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Ejercicios para resolver

Ejercicios para resolver

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Copyright 2007. Australian Council for Education Research. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair

S t u d e n t ac t i v i t y 2 . 1

a Use a suitable matrix product to calculate the total amount of change held by each

of Michael, Jay, Sam and Lin in the given week.

b If the AustralianUS dollar exchange rate is A$1 =US$0.76, use a suitable scalar

multiple of the matrix in part a to find the equivalent value of their change in US

dollars.

D e f i n i t i o n o f a m a t ri x

columns. We say A is of order, dimension or size, m by n and write mn as

shorthand for this. This does not mean that we wish to calculate the

corresponding arithmetic product, although this will tell us the total number

of elements in matrix A. Unfortunately it is not very helpful to know this as

many matrices can have the same total number of elements.

As in our practical example, the position of each entry, or element, in the

matrix is uniquely determined by its column and row numbers. Thus, we write

R V

S a11 a12 f a1n W

S a21 a22 f a2n W

A=S W

S h h h W

Sam1 am2 f amn W

T X

where the entry in the ith row and jth column, called the (i, j) entry of A, is

denoted aij. In this case the letters i and j are index variables denoting position,

where i runs through 1 to m, that is 1im, and j runs through 1 to n, that

uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.

is 1j n.

There are various notations that can be used for matrices. In this text we

will use square brackets to enclose the entries of a matrix. Curve brackets are

also used, however it is conventional to use only one notation in a given

context. Matrices are designated using upper case letters, the entries in a

matrix are identified with the corresponding lower case letter and subscript

indices indicating their position; thus, we sometimes write A=[ai j ] where, as

above, i is the row index and j the column index. As before, aij is the entry in

the ith row and jth column of A and the ranges of i and j are understood to be

those given by the order of the matrix A.

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MathsWorks for Teachers

Matrices

Copyright 2007. Australian Council for Education Research. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair

Two special cases of note are that a m1 matrix is usually called a column

matrix or column vector, while a 1n matrix is usually called a row matrix

or row vector. If a rectangular array is not available for visual display, then a

matrix can be written as a list of lists of equal size, where a list is an ordered

set. For example, the matrix

R V

S 4 0 2 W

S 1 1 1 W

S W

S- 5 10 3 W

S 0 0 3.4 W

T X

is the 43 matrix uniquely defined by the list {{4, 0, 2}, {1, 1, 1}, {5, 10, 3},

{0, 0, 3.4}}.

When technology is used, the data to specify a matrix is either entered into

a template of a specified size (where the dimensions of the matrix needs to be

specified first to obtain the desired template), or as a list of lists.

Example 2.1

150 40 10

70 20 10

a12 = 40 .

R V

S50 W

If B = S 30 W, then B is a 31 column matrix, or column vector, where

SS80 WW

T X

b11 = 50 , b21 = 30 and b 31 = 80 .

uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.

O p e ra t i o n s o n m a t ric e s

As we have seen in the earlier practical example, matrices may be added,

subtracted, multiplied by a number (scalar), or multiplied by matrices. Some

of these operations are not always possible; the sizes, or orders, of the matrices

involved is important, that is to say there are conditions to which two matrices

need to conform for their sum, difference or product to be defined, or for them

to be conformable for that operation. In practice, general computation with

matrices of high order is carried out by technology, and the algorithms used

by various programs to carry out these computations need the orders of the

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chapter 2

Rectangular arrays, matrices and operations

Copyright 2007. Australian Council for Education Research. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair

elements and their indices. Since the various operations on matrices are

defined in terms of their elements, it is important to note that these elements,

and any scalars which may also be involved, are usually regarded as being

drawn from some field, often the real number field, R. Thus, the operations of

addition, subtraction and multiplication defined on elements of matrices are

the natural operations of the relevant field.

An interesting exercise for teachers to work through with students is to

devise programs using basic programming constructs in a suitable high-level

programming language that carry out the operations of matrix arithmetic.

A d d i t i o n a n d s u b t rac t i o n o f t w o

m a t ric e s

If matrices A and B are of the same size mn then A+B is the mn matrix

with (i, j) entry aij+bij, for i=1 to m, j=1 to n. That is,

A+B=[aij]+[bij]=[aij+bij]. In other words, we simply add all the entries

in their corresponding positions throughout the matrix.

Subtraction can be defined in the same way, and

A B=[aij] [bij ]=[aij bij]. In other words, we simply subtract all the

entries in matrix B from their corresponding entries in matrix A.

Example 2.2

R V R V R

S 1 - 2 W S 7 12 W S 1 + 7 ]- 2g + 12 VW RS 8 10 VW

S 3 5 W+ S- 3 1 W = S 3 + ]- 3g 5 + 1 W= S 0 6 W

SS- 4 1 WW SS- 1 2 WW SS]- 4g + ]- 1g 1 + 2 WW SS- 5 3 WW

uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.

T X T X T X T X

R V R V R

S 1 - 2 W S 7 12 W S 1 - 7 ]- 2g - 12 W S- 6 - 14 VW

V R

S 3 5 W- S- 3 1 W = S 3 - ]- 3g 5 - 1 W= S 6 4 W

SS- 4 1 WW SS- 1 2 WW SS]- 4g - ]- 1g 1 - 2 WW SS- 3 - 1 WW

T X T X T X T X

M u l t i p l ica t i o n b y a n u m b e r ( s ca l ar

m u lt i p l e )

Given a matrix A of size mn and a number (scalar) k, then kA is the mn

matrix with (i, j) entry kaij for i=1 to m and j=1 to n. That is, if A=[aij ]

and k is a scalar then kA=k[aij]=[kaij].

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Account: ns147239

MathsWorks for Teachers

Matrices

Copyright 2007. Australian Council for Education Research. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair

Example 2.3

R V

S 2 - 2W

If k = 3 and A = S 3 7 W, then

SS- 1 5 WW

T X

R V R V

S 2 - 2W S 6 - 6W

3A = A + ]A + Ag = 3 S 3 7 W = S 9 21 W

SS- 1 5 WW SS- 3 15 WW

T X T X

with k =- 1 , and the addition operation. If A and B have the same size, then

A - B = A + ]- Bg

with entries the sums aij+(bij) of the corresponding entries in A and (B).

Example 2.4

S 1 - 2 W S 7 12 W S1 + ]- 7g - 2 + ]- 12gW S- 6 - 14 W

R V R V R V R V

S 3 5 W- S- 3 1 W = S 3 + 3 5 + ]- 1g W = S 6 4 W

SS- 4 1 WW SS- 1 2 WW SS - 4 + 1 1 + ]- 2g WW SS- 3 - 1 WW

T X T X T X T X

There is a special matrix, called the zero matrix O=[oij] where oij=0 for

all i and j. For any matrix A, A - A = O .

Example 2.5

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1 -2 3 2 4 -1

If A = > H and B = > H, then

4 2 -1 -1 3 2

1 -2 3 2 4 -1

i A+B => H+> H

4 2 -1 -1 3 2

1 + 2 ]- 2g + 4 3 + ]- 1g

== G == G

3 2 2

4 + ]- 1g 2 + 3 ]- 1g + 2 3 5 1

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