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PHY 2049 SPRING 2001 EXAM 4

1. A parallel plate capacitor has circular plates of radius R and plate separtion d. The
potential dierence between the plates is given by the time dependent function V (t) =
E sin(2f t). What is the maximum value of the magnetic eld induced between the plates
E
at a radial distance R from the axis of symmetry? Answer: Rfc2 d

The Ampere-Maxwell law is



 ds = 0 Ienc + 0 0 dE .
B
dt
The left hand side is found by standard techniques. The magnetic eld forms circles con-
centric with the capacitor. Integrating around a circle parallel to the magnetic eld,
 
 ds = B
B ds = B2R.

Since Ienc = 0 inside the gap of the capacitor, the right hand of side is

dE 1 dE R2 dE
0 Ienc + 0 0 = 0 + 2A = 2 .
dt c dt c dt
The electric eld is related to the potential across the capacitor, E = V /d. Therefore,
dE 1 dV E2f
= = cos(2f t)
dt d dt d
Substituting into the Ampere-Maxwell law

 ds = 0 Ienc + 0 0 dE
B
dt
2
R 2f E
B2R = 0 + 2 cos(2f t)
c d
f RE
B = cos(2f t).
dc2
The maximum value of the magnetic eld occurs when cos(2f t) = 1. This gives
f RE
Bmax = .
dc2
2. One plays with a bar magnet and 4 spherical beads of equal size, but made of dierent
materials: diamagnetic (D), ferromagnetic (F), paramagnetic (P), and superconducting ce-
ramic (S). Which of the four materials will have the largest force of repulsion, and which
will exhibit the largest attraction. Answer: Slargest repulsion, Flargest attraction

A superconductor repels all magnetic elds making it an ideal diamagnet. It would ex-
perience the largest repulsive force. The ferromagnetic material would experience a much
stronger attractive force than the paramagnetic material since ferromagnetic eects are
similar but much greater than paramagnetic eects.

3. Electric eld E1 changes and, thus, induces magnetic eld B1 . The changing magnetic
eld B2 induces electric eld E2 . Given the gure shown below, can you judge how magni-
tudes of electric eld E1 and magnetic eld B2 change? Answer: Electric eld E1 decreases
and magnetic eld B2 increases

E B2
1

B1 E2

Maxwells law is needed to interpret the rst diagram and Faradays law is needed for
the second. Maxwells law states that a changing electric ux induces a magnetic eld and
that the induced magnetic eld supports the change that created it. The rst diagram
shows that when the ngers of the right hand curl in the direction of B1 , the thumb points
opposite to the direction of E1 . Since this is not consistent with the right hand rule, the
value of E1 has decreased. The second diagram is also not consistant with the right-hand
rule. However, the Lenzs law portion of Faradays law states that the induced electric eld
opposes the changing magnetic ux that created it. Lenzs law states that the right-hand
rule is opposed. Therefore, B2 has increased in the second diagram.

4. A transformer has 50 primary and 200 secondary turns. If the alternating current po-
tential across the secondary is 160 V, what is the primary voltage? Answer: 40 V

The potentials are proportional to the number of turns,


Vp Np
=
Vs Ns
 
50
Vp = (160 V)
200
= 40 V.
5. An oscillating LC circuit has C = 4.00 F and L = 3.60 mH. If the maximum potential
dierence across the capacitor is 2.00 V, what is the current going through the inductor
when the charge on the capacitor is 4.00 C? Answer: 57.7 mA

The maximum charge on the capacitor is


Qmax = CVmax = (4.00 106 F)(2.00 V) = 8.00 106 C.
Using conservation of energy, with I = 0 when Q = Qmax ,
Q21 1 2 Q22 1 2
+ LI1 = + LI
2C 2 2C 2 2
Q2max 1 2 Q22 1 2
+ L0 = + LI
2C 2 2C 2 2
2 Q2max Q22
I2 =
 LC

 (8.00 106C)2 (4.00 106 C)2
= 
(3.60 103 H)(4.00 106 F)
= 5.77 102 A.
6. An LCR circuit has the following elements: L = 1 mH, C = 1 nF, R = 1 . One nds
the resonance frequency, runs the circuit with an external emf oscillating at this frequency,
and measures the amplitude of current oscillations. If the external emf frequency was to
increase by 1% how much would the amplitude of the oscillations change? Answer: de-
creased by factor of 20

The resonance frequency is


1 1
= = = 1.00 106 rad/s.
LC (1.0 10 H)(1.0 10 F)
3 9

The amplitude of the current response to an emf with amplitude E driven at d is,
E
I= .
R2 + (d L 1/d C)2

At resonance d = and I0 = E/R. Forming a ratio



I E/ R2 + (d L 1/d C)2
=
I0 E/R
R
=  .
R2 + (d L 1/d C)2
The new driving frequency is 1% higher than the resonant frequency. This makes it
d = 1.00 106 rad/s + 0.01(1.00 106 rad/s) = 1.01 106 rad/s.
Evaluating the denominator of the ratio,

Z = R2 + (d L1 1/d C)2

= (1 )2 + [(1.01 106 rad/s)(1 103 H) 1/(1.01 106 rad/s)(1 109 C)]2
= 19.9 .
Substituting into the ratio,
I R
= 
I0 R + (d L 1/d C)2
2

1
= .
19.9
The current amplitude is reduced by 1/20 when the frequency is raised by only 1% above
resonance.

7. A scuba diver under water looks up at the at surface of the lake above her and sees
that her vision of the world above water is limited to a circle 4.56 m in diameter centered
directly over her. Given that the index of refraction of fresh water is 1.33, calculate how
far she is below the surface (in meters). Answer: 2.0

Incident
light
4.56 m
r o
1= 90

Refracted
2 light

The view of the world above water is distorted because of refraction. A light ray
skimming along the surface of the water at an angle of 90 is refracted to the observer
underwater. Applying Snells law

n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
1 sin 90 = 1.33 sin 2
2 = 48.8 .

Consider the diagram with r = (4.56 m)/2 = 2.28 m.


r
tan 2 =
d
r
d =
tan 2
2.28 m
=
tan 48.8
= 2.00 m.

8. Consider a plane electromagnetic wave of wavelength = 6 m, moving in the x-direction.


It has a magnetic eld of amplitude 1 108 T in the y-direction. At t = 0 and at point
A with coordinates (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 0), the magnetic eld is zero. Its value 2.5 ns later at
the same point A is: Answer: 0.7 108 T
The corresponding linear frequency for this wavelength is
c 3.00 108 m/s
f= = = 5.0 107 Hz.
6.0 m
The angular frequency is = 2f = 3.14 108 rad/s and the wavenumber is k = 2/ =
1.05 1/m. The general equation for the magnetic eld of a traveling wave is
B(x, t) = B0 sin(kx t).
This equation satises the given initial condition that B(0, 0) = 0. We want to nd
B(0, 2.5 ns).
B(0, 2.5 109 s) = (1 108 T) sin[(1.05 1/m)(0) (3.14 108 rad/s)(2.5 109 s)]
= 7.07 109 T.
9. The magnetic eld of a radio wave with the frequency f1 = 89.1 MHz has an amplitude
B0 . The magnetic eld of a radio wave with the higher frequency f2 = 107.9 MHz also has
an amplitude B0 . Compare the amount of energy carried by these waves per unit of area
per second, I1 /I2 . Answer: I1 /I2 = 1.00

The intensity of the wave depends on the amplitude of the magnetic eld and is inde-
pendent of the frequency, I = E02 /0 c = cB02 /20 . Therefore
I1
= 1.
I2
10. A laser beam, power 4.60 W and beam diameter 2.60 mm, is directed upward and
shines perpendicular onto a at face of a tiny cube made of material with a density of 1
g/cm3 . What is the largest cubes side for the force due to the laser light pressure still be
able to overcome the Earths graviational force? Answer: 0.6 m

The cube is balanced when the force from the radiation pressure is equal to the weight
of the cube, Fr = mg. The radiation force is related to the radiation pressure, Fr = pr A,
where A = L2 is the area of one side of the cube. When the light is reected, the radiation
pressure is related to the intensity of the light, pr = 2I/c. To nd the intensity of the beam,
use the denition of intensity
P P 4.60 W
I= = = = 8.66 105 W/m2
Abeam r 2 (1.30 103 m)2
where the radius of the beam is 1.30 mm. The mass of the cube is found from the density,
m = V = L3 . This yields,
Fr = mg
pr A = V g
2I 2
L = L3 g
c
2I
L =
cpg
The density must be in the correct units
  3
g 1 kg 100 cm
=1 3 = 1000 kg/m3 .
cm 1000 g 1m

Finally,

2(8.66 105 W/m2 )


L =
(3.00 108 m/s)(1000 kg/m3 )(9.8 m/s2 )
= 5.89 107 m.