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13/08/2016

My Dear Students: last class we dealt with a video called Living with ADHD. We watched
the video and discussed what was shown. I am sending you the link to watch it online (for
those of you who did not attend) and some notes I took while watching it which will guide
you through the video. I am also posting the link for the second video and my notes from it.
This second video is in Spanish and it is about family stereotypes. I hope you can watch it
and relate to what it describes and agree or disagree with the ideas and stereotypes
portrayed. Both videos are going to provide you with ideas and vocabulary to discuss and
argument your point of view for the oral part in the final exam. You DO NOT have to answer
any question yet, even if you see them in the notes.

AS regards the book, I would like you to start working with unit 5 from the Student and
Workbook.

See you next class.

PD: do not forget to send me your Essays.

Living with ADHD

http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x22698p_bbc-horizon-2005-living-with-adhd_shortfilms

Living with adhd

Most people do not think it exists.

Liam is not like other children.


He is fearless and impulsive. His mum cannot control him unless he is threatened.
He is constantly on the go. And he never stays at something for long.
He tends to do things even when he is repeatedly told not to do them.
His behaviour puts a strain in the whole family.
He was taken to the local specialist and was diagnosed ADHD

It Is a neurobiological condition.
Jasmin and James
Their mum tends to ignore some of their behaviour.
Throw things at people, hit them, curse, spit.
James feelings after the locking him out event.
They have talents. James likes football.
They get so much negativity everyday that positive feedback is very good.
Jasmine is very creative. She is good at drawing.
Jasmine had very low self esteem.

People with adhd usually have another condition as well.


Hostile, disobedient, and rude.

They develop oppositional behaviour as opposition to being constantly told off.


Bad behaviour is usually extreme
ADHD is only diagnosed when it hampers a child's learning and relationships
The mum suffered adhd herself. She abused drugs.
Only two centers for adults in the entire UK.
Ritalin. Prevent sleep, suppress appetite.
It increases dopamine in the brain. A shortage of dopamine causes adhd.
Exercise controls the impulses.
Parents have tried all techniques.
Parents can pass it to their children. It is in the genes.

What do adhd children do after they are told not to do something?

What is Opposition defiant disorder?

These parents have a disability. They don't retain things in memory.


Have a list of things.
What is quiet time?
Praising is a good technique to cope with adhd.
Punishments should also be immediate.
The list is effective and a timesaver.
Tokens are like currency for rewards.
Tokens are taken away for bad behaviour but they can be won back.
They ended up being nice to each other.

Family stereotypes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDF4UCLBEM4

Families.
The importance of the family

It seems so obvious but it is important because


Easy one. Adolescents have changed and we do not know how to manage them and they are
the problem.
Hard one. We as adults suffered something as a generation and we let go or forgot about
what we knew as true. Our parents knew what they were doing and they knew that what
they were doing was right. Today we educate according to opinions.

I don't know what to do with my child.

Families are not democracies. Someone gives an order and someone obeys

We ask our children what they want to eat or what they want to do in order to be
entertained.
We generate an insecure generation.
Limits are good and rules must not be negotiated. Timetables and schedules are essential.
Do parents yell at home? Why. Because we do not want to move to another place.
Parents yell and children yell as well in order not to move.
This in time will reduce stress in the family.
Parents repeat the same order more than once.
Parents in the old days did not negotiate and therefore they did not raise manipulators.
Parents take authority from each other.
Children know who to ask for money or permission.
Parents do not assume that their children are bad but have bad classmates or bad
influences.
Children manipulate adults
We were afraid of our parents and now we are afraid of our children.
Parent should not be friends with their children.

What importance are we giving to our family?

It is a lie that we do not have time.


We have time but our priorities have changed. We prefer watching tv to spending time with
our loved ones.
We can choose to sleep less to spend time with our family.

If we are having lunch we should use a tablecloth and set the table every time. Do not let
them watch tv or use the cellphone. Do not let them leave until we have finished. We do not
talk to each other anymore. We should use the time spent together during lunch or dinner to
talk to our family about our day or anything that is going on in our lives. Having a
conversation during a meal is something we only see in the movies. Children do not know
how to maintain a conversation these days.
This generation cannot utter complete sentences. They do not know how to face people and
have a chat or discussion. They cannot support a point of view.
The screen is keeping us from seeing each other.
Spending time with each other is what makes a family.
Knowing how to communicate is a teaching only families can teach.

Children cannot play games without electricity.


Games in the old days did not relay on electricity.
Technology is a tool we use in excess.
Social networks are keeping us from communicating.

We cannot solve our lives through the internet.


If we do not talk about things, things are not happening or problems do not exist.

We do not thank for things anymore. We assume people have to do things for us, specially
our parents.

We have a high consideration for bad tempered people. We try to minimize that one who is
always happy or laughing. It is not logic to be happy and be intelligent.
We criticize those who are happy or laughing. We tell them that they are going to be
unhappy soon. If you are in love you should enjoy because it won't last.
We give bad news to pregnant women.
We always find a but
We do not assume our faults.

What do we need to be happy?


Happiness is not yet he same as joy

1. Nobody can be happy if they don't decide to be so. Example ex laugh cry. No matter how
many problems you have, you can choose to be happy and resist those who would try to
stop you from being so. If we teach our children that they are responsible for what they do
and most of what happens to them, we will create responsible humans. They will know how
to solve conflicts. Children do not negotiate conflicts. They are extremists. Example cheese.
Every act has consequences. Children who are not bored are not creative. We give our
children things to distract them in order to keep them busy. We do not teach them social
skills. Adolescents do not know how to have a good time without external factors. Example
boredom. We must help our children develop their will power. 80 % of all the problems in
children's lives happen because they have too many things.

2. Be thankful. We learn to thank by watching our parents thank. All the small things that
happen to us, that we have, the things we give for granted should be thanked for. If thank
you is not part of the vocabulary of a family we cannot expect to hear it. We yell at our loved
ones but respect strangers.

3. We must value what we have. Our status is what limits our capacity to be happy. We work
hard to try to buy things that do not really make us happy and we complain that we have to
spend more time working to pay for those things. Example smart tv. How much time do we
waste trying to have possessions? How much time do we give to those we love?

We came to this world to do three things: to learn to love, to leave a mark, and to be happy.
We teach our children that we work in order to get money to buy things. We teach that
sacrifice and effort are worthless because we can get the same thing without trying hard. We
complain about everything. Women complain of having to do everything in the house. Do
member of our families really know how much we love what we do for a living?
Our children do not see us happy and therefore they have a bad concept of marriage.
Children learn what they see not what they are told.
Life is not easier if you have more money.
Love ties are stronger than what you think. When a family can get together as a unit they
find harmony and strength.

We do not care for our looks when at home. We should try to be pretty for the members of
our family. We try to look good for strangers who we do not know or care and who do not
make us happy.
We should be happily tired after a long day feeling that we have given everything from
ourselves.

Children want to belong to a group because they feel they do not belong to their family.
We cannot make a profit unless we do not invest.
We must look after our family because we are loosing them. Love is like a business; we must
spend time looking after it or else, it will go bankrupt. We should spend time with our family
members. We should ask them if they are happy with the family they have.
A good husband or a good wife is something we make. We should construct a good day.
We learn from bad things and enjoy good things.
People laugh at us if we express our feelings openly. Expand
It is easier to administrate medicine instead of finding the reason of the ailment.
If we allow our children to be violent we are contributing to create a violent generation.
School violence has to do with the regular idea that violence is acceptable because we learnt
it at home. If we let them do something illegal we are teaching them that crime is ok as long
as we are not caught. We are teaching them to steal, cheat, take advantage in a bad way.
Example motorcycle and cars. The inconsistency is in ourselves not in our children.
We should teach children to be able fight for their dreams, to live a life on their own, and be
capable of solving everything they may face.

We are kind to a stranger but harsh to a loved one.


Example Student s vs family.
We should change first before expecting someone else to change.

Informacin para rendir Cultura II como alumno LIBRE:

Los alumnos que se presenten a rendir como libres, tienen que escribir sobre uno de los
siguientes temas, luego hacer una presentacin oral y poder responder las preguntas que el
profesor formule de cualquier tema del Programa de la Materia:

1.- Edad media en Inglaterra. Romanos en las Islas y en Europa Occidental. Los primeros
pobladoes de las Islas. Dinastas Britnicas (los Normandos). Las Cruzadas. La 3ra Cruzada.
Richard, the Lion Heart. Salahedim. Literatura: Beowolf (gnero y breve descripcin). The
Canterbury Tales. Geoffrey Chaucer.

Renacimiento. Martin Luther. The Printing Machine.

2.- Descubrimiento de Amrica. Las trece colonias Britnicas de Norteamrica.

Literatura: Las Brujas de Salem. Arthur Miller


3.- La Inglaterra de Elizabeth I. Shakespeare, sus obras, teatro, dramaturgia. Anlisis e
interpretacin de la Tragedia de Julio Csar

The number diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) has soared in the past two decades to between two
and five per cent of school-age children in the UK
A ADHD is a combination of symptoms that present behavioural and learning challenges, according to
Mark Mathews, founder of the Sunflower Trust (sunflowertrust.co.uk), which specialises in treating
children with similar problems.
The number diagnosed with ADHD has soared in the past two decades to between two and five per cent of
school-age children in the UK.
Many experts believe the controversial drug Ritalin, a central nervous system stimulant akin to
amphetamines, is used excessively.
According to national guidelines (nice.org.uk), ADHD should be treated with psychological, behavioural
and educational help.
As a teenager Mathews overcame dyslexia, which had caused him to be expelled from school. He went on
to gain a degree and later studied osteopathy, kinesiology, nutrition and neurolinguistic programming. In
1996, he set up the Sunflower Trust, which successfully uses these therapies to help children with
problems similar to his own.
Mathews believes these difficulties are essentially a result of neurological confusion stemming from the
environment we live in: In these days of fast food, fast living and quick fixes, its little wonder many
children struggle to cope with the demands of life, let alone school.
He recommends you adopt these simple measures, which actually apply to every child:
Give him natural unprocessed foods, with few sugary snacks and fizzy drinks, plus lots of water.
Make sure he gets enough sleep, allowing wind-down time before bed.
Set time limits on using digital media and keep it out of his room.
Show him how to look into peoples eyes to pick up the subtleties of body language and facial
expression.
Encourage him to do sports and join him in outdoor hobbies.
Play games that involve concentration, memory, strategic thinking, maths and dexterity, such as cards,
chess and puzzles.
If possible, organise for him to take up music, art, crafts or practical skills such as cooking.
Encourage him to read and also read to him choose stories with a positive message, such as A Dog
Called Flow by Pippa Goodhart (Troika Books, 5.99*).
Praise him for being the unique person he is with his own special qualities.
Above all, give him your time.
Dog Called Flow by Pippa Goodhart (Troika Books, 5.99*).
Praise him for being the unique person he is with his own special qualities.
Above all, give him your time.

Always consult your doctor if you have a medical problem.


*To order a copy, go to you-bookshop.co.uk; free p&p on orders over 12

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/you/article-3184787/Health-Living-ADHD.html#ixzz4HG1GzybI


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Living with ADHD

Programme summary.

Questions and answers

Programme transcript

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most


feared and misunderstood of all medical conditions. Despite over
200 scientific papers being published on this neurological condition
every year, it remains stigmatised and controversial. Some doctors
don't even believe it exists.

Yet it is estimated that as many as 3-5% of the childhood


population, and over one million adults in the UK are affected by
ADHD. These people are often described as stupid, lazy,
disorganised, wild, out of control or woozy on drugs. But the reality
is altogether more complex, and deeply moving.

The Hills
Brian and Eleanor Hill think that Liam, their five-year-old son, could
have ADHD. He is fearless, impulsive and rarely does what he is
told. He is constantly on the go and Brian and Eleanor cannot take
their eyes off him for a minute. They have tried all the conventional
parenting techniques to control him, but nothing works. Eleanor
feels she has been driven to the very edge by her son's behaviour. "I
never thought I could dislike a child so much," she says.

The Fishers
In Charlotte Fisher's household, ADHD is normal. Both she and her
children, Jazmine (11) and James (7), have already been diagnosed
with it. All three show the classic symptoms of this neurological
condition - inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. The result is
a household with extremes of behaviours, chaos and
disorganisation.

Scientists believe that people with ADHD behave the way they do
because they have key differences in the frontal lobes of their brains
- the part that plays an important role in the way that we control our
impulses. People with ADHD have difficulty suppressing their
impulses and therefore respond to more cues than the average
person. Rather than failing to pay attention, they pay attention to
everything. This means they're often overloaded with information
they cannot filter out. These people are unable to stop and think
about a situation, to 'apply the brakes' and consider the
consequences before they act.

In spite of the difficulties that they face, the Fishers are a happy
family and proud of who they are and what they can achieve. Both
Jazmine and James have impressive talents. James shows great
promise at football and has recently won a place at a local football
school of excellence. Jazmine has an exceptional artistic ability. She
has won a number of prizes for her intricate drawings and delicate
water colour paintings.

Undiagnosed ADHD
The Fishers have not always had such a positive outlook on life. Just
three years ago, before any of them were diagnosed, life was very
different. James was extremely hyperactive and had violent and
aggressive tendencies. Jazmine was hyperactive too, she had
problems concentrating at school and suffered from extremely low
self-esteem. Like many children who are diagnosed with ADHD,
Jazmine's condition was made much worse by the presence of
another condition - or co-morbidity - running alongside the ADHD.
In Jazmine's case the co-morbid condition was dyslexia.

The most common co-morbidity is Oppositional Defiant Disorder or


ODD. Over 50% of children diagnosed with ADHD have a substantial
problem with ODD, a condition which makes them hostile, defiant
and extremely difficult to parent. Doctors believe that ODD is a
learned behaviour which children develop as a defence mechanism -
a way of coping when they are constantly being told off for
behaviour they simply cannot control.

The diagnosis of her children's ADHD brought Charlotte's own life


into focus. As she found out more about the condition, she realised
that ADHD had been the problem her whole life. As a child Charlotte
was constantly in trouble and found it difficult to fit in with her
peers. She couldn't concentrate at school and her teachers described
her as unruly and out of control.

She left with few qualifications and started to take drugs. Like many
adults who have been diagnosed with ADHD, Charlotte believes that
her drug taking was a form of self-medication. She found that
stimulant drugs like cocaine had an unusual affect on her - they
actually calmed her down. But these drugs were addictive and made
her ill too. They also didn't help with the bouts of severe anxiety
that she had suffered all her adult life.

Once she had recognised her own condition, Charlotte was able to
seek the help she so desperately needed. But there are only two
adult ADHD NHS clinics in the UK and she had to wait a year for an
appointment. Finally, at the age of 30, she was diagnosed and
treated for the condition - and able to turn her life around.

Medication
Charlotte, James and Jazmine now all take methylphenidate, a
stimulant drug most commonly known by the brand name Ritalin.
Methylphenidate helps to control some of the core symptoms of
ADHD. It works mainly by increasing available levels of the chemical
dopamine in the affected areas of the brain. This helps to modify
their levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and sustained attention.

The treatment of ADHD with medication remains controversial.


There's ongoing concern about the possible overuse of stimulant
drugs. But with regular monitoring and support Charlotte has found
that medication has provided her family with a crucial window of
opportunity in which she can control her thoughts and her children
can learn how to behave, build relationships and lay the foundations
of a normal life.

The Diagnosis
With the Hills family at crisis point, Brian and Eleanor feel that their
lives are anything but normal. But help is at hand, Liam has been
seen by doctors at his local Child and Family Mental Health Unit. For
six months the ADHD team led by Community Paediatrician Dr Saroj
Jamdar have worked closely with the family. A detailed report of
Liam's behaviour since birth has been complied with information
from his parents and his school. Independent classroom
observations have been carried out and a thorough medical report
has ruled out any physical ailments.

With all this information now in place, Liam can be given a diagnosis
of mild ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder.

For Brian and Eleanor a confirmed diagnosis is an important step


forward, allowing them to understand and make sense of Liam's
behaviour, and offer him the support that he needs. They have been
lucky to identify Liam's problem at such an early stage - but now
face the difficult decision of which course of treatment to take. Both
Brian and Eleanor have reservations about medicating their son.

Behaviour management and non-pharmacological treatments


Not all children with ADHD need medication and there are a number
of non-pharmacological treatments that effectively help to control
symptoms too such as behaviour management advice for schools
and parents, specialised parent skills training and family and
individual therapy.

Because Liam's ADHD is mild, and because he is still so young, Dr


Jamdar, Brian and Eleanor decide that at this stage, medication is
not necessary. Instead the family will enrol on a specialised parent
skills course which will address both Liam's oppositional behaviour
and his ADHD. Liam's progress will be monitored and medication still
remains an option for the future.

Even when a child is being medicated, it is recommended that


behaviour management strategies are always provided in
conjunction with the drugs. Charlotte has asked for help from clinical
psychologist and ADHD specialist Dr Angel Adams. She feels that
although the medication helps to control her thoughts and
hyperactivity, she needs help disciplining the children. She also
wants more control over her own mood swings which are particularly
bad in the morning - when she feels under pressure to get the
children organised and ready for school on time.

Dr Adams suggests Charlotte uses a token system adapted


specifically for ADHD children. The rewards they earn with this
system are powerful, frequent and above all immediate. She also
introduces a list outlining a morning routine for each family member.
By breaking this time down into smaller, more manageable sections,
the morning becomes less stressful.

For both the Fishers and the Hills there is no quick fix. But with the
right support, children and adults with ADHD can control their
symptoms and lead happy and fulfilled lives.

Further reading:

ADHD - The Facts by Mark Selikowitz Oxford University Press

ADHD Parenting Handbook, Practical Advice for Parents from Parents


by Colleen Alexander-Roberts , Taylor Trade Publishing

Out of the Fog, Treatment Options and Coping Strategies for Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder by Kevin R. Murphy and Suzanne Hill,
Hyperion Books

Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and Coping with Attention Deficit


Disorder from Childhood through Adulthood by Edward M. Hallowell,
MD and John J. Ratey, MD. Touchstone Books, 1992. ISBN #0-684

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Curso ngeles 2
Afirmaciones 7 veces por da durante 7 das
Los ngeles hacen brillar la luz de Dios sobre mi y a travez de mi .
Mi vida est rodeada de ngeles
Invoc a D

ios ,a Mara reyna de los ngeles y a estos para que me ayuden y me guien
Glottal stop
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the sound in spoken language. For the letter, see Glottal stop (letter). For
consonants followed by superscript , see Glottalization.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by
obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis. The symbol in the International
Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . Using IPA, this sound is known as a glottal
plosive.
In English, the glottal stop occurs as an open juncture (for example, between the vowel sounds
in uh-oh!, in "grade A" as opposed to "gray day",[1]) and in T-glottalization. For most US
English speakers, a glottal stop is used as an allophone of /t/ between a vowel and "m" (as in
atmosphere or Batman) or a syllabic "n" (as in button or mountain) except in slow speech.[citation
needed]
In British English, the glottal stop is most familiar in the Cockney pronunciation of "butter" as
"bu'er".

Contents
[hide]

Features[edit]
Features of the glottal stop:

Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in


the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked
entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibration of the vocal cords;
necessarily so, because the vocal cords are held tightly together, preventing vibration.

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central
lateral dichotomy does not apply.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely
with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Phonology and symbolization of the glottal stop in selected


languages[edit]
Although this segment is not a written[2] phoneme in English, it is present phonetically in nearly all
dialects of English as an allophone of /t/ in the syllable coda. Speakers of Cockney, Scottish English
and several other British dialects also pronounce an intervocalic /t/ between vowels as in city.
In Received Pronunciation, a glottal stop is inserted before a tautosyllabic voiceless stop, e.g. stop,
that, knock, watch, also leap, soak, help, pinch.[3]
In many languages that do not allow a sequence of vowels, such as Persian, the glottal stop may be
used to break up such a hiatus. There are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal
stop in the histories of such languages as Danish (cf. std), Chinese and Thai.[citation needed]
In many languages, the unstressed intervocalic allophone of the glottal stop is a creaky-voiced glottal
approximant. These are only known to be contrastive in one language, Gimi, where it is the voiced
equivalent of the stop.
Writing[edit]

Road sign in British Columbia showing the use of 7 to represent // in the Squamish language.

In the traditional Romanization of many languages, such as Arabic, the glottal stop is transcribed
with an apostrophe, , and this is the source of the IPA character . In many Polynesian languages
that use the Latin alphabet, however, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe,
(called okina in Hawaiian and Samoan), which, confusingly, is also used to transcribe the
Arabic ayin and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative .
In Malay the glottal stop is represented by the letter k, in Vro and Maltese by q.
Other scripts also have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph
, and the Cyrillic letter palochka used in several Caucasian languages. In Tundra Nenets it is
represented by the letters apostrophe and double apostrophe . In Japanese, glottal stops occur
at the end of interjections of surprise or anger, and are represented by the character .
In the graphic representation of most Philippine languages, the glottal stop has no consistent
symbolization. In most cases, however, a word that begins with a vowel-letter (e.g. Tagalog aso,
"dog") is always pronounced with an unrepresented glottal stop before that vowel (as also in
Modern German and Hausa). Some orthographies employ a hyphen, instead of the reverse
apostrophe, if the glottal stop occurs in the middle of the word (e.g. Tagalog pag-ibig, "love";
or Visayan gabi-i, "night"). When it occurs in the end of a Tagalog word, the last vowel is written
with a circumflex accent (known as the pakupy), if both a stress and a glottal stop occurs at the final
vowel (e.g. bas, "wet"); or a grave accent (known as the paiw), if the glottal stop occurs at the
final vowel, but the stress occurs at the penultimate syllable (e.g. bat, "child").[4][5][6]
Some Canadian indigenous languages have adopted the phonetic symbol "" itself as part of their
orthographies. In some of them, it occurs as a pair of uppercase and lowercase characters, and .
[7]
Sometimes the number symbol 7 is used if the character is not available to the typesetter, and in
some cases such as in the Squamish language, the 7 has become the preferred symbol.
In 2015, two women in the Northwest Territories challenged the territorial government over its
refusal to permit them to use the character in their daughters' names: Sahaia, a Chipewyan name,
and Sakaeah, a Slavey name (the two names are actually cognates). The territory argued that
territorial and federal identity documents were unable to accommodate the character. The women
registered the names with hyphens instead of the , while continuing to challenge the policy.[8]
Use of the glottal stop is a distinct characteristic of the Southern Mainland Argyll dialects of Scottish
Gaelic. In such a dialect, the standard Gaelic phrase Tha Gidhlig agam (I speak Gaelic), would be
rendered Tha Gidhlig a'am.[citation needed]

Occurrence[edit]
This table demonstrates how widely the sound of glottal stop is found among the world's spoken
languages. It is not intended to be a complete list. Any of these languages may have varieties not
represented in the table.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes

See Abkhaz
Abkhaz [ aj] 'no'
phonology.

Adyghe I [ a] 'arm/hand'

See Arabic
Standard[9] [ a a ni ] 'songs'
phonology, Hamza.

Arabic Metropolitan dialects


including Egyptian
Metropolitan[10] [ ] 'apartment' Arabic.[10]Corresponds
to /q/ in Literary
Arabic.

'clock/watc
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [s t]
h'

Bikol ba-go [bao] 'new'

Burmese [mji mj] 'rivers'

Cebuano tub [tubo] 'to grow'

Chamorro halu'u [hluu] 'shark'


Chechen / qo' [qo] 'three'

See Cantonese
Cantonese /oi3 [i] 'love'
phonology.
Chinese

Wu [i.ti.l] 'superb'

Czech pouvat [pouivat] 'to use' See Czech phonology.

One of the possible


realizations of std.
Depending on the
dialect and style of
speech, it can be
Danish hnd [hn] 'hand'
instead realized
as laryngealisation of
the preceding sound.
See Danish
phonology.

Dutch[11] beamen [bam(n)] 'to confirm' See Dutch phonology.

Received
[]
Pronunciation
uh-oh 'uh-oh'

American [o]

Australian
[k(t)]
English GA
cat 'cat'
Allophone of /t/.
Estuary [k]
See glottalization and
English phonology.

Cockney[12] [k ]

n[bn] (h
RP[13] and GA button 'button'
elpinfo)
See Esperanto
Esperanto scii [st tsi.i] 'to know'
phonology.

See Finnish
Finnish linja-auto [linjuto] 'bus'
phonology.

'civil See German


German Northern Beamter [bamt]
servant' phonology.

Occurs only between


Guaran avae [] 'Guaran'
vowels.

See Hawaiian
Hawaiian[14] eleele [ll] 'black'
phonology.

See Modern Hebrew


Hebrew [mama] 'article'
phonology.

Only used according


to emphasis, never
Icelandic en [n] 'but'
occurring in minimal
pairs.

Hyphen when
'bland
Iloko nalab-ay [nalabaj] occurring within the
tasting'
word.

Allophone
Indonesian bakso [bso] 'meatball' of /k/ or // in the
syllable coda.

Japanese Kagoshima [ka] 'persimmon'

Allophone
Javanese[15] anak [n] 'child' of /k/ in morpheme-
final position.

Kabardian I [a] 'arm/hand'


Kagayanen[16] ? [saa] 'floor'

Khasi lyoh [l] 'cloud'

In free variation with


no glottal stop. Occurs
Korean [il] 'one'
only in initial position
of word.

Allophone of
final /k/ in the syllable
Malay tidak [tid] 'no' coda, pronounced
before consonants or
at end of word.

Maltese qattus [attus] 'cat'

Mori Cook Island tai [tai] 'one'

'black
Mutsun tawka'li [tawkali] Ribes divaricatum
gooseberry'

Nahuatl tahtli [tati] 'father' Often left unwritten.

Nez Perce yaka [jaka] 'black bear'

Transcription (or
Nheengatu[17] ai [ai] 'sloth' absence thereof)
varies.

Okinawan [utu] 'sound'

See Persian
Persian [mani] 'meaning'
phonology.

Pirah baxi [m ] 'parent'


Vernacular Bra 'yeah Marginal sound. Does
-[19] [eee]
zilian right'[20] not occur after or
before a consonant. In
Brazilian casual
speech, there is at
least one []vowel
Portugues
lengthpitch
e[18]
accent minimal pair
Some speakers aula [a awl] 'to the class' (triply unusual,
the ideophones short i
h vs. long ih).
See Portuguese
phonology.

Rotuman[21] usu [usu] 'to box'

'sickness/ill
Samoan mai [mai]
ness'

Some dialects
of Barbagia
Sardinian Intervocalic allophone
luna [lua] 'moon'
[citation needed]
of /n, k, l/.[citation needed]
Some dialects
of Sarrabus

Optionally inserted
between vowels
/ i across word
Serbo-Croatian[22] [i enndnaa] 'and then'
onda boundaries.[22] See Ser
bo-Croatian
phonology

Seri he [] 'I'

Nicaraguan[23] ms alto [ma all tl oe] 'higher' Marginal sound or


allophone
of /s/ between vowels
in different words.
Spanish
Does not occur after
cuatro [kwatoe or before a consonant.
Yucateco[24] 'four years'
aos oes] See Spanish
phonology.

Tagalog oo [oo] 'yes' See Tagalog


phonology.

Tahitian pua'a [puaa] 'pig'

'uncle/aunt'
(father's
Thai [a]
younger
sibling)

Tongan tuu [tuu] 'stand'

Tundra Nenets [w] 'tundra'

In free variation with


no glottal stop.
Vietnamese [25]
oi [j] 'sultry'
See Vietnamese
phonology.

"q" is Vro plural


marker (maa, kala,
Vro piniq [pini] 'dogs' "land",
"fish"; maaq, kalaq,
"lands", "fishes").

'to eat'
Wagiman jamh [ta m]
(perf.)

Welayta [ira] 'wet'

'life'
Wallisian ma'uli [mauli]
Questions to consider:
1_What's the difference between Phonetics and Phonology?
2_ What's the concept of vowel sounds: pure vowels, glides,
phonologically and phonetically speaking (in respect to their
production, articulation).
3_ How do we describe the articulation of vowel sounds? Two
aspects to consider: quality and quantity.
4_ How are consonants described? Remember we name them
considering three aspects, manner, place and voice in their
articulation.
5_ How can you explain what the glottal stop is? Bare in
mind that British English and American English use them in
different articulatory contexts.