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Hormones and the Endocrine System


The endocrine system uses hormones to control and coordinate your body's internal metabolism

(or homeostasis) energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury,

stress, and environmental factors. Consider the following hormones and their role in the workings

of the endocrine system:

Where the
hormone is Hormone(s)
produced secreted Hormone function
Adrenal Regulates salt, water balance, and
glands Aldosterone blood pressure
Controls key functions in the body;
acts as an anti-inflammatory;
maintains blood sugar levels, blood
Adrenal pressure, and muscle strength;
glands Corticosteroid regulates salt and water balance
Pituitary Antidiuretic hormone Affects water retention in kidneys;
gland (vasopressin) controls blood pressure
Controls production and secretion
Pituitary of adrenal cortex hormones
gland Adrenocorticotropin (cortisol and aldosterone)
Affects growth and development;
Pituitary stimulates protein production;
gland Growth hormone (GH) affects fat distribution
Luteinizing hormone
(LH) and follicle-
Pituitary stimulating hormone Controls reproductive functioning
gland (FSH) and sexual characteristics
Pituitary Stimulates contraction of uterus
gland Oxytocin and milk ducts in the breast
Initiates and maintains milk
Pituitary production in breasts; impacts sex
gland Prolactin hormone levels
Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Stimulates the production and
gland hormone (TSH) secretion of thyroid hormones
Renin and
Kidneys angiotensin Controls blood pressure
Affects red blood cell (RBC)
Kidneys Erythropoietin production
Pancreas Glucagon Raises blood sugar levels
Lowers blood sugar levels;
stimulates metabolism of glucose,
Pancreas Insulin protein, and fat
Affects development of female
sexual characteristics and
Ovaries Estrogen reproductive development
Stimulates the lining of the uterus
for fertilization; prepares the
Ovaries Progesterone breasts for milk production
Affects bone formation and
Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone excretion of calcium and
glands (PTH) phosphorus
Affects growth, maturation,
Thyroid nervous system activity, and
gland Thyroid hormone metabolism
Adrenal Increases heart rate, oxygen
glands Epinephrine intake, and blood flow
Adrenal
glands Norepinephrine Maintains normal body activities
Testes Develop and maintain male sexual
(testicles) Testosterone characteristics and maturation
May play a role in gonadotropin
Pineal gland Melatonin (sex hormones) regulation
Growth hormone
Hypothalamu releasing hormone Regulates growth hormone release
s (GHRH) in the pituitary gland
Regulates thyroid stimulating
Hypothalamu Thyrotropin releasing hormone release in the pituitary
s hormone (TRH) gland
Gonadotropin
Hypothalamu releasing hormone Regulates LH/FSH production in the
s (GnRH) pituitary gland
Corticotropin
Hypothalamu releasing hormone Regulates adrenocorticotropin
s (CRH) release in the pituitary gland
Helps develop the lymphoid
Thymus Humoral factors system