a previously used material
(or one used by a competitor) through finite element analyses or modelling routines to
precisely identify property requirements.
Additionally, the selection may be done by someone formally trained in metallurgy
and materials science or by designers themselves. There is no unique individual role
when it comes to materials selection.
Today, the selection of the material and its processing, product design, cost,
availability, recyclability, and performance in final product form have become
inseparable.
As a result, more and more companies are forming integrated product development
(IPD) teams to ensure that all needed input is obtained concurrently.
Whether it is used in a small company or a large company the IPD approach has been
shown to lead to a better result and to achieve this result faster.
The integration of material, process, and product design relies on individuals who are
trained in materials selection and can work in a team environment.
Often, it is the materials specialist, familiar with the frequent, conflicting needs of
design, production, and marketing, who can assume the role of mediator to focus on
the final product.
Starting with the initial design and material choice, through prototype manufacture
and testing, and continuing to final production, the materials selection specialist is an
essential team member.
Worldwide, the vast majority of manufacturing firms are small and cannot afford the
luxury of a formally trained materials scientist or materials selection specialist.
Rather, they have individuals trained in many areas, one of which is materials. In a
smaller enterprise, these individuals actually select materials as a part of their daily
design activity.
Whether that training was gained as a part of another degree program, as part of a
community college associates program, on the job, the result is the development of an
individual trained in the many and varied facets of materials selection.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: CERAMICS
Info Overview Design Issues Typical Environmental issues
Design Design Products
strengths weaknesses
Materials
Glasses Glasses are amorphous solids based Transparent, Low tensile windows Silicon oxide (silica) is
on silicon oxide (the same as sand). or easily strength naturally occurring, but energy
coloured bottles is used to purify it to make
Glass is soft and mouldable when Low toughness glass for engineering
hot, making shaping High ovenware applications.
straightforward; when cool and solid resistance to
it is strong in compression, but corrosion optical fibres Because of the large energy
brittle and weak in tension. costs in making glass it is cost
Easy to shape effective to recycle it.
Glass is transparent or can be easily
coloured. Special glasses are made
into fibres for optical
communications.

Alumina Alumina is an ionic ceramic, Excellent Low tensile spark plugs Alumina is naturally occurring,
aluminium oxide. It is mainly used corrosion strength but energy is used to purify it
for its electrical insulation (e.g. resistant electrical for engineering application.
spark plugs) or for its hardness (e.g. Low toughness insulators (e.g.
cutting tools). Low density on pylons)
Difficult to
Like all ceramics, alumina is Resistant to shape cutting tools
intrinsically hard and strong in high
compression, but has low toughness temperatures grinding
and tensile strength. wheels
High electrical
Due to its high melting point, resistance fuse bodies
alumina can only be processed in
powder form.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: CERAMICS
Silicon Silicon carbide is a covalent Excellent Low tensile electrical Silicon and carbon are
carbide ceramic. It is mainly used for its corrosion strength insulators (e.g. abundant materials, but energy
very high hardness (e.g. cutting resistant semiconductor is used to purify them and to
tools), and for its electrical Low toughness substrate) produce silicon carbide powder
properties. Low density for engineering application.
Difficult to cutting tools
Like all ceramics, silicon carbide is Resistant to shape
intrinsically hard and strong in high grinding
compression, but has low toughness temperatures wheels
and tensile strength.
High electrical
Due to its high melting point, resistance.
silicon carbide can only be
processed in powder form. High hardness
Diamond Diamond is covalently bonded pure Excellent Excellent Gemstones Mining of diamond is very
carbon, and has the highest Young's corrosion corrosion expensive, as the proportion of
modulus and hardness of all resistance resistance Cutting tools diamond in the rocks is very
materials. small. Manufacture of artificial
Low density Low density Grinding diamond is also a slow,
It is naturally occurring but can also wheels expensive process.
be manufactured. High electrical High electrical
resistance. resistance. Partly for its intrinsic value,
High purity diamonds are used as and partly because of its
gemstones in jewellery. High hardness High hardness energy-intensive production
routes, diamonds are almost
Diamond is increasingly used for its entirely recycled.
very high hardness in cutting tools.

Due to its high melting point and


hardness, diamond can only be
processed by machining and
polishing.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: CERAMICS
Zirconia Zirconia is an ionic ceramic, Excellent Low tensile
zirconium oxide. corrosion strength
resistant
Like all ceramics, zirconia is Low toughness
intrinsically hard and strong in Low density
compression. Compared to other Difficult to
classes of materials it has low Resistant to shape
toughness. Mixing zirconia with a high
small amount of magnesium oxide temperatures
gives a "ceramic alloy" which has
good fracture resistance and tensile High electrical
strength for a ceramic material. resistance.

Due to its high melting point,


zirconia can only be processed in
powder form.
Brick Bricks were the first man-made Excellent Very low tensile Household Making bricks is an energy
structural materials. They are made corrosion strength due to bricks intensive process, with a very
by firing a mixture based on natural resistant pores and high scrap rate.
silica of ceramic particles with a defects. Fire bricks
glassy binder. Low density The higher the quality of the
Low toughness brick (the smaller the pores),
Like all ceramics, bricks are Resistant to the more firing required,
intrinsically hard and strong in high Can only be increasing energy costs.
compression, but have low temperatures shaped before
toughness and tensile strength. firing. The lifetime of brick buildings
Low cost can be very long. In many cases
Due to their high melting point and building bricks can be
good tolerance of thermal shock, Good strength recovered and reused, or used
bricks are often used in furnaces. in as hard core for road building,
compression. etc.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: CERAMICS
Concrete Concrete is a composite of cement Adaptable Low tensile Beams for Concrete structures cannot be
and gravel - the gravel increasing building strength bridges reshaped so concrete can only
stiffness and lowering cost. It is material (unreinforced) (reinforced) be broken up and re-used as
used widely for large-scale due to pores and hard core for roads, etc.
construction of roads, buildings, Low cost defects Road surfaces
bridges etc. Cement production is quite
Can be pre- Low toughness Paving slabs energy intensive, so gravel and
Concrete is formed by a chemical fabricated and sand used to reduce cost.
reaction between silicates and reinforced Can take months Railway
water; it is rather like network to fully harden sleepers
polymerisation.
Cannot be
Like all ceramics, concrete is reshaped once
intrinsically hard and strong in hardened.
compression, but has low toughness
and tensile strength. It is often
reinforced with mild steel bars to
improve its tensile properties.
Porcelain Porcelain (and other types of Good Low tensile Cups and The higher the quality of the
pottery) has been used for electrical strength saucers pottery (the smaller the pores),
containers and decorative artefacts insulator (unreinforced) the more firing required,
for thousands of years. Like cement due to pores and Insulators on increasing energy costs.
it is made from naturally occurring Resistant to defects telegraph
alumino-silicates. high poles
temperatures Low toughness
Like all ceramics, porcelain is Kitchen sinks
intrinsically hard and strong in Low density Can take months
compression, but has low toughness to fully harden Toilets
and tensile strength. Can be easily
shaped (prior Cannot be
to firing) reshaped once
hardened.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: POLYMERS
Info Overview Design Issues Typical Environmental issues
Design strengths Design Products
weaknesses
Materials
Polycarbonate Polycarbonate (PC) is a quite Good strength (for a Quite expensive crash and Polymers are derived from
expensive thermoplastic, used polymer) safety helmets hydrocarbons, and require
for its relatively high strength energy to extract and
and toughness. Low density lightweight purify them.
armour (e.g.
Like all thermoplastics, Transparent, or easily riot shields) Thermoplastics can be
polycarbonate is easy to shape coloured reheated and reshaped.
and join. street light
High toughness covers No toxic fumes when burnt.
Polythene Polythene (polyethylene, PE) Very simple polymer Quite expensive dustbins Polymers are derived from
comes in various forms, of structure, so easy to hydrocarbons, and require
which LDPE (low density) process. water and gas energy to extract and
and HDPE (high density) are pipes purify them.
the most common. Transparent, or easily
coloured carrier bags Thermoplastics can be
Low density polythene is the reheated and reshaped.
only polymer which floats, Can be drawn to very food
high density polythene does large elongations, and packaging No toxic fumes when
not. very thin sheet burnt.
sandwich
Polythene is the polymer used boxes
in the largest quantities

Like all thermoplastics,


polythene is easy to shape
and join.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: POLYMERS
Polystyrene Polystyrene is a common Cheap high stiffness Chains slide disposable Polymers are derived from
thermoplastic, which is polymer. over each other cups hydrocarbons, and require
relatively stiff and brittle. at 95?C energy to extract and
Transparent, or easily (polystyrene pens purify them.
Polystyrene is used in a solid coloured cups go soft if
form for simple moulded boiling water rulers Thermoplastics can be
components, but is more Can be made into used). reheated and reshaped..
familiar in the form of white foam for packaging
"polystyrene foam" for (different properties Brittle at room
packaging. as foam). temperature (e.g.
rulers often
Like all thermoplastics, snap)
polystyrene is easy to shape
and join.
PMMA Poly methyl methacrylate is Transparent, or easily Brittle domestic Polymers are derived from
often called perspex coloured baths hydrocarbons, and require
energy to extract and
Like all thermoplastics, tool handles purify them.
PMMA is easy to shape and
join. road signs Thermoplastics can be
reheated and reshaped.
It is hard and brittle at room inner aircraft
temperature windows
Polypropylene Polypropylene (PP) is a Cheap polymer pipes Polymers are derived from
simple thermoplastic hydrocarbons, and require
polymer, similar to polythene. Slightly higher ropes energy to extract and
stiffness and strength purify them.
Like all thermoplastics, than polythene containers
polypropylene is easy to Thermoplastics can be
shape and join. Transparent, or easily reheated and reshaped.
coloured
No toxic fumes when
Relatively high burnt.
toughness polymer
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: POLYMERS
PET PET is a polyester, which is PET is above average Thermoplastic cassette and Polymers are derived from
usually thermoplastic, but is strength and stiffness PET has low video tape hydrocarbons, and require
also modified to produce a (for a polymer) fracture energy to extract and
thermoset toughness drinks bottles purify them.
Relatively easy to
PET is made into transparent recycle coloured fibres for Thermoplastics can be
or coloured sheet (as in fizzy clothing reheated and reshaped.
drink bottles), or into fibres
which are woven into glass fibre As a polymer used for
clothing (e.g. "terylene"). composites (in bottles and clothing, PET
thermoset is potentially easier to
form) used for separate and recycle
boats, car
bodies
Nylon A partially crystalline Good strength (for a Low tensile zip fasteners Polymers are derived from
thermoplastic polymer. polymer) strength hydrocarbons, and require
(unreinforced) fishing line energy to extract and
Easily made as a fibre due to pores and purify them.
defects power tool
good heat resistance cases
<2500C Low toughness
clothes
Cannot be
reshaped once small gears
hardened.
Urea Urea formaldehyde (UF) is a Heat resistant Few processing electrical Polymers are derived from
formaldehyde thermosetting network routes plugs hydrocarbons, and require
polymer. Stiff and strong energy to extract and
Cannot be household purify them.
reshaped or insulation (as
recycled foam) As a thermoset cannot be
easily recycled.
INFORMATION OF SOME ENGINEERING MATERIALS
GROUP: COMPOSITES
Info Overview Design Issues Typical Environmental
Design Design Products issues
strengths weaknesses
Materials
CFRP CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) is a High stiffness-to- Moderately high Sports goods CFRP mostly uses
composite of long, fine carbon fibres weight ratio cost (tennis epoxy resin and fibres,
embedded in a polymer matrix (usually epoxy racquets, golf which are difficult
resin, or polyester). High strength-to- Cannot be clubs, fishing materials to work with,
weight ratio recycled rods) requiring special
CFRP has low density, and high Young's precautions against
modulus and strength. Difficult to shape Performance toxic fumes, fibre
racing fragments, fire hazards
CFRP must be processed directly to shape by Difficult to join bicycles etc.
laying up partially-cured layers of material,
and then hot pressing - this is expensive. Formula I car
bodies
Carbon fibres are also expensive to produce,
and it is only 25 years since the process to Military
manufacture them was invented. aircraft skins
GFRP GFRP is a composite of long, fine glass fibres High stiffness-to- Cannot be Sports goods GFRP mostly uses
embedded in a polymer matrix (usually epoxy weight ratio recycled (tennis epoxy resin and fibres,
resin, or polyester). Some GFRP uses short racquets, golf which are difficult
chopped fibres (e.g. for moulding canoes). High strength-to- Difficult to clubs, fishing materials to work
weight ratio shape rods) with, requiring special
GFRP has low density, and fairly high precautions against
Young's modulus and strength. Difficult to join Boat hulls toxic fumes, fibre
(yachts, fragments, fire hazards
GFRP must be processed directly to shape by canoes) etc.
laying up partially-cured layers of material,
and then usually requires hot pressing - this is Bathtubsfuse
expensive. bodies
ASSIGNMENT
STUDY THE MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING OF PROCESS OF
HEADLIGHT AND RECOMMEND THE ALTERNATES

Parts of headlight and existing materials

PARTS EXISTING MATERIALS

1. FRONT LENS POLYCARBONATE

POLYBUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE
2. INNER HOUSING
(PBT)

3. OUTER HOUSING POLYPROPYLENE - PP CO POLYMER

4. SEALANT RUBBER SYNTHETIC RUBBER

5. HARNESS CONNECTOR POLYAMIDE

6. ADHESIVE HOT MELT ADHESIVE

7. EXHAUST PIPE CAP HOT MELT ADHESIVE

SUBMISSION DATE: AT THE TIME OF FINAL TEST


ANALYSE THE FOLLOWING DESIGNS.
EGG HOLDERS
Simplistic
Very minimalist
design
The egg looks stable
The egg holder is
very stable
Practical
Material looks
durable
Not very elegant

Minimalist

Simple
Egg looks a bit
unstable
Material not very
durable as it will
smash when
dropped
Stable

Not very stylish


Material not very
durable
The egg is held
considerably stable
The height makes it
unstable
Stylish
THE
E NEW DESIGN
N AFTER
R ANAL
LYSINGG OLD ONES AND TH
HEN
SYNTH
HESIS
DESIGN FOR WEAR RESISTANCE
Wear is a mechanically induced surface damage that results in progressive removal of
material.
Wear usually results in a progressive loss of weight and change of dimensions over
time.
In severe situations it can result in fracture, usually from a surface- originated fatigue
crack.
Wear typically occurs when two solid materials are in close contact with each other,
either in a sliding or rotational motion.
The wear of a material is closely associated with the friction of the sliding surfaces,
and its degree of damage is strongly influenced by the presence of a lubricant. For
example, the wear rate for an unlubricated bearing can be 105 times greater than that of
a properly lubricated bearing.
The scientific study of friction, wear, and lubrication is known a tribology, and the
mechanics analysis of wear problems is called contact mechanics .
Wear, along with corrosion and fatigue, are the largest contributors to the failure of
machine components.
Wear is not a material property. It is a characteristic of a tribological system consisting
of the contacting materials, their geometrical parameters (shape, size, surface
roughness), the relative motion and the magnitude of the applied load, the type of
lubrication, and the environment.

Types of Wear
There are many types of wear. In designing for wear it is first important to identify the main
type of wear that is operative in a particular design, although often a given wear mechanism
gives way to a different mechanism as wear progresses, or several mechanisms act together.
There are four predominant situations where wear occurs:
Adhesive wear occurs when two solid bodies are in contact and move relative to
each other. The motion can be either sliding, rolling, or by impact.
Abrasive wear occurs when hard particles slide or roll across the surface under
pressure.
Erosion is the loss of material from a solid surface due to the interaction of that
surface with a fluid. The fluid may be a multicomponent fluid like steam, or a stream
of solid particles.
Surface fatigue is a form of surface damage in which particles of metal are detached
from a surface under cyclic stresses, causing pitting or spalling. The most common
occurrences of surface fatigue are in rolling-contact systems, as in gear teeth and
bearings.
Wear Models

Many models have been proposed for wear processes. The most general relationship
expresses wear by the volume of wear debris created, V.

where V is the wear volume, mm3

k is a dimensionless proportionality constant, called the wear coefficient

F is the compressive normal force, N

S is the sliding distance, mm

H is the hardness of the softer member in contact, kg/mm 2

This model is applicable for both adhesion and abrasive wear. However, for the latter
type of wear would be multiplied by a geometric term to account for the sharpness of
the particles.
The wear volume is inversely proportional to the hardness of the material that is
undergoing wear.
In general, the harder the wear surface the lower the wear.
Typical materials used in wear applications are tempered-martensitic steels, steels
surface hardened by carburizing, and cobalt alloys and ceramic materials applied as
surface layers.
Wear models are useful in designing against wear. However, the level of detail
involved precludes further examples here. The design starts with a thorough
understanding of the wear system, including the nature of the motion, the likely loads
and determination of contact stresses, the temperature, and environment (whether
there is corrosion or erosion).
This allows determination of the most likely types of wear, which permits the choice
of a wear model. An important determination at this stage is the allowable wear, and
the criterion of failure.
Determining the nature of the wear mechanism, its degree of severity, and the
characteristics of the wear process allows for the selection of an appropriate wear
model.
Since these equations all involve empirical coefficients that are material and
environment dependent, it is necessary to conduct wear tests on candidate materials
under conditions that approximate the design environment. Then the model is used to
determine the appropriate loads and dimensions in the design.
Wear Prevention
Design guidelines used to minimize wear can be divided into analysis methods, design
details of the product, the use of lubricants, and appropriate materials selection.

Analysis methods

In identifying of the type of wear that can be expected, look carefully at the surface
damage from wear failures from similar situations. Examine the wear surface with a
scanning electron microscope. Microscopic examination of the wear debris, and
spectrographic analysis of lubricants, which may contain wear debris, can shed light on the
nature of the wear processes that are taking place.

Modeling can provide much insight in design for wear mitigation.

Design details

The overall aim in designing against wear should be to minimize contact stresses. One way
to achieve this is to add details that help maintain good alignment between contact surfaces.

Rolling contact is preferred to sliding contact.

When satisfactory wear life cannot be achieved by other means, use a sacrificial design
where one contact element is softer than the other and is intended to be replaced periodically.

It is important to minimize the chance of buildup of abrasive particles in machines by


giving proper attention to the design of oil filters, air cleaners, dust covers, and seals.

Lubrication

The most general solution to excessive wear is lubrication. Lubrication provides a barrier
between the contact surfaces that reduces both friction and wear. Lubricants are usually
liquids, sometimes polymer solids, and rarely gases.

When a design depends on lubrication to control wear, a lubricant failure can be disastrous.
Lubricant failure can occur because of chemical breakdown or contamination, change in
properties due to excessive heat, or loss of lubricant.

Materials

Avoid unlubricated sliding between similar materials, especially metals.

Sliding between a hard metal surface and a softer metal surface will produce more wear on
both members than if both surfaces were hard. A hard steel (BHN 650) coupled with a soft
steel (BHN 250) will not protect the hard member from wear.

The lowest metal-to-metal adhesive wear and resistance to galling is achieved with two
hard surfaces (BHN 650).
Hard materials usually have low fracture toughness. An effective and economical approach
is to provide a high hardness layer on the surface of a lower hardness material. Depending on
the base material, this is achieved by diffusion treatments, surface hardening (in steels), hard
facing, and thermal spray coatings.

Diffusion treatments are usually applied to steels. The surface of low-carbon steel can be
made hard and wear resistant by diffusing carbon atoms (carburizing) or nitrogen atoms
(nitriding ) into the surface of a part. These surface treatment processes have been widely
adopted in the automotive industry.

Diffusion treatments require hours at high temperature for the diffusion of atoms to
produce a case depth of 0.0100.020 in. The change in surface composition leads to a minor
change in dimensions. Steels can also be surface hardened by selective hardening in which
only the outer surface of the part is heated into the austenitic range for hardening, and then
rapidly quenched to produce a hard martensitic layer on a soft, tough core. For large parts,
heating is accomplished by heating with a gas torch (flame hardening), while heating with an
induction coil or laser beam is used for smaller parts and greater precision in control of the
depth of the surface layer.
Hardfacing is the application of surface coatings using welding techniques. Surface layers
of 1/8 in. are common. Typical materials applied by hard facing are tool steels, iron
chromium alloys for resistance against high-stress abrasive wear, and cobalt-based alloys for
applications involving galling.

Thermal spraying builds up a surface layer by melting the material into droplets and
depositing them on the surface at high velocity. The droplets cool very rapidly and form an
interlocking layer of splats. Typical processes are flame spraying and plasma arc spraying.
These can deposit all wear-resistant metallic materials, and the higher-velocity spray
processes can deposit ceramic materials such as chromium and aluminum oxide and tungsten
carbide. Thermal spray processes can also be used to build up and repair worn parts.
LETS CONSIDER THE PROCESS OF BLANKING
QUESTION NO. 1
Being an engineer, you were asked to analyse a cylinder of atomic Hydrogen keeping in
view the fact of its leakage. Following data is from the Customer.
x Steel Vessel
x Temperature = 25C.
x Wall thickness = 4 mm.
x Inner surface exposed to H2 Concentration = 4.2moles/m3.
x Outer surface exposed to Atmosphere.

The diffusivity of hydrogen in - iron is D0 = 0.1mm2/sec, Q = 13.4 kJ/mol.


Now for simplicity imagine the vessel contains 20 moles of H2, estimate the hours taken to
dissipate all of the H2 given that the vessel has a surface area of 2m2.

Solution:

We have, M = JAt
Where M= mass diffusing through a unit cross sectional area
J= Diffusion Flux
A= area across which diffusion is occurring
t= elapsed diffusion time

In order to find t, we must have J i.e


dc
J = D dx
Where dC/dx is the gradient of the concentration C, and D is the diffusion coefficient

In order to find, J, we must have, D.

D = Do exp( -RT
Qd
)
where Do is a constant, Q the activation energy for diffusion, T the absolute temp (in K) and
R the gas constant.
-13.4 x 10-3
D = (0.1 x 10 - 6) exp( 8.314 x (25 273)
)

D = 4.478 x 10-10 m2/s

Now, finding J,

J = (4.478 x 10 - 3) 4 x4.2
10-3

J=4.70 x 10-7 g/m2-s


And finally,

M 20
t=
AJ 2 x 4.7 x10  7
T = 21,276,595.74 sec = 246.25 days

Now, the same customer wants you to design a cylinder which can hold same hydrogen
concentration for atleast 1.5 years.

QUESTION NO. 2
You were all alone incharge of designing of Gear (A gear is a rotating machine part which
has cut teeth that mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. The cut teeth
are also called 'cogs'. Gears are one of the most important parts of any machine or a
mechanism)
Designing is done prior to manufacturing and includes calculation of the gear geometry,
taking into account gear strength, wear characteristic of the gear teeth, material selection,
gear alignment and provision for lubrication of gear. An important step of manufacturing is
the Carburising Process through which a gear can have

x Increased surface hardness


x Increased wear resistance
x Increased fatigue/tensile strengths.

Now consider the following data.

x Material: 1020 steel


x Temperature: 927C.
x Carbon content at the surface of the gear is 1.30 wt%.
x D (C in iron) at 927C = 1.2810-11 m2/s.

Calculate the time necessary to increase the carbon content to 0.35 wt% at 0.040 in below the
surface of the gear.
Now,
what if 1022 steel is used instead of 1020? Is it beneficial as far as time for carburizing is
concerned?
can tool steel be used instead of 1020 steel ? disadvantages?
Can steel having 0.1% carbon be case carburized at 850C?