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Sheet # 2 (Vapor Power Cycles)

1. A steady-flow Carnot cycle uses water as the working fluid. Water changes from
saturated liquid to saturated vapor as heat is transferred to it from a source at
250C. Heat rejection takes place at a pressure of 20 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s
diagram relative to the saturation lines, and determine (a) the thermal efficiency,
(b) the amount of heat rejected, and (c) the net work output

2. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed turbine inlet conditions. What
is the effect of lowering the condenser pressure on

Pump work input: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Turbine work: (a) increases, (b) decreases, output: (c) remains the same
Heat supplied: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Heat rejected: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Cycle efficiency: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Moisture content at turbine exit: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the
same

3. Consider a simple ideal Rankine cycle with fixed boiler and condenser
pressures. What is the effect of superheating the steam to a higher temperature
on

Pump work input: (a) increases, (b) decreases (c) remains the same
Turbine work output: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Heat supplied: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Heat rejected: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Cycle efficiency: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the same
Moisture content at turbine exit: (a) increases, (b) decreases, (c) remains the
same

4. A steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the
pressure limits of 3 MPa and 50 kPa. The temperature of the steam at the turbine
inlet is 300C, and the mass flow rate of steam through the cycle is 35 kg/s. Show
the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine (a) the
thermal efficiency of the cycle and (b) the net power output of the power plant.

5. Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine
cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa and 500C and is cooled in the
condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect
to saturation lines, and determine (a) the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,
(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and (c) the mass flow rate of the steam.

6. A simple Rankine cycle uses water as the working fluid. The boiler operates at
6000 kPa and the condenser at 50 kPa. At the entrance to the turbine, the
temperature is 450C. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 94 percent,
pressure and pump losses are negligible. The boiler is sized for a mass flow rate of
20 kg/s. Determine the rate at which heat is added in the boiler, the power
required to operate the pumps, the net power produced by the cycle, and the
thermal efficiency.
Sheet # 2 (Vapor Power Cycles)

7. A steam power plant operates on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle. Steam enters
the high pressure turbine at 6 MPa and 400C and leaves at 2 MPa. Steam is then
reheated at constant pressure to 400C before it expands to 20 kPa in the low-
pressure turbine. Determine the turbine work output, in kJ/kg, and the thermal
efficiency of the cycle. Also, show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to
saturation lines.

8. Repeat Prob. 5 assuming an isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for both the


turbine and the pump. Answers :(a) 0.874, (b) 34.1 percent, (c) 194 kg/s