TYPES OF LAYOUT
Fixed position layout Process layout Cell Layout Product layout Flow layout
Fixed Position Layout
is used for manufacturing very large assembled products on a one-off or very small volume basis The product is assembled at a fixed position, operators and components coming to this position for assembly. Examples: manufacture of ships and aircraft
different processes being in different locations or in different departments within the factory. Each section performs only one or a few of the whole set of process required on a product. several machines of the same type processing several different products The volume of each product may vary
Process layout is used for small and changing product volumes and by subcontractors offering a service based on a particular process. Process layout is also used in larger organization having their own products at the growth and decline stages of the product life cycle. In these cases the layout provides flexibility in handling variable volumes.
This type of layout locates together all of the processes required for a set of products. Cells should be relatively small and will usually deal with a small number of related products sharing some common processes. enables a short throughput time and good control since the whole set of processes for a product is done within the cell.
also known as line layout, locates together all of the processes for a product. a line will deal with only a single product on a single process route, the machines are placed in an order to suit this sequence It is possible to automate the handling and transfer of items between processes by means of a conveyor belt, robots or similar devices.
applies to those processes in which the material being processed flows continuously during the working period, often 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. The product is usually liquid or granular so its flow if often through pipes. Flow layout is used for oil refineries, chemical processing and steel and glass manufacture.
Data needed for layout planning
The starting point for layout planning is the product volume, product structure and process route data Some forecast of future product data is therefore required not just current data. Strategic manufacturing decisions will have determined which components are to be made in-house and hence which processes are required
Analysis of operation times, together with calculations will have determined the number of machines and operators required. key factor is the variability of product volumes, both current and future, and the variability of process routes. The second key factor is the distance which material has to move from process to process, and the number of such internal transportations.
Layout and Productivity
Factory layout crucially affects performance. Layout decisions once made and implemented are not easy to change. Machines will have been screwed to the floor and have service ducting for electric power, computer links, water and perhaps fume extraction and automated handling equipment.
Service visible to customer Repair authorized
Customer drops off car Mechanic makes diagnosis* Discuss needed work with customer*
Service not visible to customer Parts available
Check parts availability†
Parts not available
Inspect/ test and repair
Repair not authorized
Corrective work necessary
Customer departs with car Collect payment Notify customer
An organization with an inefficient layout will suffer from inefficiency for a long time. It is important therefore to get the most efficient layout in the first place and to build-in some flexibility so that the layout can retain its efficiency with changing volumes and products.
Perform corrected work
* = Points critical to the success of the service † = Points at which failure is most often experienced
Layout and organization
Organization must match the layout. Areas of supervisory responsibility will relate to 'departments' which will depend on the form of layout chosen. Scheduling information and control systems will be based on these departments. In a large manufacturing organization the separate parts of it may be laid out in different ways. Component manufacturing may be based on job layout but assembly may use lines. Different products may occupy different parts of a factory and operate with different layout types