You are on page 1of 229

Building Quality Standards Handbook

October 2011

Infrastructure Division
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development

Building Better Learning Environments


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. PLANNING 3

2.1 Introduction 3
2.1.1 Legislative Requirements 3
2.1.2 Bushfire Provision Ministerial Direction No. 3 3
2.1.3 Victorian Industry Participation Policy (VIPP) and Local Procurement 4
2.2 Departmental Planning Process 4
2.2.1 Educational Specification 4
2.2.2 Selecting an Architect 5
2.2.3 Developing a Masterplan Solution 5
2.2.4 Schematic Design 6
2.2.5 Design Development 6
2.2.6 Tender Documentation 7
2.2.7 Staging of Implementation 7
2.3 Space and Area 7
2.4 Ecologically Sustainable Development 7
2.5 Design Relationships 8
2.5.1 Activities 8
2.5.2 Subsections of the School 8
2.5.3 Buildings and Site 8
2.5.4 Provision for Relocatable Buildings 9
2.5.5 School and Environment 9
2.5.6 School and Community 9
2.5.7 Shared Use of School Facilities 10
2.5.8 Adjacency of Spaces and Community Use 10
2.5.9 Provision for All Occupants 10
2.5.10 Design and Materials Efficiency 11
2.5.11 Design and Energy Efficiency 11
2.6 Accommodation and Other Design Issues 13
2.6.1 Anthropometrics 13
2.6.2 Access and Interior/Exterior Connection 13
2.6.3 Building Floor Planning 13
2.6.4 Equipment and Fittings 13
2.6.5 Storage 14
2.6.6 Flexibility 14
2.7 Economy and Cost Effectiveness 14
2.8 Technology 15
2.8.1 General 15
2.8.2 Information and Communications Technology (ICT) 16
2.9 Security and Safety 17
2.10 Image and Aesthetics 18
2.11 Site Design 19
2.12 Construction 19
2.13 Energy Planning Process 19
2.13.1 Energy Engineer 20
2.13.2 Energy Audit 20
2.13.3 Energy Design Process 20
2.13.4 Computer Modelling 20

Building Quality Standards Handbook i October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

2.13.5 Testing and Commissioning 21


2.13.6 Maintenance Strategy 21
2.13.7 Selection of Office Equipment 21
2.14 Acoustics 21

3. SPECIAL FACTORS 23

3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Process 23
3.3 Common Special Factors 23
3.3.1 Existing Site and Building Conditions 24
3.3.2 Climatic Conditions 24
3.3.3 Maintenance Access and Servicing 24
3.3.4 Hazardous Materials 25
3.3.5 Multi-storey or Higher than Normal Buildings 25
3.3.6 Specialist and Special Developmental Schools 26
3.4 Items Not Generally Considered Special Factors 26
3.5 Increased School Construction Rates 26

4. SUBSTRUCTURE, SUPERSTRUCTURE & FINISHES 28

4.1 Introduction 28
4.2 Substructure 28
4.2.1 Site Conditions and Investigation 28
4.2.2 Preparation and Groundwork 29
4.2.3 Termite Management 29
4.3 Superstructure 30
4.3.1 Use of Appropriate Structural Solutions 30
4.3.2 Concrete 30
4.3.3 Masonry 30
4.3.4 Steel 30
4.3.5 Timber 31
4.4 Roof 31
4.4.1 Designs to Conform to AS/NZS 3500.3:2003 31
4.4.2 Materials 31
4.4.3 Gutters and Downpipes 32
4.5 External Walls and Floors 35
4.5.1 Cladding Materials 35
4.5.2 Wall Insulation 36
4.5.3 Wall Colour and Texture 36
4.5.4 Flooring 36
4.5.5 Floor Insulation 37
4.6 External Windows 37
4.6.1 Glass 37
4.6.2 Standard Windows 37
4.6.3 Higher Quality Windows 38
4.6.4 Window Finish 38
4.6.5 Window Configuration 38
4.6.6 Sun Control and Ventilation 38
4.6.7 Sealing of Windows 39
4.6.8 Louvre Windows 40
4.6.9 Insect Screens 40
4.6.10 Window Hardware 40
4.6.11 Sizing of Windows 40
4.6.12 Shading of Windows 41

Building Quality Standards Handbook ii October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

4.7 Doors and Hatches 41


4.7.1 External Doors 41
4.7.2 Hinge Stress 42
4.7.3 Internal Doors 43
4.7.4 Smoke and Fire Doors 43
4.7.5 Selection and Detailing of Operable Walls 43
4.7.6 Proprietary Aluminium Stud Partition Type Door Frames 43
4.7.7 Door Hardware 44
4.8 Ceilings 44
4.8.1 Ceiling Materials 44
4.8.2 Spaces above Ceilings 45
4.8.3 Ceiling Heights 45
4.8.4 Clearance Heights under Stairs and Bulkheads 45
4.8.5 Access to Lights 45
4.9 Internal Walls 46
4.9.1 Room Dividers 46
4.9.2 Internal Glazing 46
4.9.3 Operable Walls 46
4.9.4 Colour 47
4.9.5 Thermal Mass 47
4.10 Wall and Floor Finishes 47
4.10.1 Wall Finishes 47
4.10.2 Floor Finishes 48
4.10.3 Ceiling Finishes 51
4.10.4 Paint 51
4.11 Acoustics 53
4.11.1 Statutory Requirements and Standards 53
4.11.2 Acoustic Floor Planning 55
4.11.3 Sound Isolation between Spaces 55
4.11.4 Satisfactory Construction for Sound Insulation between Rooms 56
4.11.5 Sound Isolation between Spaces and Connecting Doors 58
4.11.6 Reverberation Control and Ambient Noise Level 61
4.11.7 Satisfactory Systems for Reverberation Control 62
4.11.8 External Noise 63
4.11.9 Rain Noise 63

5. INTERNAL SERVICES 64

5.1 Material Selection 64


5.2 Sanitary Fixtures 64
5.2.1 General 64
5.2.2 WC Suites 64
5.2.3 Urinals 65
5.2.4 Basins 65
5.2.5 General Purpose Sinks 65
5.2.6 General Purpose Tubs and Troughs 66
5.2.7 Showers 66
5.2.8 Cleaners Sinks 66
5.2.9 Boiling-water Units 66
5.2.10 Drinking Troughs 66
5.2.11 Ablution Troughs 67
5.2.12 Floor Waste Gullies (FWG) 67
5.2.13 Tundishes 67
5.2.14 Clay and Ablution Troughs 67
5.2.15 Drip Trough and Racks 67
5.2.16 Frame Baths 67

Building Quality Standards Handbook iii October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

5.2.17 Photographic Troughs 68


5.2.18 Potting Troughs 68
5.2.19 Laboratory Sinks 68
5.2.20 Safety Sprays 68
5.2.21 Fume Cupboards 68
5.2.22 Hand Driers 68
5.2.23 Sanitary Facilities for People with Disabilities 68
5.3 Sanitary Plumbing 69
5.3.1 Pipe Work 69
5.3.2 Trade Waste Application 69
5.3.3 Treatment Apparatus 69
5.3.4 Trade Waste Operation Documentation 70
5.4 Water Supply 70
5.4.1 General 70
5.4.2 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings 70
5.4.3 Tapware 70
5.4.4 Flow Rates (SWEP Requirement) 71
5.4.5 Hot-water Units 71
5.4.6 Water Supply Issues 72
5.5 Gas Services 73
5.5.1 General 73
5.5.2 Tariffs 73
5.5.3 Meters 73
5.5.4 Gas Supply to Relocatable Buildings 74
5.5.5 Pipe Work Above Ground 74
5.5.6 Emergency Isolation Valves 74
5.5.7 Outlets 74
5.5.8 Gas Booster 74
5.6 Heating 74
5.6.1 General 74
5.6.2 Centralised Plant versus Individual Units 79
5.6.3 Primary Schools 80
5.6.4 Secondary Colleges 80
5.6.5 Heating System Controls 81
5.6.6 Gas-Fired Plant 81
5.6.7 Water Heating Boilers 82
5.6.8 Plant Rooms 83
5.7 Ventilation 83
5.7.1 Energy Targets 83
5.7.2 Natural Ventilation 84
5.7.3 Toilet and Change Room Exhaust System 84
5.7.4 Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Systems 84
5.7.5 Kiln Exhaust Systems 85
5.7.6 Fans 85
5.7.7 Air Filters 87
5.7.8 Ductwork 87
5.7.9 Air Grilles 88
5.8 Cooling 89
5.8.1 Preliminary Note on Thermal Comfort and Cooling Policy 89
5.8.2 General 89
5.8.3 Evaporative Cooling 91
5.8.4 Airconditioning Room and Packaged Plant 93
5.8.5 Refrigeration 95
5.8.6 Electrical Supply 95
5.9 Fire Protection 96
5.9.1 Fire Hydrants 96

Building Quality Standards Handbook iv October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

5.9.2 Fire Hose Reels and Extinguishers 96


5.9.3 Smoke and Fire Doors 96
5.9.4 Smoke Detectors and Sound Alarms 97
5.9.5 Emergency Signs and Lighting 97
5.9.6 Maintenance Log Books 97
5.10 Electrical Lighting and Power 97
5.10.1 General 97
5.10.2 Design 98
5.10.3 Supply General 98
5.10.4 Origin Energy For all sites with an expected annual usage of >160MWh. 99
5.10.5 Powerdirect For sites with an expected annual usage of <160MWh. 101
5.10.6 Main Switchboard 102
5.10.7 Distribution Switchboards 103
5.10.8 Wiring 103
5.10.9 Power and Special Connections 104
5.10.10 Artificial Lighting 105
5.11 Special Services 110
5.11.1 Fume Cupboards 110
5.11.2 Compressed Air 111
5.11.3 Reticulated Gas Services 112
5.11.4 Dust Extraction System 113
5.11.5 Lightning Protection 114
5.12 Centralised Energy Systems 114
5.13 Storage 114

6. EXTERNAL SERVICES 116

6.1 Introduction 116


6.2 External Stormwater Drainage 116
6.2.1 General 116
6.2.2 Rainwater Collection 116
6.2.3 Pipe Work and Structures 117
6.2.4 Stormwater Drainage Issues 118
6.3 External Sewer Drainage 118
6.3.1 Pipe Work and Structures 118
6.3.2 Sewer Design Issues 119
6.4 External Water Supply 119
6.4.1 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings 119
6.4.2 Backflow Prevention 119
6.4.3 Irrigation Systems 120
6.4.4 Other External Supply Issues 120
6.5 External Gas 120
6.5.1 Natural Gas Meters 120
6.5.2 LP Gas Storage 120
6.5.3 Pipe Work Below Ground 120
6.5.4 Gas Booster 121
6.6 External Fire Protection 121
6.6.1 General 121
6.6.2 Fire Hydrants 121
6.6.3 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings 121
6.6.4 Other Issues 121
6.7 External Electric Light and Power 122
6.7.1 External Power 122
6.7.2 Security and Access Lighting 122
6.7.3 Underground Services 123

Building Quality Standards Handbook v October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

7. COMMUNICATION SERVICES 124

7.1 Introduction 124


7.2 Types of Cabling Required 125
7.3 Communications Cabinet and ICT Technical Workspace 125
7.4 Number of Network Points Required 126
7.5 Budget 126
7.6 External Communication 127
7.6.1 Telecommunications Cabling and Network Connection 127
7.6.2 Telecommunications Carrier Connection 130
7.6.3 Telstra TCS GWIP 130
7.6.4 Telstra TCS BDSL 131
7.6.5 TCS Equipment Dimensions 131
7.6.6 Distributors 131
7.7 Television Distribution System 132
7.8 Intruder Detection System 132
7.9 Public Address System 133
7.10 Clock-Bell Services 134
7.11 As-built Documentation 134

8. SITE WORKS & SCHOOL LANDSCAPING 135

8.1 Introduction 135


8.2 Roads, Footpaths and Hard courts 137
8.2.1 Vehicle Access Roads 137
8.2.2 Parking Areas 137
8.2.3 Waste Disposal 138
8.2.4 Pedestrian Paths 139
8.2.5 Hard courts 140
8.2.6 Paved Areas 140
8.3 Playground Equipment 141
8.4 Fencing 142
8.4.1 Standard Perimeter Fencing 142
8.4.2 Security Fencing 142
8.4.3 Pool Fencing 143
8.5 Landscaping 143
8.5.1 Sports Playing Field 143
8.5.2 Irrigation Systems 144
8.5.3 General Grassed Area 144
8.5.4 Garden Beds 144
8.5.5 Shade Areas 145
8.5.6 Landscaping in Bushfire Prone Areas 146
8.6 Covered Ways 147
8.7 Improvements (new schools) Landscape Finishes 147
8.7.1 Seating 147
8.7.2 Litter Bins 147
8.7.3 Flagpole 147
8.7.4 External Signage 148
8.8 Landscape Cultivation and Planting Guidelines 148
8.8.1 General Planting Hints 148
8.8.2 Vegetation Fuel Management 149
8.8.3 Particular Plants General Characteristics and Information 150
8.8.4 Particular Plants Bushfire Prone Areas 152

9. WORKPLACE HEALTH & SAFETY 156

Building Quality Standards Handbook vi October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Table of Contents

9.1 Safety in Design 156


9.2 Victorian Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 156
9.3 A Handbook for Workplaces OH&S in Schools A Practical Guide for School
Leaders 157
9.4 Sub-floor Spaces 159
9.5 Hazardous Materials and Conditions 159
9.6 Asbestos 159
9.7 Copper-Chrome-Arsenate (CCA) Treated Timber 160
9.8 Occupational Health and Safety References 161

10. PROJECT COMPLETION BUILDING MANUALS & MAINTENANCE 163

10.1 Project Completion Phase 163


10.2 Building Manual Objective 163
10.2.1 Included Asset Items 163
10.2.2 Required Information 166
10.2.3 Manual Layout 167
10.3 Manuals and Maintenance Log Books 169
10.4 Termites 170

APPENDIX 1 BUILDING ELEMENTS 171

APPENDIX 2 TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS & STANDARD DRAWINGS 190

APPENDIX 3 POSTCODE AREAS Within NatHERS ZONES 216

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations 218

Building Quality Standards Handbook vii October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Introduction

1. INTRODUCTION

The Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) has developed a considerable
body of experience from a range of delivered and subsequently evaluated school building projects.
This knowledge has been greatly abetted by the feedback received from schools themselves. The
purpose of this Building Quality Standards Handbook (BQSH) is to provide those involved in the
design of schools with the benefit of this experience, thereby enabling demonstrated best practice
to be incorporated into new projects.

What is the Building Quality Standards Handbook?

The Handbook sets the minimum quality criteria for all Department projects, including new
construction and refurbishment. It has been developed to provide a consistent approach to the
development of school facilities across Victoria. It is not intended to be a comprehensive guide to all
aspects of a project. Comments provided through post-occupancy evaluation deal with select areas
where experience shows that some special comment or requirement is necessary.

While the Handbook describes the standard elements of a building project, it is not prescriptive in its
approach, and planners are encouraged to exercise their creativity within available budgets and the
minimum benchmarks outlined. Similarly, materials and building practices detailed are not
exhaustive, and those not covered in this document should be assessed in relation to those
included. An alternative material or building practice should only be considered where it provides,
without compromise, a more cost-effective solution.

All work is to be undertaken in accordance with relevant building and safety regulations, codes and
standards. In particular, every effort has been made to ensure that the Handbook complies with the
Building Code of Australia (BCA) and applicable Australian Standards. All design, materials,
workmanship, testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision of the BCA and
relevant standards and legislation.

This Handbook is updated regularly to reflect change and promote the latest best practice. This
version revises the October 2008 edition and incorporates suggestions and changes tendered by the
international network of professional and technical consultants, GHD.

Target Audience

The Handbook is used by the Departments Infrastructure Division, regional offices and program
manager, schools, principal consultants and builders indeed, all who participate in the
development of capital works and maintenance projects. It aims to provide facilities planners with
the hindsight and experience accrued in completing projects to required standards and budget. It is
expected that those involved in the design, documentation and construction of schools will refer to
the Handbook and follow the principles laid down within it. It also provides a resource and basic
checklist for those involved in Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP) assessments.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 1 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Introduction

Capital Works Program Procedures Manual


The Capital Works Program Procedures Manual (2010) includes the Building Quality Standards
Handbook as a reference for the masterplanning, schematic design, design development and tender
documentation phases of a project. Principal consultants are to ensure that design and
documentation conform with requirements of the Departments Building Quality Standards
Handbook and all relevant Australian Standards.

Key Web-based Resources


Users of this Handbook are referred to Departments own school infrastructure-related websites:
Public access: http://www.education.vic.gov.au/management/infrastructure/default.htm.
Department personnel and school users with an Edumail account and pin number:
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure.
Principal consultants with an Edumail account and pin number, giving them access to key
documents: https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/sc/sites/Infonline/default.aspx.

Users of the Handbook are also referred to the Departments Emergency & Security Management
Unit for advice in relation to security and crime-preventative design strategies:
Telephone: (03) 9589 6266;
email: esm@edumail.vic.gov.au;
website:
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/def
ault.aspx (access restricted to Department personnel and school users with an Edumail
account and pin number).

Handbook Availability
An electronic version (PDF) of the Building Quality Standards Handbook is available to registered
principal consultants on the Departments School Infrastructure Principal Consultant webpage under
Documents / Policies, Guidelines and Procedures:
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/sc/sites/Infonline/default.aspx.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 2 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2. PLANNING

2.1 Introduction
Planning for new school facilities involves a range of inputs including Department facility schedules,
design imagination, local knowledge and community aspirations. It is essential that the resulting
facilities address both today and tomorrows educational programs as well as flexibility, energy
efficiency and low maintenance requirements.

2.1.1 Legislative Requirements

All design, materials and construction practice shall comply with the latest version of the Building
Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards and legislation.

The Planning and Environment Act 1987 and the Planning and Environment Regulations 2005 may
also be applicable.

The Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations 1989 require the design of laboratories to
be in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2982 Laboratory Construction. When designing
storage areas, the Occupational Health and Safety (Manual Handling) Regulations and Occupational
Health and Safety (Prevention of Falls) Regulations must be taken into consideration.

Workplace health and safety, especially in relation to hazardous materials and asbestos, are crucial
considerations (refer to Section 9 Workplace Health and Safety for more detail), and the Safe
Drinking Water Act 2003 and Disability Discrimination Act 1992 must also be borne in mind when
developing school facilities.

2.1.2 Bushfire Provision Ministerial Direction No. 3

A new Ministerial Direction No. 3 Bushfire provisions for buildings of a public nature (MD3) came
into effect on 1 February 2010 for all projects requiring a building permit.

In relation to the design process for buildings of a public nature, including schools, the Ministerial
Direction aims to ensure that government and public authorities undertake bushfire attack risk
assessments based on methods described in AS 3959-2009 Construction of buildings in bushfire
prone areas. Dependent on the site and its assessed level of risk, the design of new or refurbished
facilities must account for this potential threat.

Those working on Department projects need to be fully informed of these new requirements. To
achieve this, consultants will need to have qualified staff or be able to access suitably qualified
practitioners.

All projects progressing to construction must comply with the requirements of the Ministerial
Direction and AS 3959-2009.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 3 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.1.3 Victorian Industry Participation Policy (VIPP) and Local Procurement

Further to the requirements of the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development,
users of the Handbook should also be aware of the Victorian Industry Participation Policy (VIPP).
The VIPP aims to boost local employment and business growth by expanding market opportunities
for Victorian companies. Through procurement and industry assistance, the VIPP encourages
contractors to consider Victorian suppliers and content options where these deliver the best value
for money. For regional Victoria, the policy applies to expenditure of $1 million or more ($3 million
in metropolitan areas) and ensures that bidders for Government work genuinely attempt to
maximise local content. Bidders are required to submit a VIPP statement outlining:
the level of local content;
the number of new jobs created, and
possible skills and technology transfer generated by the project.

For further information regarding the VIPP, contact the Department of State and Regional
Development on 13 22 15.

It is recommended that specified fittings and equipment be sourced, where possible, from
Australian suppliers in order to assure availability of replacement parts and facilitate maintenance.

2.2 Departmental Planning Process


The Department's school building program strategically directs available resources to emerging
demographic trends and educational needs. The planning process translates identified priorities into
clearly developed plans and contract documentation.

Whether a new school is being built or existing facilities modernised, sound planning forms the basis
of facilities improvement and requires consideration of the following.

2.2.1 Educational Specification

An educational specification supportive of proposed capital development is produced by the


school. Matters to address in the educational specification include:

an indication of how the proposal will support the Governments goals and targets, and
identify improved learning outcomes; and

an outline of the individual schools educational philosophy and curriculum program in


relation to the Departments Curriculum Standards Framework II (CSF II), the Victorian
Certificate of Education (VCE) and the Governments goals and targets.

Once approved by the Department to proceed to masterplanning, an architect will develop a design
solution. In relation to the education specification, the masterplanning stage includes:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 4 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

a determination of the facilities mix (within current space entitlements) which


accommodates the schools educational specification and ensures that facilities provided
will enable CSF II and VCE requirements to be met;

an indication of the relationships that should exist between various facilities to support the
operation of the school; and

an indication of the requirements of the schools e-learning plan.

2.2.2 Selecting an Architect

The Department's Infrastructure Division briefs a school undertaking capital works of its project
roles and responsibilities.

The Division provides the school with the details of three architectural firms from its Principal
Consultants' Register. The school then interviews and selects from these a firm appropriate to the
development of its project and documentation.

The Division will provide the architect with a Department-approved project brief and budget.

Once appointed, the school council and/or Department will enter into an AS 4122-2000 contract
with the nominated architect.

2.2.3 Developing a Masterplan Solution

Upon engagement, the architect commences the masterplanning process. This includes:

a comprehensive site analysis including consideration of slope, soils, microclimate,


orientation, prevailing winds, bushfire attack levels (BAL), etc;

conceptual plans setting out basic ideas and project solutions;

a range of masterplan options;

a preferred option, including area analysis and proposed stages of development where
appropriate;

preparation of the final masterplan, taking into consideration existing facilities and cost
effectiveness; and

review by the Departments Infrastructure Division and Program Manager through a


Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP).

Masterplans assist schools and the Department to identify priorities for new construction and
modernisation as well as subsequent design stages leading to actual construction. These stages
include schematic design, design development and the completion of tender and construction
documentation.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 5 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.2.4 Schematic Design

The architect prepares a schematic design for the identified stage from the approved masterplan,
including Cost Plan B. The schematic design includes:

the facilities brief for the identified stage, the proposed relationship between buildings on
site, and pedestrian and staff vehicular access;

plans, elevations and sections of buildings as well as documentation supportive of the


design proposed;

service easements and landscaping concepts, and axonometric sketches;

statements of efficiency with respect to energy usage, architectural design, services and
engineering design;

security recommendations provided by the Departments Emergency and Security


Management Unit;

bushfire attack level (BAL) assessment; and

local government and utilities compliances, cost plan summaries and comparison with an
approved budget.
The schematic design is then reviewed by the Departments Project Review and Evaluation Panel
(PREP) before proceeding to the next stage: design development.

2.2.5 Design Development

Following PREP endorsement, the architect will then prepare a design development report,
including Cost Plan C.

Design development further details the proposed solution, including identification, justification and
costing of any special factors associated with project implementation. It also includes a schedule of
materials and finishes, a life-cycle cost analysis, building surveyors report, rectification of issues
identified at the schematic design PREP meeting, and the preparation of Cost Plan C.

The design development, including Cost Plan C, is submitted to PREP to ensure that project plans
meet building quality standards, the required facilities mix and budget. Once endorsed, the design
and Cost Plan C form the basis of the Departments budget submission for that project.

A special factor to be considered relates to the presence of hazardous materials within school
buildings. All schools have been audited for asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have now
been removed from all school sites), and schools have received reports detailing the location of any
such materials. The asbestos audit often identifies the presence of other hazardous materials,
including synthetic mineral fibres (SMFs). Architects will need to ensure that tender documentation
identifies the removal of all known hazardous materials within areas where upgrade is to occur.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 6 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.2.6 Tender Documentation

Having completed both schematic design and design development to the satisfaction of the
Department, the architect prepares all the necessary project tender documentation, including Cost
Plan C and D, to enable the project to be considered for inclusion in the Department's capital works
and budget submission.

2.2.7 Staging of Implementation

Planning needs to allow for a staged implementation of works within a single project. Stages should
reflect available funding as well as the need to enable schools to continue operating without undue
disruption to the learning environment. Service provision in the initial stage should provide for total
development requirements.

2.3 Space and Area


Space and area entitlements for school facilities are broadly defined within Facilities Schedules
listed on the School Infrastructure Principal Consultants section of the Infrastructure Division
website (https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/sc/sites/Infonline/default.aspx). These schedules are
used when planning a new school or when upgrading existing schools. They outline a standard but
they also offer flexibility within budgets provided. Given an adequate accommodation of core
curriculum needs and student numbers, spaces can be arranged and modified to suit the particular
profile of a school.

2.4 Ecologically Sustainable Development

Building practitioners and users of this Handbook should be mindful of matters related to
ecologically sustainable planning and energy management. National best-practice is linked to the
Green Star Education Tool developed by the Green Building Council of Australia.

In addition to the Green Building Council (http://www.gbcaus.org/) and associated Building


Commission weblinks (http://www.buildingcommission.com.au/www/html/630-green-building-
council-of-australia.asp, practitioners and consultants are advised to consult Sustainability Victoria
(http://www.seav.sustainability.vic.gov.au),).

School councils should be encouraged to develop a reuse and recycling strategy.

Designs should consider providing an area in each block where recyclable materials (glass, paper,
etc.) can be stored before their removal to the schools central recycling area.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 7 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.5 Design Relationships

Successful space planning pursues an efficient combination of teacher resources and organisation,
student grouping, and teaching/learning methods. A range of issues need to be considered in
achieving this, as outlined below.

2.5.1 Activities

The relationship between activities and their compatibility and flexibility should include:
separation of noisy and quiet areas;
position of multi-purpose/physical education facilities to oval, hard court and car park;
position of administration to car park and main school entry; and
central location of toilet blocks.

2.5.2 Subsections of the School

The relationship between subsections of the school should cover:


junior/middle/senior school organisation;
general purpose/specialist facilities;
departments/faculties; and
indoor and outdoor learning spaces.

2.5.3 Buildings and Site

The relationship between buildings and the site should cover:


buildings and open space;
slope and contours;
bushfire attack levels of each building on site;
services;
signposting;
pedestrian and vehicle movement;
deliveries;
efficient removal of recyclables and waste; and
emergency access.

Note: useful consideration of site-related issues requires the early provision of contoured site plans
showing the cross-fall and points of stormwater discharge.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 8 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.5.4 Provision for Relocatable Buildings

The relationship between buildings and the site should include consideration of the placement of
relocatable buildings.

Planning should include provision of space for relocatable buildings, and be mindful that the actual
number of such buildings will fluctuate as school needs vary up to the provided peak enrolment.

Planning of services for relocatables is required to enable economical connection to power, water
and drainage.

Orientation, outlook, adjacent open spaces, circulation routes, paths, covered ways, etc., need to be
considered for relocatable buildings just as for permanent buildings.

Aesthetic aspects, including the provision of connecting and unifying treatments, need to be
considered so that these buildings are a part of the school rather than an unconsidered
afterthought.

Requirements for installation and removal of buildings, including truck and crane access, also need
to be considered.

2.5.5 School and Environment

The relationship between the school and the environment should account for:
vegetation;
flood levels;
soil conditions;
climate/microclimate (design should be compact to minimise external travel in areas of
high exposure);
neighbouring properties;
solar access; and
capture and use of rainwater.

2.5.6 School and Community

The relationship between the school and its community should include:
out-of-hours use of facilities by students, families and other visitors; and
noisy activities, including vehicle access and car parking, affecting adjacent properties, and
including out-of-hours use.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 9 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.5.7 Shared Use of School Facilities

The shared use of facilities is promoted by the Department as an option available to schools.
General information and guidelines are provided on the School Infrastructure website at
http://www.education.vic.gov.au/management/infrastructure/shareduse.htm

2.5.8 Adjacency of Spaces and Community Use

Adjacent locations for facilities with complementary functions should be considered. For example,
the location of a gymnasium, performing arts facility, or library (as resource centre/IT zone/
conference facility) adjacent to a dining area, canteen or food technology classroom allows the
development of a cafe facility for out-of-hours performances, student personal development
programs, and wider community use.

A gymnasium can be used as a local community sporting facility. This may require the provision of
seating and possibly some lockable community storage space. It would also require
a suitable amount of car parking space, public toilet facilities, disabled access, and possibly acoustic
damping and fire protection.

2.5.9 Provision for All Occupants

Accessibility and amenity of the school and its site must be available to all authorised occupants,
including people with disabilities, whether students, staff, parents or other visitors.

Required accessibility and amenity are stipulated in the Building Code of Australia and Disability
(Access to Premises Buildings) Standards 2010.

The provisions of the latest versions of the following Australian Standards must also be considered:
AS 1428 Design for access and mobility
Part 1: General requirements for access New building work.
Part 2: Enhanced and additional requirements Buildings and facilities.
Part 3: Requirements for children and adolescents with physical disabilities.
Part 4: Tactile Indicators.
AS/NZS 2890.1 Parking facilities Off-street car parking.
AS1735 Lifts, escalators and moving walks. Part 12: Facilities for persons with disabilities.

The following public consultation drafts of proposed revisions of standards should also be
considered:
AS 1428.1 2009 Design for access and mobility Part 1: General requirements for access
New building work.
AS 2890.6 Part 6: Off-street parking for people with disabilities.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 10 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.5.10 Design and Materials Efficiency

Building design and construction practices should minimise waste generation during construction,
and facilitate the reuse/recycling of unavoidable waste.

2.5.11 Design and Energy Efficiency

The relationship between design and energy efficiency should incorporate the following
considerations.

Orientation
A prime consideration should be the placing of all buildings with their long axis in the east/west
direction in order to maximise north facing facades and minimise east/west facing facades (this
must be addressed in the Masterplan and Schematic Design reports).
To further reduce the problem of overheating in summer, window design should incorporate
adequate shading (refer to Section 3.6 Windows).

Site Planning for Airflow Control

Consider the use of airlocks and placing external doorways on the east side of buildings to minimise
indoor wind gusts and draughts. The size of airlocks should accord with the Building Code of
Australia.

When planning for single-sided or cross natural ventilation for use in summer, consider openings on
the south face or from shaded/sheltered areas to avail of the cooler air.

Ventilation openings should be onto areas that are as dust-free as possible.

Consideration should be given to prevailing weather and seasonal climate to limit the entry of such
conditions as hot northerly winds.

Noted causes of poor performance in relation to natural ventilation and thermal comfort include:
poor plan layouts which hinder cross flow ventilation;
closed up corridor spaces with low ceilings;
poor sun shading; and
operable shading devices and windows provided but difficult to adjust or open.

Surface Area of Buildings

Consider reducing the external surface area of buildings by joining spaces together.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 11 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

Consider reducing the area of windows, but to a point where they can still perform the functions of
providing daylight, view and connection to the outside.

Overshadowing

Ensure that the north facade of a proposed building is not overshadowed by other buildings to the
north by setting it back (south) at a distance that is twice the height of the obstruction. Ensure the
proposed building does not overshadow any existing building to the south by placing buildings twice
their height north of any existing building.

Shading diagrams should be prepared to accurately establish the extent of shadowing by adjoining
features.

Daylight

The layout of buildings should facilitate the daylighting of rooms. Because adequate levels of
daylight via windows typically penetrate only three metres into a building, consider the use of
shaded skylights or clerestories to provide additional illumination.

The size and orientation of skylights and clerestory windows, however, should be carefully
considered so as to limit overheating and glare. All skylights and clerestory windows should be
shaded from summer insolation.

Daylighting and the minimisation of artificial lighting must be addressed in the Schematic Design
report.

Sunlight penetration of windows and skylights should be checked by means of insolation


calculations, using appropriate software.

Zoning

Provide doors or airlocks to separate areas that are heated/cooled from areas that are not
heated/cooled. Provide doors to isolate two-storey spaces (such as stairs) from heated/cooled
spaces. Zoned areas possess a thermal advantage over open plan inasmuch as heating and cooling
systems need only operate in areas that are occupied.

Airlock and doorway sizes should accord with the Building Code of Australia.

Zoning must be addressed in the Masterplan report.

Landscaping

Deciduous trees to the north (or evergreens set back a distance twice their height), and evergreens
to the east and west can block summer morning and evening sun if external blinds are not provided.
The maintenance costs of deciduous trees should be considered.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 12 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

Shelter

Outside areas should be sheltered, where possible, from winter and summer winds, and shaded
from the sun from September to April (Terms 1 and 4). These considerations must be addressed in
the Masterplan report.

2.6 Accommodation and Other Design Issues

Accommodation provided should comply with facility schedules and available budgets. In achieving
this, planners should consider the following matters.

2.6.1 Anthropometrics

Buildings and fittings should be designed or selected so as to be suitable for both students and
adults. AS 1429 Parts 1, 2 and 3 provide guidance.

2.6.2 Access and Interior/Exterior Connection

Access and egress should:


be easily defined and located;
be on a single level;
be at least to standards specified in AS 1428 for disabled access and AS 2890 for disabled
car parking; and
enable disabled access to all facilities.

External areas should reflect the activities of adjoining buildings.

2.6.3 Building Floor Planning

Intelligent floor planning will reduce the cost of complying with the recommendations of the
Building Quality Standards Handbook and minimise occupant concerns and complaints.

Spaces with opposing acoustic requirements, for example, should be located as far apart as
practicable, while open-plan and small-group areas should be purposefully arranged in accordance
with teacher, student and curricula needs.

2.6.4 Equipment and Fittings

Equipment and fittings should be located in a manner that ensures safe use and circulation.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 13 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

Inadequate domestic standards applied to the selection of fixtures and finishes, for example, have
included poor installation of locks and latches (endangering fingers), poor location of fixtures (fire
hose reel cupboards in the path of student travel), unsatisfactory toilet and sanitary fixtures, and
inferior durability of benches (both joinery and surfaces) in technology rooms, home economics and
science laboratories.

The provision of display boards and display spaces is particularly important in primary schools. A
proportion of these should be low enough to be comfortably readable by students, staff, parents
and visitors in wheelchairs (refer AS 1428.2 and AS 1428.3).

A lack of display space has been found to result in windows being used as display areas.

2.6.5 Storage

Storage spaces should be directly accessible from activity spaces. The sharing of storage between
spaces may also enable the creation of larger, more useful spaces. When designing storage areas,
the Occupational Health and Safety (Manual Handling) Regulations and Occupational Health and
Safety (Prevention of Falls) Regulations must be taken into consideration. This is particularly
important in designing archive storage areas where preference should be given to small size archive
boxes.

2.6.6 Flexibility

Flexibility should be a key factor in design solutions. Buildings need to offer schools flexible options
for daily use as well as an opportunity for simple refurbishment or remodelling as future needs
change. Options to consider include activity areas grouped or separated with operable walls (or
other moveable partitioning) as well as the use of light and mobile furniture.

2.7 Economy and Cost Effectiveness

Building and site development should incorporate both economic and cost-effective construction as
well as operational and maintenance considerations. Factors include:
appropriate internal volumes that reflect purpose and the scale of user;
robust and durable materials and finishes;
structure, including the
: provision of regular building shapes,
: provision of simple roof forms that promote effective drainage,
: consideration of two storey buildings only when site constraints make single storey
buildings less cost effective,
: grouping of areas, particularly those that require mechanical services,
: keeping of circulation space within scheduled allowances,
: placement of structures on site in close proximity to services,

Building Quality Standards Handbook 14 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

: use of cost-effective structural solutions to site constraints;


location on site so that
: buildings are positioned in close proximity to services and site access points,
: buildings are grouped to minimise circulation requirements,
: site conditions (including soil, rock, vegetation and contours) are considered, with
buildings situated to minimise cost penalties associated with slope or rock and to
maximise the use of features such as existing vegetation;
consideration of a landscaping component in the total design strategy;
planning to allow for the potential staging of works and in such a way that the duplication
or redundancy of facilities and services provided in earlier stages is avoided;
siting relocatables with consideration for their integration among other facilities and/or
future removal;
siting relocatables with their windows facing north and south;
planning of consecutive stages (of new secondary colleges) adjacent to one another for
ease of access (i.e. less external travel) and the minimisation of open spaces which require
landscaping but may form construction areas in future stages;
keeping toilet allocations for new primary schools to no more than two blocks, thereby
facilitating an efficient use of area;
designing for waste minimisation by taking into account standard material sizes, specifying
prefabricated products and using modular components (these measures can help reduce
the amount of waste generated during the building phase and thereby reduce purchasing,
handling and disposal costs); and
designing for operational waste efficiency (i.e. those wastes generated once the facility is
in use) and providing space/facilities to address the proper collection and disposal of food
waste, beverage containers, paper, cardboard and other packaging materials, etc.

2.8 Technology

2.8.1 General

School buildings should, where possible and appropriate, promote the use of modern materials and
facilitate the use of current and future technology. Among the things to consider:
cabling must be installed with a view to future flexibility (Refer to Section 7
Communication Services);
cabling and equipment must reflect current standards but have the capacity for change or
expansion in future services;
services should promote ease of connection and disconnection;
loose furniture may be preferable to built-in furniture;
design should consider the use of solar energy where appropriate and cost effective;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 15 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

design should consider solar hot-water (schools are currently eligible for Victorian
Government grants that help reduce the cost of solar hot-water installation);
control technology should be included where centralised heating and domestic hot-water
plant are specified;
timers/sensors should be installed where artificial lighting is used;
heating controls should allow zoning, individual control and auto shutdown;
sustainable products should be used where both appropriate and cost-effective, including
those materials and products made with recycled content and recyclable at end-o-life (this
needs to be addressed in the Design Development report); and
design must consider the suitability of solar hot-water where cost effective (this must be
addressed in the Design Development report).

2.8.2 Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

Wireless communications is not a replacement for a structured cabling system. It complements the
cabling system and adds some flexibility.

High-speed broadband access will be delivered to every site.

ICT requirements are described in more detail in Section 7. Additional guidelines on the design and
installation of ICT in schools are referenced under that section.

ICT facilities may need to be adapted to suit individual needs of some students, staff and visitors
(e.g. people with disabilities).

Placement of Computers

As noted in post-occupancy evaluations (2005), computers have been successfully located in:
the library as a resource centre/information technology zone which also functions as a
conference facility and discussion space;
pods to allow supervision;
general-purpose classrooms to provide accessibility for use by students; and
information technology zones in travel space/corridors, with vision panels from adjacent
classrooms to provide supervision

Low-level or height-adjustable computer desks should be considered to enable use by a broad range
of users.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 16 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.9 Security and Safety

Schools must provide a safe and secure environment for students, staff and visitors, including
parents and service personnel.

The following design considerations overlap with occupational health and safety (OH&S) and
accessibility for people with disabilities. In relation to intruder-detection systems, contact the
Departments Emergency and Security Management Unit.

In terms of security, good design should consider:


logical street access directing visitors to administration facilities and permitting the
supervision of entries;
building design and choice of finishes that discourage vandalism and abuse;
avoiding nooks and crannies;
providing night lighting/sensors at access points;
lighting to cover after hours usage;
compartmentalising facilities for out-of-hours use;
well-placed external PA speakers;
design which promotes good supervision of all areas by teachers;
safe access to toilets during classroom hours, lunch and recess times, and out-of-hours;
and
safe access to car parks out-of-hours.

In terms of safety, good design should consider:


fitment design ensuring smooth corners and appropriate location;
adequate ventilation;
window placements and glass, avoiding the positioning of operable windows in traffic
areas (glazing should accord with the Building Code of Australia) ;
minimising and controlling roof access;
on-site traffic management;
avoiding differences of level across the site or, if this is not possible, ensuring that changes
of level are dealt with in an appropriate manner (refer also to the Building Code of
Australia);
providing non-slip surfaces in internal and external circulation areas as per the Building
Code of Australia and Australian Standards;
asthma and allergy minimisation; and
stretcher access to first-aid locations.

Safety in design is part of the occupational health and safety requirements (refer Section 9).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 17 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

Useful security hints and practical advice can be obtained from the Departments Emergency &
Security Management website
(https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default.aspx
) and a brochure titled Fire and Arson Prevention can be downloaded from the Principal
Consultants section of the Infrastructure Division website
(https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/sc/sites/Infonline/default.aspx). (Note: these sites require an
Edumail user ID and password for access.)

Different approaches to security employed in projects reviewed in post-occupancy evaluations


include:
extensive use of glass between spaces to provide visual supervision (especially in primary
schools);
surveillance cameras (the Departments Emergency & Security Management Unit approves
school requests for CCTV, and schools fund this form of surveillance);
high fences (the location of these can be selective rather than enclose the whole site, e.g.
such fencing can exclude car-parks, ovals and entry areas); and
community use of facilities out-of-hours to provide increased surveillance.

Other possible approaches to security include the layout of buildings to enhance visibility, and
landscaping and lighting to avoid lurking places.

2.10 Image and Aesthetics


Design should take into account the role of the school in its community. Features should include:

an obvious point of entry and address;

avoidance of extreme architectural features as solutions;

sign posting and organisation to promote ease of access and movement within;

appropriate use of colour schemes; and

acknowledgement of surrounds and community.

The external design should provide a local presence and provide a focal point commensurate with
its environment.

Elements of successful external design feature:


borrowed elements from local landscape to express context and heritage issues;
large-volume buildings broken down through the innovative articulation of generic and cost-
effective materials;
ESD-driven design initiatives, sun shading devices, pop-up roofs for natural light and night
purging, etc.; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 18 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

integration of relocatables with permanent structures, providing physical connections


through corridors or other structures, and adding external treatment to relocatables to
blend them with the main group of buildings.

Successful internal designs incorporate material finishes which reflect the functional requirement of
the space (for example, an industrial ambience for technology spaces).

2.11 Site Design

A well maintained, functional and attractive school site can enhance the self-esteem of all users,
foster sociable behaviour and facilitate performance.

All aspects of site development, including landscaping, should be reflected in a schools masterplan.
Landscaping should not be dealt with in isolation but form an integral part of the overall
development.

Every effort should be made to retain existing trees. To achieve this, a proper survey should be
carried out of all significant trees and site features prior to any masterplanning.

The development of school grounds should satisfy the following major goals:
provision of a safe, manageable, pleasant and ecologically responsible outdoor
environment;
provision of areas and facilities which meet outdoor curriculum requirements;
provision of areas and facilities which meet outdoor play, assembly and physical education
requirements; and
consideration of ecologically sustainable performance related to landscape irrigation and
water efficiency, transport design and cyclist facilities, and recycling storage areas.

Refer Section 8 Site Works & School Landscaping for greater detail.

2.12 Construction
Planning needs to allow for a staged implementation of works within a single project. Stages should
reflect available funding as well as the need to enable schools to continue operating without undue
disruption to the learning environment. Service provision in the initial stage should provide for total
development requirements.

2.13 Energy Planning Process


Energy should be considered at the masterplanning stage or before. It should not be left until the
schematic design stage or later. Energy planning should involve all parties associated with the

Building Quality Standards Handbook 19 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

development of a school. It is not just an electrical or mechanical issue. If school design is good, an
assumed dependence on components such as airconditioning is not automatic. Beware of standard
solutions.

Building regulations will require all new work to comply with Part J of the Building Code of Australia
which includes achieving solutions in respect to:
building fabric;
external gazing;
building sealing;
air movement;
airconditioning and ventilation systems;
artificial lighting and power;
hot water supply; and
access for maintenance.

2.13.1 Energy Engineer

It is recommended that an energy engineer be engaged as part of the design team to provide
specialised energy advice and design assessments.

2.13.2 Energy Audit

Undertake an energy audit of existing premises, if appropriate, to establish existing energy use
patterns which can then be addressed in new design. Sustainability Victoria
(http://www.seav.sustainability.vic.gov.au) offers advice and assistance, and can be contacted on
tel: 1300 363 744, fax: (03) 9655 3255, and email: advice@seav.vic.gov.au. (The energy audit must
be addressed in the Masterplan report.)

2.13.3 Energy Design Process

Incorporate into the existing design process the following steps:


hold a project meeting with all stakeholders to agree to goals, budgets, and energy and
financial measurement methods;
review energy performance whenever cost plan is reviewed; and
treat mechanical and electrical design and building fabric design as one exercise.

2.13.4 Computer Modelling

Consider using computer modelling to determine the effectiveness of or the adjustments necessary
to daylight and natural ventilation systems.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 20 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

2.13.5 Testing and Commissioning

Energy efficient equipment should be specified. Where appropriate, testing and commissioning
should confirm this performance.

Testing and commissioning should include the handover of accurate and detailed building and
systems records and operations directions. Such documentation should not only set out details of
the installation and its energy-efficient operation but clearly record all design assumptions and
capacities in order to facilitate future modifications and building adjustment.

2.13.6 Maintenance Strategy

School councils should be provided with a ten-year maintenance strategy for all plant and
equipment.

The maintenance strategy should include a fine tuning of plant to the buildings actual occupancy
and operation. It should also demonstrate how maintenance will be provided. For outsourced
maintenance, some degree of energy performance outcome should be built into the contract.

A meeting should be held with school staff, the consultant and the mechanical and electrical
contractors to hand over the maintenance documents and walk through the project, explaining
any required actions.

2.13.7 Selection of Office Equipment

Office equipment can consume up to 10% of the total energy used in a building. Equipment should
be selected with a low energy rating sufficient to perform the task required.

2.14 Acoustics
Designers must ensure that the acoustic performance of the building meets appropriate standards
and should consider the following issues:
control of sound transfer between spaces;
control of room reverberation (echoing) within spaces; and
control of ambient noise levels arising from mechanical plant, equipment or external noise
(such as transportation).

These issues can be addressed by considering:


the construction of internal walls that divide rooms;
the type and positioning of doors;
the surface treatments of walls, floors and ceilings within learning spaces as well as in
areas adjoining learning spaces;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 21 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 2 Planning

the treatment and/or design of air ducts or other ventilation paths that connect spaces;
and
the attenuation by design of noise intruding into learning space from mechanical services,
other equipment or external sources such as traffic, rail transport, aircraft or rain-fall onto
the roof of the building.

At the very outset, floor planning should consider acoustic design requirements. Spaces with
opposite acoustic requirements should be located as far apart as is practicable. Where open-plan
teaching spaces are proposed, dedicated quiet rooms or pods should also be included to cater for
small groups needing acoustic separation from the main group.

Appropriate design standards and methods are provided in Section 4.11.

Post-occupancy Evaluation Findings

Problems found with acoustics include a lack of sound separation between spaces caused by:
sound transfer through unlined ducts;
gaps at the external wall/partition interface; and
general purpose classrooms (GPCs) located beneath first-floor physical education rooms
with inadequate isolation.

Lack of attenuation within spaces caused by:


hard surfaces; and
insufficient acoustic treatment.

Recommendations to overcome these issues are discussed in Section 4.11.

Statutory regulations and standards related to acoustics include:


Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulations Statutory Rule No. 196/1992, which
specifies allowable noise levels in the workplace.
State Environment Protection Policy (Control of Noise From Commerce, Industry and Trade)
No. N-1 (SEPP N-1) which regulates noise emission in metropolitan Melbourne.
Australian Standards AS 21071987 Acoustics Recommended Design Sound Levels and
Reverberation Times for Building Interiors. Within this Standard, Table 1, Section 1 provides
recommendations for design sound levels in education buildings. It is recommended that
these levels be achieved.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 22 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 Special Factors

3. SPECIAL FACTORS

3.1 Introduction
Special factors associated with the construction of a facility may lead to additional costs and affect
the budget of an otherwise standard building project.

Investigations should demonstrate that alternatives have been evaluated, and all additions must be
supported by estimates and quotations. Approval must also be obtained from the Department
before incurring additional costs.

Only in circumstances where an extraordinary item arises (and for which no monetary allocation has
been provided) will approval of additional project funds be considered.

Typical special factors affecting the cost of a building project include:


existing site conditions;
climatic conditions;
existing conditions impacting on building design;
access and servicing; and
multi-storey or higher than normal buildings.

3.2 Process

The project budget may be increased at project initiation or during its development following a
review of submissions and Departmental approval.

Each special factor needs to be quantified and reasons and/or reports provided to justify such
budget allocations.

During the course of the documentation, the principal consultant must supply a detailed
confirmation of the cost of each special factor specified in the original budget. Budget allocations
will be modified and approved during the course of documentation, subject to Department review
and approval.

3.3 Common Special Factors

It is not possible to identify all items that may be considered special factors, and only the most
common are defined as follows.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 23 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 Special Factors

3.3.1 Existing Site and Building Conditions

Due to the condition of the site, additional works may be required to an otherwise standard building
project. Such works may be generated by factors associated with:

rock

soil

flood-prone land

slope of site (where the fall across the site is 1:20 or steeper)

filled sites

fill provision

swampy ground

bulk excavation

site contamination.

The impact on the construction method and/or the additional works involved must be identified and
the likely cost quantified and approved by the Department.

Additional works involving existing infrastructure may also arise from:


the need to remove hazardous materials (see Section 3.3.4 below);
decanting requirements;
poor structural or maintenance condition of existing buildings and facilities; and
excessive noise, vibration and fumes (aeroplanes, trains, heavy traffic, industrial processes ).

The corresponding additional works must be identified and the costs estimated, and submitted for
approval to the Department.

3.3.2 Climatic Conditions

Special provision may be required for climatic factors. For example, snow entrances may be
warranted in alpine regions, and proximity to the sea (generally within one kilometre) or location
within industrial areas may require special coatings such as hot-dip galvanising.

However, high rainfall does not represent a design modification, and is normally covered in the
Departments locality allowance.

3.3.3 Maintenance Access and Servicing

Adverse site characteristics may incur:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 24 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 Special Factors

excessive service runs as a result of current service locations;


the upgrade of existing external works and services as a result of additional loads
imposed;

buildings required to house engineering services (e.g. pump house, substation, gas meter
enclosure);
the bringing of service supplies to the site boundary;
service and local government authority requirements (e.g. headworks and outfall charges);
and
temporary access.

The impact of the additional works must be identified and the likely cost quantified and approved by
the Department.

3.3.4 Hazardous Materials

Hazardous materials include chemicals, cleaning agents, fuel, oils, asbestos, synthetic mineral fibres
(SMFs) and PCBs.

All schools have been subject to an audit of asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and have
received reports detailing the location of any of these within the school. (It should be noted that all
PCBs have been removed from school buildings.) The audits, typically, also identify the presence of
other hazardous materials.

Architects must ensure that tender documentation identifies the removal of all known hazardous
materials within areas where upgrade is to occur.

Refer also to Section 9 Workplace Health & Safety.

3.3.5 Multi-storey or Higher than Normal Buildings

Site topography or existing buildings may necessitate that new school facilities be multi-storeyed.

Because of higher roofs, extra footings, provision of lifts etc., a budget increase for proposed
buildings or parts of buildings may be considered. The impact of the additional works must be
identified and the likely cost quantified and approved by the Department.

As a general rule the acceptable cost increase due to two-storey structures is an additional 15% (i.e.
115%) of the rate for a new build $/m. This covers all structural factors in two-storey construction,
including increased footing, pad, column sizes, load-bearing walls, suspended slab additional
thickness, and band beams, etc. This also allows for an internal stair within the internal circulation
area planned. However, a lift and all the necessary structure to support it is specifically excluded.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 25 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 Special Factors

Disability access must also be considered in relation to requirements of the Building Code of
Australia. For example, this may necessitate the substitution of ramps for stairs where practicable.
Other factors such as external ramps should also be included.

3.3.6 Specialist and Special Developmental Schools

Additional factors may apply to specialist and special developmental schools. Airconditioning is an
entitlement in specialist and special developmental schools, and rates will need to be adjusted
accordingly. Other special factors will need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis but may include:
the necessity of smoke/fire detection systems to deactivate magnetic locks;
glazing below one metre to exceed the Australian Standard and achieve greater impact
resistance;
automatic opening front door and security issues; and
fencing types and security/containment issues.

3.4 Items Not Generally Considered Special Factors


The following items are not generally considered special factors and are accommodated within
other components of the project budget.

Location Allowance

In general, projects constructed outside the metropolitan area bring with them increased costs.

Price Escalation and Rise and Fall during Documentation and Construction

The Department does not budget for escalation or rise and fall costs when determining its budget
for a project.

Above Standard Facilities

When projects are documented over and above the Departments current facilities standards, all
additional costs are to be borne by the school. No additional funds will be provided.

3.5 Increased School Construction Rates

Special factors should only be considered for site-specific conditions as set out in the previous
clauses.

Additional ecologically sustainable design (ESD) initiatives will only be considered on an individual
project basis, and subject to approval.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 26 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 Special Factors

School construction rates have been revised to include:


allowance for all Building Code of Australia Part J requirements;
physical barrier termite treatment in all projects;
rainwater storage and toilet flushing systems;
daylight sensing controls for classroom lighting;
electrical floor boxes to open learning areas (average of two per general-purpose classroom
equivalent);
external access (one door per general-purpose classroom equivalent);
low E glass to north and west facades;
roof insulation at R3.5, wall insulation at R2.5;
fittings and special equipment;
cabling, communications and power;
80% of travel at an internal rate, and 20% at an external rate ($500/sqm); and
locker areas and site stores as part internal, part external, at average rate of $900/sqm.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 27 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4. SUBSTRUCTURE, SUPERSTRUCTURE & FINISHES

4.1 Introduction

In choosing a design solution for new schools and refurbishment projects, the Department helps
architects and school planning committees select from a variety of building systems consistent with
good architectural and engineering practice, durability and value for money. The Department has
developed a considerable body of experience from a range of projects that have been delivered and
subsequently evaluated, as well as from the feedback supplied by end users the schools
themselves.

The purpose of this section is to provide school communities and consultants with the benefit of
that experience so that demonstrated examples of best practice can be incorporated into new
projects.

The following material is arranged according to the standard cost elements of a building project and
generally provides details for minimum acceptable standards.

The materials and building practices listed are not exhaustive, and any materials not covered in this
document should be considered in relation to those included. It is recommended, however, that
specified fittings and equipment be sourced, where possible, from Australian suppliers in order to
assure replacement parts and facilitate maintenance. These comments do not apply to modular
relocatable buildings or unenclosed covered walkways.

All design, materials, workmanship, testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision
of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards.

4.2 Substructure

4.2.1 Site Conditions and Investigation

The type of structure best employed is dependent on site conditions. Prior to the commencement
of design work, site investigations should be carried out, including:
land surveys to determine slopes and above ground site features;
borehole and geotechnical investigations to determine, as best as possible, sub-surface
conditions; and
an examination of past construction records in the area, sourced from local authorities,
schools, etc.

This will allow informed decisions to be made with respect to the stability or otherwise of founding
material, the suitability of excavated material for engineered and/or bulk fill, estimates of any rock
excavation, and the most appropriate substructure. It should be noted that rock excavation is both
expensive and time consuming. Consideration should be given to floor and services levels in
relation to possible rock.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 28 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

All geotechnical investigations shall be conducted in accordance with AS 2189 to determine soil
strength, shrinkage and bearing parameters. Foundation soil types shall be classified in accordance
with AS 2870 and a relevant footing system designed to comply with building design and
performance criteria in accordance with loading combinations specified in AS/NZS 1170 Parts 1, 2, 3
and 4.

4.2.2 Preparation and Groundwork

Earthworks

Appropriate planning and management of this activity should take place all in accordance with AS
3798 and authority requirements.

Service Trenching

Trenching should be carried out and reinstated as soon as possible to avoid injury to individuals.

Appropriate service utility clearance, trench base, and reinstatement material and compaction
should be completed to authority standards.

Stormwater Site

A stormwater management plan should be created and maintained during the construction period.
The use of sand bags or alternate earth drains are required to avoid sediment runoff and
concentrated water flow into areas that would create property damage or injury.

4.2.3 Termite Management

Termite protection is required for all projects as termite attack is increasing in areas where they
were not previously encountered. For this reason, School Construction Rates have been adjusted to
provide for the cost of this treatment to all projects. (Refer to Section 3.5 in Special Factors)

AS 3660.1 2000, Termite management Part 1: New building work is the relevant standard, and
the requirements of this standard are to be applied.

Note that chemical soil barriers are subject to a loss of effectiveness over time. Different chemicals
have different life spans, but no chemical currently on the market will last for the life of the building.
It is therefore advisable to seriously consider the type of barrier system, as the reapplication of the
chemical may be disruptive and/or costly. Chemical barriers created by means of reticulation
pipework enable simple re-application of the chemical.

The Department publication Protocol for Use of Termiticides in Schools applies mainly to
maintenance activities for completed buildings, and particularly to the use of termiticide sprays.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 29 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.3 Superstructure

4.3.1 Use of Appropriate Structural Solutions

Buildings should be designed to facilitate future school requirements as well as construction over
the winter period.

The structural system should be as simple and robust as possible. Load-bearing vertical structure
should be located in external wall-lines and in internal wall-lines that are unlikely to be relocated in
the event of future building refurbishment.

Wherever possible, it is recommended that a stiffened concrete raft solution be utilised for the
floor, appropriately designed for the site conditions. Such a solution can reduce long-term
superstructure damage from seasonal ground movements, and is very low maintenance (it incurs
good life-cycle costs).

For sites on slopes, or for sites with difficult founding conditions, it may be appropriate to raise the
floor structure.

Current local market conditions may also influence the final choice of structure, as costs of
alternative structural systems can and do vary with time, and can be influenced by site location.

A certificate of structural adequacy for all footing systems and structural members of the building
shall be provided with the final detailed design drawings and documentation.

4.3.2 Concrete

All concrete structures shall be designed in accordance with AS 3600 and the relevant exposure
classification Tables 4.10.3.2, 4.10.3.4 and 4.10.3.5.

Precast, tilt-up and concrete structural elements shall be designed in accordance with the relevant
codes AS3850.1 and 2, AS 3610, etc.

All steel reinforcement of concrete shall be in accordance with AS 4671 and designated grades N, L,
R and RF. Minimum reinforcement cover shall be in accordance with AS 3600.

4.3.3 Masonry

All masonry structural elements/components and construction shall comply with AS 3700 and
AS/NZS 2699.1 and 2.

4.3.4 Steel

All exposed steel columns should be hot-dipped galvanised in accordance with the exposure
category in AS 3600. If paint is to be applied for decorative purposes, the appropriate primers and
treatment should be used.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 30 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Handrails should be hot-dipped galvanised in accordance with the exposure category in AS 3600
(450 g/m for normal sites, 600 g/m for corrosion sites) and not painted, as the paint will quickly
wear off.

4.3.5 Timber

All timber structural members shall be designed in accordance with AS 1720 and AS1684.

4.4 Roof
Simple roof forms are required, with roof guttering outside the line of external walls (i.e. no box
gutters). Attention should also be given to means of avoiding gutter blockage by leaves and debris.

During selection, consideration must be given to the continued availability of roofing materials.

4.4.1 Designs to Conform to AS/NZS 3500.3:2003

AS/NZS 3500.3:2003 Plumbing and Drainage Part 3: Stormwater Drainage is referenced by the
Building Code of Australia and thus roofing, gutters and downpipes are required to be designed to
meet the requirements of this standard. The standard enables calculations to be made regarding
quantities of rainwater collected by roofs as well as the sizing of gutters and downpipes to meet
local rainfall conditions within appropriate design return periods.

The design must incorporate a provision enabling any water overflow to escape outside the
building. Requirements for overflows are provided by AS/NZS 3500.3:2003. Box gutters must not be
used, but where it is unavoidable, they must have an overflow capacity equal to and independent of
the down pipe capacity calculated to AS 3500.3.2003.

4.4.2 Materials

Roofing material is to be surface/pierced fixed steel sheeting. The use of clip-fixed decking should be
kept to a minimum to minimise roofing costs.

All roofing must be of continuous sheets from ridge to eaves wherever possible, with a minimum
slope of at least three degrees.

The sheeting shall be pre-painted steel on zincalume substrate. The Department will consider
natural finish steel sheeting where it matches existing materials or must conform with local
government requirements or where the principal consultant provides acceptable evidence to
support the material choice.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 31 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Other materials may be used in special circumstances. Each application will be assessed on its
merits. Consideration should be given to the effects of galvanic corrosion when selecting roofing
materials.

4.4.3 Gutters and Downpipes

General

Roofing, gutters and downpipes should be of electrolytically similar materials to avoid corrosion.
The sheet thickness of gutters and downpipes (as well as their fixings) must be able to withstand
mechanical and other damage.

Low Level Gutters in Trafficable Areas

Guttering below 2400mm above ground level in trafficable areas will require fixing of a standard in
excess of normal manufacturers requirements.

Mesh Covers to Gutters

Mesh covers are sometimes fitted to gutters to prevent blockage by leaves. Plastic mesh is
unsatisfactory as the weight of debris will collapse the gutter. Mesh should be made of metal
compatible with the roof and gutter, and it must be secured in such a way as to prevent leaves
working beneath it (preferably, mesh should be inserted beneath the roofing). If mesh covered
gutters are blocked, they will be difficult to clean.

In heavy rain, mesh covering can deflect water across the gutter to discharge onto the ground or
path below. This needs to be considered in the choice of design, particularly over building entries.
Some mesh guards are dished slightly.

Location of Downpipes

Consideration should be given to locating downpipes, wherever possible, in protected areas away
from heavy student traffic to prevent damage to downpipes.

Downpipes must not be concealed in wall cavities where any leak will result in structural and
aesthetic damage.

Protection of Downpipes

Sheet metal downpipes at schools have been consistently deformed by impact. Downpipes are
required to be of a more robust quality from ground level to a minimum height of at least 1800mm.
This will require the use of materials such as sewer quality PVC pipe or, in more extreme cases,
galvanised steel water pipe. Alternatively, sleeves to a height of at least 1800mm should be used to
protect standard downpipes.

Give consideration to locating downpipes over grated pits and stopping downpipes short of the
ground level to prevent balls, etc., entering the stormwater system.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 32 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Damage Prevention

Damage generally occurs to guttering during after hours when vandals either swing from it or use it
to access the roof. Stronger fixing will not preclude damage, and guttering is not available in
sufficiently heavy gauge to resist damage. It is recommended that the height of guttering from
paving or garden areas be a minimum of 2400mm. Consideration should also be given during the
planning stage to design solutions which pre-empt or minimise damage to roofing and guttering at
low points in the building structure.

To reduce damage caused by intruders walking on the roof:


use the thickest available roof sheeting (ductile corrugated sheeting is available in 0.6 and
0.8mm whereas most standard profiles are only available in 0.42 or 0.48mm thickness);
preferably use stronger profiles of metal roofing rather than corrugated roofing;
decrease the batten spacing to a maximum of 1000mm for metal deck roofing and 600mm
for corrugated roofing; and
increase the roof pitch.

Selection of the appropriate roof profile is a cost/benefit exercise. Stronger profiles are only
available in narrower sheets. See table below for comparison of typical sections available.

Profile Thickness Maximum Single Span Minimum Pitch

Standard Corrugated 0.48 (thickest available) 800 5

Ductile Corrugated 0.6 1600 5


Rib and Pan 0.48 (thickest available) 1600 2
Ductile Corrugated 0.8 (thickest available) 1800 5

Ribbed 0.48 (thickest available) 2000 3

Slopes and spans of roofing should preferably exceed the manufacturers minimum requirements to
avoid pooling of water and dinting of roof profiles by roof traffic. Experience shows that roofing will
deflect under foot traffic loads at recommended maximum spans.

Roof sheeting may also be damaged in transit or during erection, creating defects in the designed
profile shape. Damaged sheets shall be rejected.

Insulation

Provide roof/ceiling insulation according to the table below (postcode areas for NatHERS zones are
supplied in Appendix 3):

Building Quality Standards Handbook 33 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

NatHERS Zone 27 NatHERS Zone 20 NatHERS Zones 21 NatHERS Zones 24


i.e. Mildura i.e. Benalla & 22 i.e. Melbourne & 25 i.e. Ballarat
R4 R4 R3 R4
Recommended
(if heating & cooling) (if heating & cooling) (if heating & cooling) (if heating. & cooling)
R value
R3 R2.5 R3.5
(if heating only) (if heating only) (if heating only)

Note: An increase in School Construction Rates now provides funding to R3.5 for roof/ceiling
construction.

The insulation of walls and roofing must be addressed in the Schematic Design report.

Roof Ventilation

Consider roof ventilation above the level of ceiling insulation for summer cooling.

Roof Colour

Roofs are to be light in colour if appropriate for the surrounding environment. This will help reduce
summer overheating. The colour of the roof must be addressed in the Schematic Design report.

Skylights and Clerestory Windows

Windows alone are often unable to provide efficient daylighting for deep floor spaces where the
external wall is too far for daylight to reach, even with the use of light shelves and other devices.
Some internal spaces may not have external walls. In such places the use of clerestory windows or
skylights to introduce natural light (and ventilation if required) can be advantageous. However, all
forms of daylighting require careful design to introduce light without glare and heat.

South-facing clerestory windows are usually preferable to skylights. North-facing clerestory windows
are not considered advisable because of the penetration of direct sun into learning spaces. If there
is a compelling reason for such a design, such windows must be protected by shading devices which
employ suitable sun-penetrations software.

Many different forms of skylight have become available, including devices to control and select the
light admitted. Most are now rated under the skylight module of the Window Energy Rating
Scheme, known as WERS for Skylights. The scheme takes account of key differences between the
energy performance of windows and skylights and the differing responses of buildings to these
fenestration products.

Where skylights are installed to facilitate the entry of daylight, their area should be approximately
8% of the floor area served, provided they are externally shaded. A rule of thumb regarding
distribution of skylights is that their centres should be 1.5 times the ceiling height. The requirements
can be calculated with appropriate software. US-based advice, Design Guidelines: Skylighting
Guideline, is available at: www.energydesignresources.com/resource/140.

It is beneficial to the spread of light and reduction of unwanted heat transfer if skylights are sealed
with an acrylic/prismatic diffuser. Double-glazed domes and double glazed ceiling level diffusers are

Building Quality Standards Handbook 34 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

available. Shade all skylights which illuminate occupied areas. Skylights in heated areas shall be of
the non-ventilated type. All skylights should be fitted with safety grilles or other means of fall-
prevention for persons on the roof. Some types of skylight are made of impact resistant material
and will not require grilles.

For unheated areas such as toilets, changing rooms, corridors and vestibules, clear sections of
roofing may be useful. These should be designed to provide a passive solar benefit. Lighting
controls should also be provided so that lights can be switched off.

Tubular skylights and angular selective skylights are now available which restrict the light and heat
input when the sun is directly above and increase light input when the sun is lower in the sky. This is
done by means of light-intercepting devices inside the dome or laser cuts on the dome surface.
These units can also include dimming controls, double-glazed ceiling diffusers, etc.

Safe Access to Roofs

Over and above requirements of the Building Code of Australia, Victorias Occupational Health and
Safety legislation places an obligation on owners and designers of buildings to ensure that persons
employed (including contractors) on their premises are provided with safe workplace conditions.
The relevant regulations in regard to roof access are the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations
2007, and in particular Part 3.3 Prevention of Falls.

While each person accessing the roof must be covered by occupational health and safety
procedures implemented by the school, it may be advantageous to design suitable items to facilitate
access to the roof for maintenance purposes. This is particularly so if items of equipment requiring
regular maintenance are mounted on the roof. Note that a contractor engaged to undertake work
on the roof is considered to be a school employee for the purposes of the Act.

Simple devices such as ladder-fixing brackets located at suitable access points and roof-mounted
anchor points for safety lines will facilitate safe access to roofs.

Refer to Section 9 for further information on workplace health and safety.

4.5 External Walls and Floors

4.5.1 Cladding Materials

External wall cladding should be chosen from a select range of environmentally friendly materials
designed to provide:
long term durability;
low maintenance costs;
an appropriate level of insulation for acoustic and thermal purposes;
aesthetic appeal; and
value for money.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 35 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Selection of appropriate surface finishes must proceed with a knowledge of the activities to be
conducted in the area. Walls must be capable of being easily cleaned and repaired if damaged.

External walls should be of masonry, in general, and to a minimum height above ground level of at
least 2100mm (door head height). Masonry could be continued to the bottom of the eaves,
however lightweight cladding is an acceptable alternative.

Other alternatives such as full height lightweight cladding may be considered in certain
circumstances, for instance, low traffic areas and areas of low visual impact.

Externally, pre-coated surfaces should be used. External painting should be minimised and
restricted to secure areas.

Any solution recommended by the principal consultant must be cost effective (but not to the extent
that future maintenance is compromised) and agreed to by the Departments Project Review and
Evaluation Panel (PREP) before implementation.

4.5.2 Wall Insulation

External wall insulation should be provided as described in the table below. Where internal walls
face onto breezeways that are open at both ends, they should be treated as external walls.
(Postcode areas of all NatHERS zones are supplied in Appendix 3.)

NatHERS Zone 27 NatHERS Zone 20 NatHERS Zones 21 NatHERS Zones 24


i.e. Mildura i.e. Benalla & 22 i.e. Melbourne & 25 i.e. Ballarat
R2 R2 R1.5 R2
Recommended
(if heating & cooling) (if heating & cooling) (if heating & cooling) (if heating. & cooling)
R value
R2 R1.5 R2
(if heating only) (if heating only) (if heating only)

Note: An increase in School Construction Rates now provides funding to R2.5 for wall construction.

4.5.3 Wall Colour and Texture

Consideration should be given to the light colouring of external walls to reflect heat, especially
along the west facade. Avoid matt colours and heavily textured surfaces.

4.5.4 Flooring

Wherever possible, it is recommended that a stiffened concrete raft solution be utilised for the
floor, appropriately designed for the site conditions. Such a solution can reduce long-term
superstructure damage from seasonal ground movements, and is very low maintenance (it incurs
good life-cycle costs).

For sites on slopes, or for sites with difficult founding conditions, it may be appropriate to raise the
floor structure.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 36 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.5.5 Floor Insulation

Floors should be insulated. Although concrete floors have an inherent insulation value of about
R1.5, the 600mm to 1000mm perimeter edge should be provided with insulation. Timber floors
should be insulated to an equivalent R1.5 level.

Insulation for timber floors can be provided in the form of CFC-free polystyrene boards or foil batts
suitable for exterior use and fixed between joists. Provide an air space between the floor boards
and the insulation. Sub-floor ventilation should also be minimised but still comply with the Building
Code of Australia in order to further minimise heat loss.

Timber floors to physical education spaces should not be insulated, but timber floors to multi-
purpose spaces in primary schools should be insulated.

The insulation of timber floors needs to be addressed in the Schematic Design report.

4.6 External Windows

4.6.1 Glass

Glass in windows and doors shall comply with the Building Code of Australia and AS 1288: Glass in
Buildings Selection and Installation.

Exterior glass in windows and doors must also satisfy Building Code of Australia Part J 2 for energy
efficiency measures.

Glazed doors, and glass panels that could be mistaken for openings, should have markings that
accord with the Building Code of Australia.

4.6.2 Standard Windows

The selection of windows should focus on standard designs and availability, standard construction
techniques, low maintenance and maximum user safety.

Glazing must conform to relevant regulations and Australian Standard. Minimum glass thickness is
dependent on location as specified in AS 1288.

Consideration must be given to cleaning costs, i.e. high-level glass should be avoided or provided
with means of safe access for cleaning.

Windows must be properly weatherproofed and should be provided with protection from climatic
influences by means of eaves or canopies.

Windows should be aluminium-framed and of commercial quality.

Care must be taken to ensure that the structural stability of the window meets appropriate wind
loading and impact resistance levels.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 37 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Once a window type is chosen, that type shall be carried throughout the design of the entire school.

4.6.3 Higher Quality Windows

Unprotected windows in high-traffic, playground and vandal-prone areas must possess a level of
impact resistance. This requires the specification of Grade A safety glass in accordance with AS
1288-2066. Glazing within 1000mm of floor or ground level is covered by AS 1288; however, it may
also be necessary to specify Grade A safety glass for glazing between 1000mm and 1800mm where
the risk of breakage is considered to be high.

Enhanced solutions (including thickness, double glazing and tinting) may be appropriate to reduce
noise, sun glare, and heat gain and loss.

The School Construction Rates now allow for the use of Low E glass to north and west facades.

The principal consultant must qualify the situation when higher window quality is required.

4.6.4 Window Finish

Powder-coated window frames are to be light coloured if they are to be positioned in direct
sunlight. Manufacturers of powder coatings advise that light colours are more durable than dark
colours as they absorb less solar radiation. Bright colours are even more prone to fading than dark
colours for the same reason.

4.6.5 Window Configuration

Sashes should be either sliding or double hung.

Full-height glazing is to be avoided wherever possible to minimise safety and maintenance hazards,
particularly in areas where queuing or heavy traffic occurs. Ensure that window sills are located at
least 50mm above floor level, ideally 1200mm for thermal efficiency. Low windows are of no
passive solar heating or daylighting benefit.

While awning windows are not permitted at ground-level traffic areas due to the possible hazard to
passers-by, highlight awning windows are acceptable where security can be maintained.

Operable louvres or awning windows to clerestories may be used to promote good cross ventilation,
with some inbuilt weather protection. High-level windows should be operated by a remote winder
that secures the windows when shut.

The use of frameless sliding glass or louvre windows is not permitted at normal levels due to
possible injury arising from impact.

4.6.6 Sun Control and Ventilation

Direct sunlight is not to penetrate windows during summer and shoulder seasons.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 38 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Where east- and west-facing windows are necessarily incorporated, the use of high-performance
glazing shall be considered to control sun penetration.

Design consideration shall be given to providing adequate (preferably cross flow) ventilation, and
should, wherever possible, provide natural lighting from two opposite sides of an activity area.

Issues Encountered What to Do; What Not to Do

Excessive entry of natural light leads to heat and glare issues. Unsatisfactory designs feature:
no external sun shading, often on the north side;
poor design of sun shading;
non-durable devices (e.g. timber pergolas); and
ineffective screens made of expanded metal.

Where too much glare or direct sun penetration occurs, the response is to blank out the windows
with blinds or other means and switch the lights on, resulting in a frustration of the intended
objective.

Examples of successful control include:


sun-shading devices of many different types provided to windows and skylights;
inclusion of blinds of an appropriate type, particularly for media presentations, also see-
through blinds to utilise views to the north (these may be supplemented by external
shading);
use of pop-up roofs with appropriately oriented or protected clerestory windows to provide
light and ventilation;
adjacent verandas and covered walkways used as shading for windows; and
orientation of building/window openings to select desirable light input.

In relation to older LTC (light timber construction) school buildings, these suffer from a lack of
natural light in their double-loaded central corridors. The recessed roof area also presents drainage
difficulties. Some solutions devised to overcome these issues include:
raising the corridor roof to the level of adjacent roofs, and providing natural light through
skylights; and
raising the roof to the level of adjacent roofs, with natural light provided by angling the roof
and installing clerestory windows along one side.

4.6.7 Sealing of Windows

Provide windows with weather seals.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 39 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.6.8 Louvre Windows

The use of frameless louvre windows is not permitted at normal levels due to possible injury arising
from impact.

High-level windows should be operated by a remote winder that secures the windows when shut.

4.6.9 Insect Screens

The provision of insect screens is acceptable in food preparation areas only.

Insect screens may be considered for windows or openings which provide night purging as
protection from mosquitoes and other insects.

Any insect screens provided must be of commercial quality and fitted with aluminium or stainless
steel mesh.

4.6.10 Window Hardware

Hardware for aluminium windows must be of commercial standard. Domestic quality is


unacceptable.

All double-hung windows must have spring balances of an appropriate design. Window selection
should ensure that the balance mechanism is not so stiff that the window is difficult to open but stiff
enough to prevent the sash moving under its own weight.

Window operating devices should be operable by all potential users, including people with
disabilities.

4.6.11 Sizing of Windows

Windows should be oriented so that the majority face north and south, and the amount of east- and
west-facing glass is minimised (this must be addressed in the Masterplan report).

Window sizing should subscribe to the minimum requirements of the relevant Australian Standard.
In their sizing, the aim is to achieve a balance of daylight, view, heat gain and heat loss. Bearing this
in mind:

North Windows: Size north facing windows at 20% of the floor area they serve so that they
benefit daylighting and passive solar heating.
South Windows: Size south facing windows to minimise heat loss in winter while ensuring that
they provide adequate daylight to rooms all year round. A figure of 10% of
the floor area is suggested as a useful starting point for sizing.
East and West Minimise east and west facing glass, and make the maximum size of glass 5%
Windows: percent of floor area they serve. If windows are larger than this, consider

Building Quality Standards Handbook 40 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

movable external blinds to totally cover the window, or fixed vertical fins or
egg crate shades.

Note: In accordance with F4.2 of the Building Code of Australia, the aggregate light transmitting
area should not be less than 10% of a rooms floor area.

4.6.12 Shading of Windows

Shade north facing windows with appropriate eaves or a fixed shading device comprising a vertical
shading angle of at least 56 degrees measured from the window sill. Extend the shading device one
metre past each end of the window. On east- and west-facing windows, vertical shading is effective.
(The shading of windows must be addressed in the Schematic Design report.)

4.7 Doors and Hatches

4.7.1 External Doors

External doors should:


in general, be of standard dimensions (of no more than 2100mm height) and comply with
the Building Code of Australia;
not be too large, as large and heavy doors are difficult for small children to open (the
current trend for full-height doors creates a problem in this respect. If a large door is fitted
with a door closer of sufficient strength, this adds to the problem. The operating force for
doors should accord with the Building Code of Australia);
be at least half glazed with safety glass for two-way vision in trafficable areas (the size of
glass panels must accord with AS 1428.1);
be able to cope with heavy and constant usage;
be sufficiently robust to provide appropriate security to the building;
be properly weatherproofed and protected from climatic influences;
be either solid core timber with three hinges per door
OR
be aluminium with appropriately heavy sections and fixing to prevent long term sagging,
with pivot hinges;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 41 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

have an additional hinge fitted to the top of the door where door-closers are fitted to
external doors or large internal doors;
have any door fixings to lightweight metal provided with backing plates for support;
be provided with restrainers, door stops, etc. to prevent impact to adjoining surfaces;
be provided with metal framing;
if aluminium, be constructed from a commercial-grade section and have a solid bottom
panel;
have lever-style handles in accordance with the Building Code of Australia (handles and
mechanism should be sufficiently robust to withstand vandalism, abuse and the effects of
frequent use);
provide a level of access appropriate to the purpose of the space for which they are used;
be fire rated or smoke sealed as required by the Building Code of Australia;
be fitted with weather seals to the bottoms and edges, and to the jambs meeting stiles of
double doors;
provide air locks to main entrances accessing heated areas (air lock sizes should accord with
the Building Code of Australia;
be provided with mat wells at all entrances (the mats should be recessed or have tapered
edges as shown in the Building Code of Australia);
include fittings such as door handles in primary schools that are appropriate for small
children; and
if a required exit, be a single-action opening door, openable from the inside as required by
the Building Code of Australia.

4.7.2 Hinge Stress

Failure of external doors is largely attributable to hinge stress. The over extension of doors by wind
or students will damage components such as frames and hinges. Damage also occurs when doors
are pushed against the action of door closers. Such damage can be minimised by:
locating doors adjacent to walls to provide a definite door stop;
locating doors in sheltered locations;
providing all external doors with door stops or steel handrails on the hinge side;
constructing aluminium doors with pivot type hinges complete with floor springs and
concealed head closers; and
minimising the number of external doors (e.g. no external doors to general purpose
classrooms).

Door stops should not be located close to the hinge. The action of the door impacting on the stop
will break the bottom hinge. If a floor-mounted door stop creates a trip hazard when fixed in the
normal location beneath the handle, a door stay can be used, fixed to the head of the door.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 42 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.7.3 Internal Doors

Internal doors should have the same qualities as external doors except that there is no requirement
for weatherproofing.

Internal doors need not necessarily be metal framed, except where frequent impact is likely, and
may also have loose-pin hinges.

Zoning

Internal doors should be provided to separate heated from non-heated spaces on the same level.
Doors are also required to separate one level from another, thereby preventing the rise of heated
air to an upper level. Consider door seals to improve the separation, especially on doors that open
onto stairwells.

4.7.4 Smoke and Fire Doors

Smoke and fire doors shall be provided as required by the Building Code of Australia.

Magnetic hold-open devices should be provided for these doors.

Equipment should comply with the various parts of AS 1670 fire detection, warning, control and
intercom systems.

Refer also Section 5.9 Fire Protection and Section 5.9.3.

4.7.5 Selection and Detailing of Operable Walls

Operable walls can be problematic and require care in selection and the design of their installation.
Poor detailing and construction can result in inadequate acoustic separation and hinge failure.

Operable walls need to be operated and secured in position without a requirement for physical
strength.

The quality of operable walls varies considerably. These wall-doors are expensive, but selecting a
lower-cost door can make them a liability instead of an advantage.

4.7.6 Proprietary Aluminium Stud Partition Type Door Frames

Proprietary systems of aluminium framing for doors and glazed partitions designed to suit metal
stud wall framing have door frames which do not include corner reinforcement stakes. This means
that the force of a door closer operating on the head of the door frame breaks the joint between
head and jamb and allows the head to twist away from the wall face. This method of door framing
should be avoided, particularly where door closers are likely to be held open.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 43 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.7.7 Door Hardware

Selection of Hardware

All hardware should be commercial quality and able to withstand heavy usage.

Back-sets need to be selected to suit the door. Many aluminium framed doors have locks with too
short a back-set, resulting in fingers being jammed against the door frame when the door is opened.

Master Keying

All locks should be part of the school master-key system.

Hinges and Handle Requirements

Post-occupancy evaluations have previously noted an insufficient number of hinges used on doors,
resulting in doors dropping and jamming. At least three heavy-duty stainless steel hinges are
required.

Refer also Section 4.7.2 Hinge Stress

Large D-shaped door-pulls have been found to come loose and are a maintenance problem.

Smoke and Fire Door Hardware

Magnetic hold-open devices connected to the smoke detector/fire alarm system shall be provided
to doors between smoke and fire compartments. Equipment installation and system design should
comply with the requirements of AS 1670 and associated Australian Standards.

Refer also Section 4.7.4, Section 5.9 Fire Protection and Section 5.9.3

4.8 Ceilings

4.8.1 Ceiling Materials

As appropriate in most areas, the minimum standard finish is 13mm plasterboard fixed to metal or
timber framing, or mineral fibre acoustic tiles with a minimum noise reduction coefficient (NRC)
rating of 0.7.

Ceiling finishes should be consistent with the acoustic standards described in Section 4.10.3 and
Section 4.11, and should ensure adequate light reflection.

In some areas flush plasterboard ceilings will be acoustically adequate; however, acoustically rated
ceilings will be needed to meet recommended performance in many spaces. (Refer to Section 4.11.7
for specific requirements on acoustic performance).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 44 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Ceiling finishes should be selected to provide an appropriate acoustic value for a room according to
its proposed usage.

It is recommended that acoustic tile ceilings be used in all general-purpose classrooms (GPCs). Note
that acoustic tile ceilings are not necessarily more expensive than plasterboard, depending on the
tile selected.

4.8.2 Spaces above Ceilings

Sufficient space above the ceiling should be allowed for services, and access must be made available
for future installations.

Provision should be made for ceiling baffles to minimise sound transmission between rooms.

4.8.3 Ceiling Heights

Area Springing Height (m)


General-Purpose Classroom 2.4 (min) 2.7 (across room average)*
Multi-Purpose Room (150m) 4.0
Physical Education Space Primary School (298m) 4.0**
Physical Education Space/Gymnasium Primary and 6.0
Secondary Schools (688m)

* General purpose classrooms should have a minimum average ceiling height of 2.7 metres to allow
for the inclusion of ceiling fans and the penetration of natural light. The minimum height of ceiling
fans, as measured to the underside of fan blades, shall be 2.4 metres from finished floor level.
** If the physical education facility is to be extended in the future, the added cost of providing a 6-
metre rather than a 4-metre high roof shall be funded from sources other than Department
(including extra foundation and structure costs).

4.8.4 Clearance Heights under Stairs and Bulkheads

Ensure that at least 2100mm clearance is provided in all accessible areas, including beneath stairs
and bulkheads.

4.8.5 Access to Lights

When designing ceilings, of access to light fittings for changing globes/tubes must be considered.
This is a matter of practical maintenance for the school, but it should be noted that safe access for
maintenance is also a requirement of occupational health and safety (OH&S) legislation.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 45 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Light fittings are to be mounted at levels below 2700mm above floor level. Where this is not
possible, specific means of safe access to change globes must be provided, e.g. step ladders with a
platform at the required working level.

4.9 Internal Walls

The type and suitability of internal wall framing is dependent on the height and materials to be
fitted to the walls. Additional framing/noggings will be required at lining material junctions and for
joinery as well as in some high traffic areas. Metal or timber framing is acceptable.

4.9.1 Room Dividers

Internal screens can enhance the flexible use of spaces in a school and enable a range of teaching
and learning strategies to be employed.

Moveable internal screens can serve a variety of purposes and should be capable of quick and safe
removal or relocation to facilitate alternative area use. They may serve display and space dividing
purposes, and should generally offer appropriate acoustic separation when in place.

Where such screens are to be frequently utilised, they should be of a type that minimises the impact
of any reduction in natural or borrowed light except where light exclusion or reduction is the
objective.

Fixed screens should also be carefully selected to provide space separation without compromising
light quality, and should facilitate supervision of the separated space where required.

4.9.2 Internal Glazing

Where internal glazing is to be used, similar criteria to external glazing should be employed.

AS 12882006 should be followed, particularly in relation to references to the use of glass in


schools.

Internal glazing should only be installed in a vertical plane. This avoids costly premiums for the
cleaning of inclined glass.

4.9.3 Operable Walls

Where operable walls are to be used, particularly between classrooms, consideration must be given
to the following issues:
acoustic qualities often found unsatisfactory, yet must comply with the requirements of
Section 4.11.5;
weight and size operable walls can be difficult to manipulate due to their dimensions; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 46 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

wear and tear deterioration in performance and operability arising from use and damage
to seals, etc.

Other means of connecting spaces should be considered, but whatever means is utilised, acoustic
transmission between adjacent spaces requires careful consideration.

For a standard new primary school of 451+ children, the maximum number of operable walls
provided between classrooms is to be four, offering flexibility to provide eight general purpose
classrooms.

4.9.4 Colour

Light colours should be applied to internal walls to maximise daylight benefit. The colour of internal
walls must be addressed in the Schematic Design report.

4.9.5 Thermal Mass

Concrete slabs and masonry walls are effective in keeping down summer temperatures. Internal
masonry brick and concrete block walls should be promoted to reduce overheating in schools
located in NatHERS Zone 27 (e.g. Mildura refer to Appendix 3 Postcode Areas within NatHERS
Zones). The incorporation of thermal mass (concrete slabs and masonry walls) must be addressed in
the Schematic Design report.

4.10 Wall and Floor Finishes

Standards of finish must be maintained at levels adequate to cope with normal school usage but
dont require constant maintenance or repair. Domestic standard finishes, for example, in relation
to plasterboard walls, carpets and splashbacks are not acceptable.

Finishes, materials and assemblies must possess fire-hazard properties compliant with the Building
Code of Australia.

4.10.1 Wall Finishes

Selection of appropriate surface finishes must proceed with the knowledge of the activities,
processes, materials and equipment relevant to individual spaces. Wall finishes must be of a
standard type, easily cleaned and repaired if damaged.

Finishes must be assessed to ensure they do not create problems related to toxicity and become an
occupational health and safety hazard.

Selected materials must also possess suitable wear and tear characteristics, including a high degree
of impact resistance. In certain instances, they must be able to cope with uses unintended in the
design (i.e. compressed sheeting to dado height in corridors and some classrooms, rather than

Building Quality Standards Handbook 47 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

plasterboard). The materials must be stain and graffiti resistant, and have low maintenance
characteristics. Consideration should also be given to the low Spread-of-Flame Index and Smoke-
Developed Index as well as acoustic properties in accordance with the Building Code of Australia.

Minimum provision is outlined in the following table:

Area Suggested Wall Materials


High traffic areas/high use areas (e.g. corridors, 13mm MDF or Villaboard to 1200mm high
classrooms) 13mm plasterboard above
Low traffic/low use areas 13mm plasterboard
Student toilet and shower/change areas Masonry to ceiling height
Villaboard on timber framing

Naturally some exceptions exist, such as finishes to gymnasium walls. Exceptions, however, must be
justified to the satisfaction of the Departments Project Review and Evaluation Panel (PREP).

For higher noise-generating areas such as music, drama and technology spaces, consideration must
be given to sound attenuation between areas.

Splashbacks are generally a minimum 300mm high and shall be tiles, stainless steel or a material to
match the bench tops. Where splashbacks are of a material to match bench tops, they should be
coved. Joints between bench and splashback (if any) and joints between splashback and walls
should be sealed using a silicon sealant employed in accordance with manufacturers requirements.
Fillets between adjacent surfaces are not satisfactory as they do not provide scope for elastic
movement.

All grouting in toilets should be sealed.

4.10.2 Floor Finishes

Floors, as with other finishes in a school, are subject to very high levels of wear and tear and
sometimes to instances of inappropriate use.

In general, floor finishes should provide high durability, be of a standard commercial grade/type
enabling areas to be repaired or replaced economically, and must meet the Building Code of
Australia requirements for safety, including its Spread-of-Flame and Smoke-Developed Indices.

The following additional factors should be considered:


slippage where water, oil, grease, sawdust, steps/stairs, etc. may occur (refer to AS/NZS
45862004 Slip resistance classification of new pedestrian surface materials; SAA HB 197
Introductory Guide to Slip Resistance of pedestrian surface pavements; and Natspec
Technote DES001);
sound acoustic compatibility with background and activity noise levels; and
comfort thermal and tactile comfort in relation to the usage of the room.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 48 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

There are an enormous number of proprietary-type floor finishes available to suit both wet and dry
activities in schools.

This section of the document confines itself to those standard finishes which are commonly used in
school situations.

The following sections provide a base standard for the provision of floor coverings to a majority of
the floor area in a school. The use of other proprietary-type floor finishes may be acceptable
provided cost and performance criteria equivalent to the following examples can be met. Ongoing
maintenance costs are another important consideration.

The minimum standard for flooring in areas of a school are summarised in the following table:

Area Suggested Type of Material (Minimum Standard)

Carpet Vinyl/Linoleum Timber Epoxy Finishes


GPC-SC
GPC-PS
Art 2D-SC/PS
Art 3D
Graphics
Music - SC/PS
Drama
Info Tech
Home Eco
Fabrics
Science
Technology (Design)
Library
Phys Ed (Cushioned)
Multi Purpose
Seminar
Lecture
Staff Admin (Wet Areas)
Staff Work
Canteen
Change Shower
First Aid
Student Centre
Toilet
Circulation

Carpet

For schools, use carpets which are graded Contract Extra Heavy Duty by the Australian Carpet
Classification Scheme (ACCS). ACCS licensees give a warranty with their carpets; this warranty is
subject to proper installation and maintenance (AS 24541993 Textile Floor Coverings

Building Quality Standards Handbook 49 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Terminology and AS 2455 Textile Floor Coverings Installation Practice [Part 1 and Part 2] will
apply).

The ACCS licensees instructions for underlay should be followed (AS 4288 will apply).

The selection of carpet should take into account the properties of the underlying base or flooring.
The substrata must comply with manufacturers and Australian Standards requirements (see above).

Recent post-occupancy evaluations have found a number of carpeted floors subject to lifting,
possibly due to dampness in the floor beneath. Substrata must be tested before carpet is laid. AS
2455 specifies requirements for substrata.

Carpets should not be installed in areas subject to wetting.

Spread-of-Flame and Smoke-Developed Indices are to be used as required by the Building Code of
Australia.

Some carpets are flocked or melded products. The ACCS still applies.

Vinyl/Linoleum

All linoleum and vinyl flooring must be a genuine low maintenance product, with a clear upper
surface treatment incorporated during manufacture and guaranteed for at least five years. The
flooring material must be in sheet form and fully heat welded on installation (AS 18841985 Floor
coverings Resilient sheet and tiles Laying and maintenance practices will apply).

The material shall be at least 2mm thick. For homogeneous products, the nominated colours and
patterns shall permeate this thickness. For heterogeneous products, the nominated colours and
patterns shall permeate at least 0.7mm of this thickness.

The suppliers instructions for underlay should be followed (AS 42882003 Soft underlays for
textile floor coverings will apply).

Vinyl flooring materials must be stain resistant. Importantly, they must be able to be wet and dry
cleaned (in turn they must be waterproof and weldable).

Multi-purpose/physical education facilities can be provided with alternative finishes such as


cushioned vinyl.

Timber

Timber floors for internal activities are restricted to gymnasium areas in secondary colleges (and, in
certain circumstances, drama facilities). Gymnasia can be provided with a sprung timber floor only
where competition sport is to be played under a joint-use agreement and the capital and
maintenance cost of the floor is shared. The timber floor may be provided over either concrete slab
or timber framed on concrete footings.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 50 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Epoxy Floor Finishes

These finishes are generally restricted to use in toilets, shower/change facilities or certain specialist
areas.

Epoxy finishes should be applied by trowel on application, not painted, and be a minimum of 6mm
thick.

Where tiles are employed in wet areas, all grouting must be sealed and impervious to moisture.
Regular resealing must be undertaken to avert potential health hazards.

4.10.3 Ceiling Finishes

Ceiling finishes should be selected to provide an appropriate acoustic value for a room according to
its proposed usage and to ensure adequate light reflection.

Sufficient space should be allowed for services, and access must be made available for future
installations.

Provision should be made for ceiling baffles to minimise sound transmission between rooms.

As appropriate in most areas, the minimum standard finish is 10mm plasterboard fixed to metal or
timber framing, or mineral fibre acoustic tiles with a minimum NRC rating of 0.7.

Consideration must be given to acoustic treatment in rooms such as music/drama and technology.
This may vary from exposed perforated insulation paper to proprietary-type ceiling tile systems and
strawboard panels.

4.10.4 Paint

Use of APAS approved products

The cost of paint is only a fraction of the cost associated with the time and effort involved. The
performance of paint can vary significantly from one product to another. For this reason products
that have been approved under the Australian Paint Approval Scheme (APAS) are to be used.

Only low VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) paints should be used.

APAS tests and certifies paints and coatings to ensure they meet stringent performance
specifications. The APAS List of Approved Products contains more than 2000 approved products
and is a comprehensive guide for specifiers. APAS lists include products with approved limits for
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paints and coatings and do not include products containing
lead, chromates or other toxic ingredients.

The basis of the scheme is the specifications prepared by APAS. Products are approved against these
specifications and are required to be produced in APAS approved manufacturing plants.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 51 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Refer to APAS Document D184 Guide to Specifications, Supply and Quality Assurance (available on
the web site www.apas.gov.au) and Australian Standard AS 2311 Painting of Buildings.

To obtain a cross reference between the AS/NZS 2311 (Table 4.1) Paint Reference Numbers and the
relevant APAS specification, it is necessary to refer to the APAS Document D 125. For example, Paint
Reference Number B3 corresponds to Specification Number 0015/3, and these Specification
Numbers can then be entered into the specification, shown below as an additional column to the
Natspec Paint Type Table:

Paint type AS/NZS 2311 Paint Australian Standard APAS Specification


reference no. (Table 4.1) Number

Semi gloss solvent-borne: B3 AS 3730.5 0015/3


interior

Full gloss solvent-borne: B5 AS 3730.6, 0015/1


exterior AS/NZS 3750.22

Full gloss solvent-borne: B5 AS 3730.6 0015/1


interior

The List of Approved Products is available for purchase in electronic format (PDF file only) from
APAS.

APAS is administered by the CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering Division located at Highett,
Victoria. Contact:
CSIRO Materials Science & Engineering
37 Graham Rd (PO Box 56)
Highett Vic 3190, Australia
Tel +61 3 9252 6307; Fax +61 3 9252 6011; Email: apas@csiro.au

Preferred Materials

For general use, and particularly on exterior timber, latex (water-based) paints are usually favoured.
Only low VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) paints should be used.

Solvent-based enamels are preferred for metal surfaces and those subject to wear and tear (e.g.
doors, door frames, architraves, skirtings, painted window reveals).

Solvent-based semi-gloss enamel can also be used on internal walls.

Low-sheen acrylic (latex) can be used on internal walls.

Full-gloss acrylic should be used for external walls.

Latex paints can usually be applied over existing solvent-based paints, although a latex undercoat
may be necessary in more arduous situations. However, solvent-based paints should not be applied
over latex types. Latex paint finishes are usually identified simply since they can be removed by a
swab soaked in methylated spirits. Solvent-based paints remain sound under this test.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 52 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Colours

Light colours maximise the reflection of light and tend to make rooms seem larger, but often show
marks.

Light colours should be applied to internal walls to maximise daylight benefit.

Darker colours are more serviceable in high wear locations such as skirting boards.

Smooth colour transitions from room to room are important in achieving colour harmony.

The completed paint job will look deeper in colour than a small sample, particularly when the same
colour is used on all walls.

The colour of internal walls must be addressed in the Design Development report.

Gloss Levels

Flat and low gloss finishes best mask surface imperfections, but should be limited to areas not
subject to wear and tear or moisture, such as ceilings.

Semi gloss (satin) is a compromise between masking defects in a surface and providing a
serviceable, readily cleaned, finish.

Glossy finishes are preferred for surfaces subject to wear and tear, dirt retention, moisture,
condensation, or frequent cleaning; notably architraves, cupboards, door, and metal work.

4.11 Acoustics

The acoustic design of a project is discussed in general terms in Section 2.14 Acoustics. This section
defines the acoustic design parameters and performance standards recommended for schools.

4.11.1 Statutory Requirements and Standards

Acoustic design requirements must be addressed in accordance with the following statutory
requirements:
Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulations Statutory Rule No. 196/1992 which
specifies allowable noise levels in the workplace.
State Environment Protection Policy (Control of Noise From Commerce, Industry and
Trade) No. N-1 (SEPP N-1) which regulates noise emission in metropolitan Melbourne.
Australian Standards AS 2107-1987 Acoustics Recommended Design Sound Levels and
Reverberation Times for Building Interiors. Within this Standard, Table 1, Section 1
provides recommendations for design sound levels in education buildings. It is
recommended that these levels be achieved.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 53 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Occupational Health and Safety (Noise) Regulations Statutory Rule No. 196/1992

These regulations specify the allowable noise levels and noise exposure standards in the workplace.
The allowable noise levels and exposure standards are applicable to all areas of the building that
could constitute a workplace; however, they are most commonly relevant in workshops, technology
classrooms, material preparation rooms and plant rooms.

A workplace must be designed to meet the following standards:


peak noise levels no greater than 140dB(C); and
an equivalent continuous noise level not exceeding 85dB(A) over 8 hours of a workday.

These are mandatory requirements.

Expert advice is generally required to determine if the above standards are likely to be exceeded. In
most cases a noise exposure control strategy will be required to ensure compliance with the
statutory standards. Noise exposure control strategies must be strictly in accordance with the
requirement of the Regulations.

State Environmental Protection Policy No. N-1 (SEPP N-1)

This document defines procedures for determining mandatory noise limits applicable to any
mechanical plant or equipment that may emit noise to a neighbouring noise sensitive location. A
noise sensitive location can be a residence or a motel or a hospital or similar.

Expert advice is generally required to determine if noise from a school is likely to comply with the
SEPP No. N-1 noise limits.

Noise sources that can lead to non-compliance include (but are not limited to) airconditioning
equipment, exhaust fans and compressors.

Designers need to confirm that the project design will be compliant with SEPP No. N-1 noise limits.

AS/NZS 2107:2000 Acoustic: Recommended Design Sound Levels and


Reverberation Times for Building Interiors

This standard provides recommended design sound levels in a wide range of occupancies and
includes recommendations for many room types that occur in educational buildings. This standard
can be used or interpreted to define appropriate noise level design goals for spaces not specifically
addressed by the Building Quality Standards Handbook.

It should be noted that the noise levels recommended in the standard apply to an unoccupied space
and are not intended to cover noise from room occupants (i.e. voices).

This standard also provides recommended design reverberation times for a range of occupancies,
and includes recommendations for many room types that occur in educational buildings.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 54 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.11.2 Acoustic Floor Planning

Floor planning should include specific consideration of acoustic design requirements.

Spaces with opposite acoustic requirements should be located as far apart as is practicable.
Examples include kitchens abutting classrooms, or music practice rooms abutting a library.

Where large open-plan teaching spaces are proposed, with no fixed walls between independent
teaching activities, dedicated quiet rooms or pods should be included in the space planning to
provide a facility for small groups who may need acoustic separation from the main group.

4.11.3 Sound Isolation between Spaces

The following information provides performance standards for the control of sound transfer
between spaces via walls not containing a door.

Room Category Recommended Room to Room


Weighted Standardised Level
Difference, DnT,w
Auditorium 5 50-55
General Purpose Classroom (GPC) 3 40
Open Learning Areas 4 45
Technology Classrooms 5 50-55
Materials Preparation Machine Room 5 50-55
Art & Craft Studios 3 40
Office (Private) 2 35
Library 4 45
Meeting Room 2 35
Conference Room 4 45
Seminar Room 3 40
Quiet Room/Pods 3 40
Corridors, Lobbies & Foyers 2 35
Reception Areas 2 35
Store Room or similar 1 30
Toilets & Washrooms 3 40
Kitchens & Kitchenettes 4 45
Staff Room 4 45
Gymnasium/Hall 5 50-55
Music Practice 5 (note 5) 55
Drama Room 5 50-55

Building Quality Standards Handbook 55 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Definition

The DnT,w rating is determined using Australian Standards AS 2253 and AS 1276. It involves
assessment at site by measuring the noise reduction between rooms over a range of sound
frequencies and then standardising the result.

Notes

1. With the exception of Category 1 (where rooms of two different categories abut), the
division system should be based on the higher category.

2. Where any Category 1 room abuts a Category 2 or 3 room, the division system should be
based on a Category 2 system.

3. Where any Category 1 room abuts a Category 4 or 5 room, the division system should be
based on a Category 3 system.

4. The DnT,w performance is to be achieved taking account of all sound paths, including the
ceiling void, floor, ductwork or ventilation openings, windows, perimeter wall junctions etc.

5. Music practice rooms should be designed to DnT,w 55 for all walls.

6. Any Category 3 or 4 walls dividing wet areas from any noise sensitive room shall incorporate
plumbing noise attenuation measures. Plumbing noise attenuation should take the form of
a double or staggered wall stud frame system. Pipes to the wet area should be fixed only to
the studs that are supporting the plasterboard that is facing into the wet area.

7. Walls with Category 3, 4 and 5 performance should extend from floor to slab soffit or from
floor to the roof soffit where there is a metal roof.

8. Walls with Category 1 or 2 performances should terminate at the underside of the ceiling.
However, a positive and lasting acoustic seal must be achieved at the head of the wall.

9. In the case of Categories 1, 2 and 3, the ceiling system must not be of perforated or slotted
construction, and would typically be 13mm plasterboard or a compressed acoustic tile
having a thickness of at least 15mm and a weight of 4kg/m or more.

4.11.4 Satisfactory Construction for Sound Insulation between Rooms

The following list provides descriptions of construction systems that can be deemed to satisfy the
DnT,w performance recommended in Section 4.11.3.

Category 1

Wall Construction: Simple 64mm wide steel or 90mm wide timber stud with a single layer of
13mm plasterboard applied to each side.

Wall Extent: Wall may extend to the underside of any ceilings having a CAC (Ceiling
Attenuation Class) of greater than 30 (examples include flush 13mm plasterboard and 15-
18mm thick compressed acoustic tiles).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 56 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Cavity Insulation: Not required.

End Terminations of Other Walls: Standard building construction only. Termination to window
mullions permitted but should be acoustically sealed.

Glazing: Permitted but must be sealed and should be at least 6mm thick.

Category 2

Wall Construction: As for Category 1 except that acoustic insulation should be placed in the
wall cavity.

Wall Extent: The wall structure should project through the suspended ceiling, but framing and
plasterboard layers need not extend to divide the ceiling cavity.

Cavity Insulation: Acoustic grade, 50mm thick with a minimum density of 14kg/m.

End Terminations of Other Walls: As for Category 1.

Glazing: Not to make up more than 15% of the wall area, and must be sealed 10mm
laminated glass.

Ceiling: Must have a CAC rating not less than 35. Must be overlaid with a 50mm thick,
24kg/m3 (minimum) density acoustic grade insulation for an extent of not less than
1200mm each side of the partition line.

Category 3

Wall Construction: Single 64mm steel or 120mm timber stud system lined with 2 x 13mm
plasterboard on one side with 1 x 13mm plasterboard on the other side. Acoustic insulation
is to be placed in the wall cavity.

Wall Extent: Wall system to interrupt the suspended ceiling with not less than a 1 x 13mm
plasterboard layer extending across the ceiling cavity and being acoustically sealed around
the perimeter.

Cavity Insulation: As for Category 2.

End Terminations of Other Walls: Walls should not abut window mullions, window glazing or
simple lightweight partitions.

Glazing: Not recommended in these partitions.

Ceiling: Must have a CAC rating of not less than 30.

Category 4

Wall Construction: As for Category 3, however 2 x 13mm layers of plasterboard are required
on both sides of the wall studs.

Wall Extent: All plasterboard layers to interrupt the ceiling and divide the ceiling cavity.

Cavity Insulation: As for Category 2.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 57 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

End Terminations of Other Walls: Wall structure should interrupt the flow of the lining of any
flanking wall (e.g. sheets of plasterboard must not be permitted to pass uninterrupted past
the end of the Category 4 wall).

Glazing: Not Recommended.

Ceiling: No specific requirement relating to sound transmission.

Category 5

Wall Construction: Two rows of 64mm steel or 90mm timber stud separated by not less than
70mm, and lined with 2 x 16mm plasterboard on both sides.

Wall Extent: As for Category 4.

Cavity Insulation: As for Category 2.

End Terminations of Other Walls: Not to form junctions with any lightweight wall or facade
system unless the structure of the abutting wall/facade is physically interrupted by the
dividing wall.

Glazing: Not permitted.

Ceiling: As for Category 4.

As a general recommendation for all acoustically rated walls:


Wall perimeters to be fully stopped and sealed.
Walls are not to be degraded acoustically by penetrations for electrical or plumbing fixings
or fixtures.
Heads of walls terminating at the underside of suspended ceiling are to be sealed using
compressible acoustic foam and/or flexible acoustic sealant beads.
Walls dividing the ceiling cavity are to be sealed at the head, sides and at any and all
services penetrations.
Airconditioning and or ventilation openings in ceilings must not compromise the sound
insulation between rooms and should be treated/modified accordingly. Where a duct
penetrates an acoustically rated wall, it should be of steel walled construction and internally
acoustically lined for not less than 1200mm each side of the penetration. The penetrating
duct must be acoustically sealed into the wall penetration using a flexible non-hardening
acoustic sealant.

4.11.5 Sound Isolation between Spaces and Connecting Doors

The presence of doors significantly limits the sound insulation between abutting rooms.

Walls with unsealed standard doors need not be rated above Category 2. However, the following
performance standards are recommended for doors to occupied spaces.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 58 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Room Recommended Room to Room Sound Category


Reduction Index Dw for Wall Containing Door

Auditorium 32 4

General Purpose Classroom (GPC) 25 2

Office (Private) 20 1

Library 25 2

Meeting Room 25 2

Conference Room 30 2

Seminar Room 30 2

Quiet Room/Pods 25 2

Corridors & Lobbies & Foyers 25 2

Reception Areas 20 1

Toilets & Washrooms 20 1

Kitchens & Kitchenettes 20 1

Staff Room 25 2

Gymnasium/Hall 30 3

Music Practice 32 5

Deemed to satisfy systems:

Performance Door Type Door Thickness Acoustic Seals

20 Semi solid core 32 No

25 Solid core 35 Yes : Type 1

30 Solid core 35 Yes : Type 2

32 Solid core 40 Yes : Type 3

Acoustic Seals

Type 1: Simple/standard compression seals applied to the head and sides of a light weight
aluminium or timber frame. No bottom seal.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 59 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Type 2: Light-duty non-adjustable acoustic seal rated to Dw 30 fitted to the head and sides of a stiff
steel or timber frame.

Type 3: As per Type 2; however, seal system to be adjustable and rated to Dw 32.

Operable Walls

Operable walls commonly require acoustic rating. Designers should establish the proposed use of
rooms each side of the proposed operable wall and determine the acoustic rating using the Table in
Section 4.11.3.

Operable walls capable of achieving a performance greater than Dw 35-38 are generally quite costly,
and operable walls capable of the 35-38 range are commonly used between learning spaces.

Operable walls must be installed in accordance the wall system suppliers recommendations. The
ceiling void above any acoustically rated operable wall must be divided using a solid baffle
constructed with two layers of 13mm plasterboard on a suitable framing. The baffle must be fully
sealed around its perimeter.

When selecting an operable wall based on laboratory ratings, it should be noted that it can perform
in the order of 8 rating points lower when tested on site. Therefore if the wall is selected based on
laboratory ratings, a rating in the order of 43 to 46 is required.

End termination of the operable wall should be reviewed and approved by the operable wall
supplier or a qualified acoustic consultant prior to installation.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 60 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.11.6 Reverberation Control and Ambient Noise Level

The following are recommended reverberation times for school buildings:

Room Reverberation Recommended Maximum


Time (seconds) Ambient Noise Level, LAeq(dB)

Auditorium AS2107* 30-35

General Purpose Classrooms 0.4-0.6 30-35


(GPCs)

Open Learning Areas 0.6 30-35

Technology Classrooms 0.6-0.8 40-45

Materials Preparation Machine AS2107* AS2107*


Room

Art & Craft Studios 0.6-0.8 40-45

Office (Private) 0.4-0.6 40-45

Library 0.4-0.6 40-45

Meeting Room 0.4-0.6 40-45

Conference Room 0.6-0.7 35-40

Seminar Room 0.4-0.6 40-45

Quiet Room/Pods 0.4 35-40

Corridors, Lobbies & Foyers 0.6-0.8 45-50

Reception Areas 0.6-0.8 40-45

Toilets & Washrooms NA 45-50

Kitchens & Kitchenettes 0.6-0.8 50-55

Staff Room 0.4-0.6 40-45

Gymnasium/Hall AS2107* 45-55

Music Practice 0.7-0.9 25-30

Drama Room AS2107* 35-40

Note*: Refer to the details of AS 2107 to determine the recommended reverberation time for this
space.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 61 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

4.11.7 Satisfactory Systems for Reverberation Control

General Purpose Classrooms

Floor Walls Ceiling

Carpet or Carpet Tile Generally plasterboard or glass with Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
(90% coverage) display boards covering 30% of one less than 0.5 and forming not less than
wall. 80% of the ceiling area.

Open Learning Areas

Floor Walls Ceiling

Carpet or Carpet Tile Generally plasterboard or glass. Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
(90% coverage) less than 0.7 and forming not less than
90% of the ceiling area.

General Purpose Science Room

Floor Walls Ceiling

Timber or Vinyl Generally plasterboard or glass with Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
display boards covering 30% of one less than 0.7 and forming not less than
wall. 90% of the ceiling area.

Technology Classrooms, Art and Craft Class Rooms and Materials Preparation Area

Floor Walls Ceiling

Timber or Vinyl Generally plasterboard or glass. Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
less than 0.7 and forming not less than
90% of the ceiling area.

Offices, Meeting Room, Seminar Room, Quite Room and Staff Room

Floor Walls Ceiling

Carpet or Carpet Tile Generally plasterboard or glass. Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
(100% coverage) less than 0.5 and forming not less than
90% of the ceiling area.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 62 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 4 - Substructure, Superstructure & Finishes

Corridor, Lobbies, Foyers and Reception

Floor Walls Ceiling

Timber or Vinyl Generally plasterboard or glass. Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
less than 0.6 and forming not less than
100% of the ceiling area.

Kitchens

Floor Walls Ceiling

Vinyl or Tiled Generally plasterboard. Acoustic tile with an NRC rating of not
less than 0.5 and forming not less than
100% of the ceiling area.

4.11.8 External Noise

Due consideration should be given to the appropriate design of the school building facade such that
the recommended ambient noise levels tabulated in Section 4.11.7 would be achieved with
windows and doors closed.

An appropriately qualified acoustic consultant should evaluate school sites that are impacted by
noise from traffic, rail activity, commercial/industrial noise and/or aircraft noise. The results of the
evaluation should be used as a basis for gaining advice on appropriate facade designs.

Noise from aircraft should be attenuated to the recommended noise levels set out in AS 2021.

4.11.9 Rain Noise

The design should specifically address the need to control excessive noise from rain in learning and
speech use areas. Rain noise shall not exceed the ambient noise levels tabulated in Section 4.11.7
by more than 5dB(A) during a moderately heavy rain event (up to 25mm/hr rate).

As a basic requirement, (which does not necessarily meet the performance specification above)
metal roofing should have a thermal/acoustic insulation blanket between roof purlins/battens and
the roofing, which is at least 75mm thick.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 63 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5. INTERNAL SERVICES
5.1 Material Selection
When designing any given service, the designer is required to make use of the most cost effective
materials and installation techniques available, commensurate with appropriate levels of service
and durability, and in accordance with the philosophy outlined in this handbook.

All design, materials, workmanship, testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision
of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards.

Where classes, types, etc. are referred to, they are in accordance with the relevant Australian
Standard.

5.2 Sanitary Fixtures

5.2.1 General

Fixtures shall be of the same model and manufacture throughout a school. Fixtures for later stages
shall match the first stage.

Where alternative types are to be considered, they shall only be selected if the fixture selection is
more cost effective for the particular application.

All vitreous china fixtures shall be white unless directed otherwise by the Principal Consultant.

Technical Data Sheets for plumbing fixtures in secondary college facilities related to science, home
economics and technology (trade) are contained in Appendix 2.

In accordance with the Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulation 1989, the design of
laboratories shall be in accordance with Australian Standard AS 29821997 Laboratory Design &
Construction Part 1 General.

5.2.2 WC Suites

Student Areas: Floor mounted vitreous china pan with concealed in-wall cistern with anti-vandal
fixing accessories, or compliant cistern-less systems with anti-vandal fixing
accessories.

Staff Areas: Floor mounted vitreous china pan with concealed in-wall cistern with anti-vandal
fixing accessories, or compliant cistern-less systems with anti-vandal fixing
accessories.

Toilet Seats: Use of a double flap toilet seat is not required. Single flap seats should be provided.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 64 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.2.3 Urinals

Student Areas: Slab type 304 stainless steel, 1.2mm thick for 3 metre maximum length, 1.6mm
thick for lengths exceeding 3 metre, grated platform type.

Concealed in-wall cisterns with anti-vandal fixing accessories, or compliant cistern-


less systems with anti-vandal fixing accessories.

Ventilation, wall finishes and flooring should be considered in the control of odours.

Note on Water Usage:


Automatic flushing was previously recommended for primary schools but water
shortages now indicate a need for other solutions. Provision of proprietary microbial
cubes in urinals (in conjunction with a simple specialised daily cleaning routine) has
been successfully used in commercial locations. Despite the apparent success of
waterless urinal operation, normal cisterns should still be provided for flushing (with
water supply turned off) to allow for all contingencies.

Staff Areas: Wall-mounted vitreous china with wall-mounted exposed cistern or as for student
areas if more than two stalls are required.

5.2.4 Basins

Student Areas: Wall-mounted vitreous china (nominally 500mm x 400mm, with a 140mm
minimum depth) with two soap holders and integral tapholes to suit specified
tapware OR an installed bench with a flat-rim inset basin.

Stainless steel troughs can also be employed in student toilet areas.

Staff Areas: Self-rimming vanity basin, vitreous china (nominally 500mm x 400mm, with a
140mm minimum depth) with two soap holders and integral tapholes to suit
specified tapware.

Although wall-hung basins are not recommended, where used, they should be fixed over the top of
a tiled backing. Manufacturers options for stronger support brackets should be identified.

In accordance with AS/NZS 3500 Part 4.2 Hot Water Supply Systems Acceptable Solutions, the
delivery temperature of water for personal hygiene purposes (primarily bathroom taps) is legally
required to be 45C for primary schools and secondary colleges.

5.2.5 General Purpose Sinks

Employ a flat rim 0.9mm thick satin finish 304 stainless steel sink. Bowl size to be nominally 380mm
x 330mm, with a 150mm minimum depth. Number of bowls, location of bowls, and overall length of
sink is to suit the particular application. Sinks are to have integral tapholes to suit specified
tapware.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 65 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Sinks used by children may need to be fitted at a lower than normal level. If adults, however, are also
required to use these sinks or assist children in their use, their needs should be considered. Sinks set too
low can result in occupational health and safety issues for staff.

5.2.6 General Purpose Tubs and Troughs

Employ satin finish 304 stainless steel tubs and troughs to suit particular requirement.

5.2.7 Showers

Employ conventional shower sets to suit particular requirement, with taps located clear of discharge
from rose outlet. Shower roses shall be AAA-rated unless flow restrictor valves are fitted to the taps
supplying the shower. Consider the use of push button on/off shower controls.

In accordance with AS/NZS 3500 Part 4.2 Hot Water Supply Systems Acceptable Solutions, the
delivery temperature of water for personal hygiene purposes (primarily bathroom taps) is legally
required to be 45C for primary schools and secondary colleges.

5.2.8 Cleaners Sinks

Cleaners sinks should be provided in a dedicated space that is appropriately designed in terms of
floor and wall finishes as well as ventilation. Any storage within this space must be in accordance
with relevant Australian Standards and legislation.

Sinks should be wall-mounted vitreous china, with a chrome-plated hinged bucket grate. Bowl size
to be nominally 500mm x 400mm, with a 150mm minimum depth.

5.2.9 Boiling-water Units

Employ a wall-mounted or under-bench type as appropriate, with capacity to suit particular


application and featuring a time clock device for energy efficiency. Boiling-water units shall have a
five-litre maximum capacity. Boiling-water units are for hot drinks and deliver water at 95C.
Under-bench domestic hot water units for personal hygiene in schools must now deliver water at a
maximum of 45C (refer AS/NZS 3500.4.2:1997). For additional information, refer to Sustainable
Energy Authority Victorias Infosheet Energy Saving Measure Water Heating.

5.2.10 Drinking Troughs

Wall-mounted or floor-mounted 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 stainless steel trough with rear
upstand skirt to conceal pipe work, and holed for drinking taps. Trough dimensions nominally
300mm wide x 150mm deep, with taps at nominal 450mm centres. Tapware shall be lever spring-
action drinking cocks with mouthguard and 100mm long flanged horizontal extension to tap.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 66 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Consideration should be given in the design process to locating taps and troughs in a manner which
minimises damage or vandalism.

5.2.11 Ablution Troughs

For general purpose, wall-mounted or floor-mounted 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 stainless steel
trough with rear upstand skirt to conceal pipe work, and holed for cold only (or hot and cold as
appropriate) spray taps/outlets. Trough dimensions nominally 300mm wide x 150mm deep, with
taps/tap sets at nominal 450mm centres for primary schools and 600mm centres for secondary
colleges.

Notes: 1. For some applications, flat rim troughs may be appropriate.


2. In some environments, acid-resistant 316 stainless steel may be required with waste
to discharge to an acid neutralising tank or solvent/oil interceptor tank. Hand
washing at these troughs is not recommended as soap discharges can affect
performance of treatment apparatus.

5.2.12 Floor Waste Gullies (FWG)

Floor waste gullies shall be 100mm in diameter and chrome-plated for all toilet blocks with external
access. Floors should be graded towards them. Floor waste gullies shall be provided in other areas
where floor wash down is required or as required by regulations.

5.2.13 Tundishes

Cone shaped and of a size to suit application, fabricated from 0.8mm thick copper sheet, and
chrome-plated where exposed except in plant rooms and similar.

5.2.14 Clay and Ablution Troughs

Special-purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 stainless steel trough with special purpose tapware
and waste outlets. Refer to Clay and Ablution Trough Technical Data Sheet Appendix 2.

5.2.15 Drip Trough and Racks

Special-purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 stainless steel trough, with special-purpose tapware.
Refer to Drip Trough and Rack Technical Data Sheet Appendix 2.

5.2.16 Frame Baths

Special-purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish acid-resistant 316 stainless steel sink, with special-purpose
tapware. Waste treatment to suit particular application. Refer to Frame Bath Technical Data Sheet
Appendix 2.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 67 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.2.17 Photographic Troughs

Special-purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish acid-resistant 316 stainless steel or PVC trough, with
special-purpose tapware. Waste to discharge to a mixing tank. Refer to Photographic Trough
Technical Data Sheet Appendix 2.

5.2.18 Potting Troughs

Special-purpose 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 stainless steel trough. Waste to discharge to a silt pit.
Refer to Potting Trough Technical Data Sheet Appendix 2.

5.2.19 Laboratory Sinks

Flat rim 1.2mm thick satin finish acid-resistant 316 stainless steel. Bowl size to suit particular
application. Laboratory-type tapware may be bench-mounted or sink-mounted to suit particular
application. Waste to discharge to an acid neutralising tank. Refer to Secondary College Science Room
Plumbing Fixtures Technical Data Sheet Appendix 2.

5.2.20 Safety Sprays

Wall-mounted with aerated chrome-plated eye wash outlet, trigger operated and with a nominal
1800mm length of hose.

5.2.21 Fume Cupboards

Refer to Section 5.11.1 Fume Cupboard for services requirements.

5.2.22 Hand Driers

The hand drier in toilets shall be a direct-wired push-button type with a preset timer for at least 45
seconds running. It shall be suitable for 240 Volt, 50 Hz supply and rated at not more than 2kW with
an air flow of not less than 150m3/h through a fixed (non swivel) nozzle. The noise rating shall be
less than 65dB(A) at 1 metre. Assemblies shall be complete with concealed mounting hardware to
suit the wall type.

A proximity sensor for the drier may be considered rather than a push button, provided such a system is
vandal-proof. An isolation switch should be wall-mounted at a high level above the drier.

5.2.23 Sanitary Facilities for People with Disabilities

Sanitary facilities for adults, including cubicles for ambulant adults with disabilities, should satisfy Draft
Disability (Access to Premises Buildings) Standards 2009 and the Building Code of Australia.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 68 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Sanitary facilities for children should satisfy AS 1428.3.


Pan to wall detail:
To facilitate room cleaning, pans that extend fully to their rear wall should be specified, or else an infill
section installed between the rear of the pan and wall.

5.3 Sanitary Plumbing

5.3.1 Pipe Work

Pipe work shall comply with AS 3500.2 2003 and the following additional requirements:
preferred pipe work material is PVC unless noted otherwise;

all pipe work shall be concealed if possible;


traps for wastes on fixtures requiring treatment apparatus shall be of polypropylene or
stainless steel as appropriate; and
exposed external pipe work shall be of copper alloy (70/30 brass).

5.3.2 Trade Waste Application

A trade waste application (including trade waste plan and a trade waste treatment apparatus
drawing, as appropriate) is to be prepared and lodged with the relevant authority on behalf of the
school.

5.3.3 Treatment Apparatus

The following treatment apparatus is to be considered if other provisions are not made:
acid neutralising tanks refer Appendix 2 for standard detail;
wet feed neutralising tanks for electroplating process equipment refer Appendix 2 for
standard detail;
wet feed neutralising tanks and PVC dosing tanks refer Appendix 2 for standard detail;
plaster interceptor tanks;
settling tanks refer Appendix 2 for standard detail;
grease interceptors refer Appendix 2 for standard detail;
solvent/oil interceptor tanks refer Appendix 2 for standard detail;
silt traps refer Appendix 2 for standard detail;
mixing tanks refer Appendix 2 for standard detail; and
straining traps refer Appendix 2 for standard detail.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 69 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.3.4 Trade Waste Operation Documentation

Provide the school council with a monitoring and maintenance of trade waste manual to ensure
that the operation remains effective.

Supply the school with a record of its trade waste application and plans.

5.4 Water Supply

5.4.1 General

The supply of water is governed by relevant Australian Standards as well as regulations and by-laws
exercised through local water authorities. Victorias Safe Drinking Water Act 2003 (refer
Department of Human Services) deals specifically with the regulation and quality of drinking water
supplies.

The principal consultant will nominate which fixtures are cold only and which are hot and cold.
In primary schools, hot water is generally supplied to the following areas:
staff and administration areas;
student showers;
canteen;
art room; and
accessible toilets for disabled users.

In secondary colleges, hot water is generally supplied to all areas except student toilets.

5.4.2 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings

Pipe work, valves and fittings shall comply with AS 3500. All pipe work in above-ground inaccessible
spaces shall be copper tube Type B (insulated) in accordance with AS 1432 2004. Consider the use
of flow restrictors and pressure reducing valves in a combined water and energy management
system in order to reduce pipe sizes and headwork fees.

5.4.3 Tapware

Tapware shall generally be satin chrome finish with anti-vandal star pattern design handles. Cold-
water handles shall be coded blue and hot-water handles coded red. Cold-water handles/taps
shall be fixed on the right-hand side of fixture and hot-water handles/taps fixed on the left-hand
side. All tapware shall be of the same model and manufacture throughout a school. Tapware for
later stages shall match the first stage.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 70 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Tapware for laboratories and other special-use areas shall be of a design suitable for the proposed
use.

Tapware in sanitary facilities for people with disabilities must comply with AS 1428.1.
Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) ratings must be provided for all tapware included under
the current legislation.

5.4.4 Flow Rates (SWEP Requirement)

Under the Departments Schools Water Efficiency Program (SWEP), water flow rates are set at:
basins 4 litres/minute (an exception is the sick bay at a permitted 6 litres/minute if the
basin is the only tap outlet);
classroom sinks 6 litres/minute (exceptions are sick bays, home economics and science
preparation rooms at a permitted 9 litres/minute);
staff sinks 6 litres/minute (exceptions are the main staff room and canteen at a permitted
9 litres/minute); and
wash troughs 9 litres/minute (exceptions are cleaners troughs at a permitted 12
litres/minute).

Refer also to Section 5.2 Sanitary Fixtures.

5.4.5 Hot-water Units

Hot-water units shall be provided as required. These must be designed in accordance with AS 3500
Part 4 and AS/NZS 3500.4.2:1997.

Hot-water systems must operate independently of space heating systems.

The design and selection of the most appropriate hot-water service supply will depend on the
nature of the space, its location, usage and the activity therein. Hot-water units should be carefully
sized and selected to match the anticipated demand for hot water. The oversizing of units will
create excessive year-round energy waste and expense, and should be avoided. These matters
must be addressed in the Design Development report.

A range of different systems may be appropriate, depending on the application, and include:
gas storage units;
continuous-flow gas or electric water heaters; and
solar hot-water units.

Hot water shall be stored at a minimum of 60C to inhibit the growth of legionella bacteria.

In both primary schools and secondary colleges, all new hot-water installations, at the outlet of
sanitary fixtures used primarily for personal hygiene, shall deliver hot water not exceeding 45C.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 71 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

In selecting the most appropriate hot water supply, the following should be considered:
Local storage units should be used for areas generating prolonged usage such as shower-
change areas and science rooms.
Natural gas domestic hot water units are to be used if natural gas is available on the site.
Consideration for electric underbench heating could be given if excessive gas pipe runs are
involved. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) should not be used at any site where natural gas is
available.
Continuous-flow electric water units should be considered in areas where short-term low
quantity usage is required (e.g. staff tearooms) and no natural gas (only LPG) is available.
These units should also be considered in other applications.
The use of solar hot-water units (with a gas or electric boost) should be considered in areas
of suitable climate. (Schools are currently eligible for Victorian Government rebates on the
purchase of a solar hot-water heater.)
Pressure equalising systems such as Platypus may be applicable in some large schools but
they are not generally cost effective in systems using decentralised hot water to reduce hot
water usage.
The use of timer units should not be considered for gas systems since they are usually
impractical, rarely cost effective, and often unreliable.
The use of timer units for high efficiency boiling hot-water units are not cost effective given
the good insulative properties of modern units and low out-of-hours electricity costs.
Any timer controls should be centralised and connect back to a master multi-channel site
clock.
The storage capacity of water heaters shall be minimised as far as possible.
All units shall be energy efficient and gas units shall have a 5 Star Rating Energy Label or
better (and preferably electronic ignition). See Section 5.2.9 if boiling water units serve sinks,
etc. Consider timers for shut down on holidays, weekends, night-time and curriculum days.

The selection of an energy-efficient domestic hot-water heater or the selection of solar hot water
must be addressed in the Design Development report.

5.4.6 Water Supply Issues

The design of the water supply system shall address the following issues as appropriate:
isolation of areas/fixtures by suitable valving to permit maintenance;
provision of mixing valves where domestic hot water is supplied to personal hygiene outlets
from storage water heaters;
provision of backflow prevention devices to protect other areas from any hazard areas;
provision of master control valve systems to demonstration benches;
electronic taps for canteen wash basins;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 72 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

chrome plating on all exposed pipe work;


provision of simple pressure-limiting devices to reduce overall water consumption;
fitting of all showers with low flow heads; and
consideration of the Departments Schools Water Efficiency Program (SWEP) which may
have requirements relevant to water supply design.

5.5 Gas Services

5.5.1 General

Gas services shall be natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas.

Completed installation shall be in accordance with AS 5601/Gas Installation Code AG 6011995 and
the local supply authority.

In the selection of the most appropriate gas appliances, the following should be considered:
gas appliances should have electronic ignition;
gas appliances should be sealed combustion units;
no atmospheric burners or pilot lights should be permitted;
central plant shall have modulating heat output in response to changing load requirements;
LPG should not be used at any site where there is natural gas;
appliance thermostats shall be locked off from user alteration;
units shall operate by simple on/off control or by time duration;
local gas-heating appliances (ducted/space) shall be high-efficiency condensing units; and
small space heating to offices or sick bays should utilise electric wall-mounted radiant panels
unless central hydronic heating is available.

5.5.2 Tariffs

For new projects, detail the tariffs proposed to ensure that they are the most advantageous to the
school.

For upgrades, assess existing tariffs to ensure that they are the most advantageous to the school.

5.5.3 Meters

Consider providing gas sub-meters to high energy-use areas and/or equipment (such as trade blocks
but not kilns) in order to obtain energy-use profiles. This, however, is not a high priority.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 73 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.5.4 Gas Supply to Relocatable Buildings

Where mains gas is provided to the site, consider a natural gas reticulation system to relocatable
buildings described in the initial design, as well as branch take-offs for future additions.

If gas is to be provided to relocatable buildings, consider positioning the reticulation system in


common services trenches with stormwater lines.

5.5.5 Pipe Work Above Ground

All above-ground permanent pipe work shall be Type B copper tube to AS 1432. All joints are to be
brazed where practical. All pipe work is to be concealed from view in normally occupied areas.
Provide protection from mechanical damage where exposed. Ensure adequate permanent
ventilation to enclosed pipe risers. Provide isolation valves at each floor-level take-off. Allow 10%
spare capacity in pipe work sizing. Where LPG is to be used and natural gas is likely to be available
within five years, allow for natural gas in pipe work design.

5.5.6 Emergency Isolation Valves

Provide clearly labelled and accessible isolation valves within each room served with a general
purpose fuel gas outlet. Locate valves generally adjacent emergency exits within that room.

5.5.7 Outlets

Provide fixed turret type outlets for laboratory bench-top use. Provide the demonstrators bench
with an isolation valve to restrict gas supply to student outlets. Provide isolation valves and connect
to each gas appliance.

5.5.8 Gas Booster

Gas booster devices are to be avoided where possible. Where required, locate carefully and ensure
that adequate acoustic measures are provided to meet acceptable ambient and internal noise
criteria.

5.6 Heating

5.6.1 General

Energy Design Process

A design process is to be undertaken which includes:


a project meeting with all stakeholders and agreement to goals; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 74 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

treatment of mechanical, electrical and building fabric design as the one exercise.

The most appropriate heating system for a particular application will depend on the nature of the
space to be heated and the activity therein. A range of different systems may be appropriate,
depending on the application. These include:
power-flue console heater;
high efficiency condensing ducted gas space heating (in conjunction with ducted cooling);
reverse cycle airconditioning (where cooling is an entitlement);
ground source heat pump;
hydronic heating (hot water radiators);
electrical radiant heaters (panel, tube); and
gas radiant heaters (where ceiling height and government regulations permit).

Undesirable systems include:

slab heating; and

electric fan heaters (heat shifter fans may be considered in transferring heat to small areas
such as offices adjacent to heated rooms).

System selection should take into account required amenity levels and employ a life-cycle process
(over 15 years) to determine the most appropriate system based on total ownership costs.

Selection of a suitable system should be based on its ability to provide heating in an appropriate and
adequate manner.

All plant is to be energy efficient and have a 5-Star Rating Energy Label or better if a star rating is available.
The need for personal heating devices should be avoided through good design. Spot radiant heaters can
be installed, if required, but only as a last option.

Ensure that plant is not over-sized and hence more expensive than need be or inefficient when operating at
low capacity.

Energy Targets

No heating system should be installed until an energy target has been established and the
performance of the proposed heating system compared against that target, and revised if necessary.

The mechanical services design and installation shall also be in accordance with the relevant Mechanical
Energy Performance (MEP) industry standard guideline.

Building Design Considerations

No heating system shall be designed or installed until due consideration has been given to a
satisfactory reduction of the heating load. Items to be considered include:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 75 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

orientation of building blocks, with their longer axis set out in an east/west direction;
minimisation of areas of east-facing and west-facing glass (less than 5% of floor area each);
external shading of east-facing, west-facing and north-facing windows;
insulation of roof (both reflective and bulk), walls and floors (if timber). Insulation shall be
made from a material that has a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF);
zoning of areas so that heated areas are grouped and isolated from non cooled areas by
means of doors. If possible, heated areas should be separated from the outside by air locks;
and
location of doors, if possible, on the eastern side of the building to avoid cold southerly winds
(as well as hot northerly winds).

Zoning

Consider zoning low occupancy areas separately for heating systems through the use of isolation
valves and local heating controls.

Passive Solar Heating of Non Heated Spaces

Spaces not provided with fossil fuel heating (e.g. toilets, storerooms and corridors) should be heated
with passive solar energy.

Ceiling Fans and Heating

The design of the heating system must include the use of high-efficiency ceiling fans. Ceiling fans operated
slowly in conjunction with heaters help reduce energy consumption and should be installed so that the
minimum height of the fan blades is 2400mm above finished floor level.

Daylighting and Heating

No heating system shall be designed until consideration has been given to reducing the internal heat
load of electric lighting by maximising the use of daylight from shaded windows or skylights.

Installation Regulations and Standards

All installations must conform to the Building Code of Australia and comply with all relevant and
current Australian Standards. These include but are not limited to AS 1668.1, AS 1668.2, AS 2913, AS
1677.2, AS 4254, AS 3000, AS 1324.1, and AS 3666.1.

Energy efficiency requirements of the Building Code of Australia may impact on selection of plant
and equipment.

Fuel Source

As a general rule:
use natural gas in preference to LPG and electricity;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 76 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

use natural gas in preference to LPG for the heating of relocatables; and
do not use LPG when natural gas is available on site.

Plant and Equipment

All plant is to be energy efficient and have a 5 Star Rating Energy Label or better if a star rating is
available. The need for personal heating devices should be avoided by good design. Spot radiant
heaters are to be installed, if required, but only as a last option.

If possible, inside air should not be used for combustion.

Gas fired plant shall not produce unacceptable nitrous oxide (NO) pollution. Ensure that gas fired
heating plants emit NO at a rate no greater than 200mg/kWh of delivered energy.

High efficiency condensing boilers should be used.

Ensure that centralised plant is capable of operating only when required to deliver heat. Out-of-hours
use should be separately heated.

Ensure that plant is not over sized and hence more expensive than need be, or inefficient when
operating at low capacity.

Gas plant should have electronic ignition.

Consider providing the following features to plant and equipment :


heat recovery modules in heated areas where there are high ventilation rates;
extra insulation on boiler if upgrades are being undertaken (modern boilers are often well
insulated);
local timer controls linked to a central time controller, with temperature sensing to avoid
overheating;
lockable and tamperproof thermostats; and
insulating pipe work where hydronic systems are used.

If hydronic systems are used, ensure that the pipe work is well insulated.

Unflued gas heaters are not permitted except if gas radiant. Unflued radiant gas heaters remain a
good option in spaces with high ceilings and large ventilation rates, e.g. trade and technology rooms.

The following table offers guidance on the recommended heating system types for selective areas
within a school. It is a guide only, and the installation of any heating plant should be justified by the
amenity required in the area. System selection should be based on a life-cycle analysis.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 77 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Heating System Type General Physical Music Art/Craft Library Staff Computer Science/ Tech
Purpose Education Admin Studies
Classroom Home Eco
(GPC) (PE)

Power-flue Console Heaters X X

High Efficiency Condensing X


Gas Heaters

High Efficiency Condensing X X


Gas Heaters + Cooling

Reverse Cycle Airconditioning X X

(in appropriate NatHERS


Zones)

Ground Source Heat Pumps X X

Hydronic (Hot water X X


Radiators)

Gas Radiant (Panels, Tube) X X X X

May be applicable
X Generally not applicable

The following table provides relative cost indices for various types of heating systems on a square
metre basis. The actual cost of various options will depend on amenity requirements, system design
and site constraints. This table should be used as an initial guide only.

Heating System Type Typical Installation Typical Operating Typical Maintenance


Cost $/m/annum Cost $/m/annum Cost $/m/annum

Power-flue Console Heaters 4 5 3

High Efficiency Condensing Gas 5 4 4


Heaters

Reverse Cycle Airconditioning 6 10 5


(in appropriate Zones)

Ground Source Heat Pumps 10 6 7

Hydronic (Hot water Radiators) 7 8 10

Gas Radiant (panels, Tube) 3 5 2

10 = Highest Cost

Filters

Filters are to have a design pressure drop of 25 Pa.

Filters are to be located so they can easily be removed for cleaning and replacement.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 78 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Return-Air Paths

Return-air paths reduce energy use in ducted air systems. Ensure that the return-air path is not subject
to infiltration and is appropriately insulated.

Ductwork

Heating air ductwork is to be insulated to R1.5, well sealed, and designed to minimise air flow
resistance. Ensure the return-air plenums are sealed. Do not use ceiling spaces for return air paths.

Outside Air Quantities

Where fan-forced ducted systems are used, outside air quantities should be minimised yet comply
with ventilation regulations and provide appropriate indoor air quality levels.

Controls

All heating systems shall use simple yet effective controls to minimise the use of heating equipment
while maintaining acceptable internal conditions. (Refer Section 5.6.5 for details.)

Sub-metering

All electric heating systems should consider the use of electricity sub-metering by blocks in order to
easily carry out energy cost audits, including the cost of out-of-hours use.

Testing and Commissioning

Testing and commissioning should include two aspects:

Firstly, the design should specify energy efficient equipment. Where appropriate, testing and
commissioning should confirm this performance.
Secondly, documents should ensure the handover of accurate and detailed building and
systems records and operational directions. Such documentation should not only set out
details of the installation and its energy efficient operation but also clearly record all design
assumptions and capacities in order to facilitate future modifications and building adjustment.

If appropriate, provide a certified air distribution and diffusion test report which includes an
adjustment and balance report. For hydronic systems, include a water balancing report.

Maintenance Strategy

Consultants shall provide an ongoing maintenance strategy for later implementation by the school.

5.6.2 Centralised Plant versus Individual Units

Consideration should be given to the following factors when considering centralised plant:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 79 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

warm up time;
room occupancy patterns (primary school rooms are generally occupied by the same people
while secondary colleges are subject to continually changing and varying occupancy);
control systems;
efficiency of systems, particularly in part load circumstances;
solar gain, especially in north facing rooms; and
zoning of building.

Ensure that centralised plant is capable of operating only when required to deliver heat.

Where spaces are to be used out-of-hours they should be separately heated.

5.6.3 Primary Schools

Unitary gas heaters should be used for classrooms and larger spaces, and include convective powered
flue or wall furnace types. Radiant gas consoles or wall-mounted heaters should not be used in these
areas.

Ducted warm-air furnace heating may be considered, depending on architectural floor plan and
building construction.

Ducted warm-air furnace heat should be used for administration and staff areas.

Wall-mounted gas radiant heaters should be used for large volume spaces with high ceilings (e.g. halls).

High-level wall-mounted or ceiling radiant electric heaters could be used where floor/wall space is
limited (e.g. canteens).

Toilets, storerooms and corridors should not be heated other than through a spill-over from adjacent
areas.

Unitary space heater locations should aim for even heat distribution and be sited away from corners
and close to cold parts of the room (e.g. windows). Layouts should allow 200mm both horizontally and
vertically from walls, fixed furniture, pin boards, etc. and around floor-level heaters for safety and
maintenance. Allow a space of at least 1000mm horizontally from the heater to nearest occupant.

Independence of main systems in areas to be used out-of-hours should be considered.

5.6.4 Secondary Colleges

Designers should consider potential vandalism to heating systems when preparing designs for
classrooms.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 80 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Central heating systems with re-circulating air or return-air should be used except in rooms where
dust, fumes or odours are generated.

Toilets, storerooms and corridors should not be heated other than through a spill-over from adjacent
areas. Physical education centres should be heated only when directed.

Independence of main systems in areas to be used out-of-hours should be considered.

5.6.5 Heating System Controls

Control systems should have a centralised master time clock to ensure after-hours switch-off as well as
local controls allowing variations to suit local conditions. Time clocks with temperature sensing will
help avoid overheating.

The thermostat setting should not be higher than 19C.

Heater controls should be student tamperproof and accessible only by a key. Thermostats should be
lockable and tamperproof.

Where appropriate, heating controls should take into account climatic conditions and allow for early
morning warm up to modulate temperature according to space conditions. Heating controls should
also take advantage of internal heat generated by occupants and office equipment.

Control systems should accommodate power failure and ensure that the resetting of the system is a
simple procedure.

Spot radiant heating should be controlled by local time switches (45 to 60 minute maximum operating
times are recommended before a restart is required).

5.6.6 Gas-Fired Plant

If possible, inside air should not be used for combustion.

Gas-fired plant must not produce unacceptable nitrous oxide (NO) pollution. Ensure that gas-fired
heating plants emit NO at a rate no greater than 200mg/kWh of delivered energy.

High-efficiency condensing boilers should be used.

Gas plant should have electronic ignition.

Unflued gas heaters are not permitted except for radiant gas heaters. These heaters remain a good
option in spaces with high ceilings and large ventilation rates (e.g. trade and technology rooms).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 81 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.6.7 Water Heating Boilers

Boiler Types

Boilers should be designed and installed in accordance with Australian Standards AS 1375, AS 4552
and AS 3814.

For gas-fired boilers, provide controls that allow for automatic ignition and stopping. The Building
Code of Australia may require some boilers to be fire-enclosed and separated from the building.

Air Supply

Provide combustion and ventilation air to suit the boiler. Arrange for it to be unaffected by adverse
influences such as cross drafts and negative pressures.

Water Supply

Provide feed water and expansion tanks with capacity to accommodate the expansion of water
contained within the boilers and the associated piping system. Do not fit valves between tanks and
boilers.

Piping

Provide piping sized to permit the free movement of liquid and gases.

Plinths

Boilers should be mounted on concrete plinths.

Flues

Provide a separate flue to each boiler. For pressurised boilers, do not discharge multiple flues into a
single flue. Support flues to compensate for thermal expansion as well as flue weight, wind loading
and other imposed loads.

Provide a removable base or access covers for flue cleaning and inspection. Provide a trapped drain
at the base of each flue and pipe to waste.

The minimum flue exit velocity at full load should not be less then 15m/s.

For gas-fired boilers, insulate the flue to the point of exit from the building.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 82 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.6.8 Plant Rooms

Avoid fully or partially underground plant rooms.

Boiler and furnace plant rooms should be exclusive to that purpose.

Where possible, the plant room should have at least one external wall. Access to the plant room
should be from outside or from a corridor. Access should not be from a store, wet area or any area
likely to contain flammable substances.

5.7 Ventilation
Ventilation is useful in reducing the overheating of large spaces, especially where numbers of
students gather. Ventilation is also useful for overnight cooling.

The main requirement under the Building Code of Australia is the provision of fresh air to all occupied
areas by way of natural or mechanical ventilation.

For school airconditioning, assessment of fresh air provision must be based on either fixed openings or
open-able devices such as doors and windows that are directly connected to the outside of the building.
The Building Code of Australia requires that this be a minimum area proportional to the occupied room
floor area. Typically the minimum area of fixed or open-able devices must be 5% of the total floor area. If
the above area of fixed or open-able devices can be achieved, the room is deemed to comply with the
natural ventilation requirements of the Code.

If the natural ventilation requirements of the Code cannot be met, then outside air must be supplied to
conditioned spaces at the rate set down in Australian Standard AS 1668.2.

5.7.1 Energy Targets

If cooling is proposed, no natural ventilation system should be installed until an energy target for
the building has been established and the performance of the proposed cooling system compared
with that target, and revised if necessary.

Reduction of Ventilation Requirement

No natural ventilation system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to
reducing the cooling load to be satisfied. Items to consider include:
orientation of building blocks, with their longer axis set out in an east/west direction;
minimisation of areas of east- and west-facing glass (less than 5% of floor area each);
external shading of east-, west- and north-facing windows;
insulation of roof (both reflective and bulk), walls and floors (if timber). Insulation shall be
made from material that has a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF);

Building Quality Standards Handbook 83 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

zoning of areas so that cooled areas are grouped and isolated from non cooled areas by means
of doors (if possible, cooled areas should be separated from the outside by air locks); and
location of doors, if possible, on the eastern side of the building to avoid hot northerly winds
(as well as cold southerly winds).

5.7.2 Natural Ventilation

Hand-operated remote operating mechanisms for upper openings shall be provided.

Consideration should be given to the provision of limited areas of higher volume to act as hot air
drains and promote the use of natural ventilation.

Consideration shall be given to the security of inlet and outlet openings that are required to be left
open at night.

Consideration shall be given to the elimination of dust intrusion.

Consideration shall be given to keeping air speeds low so as not to move paper.

Consideration shall be given to the alternate summer/winter use of natural ventilation to ensure
that winter heating loads are not increased.

5.7.3 Toilet and Change Room Exhaust System

All toilet and change areas should be mechanically ventilated.

Rigid sheetmetal trunking ductwork with flexible duct run-outs limited to 5 metres in length should
be provided. Duct velocities shall not exceed 6 metres per second.

Exhaust air inlet points over each shower cubicle and each group of two sanitary fixtures should be
provided.

Adequate make-up of exhaust air quantity should be ensured, including provision of relief vents.

Control systems are to be tamperproof.

Exhaust fans should be time-clock controlled.

5.7.4 Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Systems

All commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall be designed and installed in accordance with AS 1668.2.

Size hoods to cover all cooking equipment and provide a minimum 150mm overhang.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 84 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Manufacture the hood from 1.4mm thick, series 304 stainless steel. Weld all joints and provide a
general-purpose polish finish.

Provide perimeter gutters with threaded cap drain points.

Install separately switched, vapour proof fluorescent luminaires to provide 200 lux at working
surface.

Provide washable, expanded aluminium grease filters with integral frame handles in sufficient
number to maintain the design air quantity within the manufacturers limits.

Ensure an adequate make-up of exhaust air quantity.

Provide two-speed fans with manual control station adjacent to the hood and complete with a LED-
run indicator. Exhaust fans should be interlocked and/or time controlled to ensure that they only
operate when required.

5.7.5 Kiln Exhaust Systems

Size hoods to cover kiln openings and discharge points.

Manufacture the hood from 1.6mm thick galvanised mild steel sheet.

Ensure an adequate make-up of exhaust air quantity.

Provide a local manual control station adjacent to the hood and complete with a LED-run indicator.

5.7.6 Fans

Fresh Air Fans

Provide fans that have quiet operation, deliver the required air quantity against the resistance of the
system as installed, and have a maximum static efficiency at the required duty.

At the time of initial design and fan selection, degradation of the fresh air filters over time should be
taken into account.

Ensure all components are corrosion and weather resistant.

Ensure that fans are statically and dynamically balanced.

Use direct drives and avoid belt drives where possible.

Use 3-phase, 415V motors where practical and 1-phase, 240V motors elsewhere. Motors shall have
a degree of protection rated to a minimum of IP54.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 85 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Provide phase failure, over and under voltage protection relays, with auto reset to all fans requiring
3 phase power supplies.

Provide flexible connections to prevent transmission of vibration to ductwork.

Provide each assembly with at least four anti-vibration mountings, selected to give an isolation
efficiency of not less than 95%.

Exhaust Fans

Select the fan type with regard to system efficiency, acoustic performance and capital cost.

Locate fans with regard to adequate security, maintenance access and acoustic performance.

Ensure all components are corrosion and weather resistant.

Ensure that fans are statically and dynamically balanced.

Use direct drives and avoid belt drives where possible.

Use 3-phase, 415V motors where practical and 1-phase, 240V motors elsewhere. Motors shall have a
degree of protection rated to a minimum of IP54.

Provide phase failure, over and under voltage protection relays, with auto reset to all fans requiring 3
phase power supplies.

Ensure all exhaust fans are capable of being effectively sealed off when not in use to eliminate
unwanted infiltration and exfiltration.

Provide flexible connections to prevent transmission of vibration to ductwork.

Provide each assembly with at least four anti-vibration mountings, selected to give an isolation efficiency
of not less than 95%.

Ceiling Fans

Provide ceiling sweep fans to all teaching areas, including libraries, and to administration areas,
thereby ensuring adequate air movement.

Ensure that fans are statically and dynamically balanced, and that they consist of a three-bladed, all
metal construction suitable for 240V supply.

Provide one control station per fan with a minimum of three speed settings in forward and reverse
direction. Controls should be of commercial quality to withstand robust usage.

The minimum height of ceiling fans (as measured from the underside of the fan blades) shall be
2400mm from finished floor level. To ensure adequate movement of air, do not install fans too close to
the ceiling.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 86 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Mount fans clear of lights to avoid stroboscope effect.

Provide sweep fans on the basis of one fan per 25m of floor area. They should feature time-out
controls so that they only operate when required.

For upgrade projects, consider the replacement of ceiling fans installed prior to 1980.

5.7.7 Air Filters

Filters should be selected and installed in accordance with AS 1324.1.

Select filters that are odourless, non-toxic, non-migrating, non-evaporating, non-hardening,


resistant to microbial growth, and which do not shed fibres in service.

Rigidly attach filter frames to the air-handling plant casing (such as duct, or return-air plenum) with
a system of bolting or blind pop riveting. Locate bolts or rivets clear of the filter element. Do not fix
to the casing insulation. Ensure that the installation of the filter does not reduce its rated
performance.

Ensure that individual filter inspection and maintenance can be readily carried out without
disturbing the filter bank.

Ensure that there are no leaks between the filter-holding frame and the casing to stop air bypassing
the filter media. Frames should be capable of withstanding distortion arising from the final pressure
drop across the filter.

Permanently and legibly mark, on a suitable section of the filter, the following:
filter type and class;
direction of airflow;
proprietary type, model and serial number; and
filter performance rating to AS 1324.1.

Before start-up, ensure that the installation is free from debris and dirt, and check the integrity of
the filter bank and plenum installation.

5.7.8 Ductwork

Standard Ductwork

Ductwork should be designed, installed and constructed in accordance with AS 4254. The Building
Code of Australia requires supply air and return air ductwork to be insulated.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 87 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Rigid Ducting

Fabricate ductwork and fittings from galvanised steel sheet, machine bent and free from waves and
buckles. Remove burrs and sharp edges and ensure that there are no protrusions into the airways.

Provide supports at 2400mm maximum centres for ducts up to 3000mm in external perimeter and
at 1300mm maximum centres for larger ducts. Supports should be provided adjacent all changes in
direction to fix the ductwork in position and prevent noticeable sag.

Ductwork exposed to weather is to be constructed and installed as follows:


Seal all exposed ductwork joints through the use of watertight protective shields. Seal all
duct supports where they attach to the duct, and seal all reinforcement attachments so that
moisture cannot be retained in any gap or crevice.
Profile or cover the top side of ductwork exposed to weather to shed water.

Provide ductwork insulation in accordance with the Building Code of Australia.

Flexible Ducting

Flexible ducting should be an acoustic type fabricated from a helix of zinc coated spring steel wire,
lined and jacketed with perforated aluminium laminate, and insulated with 25mm thick fibreglass
jacket with aluminium laminate to achieve a 4 zero rating.

Flexible duct runs shall not exceed 5000mm. Ducting shall be installed without restriction to airflow
and shall be supported with 20mm wide straps at regulate intervals to prevent sagging.

5.7.9 Air Grilles

Provide proprietary grilles and outlets that are commercially proven and in current volume
production (if possible, from the one manufacturer), free from distortion, bends, surface defects,
irregular joints, exposed fastenings and operation vibration.

Grilles should be mounted with secure and concealed fixings and with flanges lining corners neatly
mitred and buffered, and with no joint gaps.

Use outlets and grilles that meet noise level requirements for occupied spaces.

Grilles should be constructed out of aluminium and have a thermostat powder coating finish to AS
3715. Dampers and visible ductwork behind the grilles should be painted matt black.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 88 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.8 Cooling

5.8.1 Preliminary Note on Thermal Comfort and Cooling Policy

The Department is considering the introduction of new maximum and minimum thermal comfort
standards. An associated element will be the implementation of energy efficient design. A detailed
investigation is currently underway, and pending the release of further information, this version of
the Handbook applies.

5.8.2 General

The minimisation of overheating is integral to the successful utilisation of school buildings. Design
and installation factors which contribute to the thermal comfort of a facility include its orientation
and external shading, its wall and roof insulation, natural ventilation and the use of ceiling fans.
Where, because of climatic extremes, a combination of these factors is inadequate in maintaining
comfortable room temperatures, cooling systems are installed.

Cooling systems are provided to schools on the basis of their location within the Nationwide House
Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS), zones 20 and 27 (refer Appendix 3 Postcode Areas within NatHERS
Zones). All schools in these areas receive airconditioning to their entitled spaces under the space
and area guidelines. The remaining schools are not provided with cooling systems except in a
limited number of circumstances, e.g. where a concentration of mainframe equipment is located.
Airconditioning is to be provided to all special developmental schools.

Selection of Cooling System

The most appropriate cooling system for a particular application will depend upon the nature of
space to be cooled and the activity therein. A range of different systems may be appropriate
depending on their application. These include:
evaporative cooling; and
refrigerated air cooling, including split airconditioning or console units as well as packaged
units.

System selection should take into account the required amenity levels and employ a life-cycle analysis
process (over 15 years) to determine the most appropriate system based on total ownership costs.

Selection of a suitable system should be based on its ability to provide cooling in an appropriate and
adequate manner. Life-cycle analysis of systems that meet the amenity criteria should address:
capital cost including associated infrastructure costs such as electric sub-mains;
maintenance costs for a realistic life of the system and its components; and
energy costs on the basis of likely energy tariff rates, envisaged usage requirements (climatic
demands and hours of operation) and the ability of a particular system to be controlled in such
a way as to match its operation time to actual occupancy requirements.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 89 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

The following table offers guidance in the selection of cooling systems for various school areas where
cooling is required. It is a guide only, and the installation of any cooling plant should be justified by the
amenity required in the area. The system selected should be based on a life-cycle analysis.

Cooling System General Physical Music Art/Craft Dedicated Staff Computer Science Tech Home
Type Purpose Education Library Admin Studies Eco
Classroom (PE)
(GPC)
Evaporative
Cooling X X X
Refrigerated
Cooling X X X

Split
Airconditioning X X X
Systems
(Console Units)

May be applicable
X Generally not applicable.

The actual cost of various systems will depend on amenity requirements, system design and site
constraints.

Energy Targets

No cooling system should be installed until an energy target has been established and the
performance of the proposed system compared with that target, and revised if necessary.

Reduction of the Cooling Load

No cooling system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to reducing the
cooling load to be satisfied. Items to consider include:
orientation of building blocks, with their longer axis set out in an east/west direction;
minimisation of areas of east- and west-facing glass (less than 5% of floor area each);
external shading of east-, west- and north-facing windows;
insulation of roof (both reflective and bulk), walls and floors (if timber). Insulation shall be
made from material that has a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF);
zoning of areas so that cooled areas are grouped and isolated from non cooled areas by means
of doors. If possible, cooled areas should be separated from the outside by air locks; and
location of doors, if possible, on the eastern side of the building to avoid hot northerly winds
(as well as cold southerly winds).

Ceiling Fans and Cooling

No cooling system shall be designed or installed unless ceiling fans have been installed.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 90 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Natural Ventilation

No cooling system shall be considered, designed or installed until the use of natural ventilation has
been considered.

Daylighting and Cooling

No cooling system shall be designed or installed until consideration has been given to reducing the
internal heat load of electric lighting by maximising the use of daylight from shaded windows or
skylights.

Sub-metering

All cooling systems should consider the use of electricity sub-metering (by blocks) for cooling in order
to carry out energy cost audits, as well as the costing of out-of-hours use.

Testing and Commissioning

All installed systems should be tested and commissioned in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations to ensure that they work as specified.

Maintenance Strategy

Consultants should provide an ongoing maintenance strategy (including documentation) for use by
school in relation to all refrigerated and evaporative coolers.

5.8.3 Evaporative Cooling

General

The design and installation of evaporative coolers should be in accordance with AS 2913.

The cooler capacity should be based on a minimum of 35 air changes of the room volume served.
Design air change rates vary throughout the State. Check with the cooler manufacturer for the
recommended air change rate.

The design of the building must provide sufficient openings to discharge the large volumes of introduced
air.

The unit casing shall be either stainless steel, marine grade aluminium or stabilised UV resistant
polymer with a suitably matched fibre glass or polymer water sump. Capital cost and operating
environment shall be taken in to account when selecting the unit. All components (including the fan,
pump and motors) shall be non corrosive and suitable for operation in a moist environment.

Noise generation should be considered when selecting an axial or centrifugal fan unit.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 91 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Each unit should be provided with a water sump dump valve to flush out sludge and concentrated
salts. The sump bleed and drain valve discharge pipe shall not discharge onto metal roof surfaces but
be piped to the nearest stormwater down pipe.

Smaller downwards discharge coolers may be supported off the rigid supply air duct. A suitable
corrosion resistant support frame off building members for larger units should be supplied.

Filters

Filters should be easily removable for cleaning.

Ductwork

Internal duct insulation shall be moisture resistant or contain a moisture resistant membrane. Flexible
duct external insulation of glass or mineral fibre should be a minimum of 25mm thick.

The use of attenuated ductwork should be considered. The length of ductwork should be minimised.

Automatic dampers to close units when not in operation should be provided.

Controls

Each evaporative cooling unit shall have a variable or multiple fan speed controller, an ON/OFF pump
controller, and automatic dump valve operation.

The thermostat setting should not be lower than 24C.

Time-delay and time-control switches should be considered. Controllers should be linked to a central
time clock.

Water Supply

Local water supply should be taken into consideration when supplying the units. A water treatment plant
may be required in some hard water areas.

Consideration should be given to evaporative coolers only in locations where there is reticulated town
water. In other locations, refrigerative coolers should be provided.

Installation

An adequate and permanent means of access and an appropriate platform for servicing units should be
provided.

A hose spigot point adjacent to the unit is to be provided for unit cleaning.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 92 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Servicing Schedule

Consultants are to provide a servicing schedule for later implementation by schools in accordance with
relevant legislative requirements. Evaporative coolers should be serviced four times a year for health
considerations.

5.8.4 Airconditioning Room and Packaged Plant

Packaged airconditioning units include split systems and packaged unitary systems. The units shall
be factory tested to AS 1861.2 and come complete with replaceable filters, insulation sufficient to
prevent condensation in all operating conditions, and operating and safety controls.

Noise generation should be considered when selecting an airconditioning unit and/or system.

Selection

Select equipment capable of operating continuously at the ambient temperature ranging from 5C
to +50C in cooling and 15C to +15.5C in heating mode, without excessive head pressure,
unstable operation or icing.

All equipment supplied shall be from a known brand manufacturer with a well-established presence
in Australia (minimum 5 years). The manufacturer shall also have a well-established service and
parts support network within Victoria.

Systems with energy efficient (high) coefficients of performance should be selected.

The units shall have hermetically sealed rotary compressors with reverse cycle capability and an
automatic de-icing cycle.

Installation

For security purposes all ground-mounted units should be mounted on concrete plinths within
lockable security mesh enclosures.

Support and fix all outdoor and indoor units securely. Provide anti-vibration mounts under all units.

Provide clearance around outdoor units for airflow and maintenance access as recommended by the
manufacturer. Provide access for inspection and maintenance.

Install electrical wiring neatly. Provide Colorbond steel metal top hat sections to cover wiring where
exposed to weather or on view.

Maintenance access and platforms for large roof-mounted plant should be provided.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 93 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Controls

Provide a complete and fully automatic electronic system which allows year-round operation of the
plant to meet specified conditions without manual adjustment, and which also includes all plant
safety devices. Time-delay and time-control switches should be considered. Controllers should be
linked to a central time clock.

Temperature controls should be set so that no cooling occurs below 26C and no heating above
18C.

For further information regarding ambient temperatures and comfort, refer to WorkSafe Victorias
Workplace amenities and work environment compliance document
(http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/3e0a97804071fb5fb1d6ffe1fb554c40/Workpl
ace+amenities+CC.pdf?MOD=AJPERES).

Refrigerants

Refrigerants used should have a zero Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF) and comply with current
environmental guidelines. Acceptable refrigerants include R407c and R410a.

Refrigerant leak detectors should be considered (refer to SAA HB40-1997).

Maintenance Schedule

Consultants are to provide a servicing schedule for later implementation by the school.

Adequate means of access for the servicing of units should be provided.

Filters

Filters should be easily removable for cleaning.

Insulation

Ductwork in roof cavities shall be insulated to the R1.5 minimum standard and preferably R2.

The provision of wall/ceiling insulation and window shading devices will affect the performance of
units. Liaise with the principal consultant to determine the design conditions.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 94 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.8.5 Refrigeration

Refrigerant Pipeworks

Design and construct refrigerant pipes in accordance with AS 4041. All safety requirements for fixed
applications shall be in accordance with AS 1677.2. Pipework shall be refrigerant-quality deoxidised
phosphorus seamless copper tube with brazed connections.

The refrigerant circuit shall include an accumulator, liquid, equalising and gas shut off valves, and
solenoid valves. All necessary safety devices shall be provided to ensure the safe operation of the
system.

All pipework should be insulated with slip-on closed cell elastomeric pipe insulation, having a wall
thickness of not less than 10mm inside the building and 15mm outside. All insulation must be
properly glued (after pressure and leak testing) and provide a complete seal to prevent any
condensation. Pre-insulated refrigeration pipework must not be used.

Pipework shall be properly and tidily fixed and supported at a minimum of 2 metre centres by
galvanised mild steel brackets. All pipework shall be tagged with condensing unit identification
numbers at 3-metre intervals.

Condensate Drains

An insulated uPVC condensate drain shall be installed for each airconditioning unit. Provide 25mm
nominal diameter drains for split-type systems and 32mm nominal diameter drains for packaged-
type systems.

All condensate drains are to be terminated at ground gullies or tundishes to allow easy and clear
inspection of drainage from each airconditioning unit.

All tundishes are to be extended to the nearest storm water or sewerage connection in accordance
with the local government authority requirements. If no such connection points are readily
available, the contractor shall provide a tundish at the building alignment and an underground drain
line to a suitable rubble pit for the collection of condensate.

5.8.6 Electrical Supply

Electrical supply for airconditioning units, evaporative coolers, outside fans and exhaust fans shall
be derived from the buildings electrical distribution board. The contractor shall provide sufficient
electrical capacity to support airconditioning and fan systems demand. Airconditioning and fan
systems shall be supplied via dedicated circuit breakers located in the electrical distribution board.

In the event of a power failure, all equipment shall, after reinstatement of power, automatically
return to its operational state prior to failure.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 95 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Any electrical supply upgrade should allow for all proposed and foreseeable future airconditioning
installations. The allowance for future airconditioning will avoid abortive works with respect to new
switchboards and sub-mains.

All cooling/heating systems should consider the use of electricity sub-metering (by blocks) for
cooling/heating in order to carry out energy cost audits, as well as the costing of out-of-hours use.

All electrical services works shall be carried out in accordance with all relevant Australian guidelines
and standards, including but not limited to the Building Code of Australia, AS 3000, the relevant
power authority and the Office of Electrical Safety.

Refer also to Section 5.10 Electrical Lighting and Power.

5.9 Fire Protection

5.9.1 Fire Hydrants

Provide a hydrant system to satisfy the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia, AS
2419 and local fire authority.

Preferred hydrant installations are external dual-head individually-controlled outlets, with access and
hard standing for a fire appliance to connect to the hydrant. Maximum hose length should not exceed 20
metres. Hydrant fixtures and installation should conform to Water Services Association Water Code
WSA 03-2002-2.3 and AS 2419.1. Internal hydrants are not preferred.

5.9.2 Fire Hose Reels and Extinguishers

Fire hose reels and fire extinguishers shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements
of the Building Code of Australia.

All pipe work to hose reels shall be DN32 minimum and, where below and within buildings, be
copper tube Type B in accordance with AS 1432 (unless contrary to AS 2419.1).

Fire hose reels shall not be provided in external unsecured areas.

Where the effectiveness of hose reels may be restricted by locked rooms, appropriate operational
measures shall be arranged with the relevant building surveyor.

5.9.3 Smoke and Fire Doors

Smoke and fire doors shall be provided as required by the Building Code of Australia.

Magnetic hold-open devices should be provided for these doors.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 96 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Equipment should comply with the various parts of AS 1670 fire detection, warning, control and intercom
systems.

5.9.4 Smoke Detectors and Sound Alarms

Smoke detectors and sound alarms (incorporating International Standards Organisation [ISO]
emergency signals) shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements of the Building
Code of Australia and the relevant Australian Standards.

5.9.5 Emergency Signs and Lighting

Emergency signs and lighting shall be provided to not less than the minimum requirements of the
Building Code of Australia.

5.9.6 Maintenance Log Books

Maintenance log books should be provided to schools in accordance with the provisions of the
Departments Annual Contracts: Guidelines for Building Services Maintenance in Schools as well as
the Building Regulations.

5.10 Electrical Lighting and Power

5.10.1 General

Life cycle analysis of systems which meet the amenity criteria should address:
capital cost, including associated infrastructure costs related to electric sub-mains, metering
and control gear;
maintenance costs associated with a realistic life of the system and its components; and
energy costs on the basis of likely energy tariff rates, envisaged usage requirements (climatic
demands and hours of operation) and the ability of the lighting system to be controlled in such
a way as to match its operation time to occupancy requirements.

This analysis must distinguish between <160MWh per annum and >160MWh per annum sites, and be
easily accessible for use by the Departments Schools Resource Allocation Branch (SRAB) and post-
commissioning audits. It must state the Whole of Victorian Government (WoVG) state purchase
contract rates used for <160 sites as well as WoVG energy rates and network tariffs applied at >160
sites.

Where schools have existing equipment/components, every effort shall be made to match brands of
equipment/components.

All external fittings will need to be vandal-resistant and tamper-proof. The extent of protection will be
based on the security level of each school.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 97 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Electrical systems need to be provided for normal operating conditions in Victoria.

An ESD consultant should be engaged as part of the design team in matters pertaining to ecologically
sustainable design (ESD). As a minimum, the design should meet the requirements of the Building Code of
Australia Section J.

5.10.2 Design

It is important that lighting be considered in two forms: natural and artificial. For natural daylighting,
the correct sizing and location of openings is the key factor. For artificial lighting, the correct sizing and
location of energy efficient equipment and control systems is important.

Design and construction should minimise the fossil fuel required to provide acceptable indoor light
levels. Factors which will assist this include:

Fabric and Services


An awareness that the windows and skylights (the building fabric) and the artificial lighting (the
services) both contribute to energy efficiency and are inseparable considerations.

Zoning
The building should be zoned into different lighting and control zones depending on the
closeness to windows and skylights, and the tasks required to be performed.

Energy Targets
Energy targets should be set for each project.

Circuit Design
When utilising daylight, the lighting circuit should be designed to minimise artificial lighting.
Circuitry should allow for night time use as well as maximum daylight availability.

Where there are high levels of equipment (such as in staffrooms), consideration should be
given to the creation of two circuits within the general purpose power circuit design. This
would accommodate both 24 hour supply and supply which switches off after hours.

Powerline Carrier Systems


Powerline carrier systems are not currently recommended because of their present
unreliability.

5.10.3 Supply General

The provision of incoming supply needs to be carefully planned with future developments in mind
and be brought to the attention of the supply authority at the first instance when future capital
works programs are known. Assumptions made in determining load (i.e. usage, demand and the
infrastructure required) must be clearly stated, as must any variations received after an offer from a
distributor, before signing an agreement (supply offer) with that distributor.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 98 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Designers need to adequately size mains and submains to include sufficient capacity for planned
future stages of school developments on the same site, including all relocatable buildings necessary
to meet peak enrolments. Power pillars within close proximity to the proposed relocatable
complexes to be considered for the provision of power to these complexes.

The Department is a participant in two Whole of Victorian Government (WoVGS) state purchase
contracts (SPC) for the supply of electricity to all schools. A decision on which contract is applicable
for a new site (meter) or for a new connection in the upgrade of an existing site will be dependent
on the estimated annual usage and, in the case of larger schools, the likely electricity load or
demand at the site. Current SPC suppliers are:
Origin Energy, for all sites with an expected annual usage of >160MWh (refer Section 5.10.4);
and
Powerdirect (a subsidiary of AGL), for sites with an expected annual usage of <160MWh
(refer Section 5.10.5).

5.10.4 Origin Energy For all sites with an expected annual usage of >160MWh.

Note that sites which require installation of new substations (kiosks) are likely to be the subject of
an agreement (supply offer) with the local distributor, and would normally join this contract.

New Connections

In helping to identify electricity infrastructure requirements, it is strongly recommended that an


energy engineer (refer Section 2.13.1 Energy Engineer), or person responsible for this function, make
early contact with the local distributor to determine cost-efficient site infrastructure and network
tariff. It is critical that the energy engineer be in no doubt as to what network tariff will be applied
in the offer made by the distributor.

Sites supplied under this contract will receive an unbundled bill that will separate the retail energy
component from distributor charges (i.e. network tariffs) which are passed on, on behalf of the
distributor, by the retailer.

A key component of the network tariff may be a minimum demand component. To ensure that
schools are provided the most cost-efficient tariff within their particular circumstance, an Energy
Cost Worksheet (ECW) summary, signed-off by the energy engineer, should be used as the basis of
calculation.

The following guidelines are recommended in confirming ECW calculations and abetting discussions
with distributors prior to the signing of any agreement (supply offer).

Network Tariffs

The impact of a minimum demand network tariff on future energy costs should be considered when
planning a new facility. For new and upgrade projects (and prior to the signing of a formal
agreement with the distribution business), review the electrical tariff proposed and ensure that it is

Building Quality Standards Handbook 99 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

advantageous to the school from an operational and cost perspective. This review must take into
account the short and longer term impact on both capital and recurrent costs, particularly at new
and growing schools.

All design must meet the maximum demand assessment of the local distribution authority. Any
differences between this and the initial assessment prepared by the electrical consultant must be
resolved prior to the presentation of the EWR (Electrical Works Request) to the retailer by the REC
(Registered Electrical Contractor).

It is imperative the person responsible ensures that information contained in the EWR (and in
particular, related to load) is consistent with what has been agreed to and signed with the
distributor. Any differences must be resolved prior to it being submitted to the retailer. This is
necessary since agreements are often signed more than 12 months prior to an actual commissioning
based on the EWR.

Agreements (supply offers) provided by the local distribution authority must be reviewed by the
builder and the electrical contractor prior to quoting for this aspect of the project.

To assist in this process, the Department has arranged for Origin Energy to provide an independent
check of all calculations related to maximum demand for new and major refurbishment project
affecting electrical works. It is recommended that this service be utilised. A small fee will apply. The
following process will apply:

Consulting Stage

1. Architect to contact Origin Connection Specialist by email and provide the following
details:
outline of project, including any planned stages;
architects name, telephone number and email address;
electrical consultants (energy engineers) name, telephone number and email address;
electrical contractors (REC) name, telephone number and email address (if known at
this stage);
school name, telephone number and address (if existing school);
principals name, telephone number and email address;
national metering identifier (NMI), meter number (if existing school);
advice as to whether the existing supply point will be upgraded/altered, or new supply
point is required;
existing site copy of a recent invoice;
any existing electrical audit report (for existing installations); and, where available,
copy of any communications with the local distribution network company.

2. Existing sites with an estimated usage of >160MWh per annum, and where Origin Energy is
not the retailer, should be transferred to Origin Energy immediately by contacting the

Building Quality Standards Handbook 100 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Departments Schools Resource Allocation Branch (SRAB). Where Origin Energy is the
retailer under the state purchase contract (SPC), it will extract interval meter data to
confirm existing maximum demand and provide information back to the architect/electrical
consultant.

3. New sites with an estimated usage of >160MWh per annum, or with a load that requires a
minimum demand network tariff, must be added to the >160MWh per annum state
purchase contract (SPC).

4. The electrical consultants calculations of estimated usage and maximum demand for new
works are to be sent to Origin Energy. Origin Energy is to review and verify assumptions.

5. Where issues are identified, negotiate and resolve issues with consultants and architects.

6. Electrical consultant to request from local distribution authority for Supply Offer based on
confirmed estimated maximum demand.

7. Origin Energy to review local distribution authority Supply Offer. Confirm ratings, identify
all costs. Origin Energy will provide a summary report to all stakeholders.

Sign off By Principal

Sign off by the school principal.

Tender

Submit all necessary electricity Supply Offers in tender documentation.

Construction and Submission of Electrical Works Request (EWR)

Construction and submission of electrical works request (EWR). Origin Energy to compare with
existing proposal. Any difference must be highlighted and a brief explanation provided.

5.10.5 Powerdirect For sites with an expected annual usage of <160MWh.

Sites supplied under this contract will receive a bundled bill based on the applicable Powerdirect
state purchase contract tariffs (e.g. E, E1 or D) for the relevant distributors area.

The school (or superintendent) is required to engage a registered electrical contractor (REC) in order
to have the relevant Electrical Works Request (EWR) and Certificate of Electrical Safety (CES)
completed. This information must then be forwarded via fax or email to Powerdirect New
Connections, attention Shona Wales, MAC Specialist, tel: 03 8633 6823, fax: 03 8633 7402, email:
swales@agl.com.au.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 101 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Green Power

The purchase of green power in accordance with Department guidelines is an automatic inclusion in
both the above contracts.

Meters

Provide electrical meters on a per-block basis to individually measure lighting, power and plant
usage so that energy use profiles can be easily obtained.

Both the above contract retailers will arrange for the installation of appropriate metering.

Photovoltaic Metering

In the case of a solar installation requiring photovoltaic metering, schools should make contact with
their current WoVG SPC electricity retailer to determine the necessary requirements prior to
engaging an installer and commencing works.

Once any electricity works have been completed, schools in this category should carefully monitor
consumption over a period of 3-6 months to determine if there is a likelihood that it would exceed
160 MWh per annum, in which case they should contact the Department to determine whether the
meter should move to the >160 MWh per annum contract.

For further information regarding all WoVG SPC energy contracts, please contact Brett Duff, Schools
Resource Allocation Branch (SRAB), tel: 03 9637 2963, fax: 9637 2440, email:
duff.brett.a@edumail.vic.gov.au.

5.10.6 Main Switchboard

Design

Equipment and conductors shall have a short-circuit rating of not less than the maximum
prospective symmetrical RMS short-circuit current values on incoming terminals at the operational
voltage.

The short-circuit rating shall withstand fault currents for a minimum of one second.

The degree of protection required shall be IP20 for internal installations and IP54W for external or
plant room installations.

Provide at least 25% spare capacity in the ratings of main incoming busbars and main
switch/isolators, and 25% spare capacity for extra sub-circuits and circuit breakers.

Ensure there is sufficient capacity in the switchboard for planned future stages of school
development, including all relocatable buildings necessary to meet peak enrolments.

Switchboards and associated electrical conductors must be protected by fire-resisting construction


(refer Building Code of Australia, clause C2.13).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 102 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

An emergency luminaire should also be considered above the location of the switchboard to facilitate safe
viewing in the event of partial power failure.

Location

Locate the main switchboard to suit the layout of the site, taking into account the following:
easy access for supply authority meter reading;
minimising the consumers mains cable length;
centrality of the switchboard to electrical loads served; and
its access for maintenance without undue disruption to the operation of the school.

The main switchboard is generally located in the administration area because of its central location
and function. An emergency luminaire should also be considered above the location of the
switchboard to facilitate safe viewing in the event of partial power failure.

Switchboards located in a path of travel to an exit must have a non-combustible smoke-proof enclosure in
order to comply with the Building Code of Australia.

5.10.7 Distribution Switchboards

Generally, the same conditions apply as in Section 5.10.2 with the exception of the following:
miniature DIN rail-mounted fault-limiting circuit breaker switchboards should only be
installed. Separation shall comply with Form 1 of AS 3439 Part 1;
fault rating of busbars shall be calculated at the incoming termination of the distribution
switchboard but at not less than 18kAmp/second;
where RCD protection of general purpose outlets is required, this should be provided at the
relevant circuit protective device within the distribution board; and
specify the maximum number of general purpose outlets or final sub-circuits per RCD
device.

Spare capacity should be included in the switchboard for planned future stages of school
development. Distribution switchboards and associated electrical conductors must be protected by
fire-resisting construction (refer Building Code of Australia, clause C2.13).

5.10.8 Wiring

As teaching spaces may alter from time to time, consideration should be given to designing a
flexible support system for cabling in a variety of configurations.

Cables need to be concealed for safety reasons. Systems such as skirting duct, wall duct, floor duct
and service columns should be considered to avoid tripping hazards. Exposed cabling is not
acceptable.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 103 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Provision for future additional cabling should also be taken into account.

All cables shall be double insulated (i.e. PVC, XLPE-insulated with a PVC sheath), MIMS or fire-
resistant polymer insulated and sheathed. Single insulated building wire will not be accepted.
2 2
Copper conductors shall be multi-stranded and not less than 1.5mm for lighting or 2.5mm for
power final sub-circuits.

Cables with conductor sizes greater than 35mm2 per phase shall be single core double insulated with
a multi-stranded conductor.

Cables should be sized to carry the intended electrical load, taking into account the maximum
demand, methods of installation, short circuit capacity and voltage drop. Utilise AS 3008 Part 1
when sizing cables.

5.10.9 Power and Special Connections

General Purpose Outlets

All general purpose outlets (GPOs) shall be connected to a final sub-circuit and protected by an ELCB
(RCD) rated at not more than 30mA. Sub-circuits excepted are those permanently supplying
appliances storing perishable goods (refrigerators, freezers), appliances with high earth leakage
currents (stoves, pie warmers, kilns, dish and clothes washers, etc.), and life-supporting equipment
(fish tanks, etc.).

Single phase outlets shall:


comprise a rocker operated switch and 3-pin plug base with flat earth pin, mounted on a
common moulded impact resistant plastic flush plate and separate surround plate;
incorporate a permanent method of circuit identification (IP stud, label, etc.);
be stainless steel or weather resistant in wet areas such as kitchens and laundries; and
be weather resistant where installed in plant-rooms and external areas.

Locate 10-amp single-phase double general purpose outlets in accordance with the following:
at 15-metre intervals along corridors;
four per general classroom (i.e. two at the front and two at the rear); and
extra general purpose outlets to special class rooms as required.

Three-phase outlets shall:


be surface or semi-recess mounted;
be of weather resistant type (i.e. Clipsal 56 Series); and
incorporate: (a) rotating switch mechanism, (b) 5-pin plug base, (c) spring-loaded flap, and
(d) screw-neck to plug base.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 104 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

General purpose outlets that are normally used by occupants (except maintenance personnel), even if
infrequently, should accord with the Building Code of Australia.

Permanently Connected Equipment

Isolating switches should be provided for each item of permanently connected equipment. Isolating
switches shall be:

rated at not less than the circuit protective device;

mounted adjacent each item of equipment; and

flush-mounted for internal installations and surface-mounted weatherproof for external


installations.

Special Conditions

Emergency stop (off) push buttons should be provided for trade rooms and laboratories adjacent to
each exit door. Push buttons shall incorporate mushroom head with latch and twist release. Push
buttons will trip off all power circuits within the respective room/laboratory.

A minimum of two power outlets on a dedicated circuit should be provided to each communication rack.

5.10.10 Artificial Lighting

Light Sources

The installed capacity for lighting should aim for 8 watts of fluorescent lamp power per square
metre.

Provide instant re-strike high-efficiency light sources such as linear or compact fluorescent lamps.
Install other less efficient sources in special areas (i.e. photographic laboratories, foyers, audiovisual
laboratories, etc.) as required.

Fluorescent lamps shall comply with AS 1201, Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) and
be 16mm diameter (T5), triphosphor lamps. Single tube luminaires are recommended for most
applications. Triple fluorescent lamp luminaries over 600mm in length shall not be used.
Luminaires used in conjunction with T5 lamps shall be of a design originally intended for the T5
lamp. T5 retrofits for existing fluorescent luminaries are not acceptable. Bare or exposed lamp
luminaries are also deemed unacceptable. All luminaries shall have photometric files to NATA
accreditation and EMC compliance as per Australian Standards. Where a prismatic lens is used, a
minimum of K19 is recommended.

The following table provides guidance on the recommended lighting for selected areas within a
school.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 105 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Area Fitting Recommended Fitting Lamp Diffuser


Installation Illuminance Types Type Types
Options Levels
AS 1680.2.3
1994
General Purpose S/SM 240 1xF Tri F L/P
Classroom

Physical Education S/SM 240** HB and HOF MH and Tri F Guard

Computer S/SM 320* 1xF Tri F L/P

Science/Home Eco S/SM 320 1xF Tri F L/P

Music S/SM 320 1xF Tri F L/P

Art/Craft S/SM 320* 1xF Tri F L/P

Library SM/R 320 1xF Tri F L/P

Staff Administration SM/R 320 1xF Tri F L/P

Tech Studies S/SM 320* HB and HOF MH and Tri F L/P

S = Suspended
SM = Surface mounted
R = Recessed
1xF = Single tube fluorescent
2xF = Double tube fluorescent
1 x HB = High bay fitting
HOF = High Output T5 Luminaires designed for areas above 3m
Tri F = Tri Phosphor fluorescent
MH = Metal halide
L/P = Prismatic lens
Guard = Impact Protected
* = Task lighting to be considered
** = Refer to AS 2560.2.2 for specific indoor sport lighting requirements.

A common style of lamp should be used throughout the project, thereby minimising the
requirement to store different lamp types for maintenance.

The following table provides indicative installation and operational costs for various options in a
comparable lighting environment:

Fitting Type Indicative Capital Cost ($/m) Indicative Operation Cost ($/p.a./m)

Tri phosphor fluorescent


- single tube (1 x 58W) 65 1.30
- double tube (2 x 36W) 50 1.70
- single tube (1 x 36W) 70 1.36

Notes:
Unit cost of electricity = $0.10/kWh
Annual operation = 1500 hours
Capital cost = 1997 fitting supply costs only excludes installation costs

Building Quality Standards Handbook 106 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Compact fittings should be provided which maximise useful light by means of efficient reflectors and
diffusers, including silver reflectors.

If downlights are required, select compact fluorescent types. Should low voltage downlights be
selected, 10,000-hour lamps in combination with Australian Certified Electronic Ballast should be
used. Correct installation and airspace shall be provided in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations or a suitable surface mount luminaire should be selected in its place.

In upgrades, consider delamping as appropriate. Consider the replacement of luminaires installed


prior to 1980. Where additional luminaries are required for an area and the number does not
exceed more than one third of any existing luminaries, then the equivalent lamp technology may be
used. For renovations, consideration should also be given to the relocation of existing luminaries
into lesser-utilised areas and the installation of new technology luminaries to capitalise on energy
efficiency and reduced maintenance.

In larger areas with higher ceiling heights, consider metal halide luminaires with a ceramic arc lamp
or high-output T5 luminaires.

Ballasts

Fluorescent lamps should be power-factor connected and provided with low-loss ballasts. Subject
to their operating cost, dimmable ballasts may also be considered in conjunction with daylight
sensors. Auditoriums and halls may consider dimming for effect and/or energy efficiency in relation
to the task

Illumination Levels and Glare Indices

Illumination and glare index levels shall accord with AS 1680.2.3.

The aggregate design illumination power load expressed in W/M must not exceed the sum of allowances
specified in Part J6 of the Building Code of Australia. The use of high-efficacy light fittings will achieve the
best results. Lighting circuits must not exceed floor areas of 250m and may need to be controlled by a
time switch or sensor device.

Arrange luminaires to provide general uniform lighting throughout the illuminated space. Where
higher local luminance levels are required for specific tasks, provide suitable local task lighting or
suspended luminaires

Light Switches

In general, arrange local switching to each room. Locate light switches on the jamb side of the main
entry door to the relevant room.

Where a large room such as a library has two entry points, provide two-way switching at both
doors.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 107 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Arrange switching or daylight sensors to provide separate control of perimeter luminaires close to
windows, and to alternate luminaire switching while maintaining uniform illumination.

The size, type and location of manually operated switches and controls which are normally used by
occupants (except maintenance personnel), even if infrequently, should accord with the Building Code of
Australia.

Access/Security Lighting

Internal security lighting shall be provided in the form of unswitched or after-hours automatically
switched luminaires. Luminaires shall incorporate low energy (high efficiency) light sources and
should be located at building entries, changes of direction to external pathways, and stairs in
corridors.

Security and access lighting should consist of high-efficient light sources. High-pressure sodium
lamps (SON) should be used for general flood lighting. Fluorescent lamps are appropriate for
perimeter and access lighting . Both these should be controlled by a daylight (photoelectric sensor)
in conjunction with a time clock. Incandescent and quartz halogen lamps should only be used in
conjunction with a movement sensor where a high level of light is required for a short period of
time.

Consider an alternative colour light source for security lighting to distinguish it from normal lighting.

Emergency and Exit Lighting

Emergency and exit lighting shall be provided as required under the Building Code of Australia and in
accordance, generally, with AS 2293 Parts 1 and 2. Any alternative systems should be assessed for
compliance by the relevant building surveyor in accordance with the Code. Systems shall consist of
single point type luminaires, and generally employ:
10-watt tungsten halogen self-contained non-maintained mode emergency recessed type;
10-watt fluorescent self-contained non-maintained mode emergency surface-mounted
type; and
10-watt fluorescent self-contained maintained exit signs.

Test Push Buttons or a Central Testing System shall be provided for testing the emergency and exit
lighting in accordance with AS 2293.2. (Generally, the latter system would be applied to larger
secondary colleges).

Consider more efficient lights than the 10 watt noted above, provided they meet Building Code of
Australia requirements.

Lighting Switches

Lighting switches shall generally be of the unbreakable polycarbonate rocker type, flush mounted
where practicable, and adjacent to the closing side of doors.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 108 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

In plant-rooms, switches shall be of an industrial type rated to IP56.

Flush-mounted switches on columns and walls shall be mounted in standard-size metal wall boxes
to suit wall construction. PVC wall boxes may be used for PVC conduits but only where permitted.

Lighting switches shall be suitably rated to carry the switched load, with a minimum of 16 amp for
fluorescent loads.

Where multiple switches are provided, they should be clearly labelled as to the lights they serve.
Alternatively, a plan indicating which lights are controlled by which switches should be placed next
to the switch panel.

Controls

Lighting controls should be provided to ensure that lighting is only on when required that is, when
the space is occupied and insufficient or no daylighting is present.

For energy efficiency, lighting controls should be automatically operable and may take the form of:
photoelectric cells;
presence sensors to enclosed rooms, including general purpose classrooms;
push-button timers to infrequently entered rooms, such as store rooms;
twist timers to classrooms (these typically allow the user to access lighting for a period of up
to two hours); and
centralised lighting control systems which, through a time clock and/or linked to the school
bell, automatically turn lighting off. A switch in each room provides manual control of all
lighting. This system may also be designed to control lighting in response to available
daylight. Any form of lighting control must provide a switch to enable users to switch
lighting off.

The following table provides various lighting control systems and a guide to their application.

Lighting Control System Type Comments


Occupancy sensing Passive infrared Small areas (25m max.), internal or external, with
infrequent occupancy.
Occupancy sensing Microwave Large areas (greater than 25m), internal or external with
infrequent occupancy.
Light level sensing Internal Areas with variable daylight provision
Light level sensing External Street lights, security light.
Local time delay off Infrequently used rooms, such as store rooms, GPC
Central timed off All internal spaces.

Refer also Section 6.7.2 Security and Access Lighting and the Departments Emergency & Security
Management website:
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default.aspx.
(Note that this site requires an Edumail user ID and password for access.)

Building Quality Standards Handbook 109 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

5.11 Special Services

All electrical services work shall be undertaken in accordance with AS 3000 and relevant power authority.

5.11.1 Fume Cupboards

The construction, siting, installation, maintenance and use of fume cupboards is detailed in
Australian Standard AS 2243-1. Section 4.4 states that operations which may produce flammable
or toxic vapours should be carried out either in a fume cupboard or, if this is not possible, they
should be provided with local exhaust ventilation.

Australian Standard AS 1485 Safety and Health in Workrooms of Educational Establishments,


recommends fume cupboards in laboratories as well as adequate or local exhaust ventilation in
technology areas.

Technology Areas and Hazard Levels

Depending on the courses offered by a school, there will be differing hazards associated with the
likes of automotive engine testing, moulding plastics, etc. Schools must indicate to the consultant in
their educational specification the courses they intend to offer and how they want to operate them
so that a risk assessment can be undertaken and requirements determined.

Exhaust ventilation fans should be considered a minimum requirement for fume cupboards.

Science Areas and Recommended Provision

It is recommended that each preparation room have a fume cupboard (preferably single-sided) and
that one also be made available to senior chemistry classes. Fume cupboards are usually not
required in physics areas but they might need to be considered in biology and agricultural science
(again, generally for senior classes, and depending on the chemicals used and experiments
conducted).

Construction

Construction materials should be selected to provide suitable resistance against chemicals handled.
Generally a PVC shell with a chemical resistant one-piece laminated work surface is suitable for
most demonstration applications. Sliding sashes shall be toughened glass or clear acrylic and
feature adequate corrosion resistant counter weights. Sashes shall remain in place whenever
stopped with a fixed minimum opening of 50mm.

Services

The following minimum services integral to fume cupboard construction should be provided:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 110 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Power one double general purpose outlet (GPO) located either at the external top or
side of the chamber but not within the chamber;
Lighting one separately switched fluorescent luminaire (flame proof and corrosion
proof) to provide 400 lux at the base;
Sink one 200mm diameter, 150mm deep conical cup sink;
Water one gooseneck style cold water supply outlet over sink; and
Waste an acid neutralising tank into which waste can be discharged.

Controls

The following features should be provided:


separate fan and light controls;
separate controls for water and gas services external to the chamber;
labelled emergency isolation switches for electricity and gas; and
automatic isolation of electricity and gas in the event of inadequate air flow.

Performance

Select a fan and volume control system to maintain the required face velocity through an open sash
area. The face velocity across the fully opened sash must measure 0.5 metres per second, and air
exhausted through a fume cupboard must not be re-circulated to other rooms. The fume discharge
point must be three metres above the roof. The noise level of the fan (as measured at the
operators level) should not exceed 62dB(A).

Commissioning tests (as indicated in AS 2243-8) must be performed by the supplier upon installation
and the results reported to the school.

There must be an adequate supply of replacement air to compensate for the volume exhausted.
Centrifugal fans should be considered as a first choice in this operation.

Siting

The Australian Standard includes diagrams which indicate the distance fume cupboards should be
from doors, walls, bench tops, etc. to minimise air flow disturbances.

5.11.2 Compressed Air

Compressors

Consider air-cooled rotary-scroll and rotary-screw oil-free compressor types. Compressors shall be
driven by TEFC (totally enclosed fan-cooled) squirrel cage induction motors rated to IP54. Ensure
that adequate acoustic control measures are provided to maintain acceptable noise levels.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 111 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Receivers

Compressed air receivers should be provided in accordance with AS 1210, sized to maintain the
number of compressor start/stop cycles within the manufacturers limits, and be completed with
the following:
inspection opening;
dial type pressure gauge;
valved drain point and automatic condensate drain; and
pressure relief valve.

Filters

Determine the level of filtration required to suit each application. Provide, in every case, a
minimum filtration system comprising a woven media material capable of removing water droplets
and particulate material to 1.0 m. Ensure that separated liquids are automatically drained away
from filter material. Each filter shall be completed with an integral pressure differential gauge
assembly showing required replacement times.

Pipe Work

Permanent pipe work is to be Type B copper tube to AS 1432, excepting suitable flexible
connections to the compressor unit. All joints are to be brazed where practical, and continuous pipe
lengths should be maximised. All pipe work is to be concealed from view in normally occupied
areas. Protection from mechanical damage, where exposed, is also to be provided. Install
automatic condensate drains to the mains pipe work. Grade mains at 1:100 to drain points. All
branches shall be taken from the top of the main pipe work, and all pipe work shall be sized to
ensure that pressure loss does not exceed 10% of the design supply pressure.

Valves

Provide globe type valves for isolation and throttling purposes, and plate check type valves for non-
return applications. All valves shall be connected by flange or union.

5.11.3 Reticulated Gas Services

Scope

The provision of reticulated bottled gas systems for specialist applications excludes LPG and vacuum
systems.

Standards
Non Flammable Gases: AS 2896 1998

Building Quality Standards Handbook 112 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

Oxygen and Acetylene: AS 4289 1995


Storage Facilities: Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations Statutory Rule
No. 323/1989

Enclosures

Determine suitable locations for permanent storage of cylinders with regards to safe storage and
handling procedures, security of plant and equipment, and capital costs. Preference should be given
to external storage locations. Within each storage area, all cylinders (whether on-line, on-
standby or spare) shall be securely restrained in an upright position. All cylinders for portable
use shall be secured to stable, wheeled trolleys. Ensure an adequate separation of Class 2.1 and
Class 2.2 materials.

Pipe Work

Copper pipe work is generally acceptable for most services except acetylene where stainless steel
shall be used. Pipe work should be sized for a pressure loss not exceeding 5% of the reticulated
supply pressure.

5.11.4 Dust Extraction System

Dust Extractors

Units shall be self-contained mechanical cleaned type, located with regard to acoustic performance,
equipment security and serviceability. Each unit shall feature:
statically and dynamically balanced centrifugal mild steel fan, direct driven by a 415V, 3-
phase TEFC (totally enclosed fan-cooled) motor rated to a minimum of IP54 (maximum fan
speed 1440 rpm);
woven fabric media with abrasive resistant properties, selected for optional performance
with regard to operating cost, collection efficiency and service life;
acoustic attenuation of the fan assembly and discharge ductwork where necessary (noise
levels within occupied areas and externally should be made acceptable);
electrical driven shaker assembly to clean filter media;
bin type dust collector with robust sealing assembly; and
explosion relief vent with minimal ductwork and changes in direction to a safe discharge
area.

Ductwork

All ductwork shall be of circular type galvanised steel, suitable for high pressure application in
accordance with HVAC Duct Construction Standards published by SMACNA Incorporated (USA),
and feature:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 113 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

sizing for transport velocities not less than 18 metres per second;
radiused bends and angled take-offs to main ductwork;
steel flange type bolt clamps on joints enabling easy removal for clean out;
clean out access panels, where required, and removable caps at end of duct runs; and
blast gate dampers where required for balancing purposes.

5.11.5 Lightning Protection

A risk assessment will be carried out in accordance with AS 1768. A risk index of greater than or
equal to 12 shall require the implementation a lightning protection system.

5.12 Centralised Energy Systems


Centralised energy systems should be avoided. Satellite boilers and smaller packaged airconditioning
plants provide greater flexibility, control and energy savings.

Effective temperature and time-clock controls should be provided to all centralised boilers and
packaged plant. Complex building automation (energy) systems should be avoided.

Refer Section 5.6 Heating, Section 5.7 Ventilation and Section 5.8 Cooling.

5.13 Storage

Well-designed storage provides the space in which to keep essential articles and equipment. It must
also facilitate their efficient use and handling.

The provision of storage can represent a significant cost to the design and development of a school,
both in terms of accommodation and ease of access. School Construction Rates currently allow for
locker areas and site stores to be considered at a part-internal and part-external average rate of
$900/sqm.

The limitations of anticipated users must be kept in mind when installing new storage or re-
assessing existing storage facilities. In addition to adult users, students may also have access to
stored items. AS 1428.2 and AS 1428.3 provide guidance. Safety and convenience are paramount.

Consider the following factors:


make storage access as convenient as possible (relevant storage spaces should be directly
accessible from activity spaces);
locate bulk storage so as to be convenient for the receipt of deliveries;
protect articles from breakage, moisture, heat, cold, misuse, theft, etc.;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 114 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 5 - Internal Services

control distribution or use;


provide a safe location for dangerous items; and
share storage between spaces to enable the creation of larger, more useful spaces.

When designing storage areas, the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007 S.R No. 54/2007,
including provisions of the Manual Handling and Prevention of Falls Regulations, must be taken into
consideration. This is particularly important in designing archive storage areas where preference should
be given to small-sized archive boxes.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 115 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

6. EXTERNAL SERVICES

6.1 Introduction

When designing any given service, the designer is required to make use of the most cost effective
materials and installation techniques available, commensurate with appropriate levels of service
and durability, and in accordance with the philosophy outlined in this Handbook.

All design, materials, workmanship, testing and commissioning shall comply with the latest revision
of the Building Code of Australia and relevant Australian Standards.

Where classes, types, etc. are referred to, they are in accordance with the relevant Australian
Standard. All dimensions are in millimetres unless noted otherwise.

6.2 External Stormwater Drainage

6.2.1 General

A drainage system shall be provided to drain the site. All drainage in the region of buildings and
paved areas shall be by combination of open inverts, kerb and channel, and underground drains as
appropriate. Surface drainage in grassed areas may be collected by swale drains.

Design of the drainage system shall be based on design methods outlined in Australian Rainfall and
Runoff, and the relevant authoritys requirements.

Where the site layout and falls provide an acceptable means of overland flood relief, the Average
Recurrence Interval (ARI) adopted for design shall be not less than 5 years. In other cases the ARI
shall be not less than 50 years.

The legal point(s) of discharge shall be obtained from the relevant authority.

6.2.2 Rainwater Collection

Consideration should be given to the retention of stormwater on site through the use of tanks. This
water can be used as an alternate source for the irrigation needs of the school. (The cost of this
installation is now included in the school rates and is no longer a special factor.) Consideration must
be given to the following when determining the suitability of rainwater tanks:
the purpose of the rainwater tank whether for irrigation or connection to specific fixtures
such as toilet cisterns (or both);
the location which best maximises the catchment area;
the estimated roof catchment yield;
security issues; and
maintenance issues.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 116 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

In accordance with AS/NZS 3500 Part 1.2 Water Supply Acceptable Solutions, water collected and
stored in rainwater tanks and used as an alternated water supply must not be used for human
consumption.

In addition to complying with all relevant standards, installations should comply with the Standards
Australia Handbook HB 230-2006, Rainwater Tank Design and Installation Handbook. This document
provides practical information for the collection, storage and use of rainwater. Although it is aimed at
urban environments and private residences, the information is relevant to school use. It also provides a
means of calculation of anticipated water harvesting yields.

Bladder-type tanks

Bladder type tanks are recommended for use beneath floors, decks, etc. However, they should be located
in a position where they are accessible for maintenance. Post-occupancy evaluations have reported
leaking underground bladders that cannot be accessed for repairs.

6.2.3 Pipe Work and Structures

All pipework and structures should conform to Water Services Association of Australia Water Code
WSA 03-2002-2.3.

Pipe sizes shall be not less than:


DN (nominal diameter) 100 for connection direct to down pipes;
DN150 downstream of any grated pit; and
DN225 downstream of any side entry pit.

Pipe work materials shall be:


for DN100 and DN150, solvent-jointed UPVC conforming with AS 1260;
for DN225 and greater on straight runs without junction fittings, rubber ring jointed
reinforced concrete conforming with AS 4058 or rubber ring-jointed fibre reinforced cement
pipes conforming with AS 4139, of the appropriate class; and
for DN225 and DN300 straight runs with junction fittings, solvent-jointed PVC conforming
with AS 1260 or rubber ring-jointed fibre reinforced cement conforming with AS 4139, of
the appropriate class.

Junctions of pipes DN300 or smaller shall be made either with oblique or sweep-junction proprietary
fittings, or at pits.

Junctions of DN100 or DN150 pipes with DN375 or larger pipes may be made with saddle-type
fittings.

Junctions of pipes DN225 or larger with DN375 or larger pipes shall be made at pits.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 117 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

Pit covers shall be of a tight fitting bolted-down design or have sufficient weight to prevent their
easy removal.

All pit construction should conform to the relevant authority standard.

Downpipe Filters

Post-occupancy evaluations have reported the use of unsatisfactory downpipe filters which block in heavy
rain. Leafeater type screened downpipe rainheads are one recommended option. Here the upper
section of the downpipe discharges onto an angled mesh surface across a rainhead attached to the
lower part of the pipe. Leaves are screened by the mesh and fall clear because of the angle, allowing
water to pass through the mesh and into the rainhead. These devices are normally located just below
the eaves.

An alternative strategy that has been successfully use in schools entails stopping downpipes short of
ground-level and catching the discharge in grated pits.

6.2.4 Stormwater Drainage Issues

The design of the drainage system shall address the following issues as appropriate:
on site retention;
erosion control;
litter control;
sedimentation control; and
maintenance.

Drainage Problems

Recent post-occupancy evaluations have found a number of schools with inadequate stormwater
drainage, resulting in flooding and unsatisfactory site conditions. Drainage seems to have been paid little
priority.

Grated stormwater pits were set too high above adjacent ground level, and drainpipes under floors
leaked, creating smells and damage to the structure.

6.3 External Sewer Drainage

6.3.1 Pipe Work and Structures

The preferred pipe work material is uPVC except where discharge or other conditions require an
alternative material. All pipe work and structures should conform to Water Services Association of
Australia Sewerage Code WSA 02-2002-2.3.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 118 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

Sewer inspection chambers shall be provided to facilitate maintenance, and be located at junctions
of major sewer drainage runs and at not more than 60 metre intervals.

Additional overflow relief gullies shall be provided to maximise the protection of buildings against
blocked sewers.

6.3.2 Sewer Design Issues

The design of the sewer drainage system shall address the following issues as appropriate:
grease arrestors;
neutralisers;
solvent/oil interception;
acid drains;
trade wastes; and
maintenance.

6.4 External Water Supply

The supply of water is governed by the relevant Australian Standard as well as regulations and by-
laws exercised through local water authorities. (Victorias Safe Drinking Water Act 2003 (refer
Department of Human Services) deals specifically with the regulation and quality of drinking water
supplies.)

6.4.1 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings

Pipe work, valves and fittings shall comply with AS 3500.3, with the additional requirement that all
pipe work below buildings and concealed in buildings shall be copper tube Type B in accordance
with AS 1342.

The preferred pipe work materials are:


for DN32 and greater, UPVC except for the limitation above and the limitations of AS
3500.1; and
for DN25 and smaller, copper tube Type B in accordance with AS 1342.

6.4.2 Backflow Prevention

Provide all backflow prevention devices as required by the relevant authority and AS 3500.3.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 119 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

6.4.3 Irrigation Systems

Provide irrigation systems as appropriate to garden and grassed areas. Refer Section 8.5.2 Irrigation
Systems.

6.4.4 Other External Supply Issues

The design of the external water supply system shall address the following issues:
enclosure of equipment to prevent vandalism; and
dual supply to site where practical.

6.5 External Gas

6.5.1 Natural Gas Meters

Meter enclosures shall be well secured. Meter by-pass pipe work facilities should also be provided.

6.5.2 LP Gas Storage

Size bulk storage tanks and cylinders with regard to the maximum required vaporisation rate,
practical delivery intervals and cost. Carefully locate bulk storage tanks and cylinders with regard to
statutory requirements, physical security, and ease of refilling or replacement.

Provide external tanks with 75mm thick concrete plinths extending 500mm beyond the tank
enclosure and with an 1800mm high chain mesh enclosure and lockable access gates. Tank finish
shall include abrasive cleaning, prime painting and top coating. A lockable, corrosion protected
sheet metal enclosure with concrete base should also be provided for external cylinders.

6.5.3 Pipe Work Below Ground

All consumer pipe work shall be Type B copper tube to AS 1432. All joints are to be brazed where
practical. Pipe work installed in the ground shall be complete with a corrosion resistant external
wrapping. Ensure an adequate separation distance from other in-ground services, structures and
earthing electrodes. Do not install pipe work within concrete slabs and avoid installing pipe work
under buildings where possible. Size pipe work to limit pressure loss to mandatory limits, and
include a 10% safety factor. Where LPG is likely to be replaced by natural gas within five years,
allow for natural gas in the pipe work design.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 120 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

6.5.4 Gas Booster

Gas pressure booster devices are to be avoided where possible. Where required, locate them
carefully and ensure that adequate acoustic measures are provided to meet acceptable ambient and
internal noise criteria.

6.6 External Fire Protection

6.6.1 General

Provide a hydrant system to satisfy the minimum requirements of the Building Code of Australia, AS
2419 and local fire authority.

6.6.2 Fire Hydrants

Preferred hydrant installations are external dual-head individually-controlled outlets, with access and
hard standing for a fire appliance to connect to the hydrant. Maximum hose length should not exceed 20
metres. Hydrant fixtures and installation should conform to Water Services Association Water Code
WSA 03-2002-2.3 and AS 2419.1. Internal hydrants are not preferred.

6.6.3 Pipe Work, Valves and Fittings

Pipe work, valves and fittings shall comply with AS 2419.1.

The preferred pipe work material is uPVC except for the limitations on use imposed by AS 2419.1.

6.6.4 Other Issues

The design of the external fire protection system shall address the following issues:
fire brigade booster connection;
booster pumps;
source of water supply if street mains supply is inadequate or not available;
hose couplings compatible with relevant fire brigade;
use of street hydrants to minimise the number of on-site hydrants;
appropriate valving for hydrants and hose reels; and
signage and notices.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 121 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

6.7 External Electric Light and Power

6.7.1 External Power

All general power outlets provided externally shall be of the following type:
surface mounted;
weather resistant with IP56 protection rating;
have rotating switch mechanism;
feature an integral 3-pin with flat earth single phase socket or 5-round pin three phase
socket;
include spring loaded flap;
screw neck to plug base; and
feature keyed switch mechanism, if necessary.

Sub-circuit cabling should be installed to outlets either internally concealed within the building
structure or within rigid non-metallic or metallic conduit. Non-metallic conduit subject to UV
radiation should be suitably treated to prevent degradation.

6.7.2 Security and Access Lighting

Adequate security lighting to the perimeter of all buildings should be provided to ensure safe access.
Consider lighting pathways and roads within the school. Consider, also, those needs and
applications associated with out-of-hours tuition, community hiring of facilities, and vandalism.
Consider metal halide with electronic gear on pole luminaires for energy efficiency and prestige.

Useful security hints and practical advice can be obtained from the Departments Emergency &
Security Management website
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default.aspx.
(Note that this site requires an Edumail user ID and password for access.)

Controls

Lighting shall, in general, be controlled by a photoelectric cell in conjunction with a time controller.

Additional energy savings are available if motion detectors are used to activate lights rather than
flood light an entire area. Note that movement-detector switching is not appropriate for high-
intensity discharge lighting or for lighting that has start-up and restrike periods. Consideration
should be given to car park lighting, lighting from car-parks to buildings, and building illumination.

Light Sources

Security and access lighting should consist of high efficient light sources. High-pressure sodium
lamps (SON) should be used for general flood lighting. Fluorescent lamps are appropriate for

Building Quality Standards Handbook 122 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 6 - External Services

perimeter and access lighting. Both these should be controlled by a daylight (photoelectric sensor)
in conjunction with a time clock. Incandescent and quartz halogen lamps should only be used in
conjunction with a movement sensor where a high level of light is required for a short period of
time.

Luminaires

Luminaires should be vandal-resistant and of a minimum IP65 rating, and have a power factor corrected
to 0.85 lagging or better, with superimposed pulse igniter circuits where igniters are required.

Consider an alternative colour light source for security lighting to distinguish it from normal lighting.

Control and Sub-mains

Exterior lighting shall be controlled.

Where lighting for areas such as playing fields, courts and car-parks, etc., is located at some distance
from the main buildings or internal distribution switchboard, consider installing a local exterior
distribution switchboard to service this load.

6.7.3 Underground Services

Underground cable conduits should be supplied and installed for the enclosure of HV and LV cables.
Cable conduits for HV and LV cables shall be laid at 750mm and 500mm (to top of conduits) below
finished surface levels respectively.

Where cabling is subject to mechanical damage or is installed with less cover than specified above,
metallic protection to cabling must be provided.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 123 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

7. COMMUNICATION SERVICES

7.1 Introduction

The Department is the number one user of IT in Australia and among worldwide leaders in the use
and implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT). The State school system
consists of over 1700 sites which are connected to a WAN (Wide Area Network), and each has its
own LAN (Local Area Network). Furthermore, every school in is in the process of being upgraded to
high-capacity broadband internet through the Governments initiative, VicSmart.

In support of appropriate infrastructure standards, the Departments Information Technology


Division has produced guidelines on the design and installation of ICT in schools. These include:
ICT Design Models for Schools (Standards Best Practice Guide); and
ICT Design for Learning Spaces (Patterns Application of standards, with examples from
Building the Education Revolution).

ICT may also require customisation to suit the needs of certain students, staff and visitors (e.g.
people with disabilities).

The person responsible for communications design is to discuss the network proposal with the
school/Department representative, and to implement any school requests where practical.
Consultation is to continue throughout the project, including discussion on the introduction of new
technologies that may have developed during the planning period.

In general, communication services in schools cover data (administrative, curriculum, etc),


emergency warning systems, video (including audio-visual), voice (telephone), library automation,
public address, TV antenna (including satellite dish), and security. Multi-campus sites are now
required to be linked for communication services. Wireless technologies have been installed at
every school since 2005 and are required to be installed in new buildings.

Schools across Victoria are integrating ICT into their curriculum in ways that enhance student
computer literacy, share knowledge and information, and in some cases overcome barriers like
isolation or disability.

For further information on the Departments use of ICT, visit:

Information Technology Division Edugate website (password required)


(https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/IT/ITHome/Pages/default.aspx)

ICT Support and Services


(http://www.education.vic.gov.au/management/ictsupportservices/default.htm)

eLearning Support and Services


(http://www.education.vic.gov.au/management/elearningsupport.htm)

Building Quality Standards Handbook 124 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

7.2 Types of Cabling Required

The actual design of cabling will be based on requirements related to individual school size and
growth potential, and should observe the following:
Growth space allowance in the communications room should not be compromised.
The choice of cable category (class) should be greater than current need, thereby catering
for future expansion.
Cable patching cabinets must be sized to cater for additional and future cabling and
equipment.
To maintain data cable electrical characteristics, a limitation of bending radii of the cable
exists (minimum bend radii = 4 x cable diameter). To accommodate this, suitable cable
pathways must be designed and installed within the building structure.
Copper cable runs have a maximum length of 90 metres. This is from patch panel to
telecommunications outlets. No more than a combined 10 metres of patch cord or
equipment lead should be allowed in addition to this.

It is recommended that:
all cabling, connectors, patch panels and patch cords shall be Class Ea (Category 6A); and
all optical fibre between buildings shall be a minimum of 6 cores of OM3 grade, outdoor
rated cable.

7.3 Communications Cabinet and ICT Technical Workspace


Each building should allocate appropriate, centrally placed space for the communications cabinet
and/or ICT technical workspace. It is intended that this space will be suitable for housing of ICT
equipment. At a minimum, the space must:
be secure and lockable;
be equipped with suitable airconditioning;
include space for cable entry (ducts, cable framework); and
contain space for a minimum of 3 x 19-inch racks.

Cabling and equipment should be housed in data cabinets with the following minimum dimensions:
Height = 2150 mm
Width = 800 mm
Depth = 1000 mm

Multiple cabinets may be required. These cabinets will be used to house switches, cabling and IP
phone systems.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 125 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

7.4 Number of Network Points Required

Cabled power and data points should provide the flexibility to adopt to a range of learning space
designs. Thus a combination of floor boxes, ceiling mounts, wall points and wireless access is
recommended.

Learning Space Capacity: 25 students and 1 staff member


Optimal number of data Usage
points

16 Student use:
- 3 x floor pots of 4 x data points each
- 4 x data points in pairs spread throughout the room on walls

1 Wireless access point on ceiling central to the room

1 Network data projector on ceiling at each data projector

1 Telephone placed at a convenient area for staff and/or student use based on
school policy

1 Staff use (0.5-2 metres left or right from interactive whiteboard)

7.5 Budget
The allocated budget covers the supply, installation, testing and commissioning of the following
communication systems:
A structured telecommunications cabling system (as defined above) for all areas of the school
including administration areas, teaching spaces, staff areas, classrooms and resource areas.
Components may include:
network connections
campus distributors
campus cabling
building distributors
backbone cabling
floor distributors
horizontal cabling
telecommunication outlets
patch leads and fly leads;
a minimum 15-year warranty on the structured cabling system;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 126 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

communications earth system;


library automation systems;
television distributed systems and associated infrastructure;
audio and video systems and associated infrastructure;
PA systems and associated infrastructure;
sound systems and intercom systems for emergency purposes and associated infrastructure;
emergency warning systems and associated infrastructure; and
infrastructure to support security systems such as intruder detection systems (Note that the
installation of security systems falls outside the scope of this budget. Liaise with the Departments
Emergency and Security Management Unit for specific infrastructure requirements).

All active equipment including supply of switches, file server, etc. do not form part of this budget scope.

7.6 External Communication

This section has been provided as a reference only, to assist in the design of network connections,
campus cabling and campus distributors.

There are two main connections to external communication services. These are for:
telecommunications carrier; and
satellite connection.

External communications will terminate at the communication cupboard.

7.6.1 Telecommunications Cabling and Network Connection

The delineation between telecommunications pre-provisioning works provided by the


telecommunications provider and the communications contractor is detailed as follows:

Customers (end users) are responsible for:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 127 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

In this instance, network is defined as the transmission service cable from the exchange up to and
including the Network Point of Presence (NETPOP).

A lead-in is defined as the transmission service cable (underground or aerial) from the last
common feeder point to the network boundary point.

The NETPOP is also referred to as the last common feeder point and can be either a pit, pillar, aerial
or elevated joint.

The network boundary point is the first socket after the building entry point, the Telstra network
termination device (NDT) or the customers distributor or main distribution frame (MDF) as
applicable (most Department premises have an MDF).

The following responsibilities of telecommunications providers are provided for information only
and to assist in the understanding of the overall network connection phase. Note that only Telstra-
authorised contractors perform lead-in or pre-provisioning work. They are known as Access Services
Contractors (A&AS contractors). The following table contains a list of locally approved contractors.

Location Contractor Name Phone Contact

Melbourne South and East Service Stream 1800 773 776

Melbourne North and West Visionstream 1800 303 085

Victoria East Visionstream 1800 303 085

Victoria West & Tasmania Service Stream 1800 773 776

Building Quality Standards Handbook 128 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

Optus (Service Desk 1300 659 746) or the schools service provider is responsible for:
receiving new service requests from the end user;
ensuring appropriate scripting is used to determine customer needs, and obtain customer
consent for the release of their details to the contractor;
ensuring that customers are aware of their obligation to provide a suitable trench from the
building entry point to the Telstra property entry point;
submitting work request to Telstra Wholesale; and
receiving Telstra AXIS order number Via Lolo.

If a schools service provider is Telstra, Telstra Retail is responsible for:


ensuring that appropriate process documentation is established to support the lead- in
process;
ensuring that appropriate scripting and call flows are used to determine Customers lead in
requirements;
ensuring that the customer is aware that they are responsible for the trench, and that they
can receive directions on location and specification by speaking directly to the contractor;
engaging a contractor to provide commercial lead-in by sending a standard template
(minimum 20 business days Telstra commitment date is often referred to as TCD);
ensuring that the TCD is a minimum 20 business days (commercial lead-in) from date of
application when lead-in shortfall is identified;
escalating issues relating to contractors to access network programs (ANP) for resolution;
ensuring that the customer agrees to their personal details being provided to the contractor
(privacy implications);
inserting the lead-in product code on the AXIS OC&C section of the new service order where
lead-in shortfall has been identified; and
ensuring that the TCD is a minimum 10 business days (small business customers) from the
date of application when lead-in shortfall is identified.

Telstra Wholesale is responsible for:


raising request in EMPTOR;
inserting the lead-in product code on the EMPTOR OC&C section of the new service order
where lead-in shortfall has been identified;
ensuring that the TCD is a minimum 20 business days (commercial lead-in) from the date of
application when lead-in shortfall is identified; and
updating Telstra AXIS order number Via LOLO.

Telstra Plant Assigner Group is responsible for:


checking GDD (Graphical Data Display) records to determine network capacity; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 129 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

ensuring the order is placed in the appropriate Held Reason Code when a network solution
cannot be found.

Telstra Lead-In Handover Team is responsible for:


receiving daily lead-in completion advice from contractors;
ensuring where applicable that the completion date of the provisioning of the lead-in is
inserted on the new service order.
ensuring that all installation delays (as advised by the A&AS contractor) caused by the
customers inability to coordinate the trench with the contractors lead-in job are to be
rescheduled (if contactable) or captured in HRC 10/24; and
ensuring that all TCDs in jeopardy due to a contractors missed commitment (as advised by
the A&AS contractor) are revised with the customer, if contactable.

7.6.2 Telecommunications Carrier Connection

The telecommunications connection will be effected through the supply of either a multipair cable
or optic fibre cable to the site, and will terminate at the main distribution frame. This will allow
provision of high-speed data services in the form of Telstra GWIP (Government Wide-Band IP) or
BDSL (Business Digital Subscriber Line).

The following considerations shall be given to the provision of the Telstra TCS GWIP (optic fibre) or
BDSL (copper) services:

Telstra hardware and services require physical space and associated electrical power supply
and electrical connections to cables entering the building;

the space allowed needs to be sufficient to allow staff to work on the equipment in
accordance with health and safety guidelines;

it is recommended that 6 to 10 RU (rack units) of rack space be provided at each site for the
housing of Telstra equipment (Telstra will assume all equipment is to be rack mounted
unless otherwise advised prior to order; the fibre patch panel is also to be rack mounted);
and

all other equipment, including the BDSL modem and frame relay NTU are available only as
freestanding units and only suitable for shelf mounting, preferably within a communication
rack.

7.6.3 Telstra TCS GWIP

Telstra will provide the following hardware items for the provision of GWIP (4Mbps+):

fibre access;

fibre patch panel;

a GWIP Switch (typically a Cisco 3550) providing one Ethernet interface; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 130 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

a TCS router Cisco 2811.

7.6.4 Telstra TCS BDSL

Telstra will provide the following hardware items for the provision of Business DSL (up to 2Mbps
symmetric):

copper (2 wire) access;

BDSL Modem (typically an Adtran modem) with an Ethernet 100BaseTX interface; and

a TCS router Cisco 2811.

7.6.5 TCS Equipment Dimensions

Equipment Model Dimensions (H x D x W) Power Consumption

Cisco 2811 router 4.45cm x 41.66cm x 43.82cm 105W with standard power

Cisco 3550-24 switch 4.45cm x 36.58cm x 44.45cm Catalyst 3550-24: 65W,


222 Btus per hour

Adtran BDSL modem Adtran Total Access (TA) 544R NTU 240VAC
shelf mounted 1RU

Note: The Cisco 2811 router is extraordinarily deep (416.6mm) and will not fit in some standard
communication racks. A communication rack of at least 450mm depth is required to house the Cisco
2811 router. Wall mounting kits are available for the Cisco 2811 router so that, in a situation where
the router cannot be rack mounted, the router can be mounted vertically on a wall to conserve
space.

The Cisco 2811 router has three fans that operate at a slower speed to conserve power and reduce
fan noise at ambient temperatures below 32oC. They operate at high-speed in ambient
temperatures above 32oC.

7.6.6 Distributors

A main communication cupboard or area campus distributor (CD) is required in the building
considered the point of connection by the communications carrier. This area may act as a point of
connection for incoming cables and this may be the nucleus of the star configured cabling in the
complex of buildings.

Building distributors (BDs) are required in each building and might be combined with the CD. If the
building length is greater than 180 metres, or multiple floors are being constructed, additional BDs
may be required. UTP cables used for the distribution of voice, video and data should be avoided
when the layout length of buildings exceeds 90 metres.

The communication cabinet shall:

Building Quality Standards Handbook 131 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

be installed within a communications cupboard or area;


be metal, with 19-inch internal mounting brackets;
be a minimum 12 RU cabinet height, with expansion space available for an additional 50%
capacity;
be freestanding or wall mounted;
be a minimum of 450mm deep, with a preference for 600mm deep where freestanding
cabinets are selected;
be lockable, with sides and a door;
be provided with an internal power rail to the cupboard (power to be supplied on a
dedicated circuit);
provide patch lead cable management in all cabinets (one manager for each patch panel);
use 24 port loaded patch panels;
incorporate fibre-optic termination trays as required;
provide patch lead and fly lead for each cabled outlet (2);
incorporate a fan tray at the top of full-height cabinets; and
feature a cable tray in full-height cabinets for cable connections.

All cables shall radiate from a communications cabinet patch panel and be terminated, and all patch
panels and cabling shall meet minimum accepted Department standards.

Careful consideration should be given to cabinet cable entry; refer to the Departments Information
Technology Telecommunications Cabling and Planning Guidelines and ICT Design Models for Schools
Best Practice.

7.7 Television Distribution System

A system suitable for the reception and distribution of free-to-air (FTA) television should be
considered for new schools. The designer should seek confirmation with the school or Department
representative regarding the areas requiring television points.

7.8 Intruder Detection System

Intruder detection system cabling is to be installed in strict accordance with the Departments
Emergency and Security Management (ESM) School Alarm System Specification.

The security cabling and installers are pre-qualified, trained and experienced for this particular
system. Systems installed by non approved installers will not be monitored by ESM.

Intruder detection systems should not be part of the electrical contract.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 132 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

The Emergency and Security Management Unit (tel: 03 9589 6266) will provide a detailed
sectionalisation list from architectural drawings. This list is to be included in the builders
construction specification.

It is important to note the following matters:

reliable power outlets are required for the system and must be installed by a licensed
electrician;

no surface conduit is allowed;

cables shall be installed in conduit in accessible under-floor areas; and

underground conduits must be buried to a depth of 500mm and in accordance with AS 3000
standards.

For further information, consult the Emergency and Security Management website:
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default.aspx.
(Note that this site requires an Edumail user ID and password for access.).

7.9 Public Address System

Public address (PA) cabling is specific for this particular system.

The PA system comprises a public address amplifier and speakers operating on a 100 volt line.

The public address amplifier shall feature:


250 watt amplifier minimum;
3 balanced microphone inputs;
2 auxiliary inputs;
record and slave input;
pre-announcement chime;
bell;
emergency alert and evacuation tones; and
monitor speaker.

Three types of microphone will be connected to the system. These are:


desk paging microphone;
cardioid microphone with a floor stand; and
radio microphone.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 133 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Section 7 Communication Services

7.10 Clock-Bell Services

The provision of stand-alone clocks in schools is preferred, so no infrastructure is needed for this
service.

Bell services can be achieved by the public address service. Again, no separate infrastructure will be
needed if a public address service is selected.

7.11 As-built Documentation

Hard and soft copies of as-built documentation must be submitted in accordance with Section 8.2 of
the Standard Specification for Information Technology and Telecommunications Cabling which can
be found at: http://www.mmv.vic.gov.au/TelecommunicationsandBroadband.

Requirements include but are not limited to:


drawings showing as-installed details;
routes of cable runs;
routes of conduit runs;
rack frame layouts;
manufacturers warranty details;
manufacturers certification;
communications cabinet locations and numbering scheme;
full summary of test results for all cabling; and
intruder detection system details.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 134 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

8. SITE WORKS & SCHOOL LANDSCAPING


8.1 Introduction

A well maintained, functional and aesthetic school site has a positive influence on student values,
behaviour and performance.

All aspects of site development, including landscaping, should be reflected in a schools masterplan.
Landscaping should not be dealt with in isolation but form an integral part of the overall
development.

Every effort should be made to retain existing trees of use and importance. To achieve this, a
proper survey should be carried out of all significant trees and site features prior to any
masterplanning.

The development of school grounds should be focused to satisfy goals in these major areas:
provision of a safe, manageable, pleasant and ecologically responsible outdoor
environment;
provision of areas and facilities which meet outdoor curriculum requirements;
provision of areas and facilities which meet outdoor play, assembly and physical education
requirements; and
consideration of ecologically sustainable design (ESD) performance related to landscape
irrigation and water efficiency, transport design, cyclist facilities, and recycling storage
areas.

It is important that school grounds are developed to meet these goals in a balanced and
comprehensive manner.

In the context of school facilities provision, site development comprises five distinct categories:
roads, footpaths and hard courts;
fencing;
planted landscaped areas;
covered ways; and
site improvements.

The extent of site development will vary and the needs and priorities of new and existing schools
will clearly differ. For example, a new school project usually requires more site development than a
major facilities upgrade at an existing school.

During the design phase of the buildings and site, it is the responsibility of the principal consultant to
ensure that careful consideration is given to specific site development requirements, bearing in
mind the approved budget for this.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 135 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Post-occupancy evaluations (2005) noted that a lack of site investigation was found to have led to
issues ranging from stormwater drainage problems (many of which remained unresolved), asbestos
removal, rock removal and excavation, and fire service rectification.

Other important issues to be addressed during the planning of a site development scheme include:
requirement for a complete site masterplan incorporating, among other things, weather
protection and shading at a scale not less than 1:100 and on an accurate survey base (this
is mandatory for new school projects, but may not be necessary for all facilities upgrade
proposals);
current and proposed school/community funded improvements;
functional and safe access around the site for pedestrian and vehicular traffic (this should
include traffic planning in relation to drop-off and pick-zones for students by cars and,
where relevant, buses, with separation of pedestrian and vehicle traffic);
provision of parking for teachers, parents, visitors and deliveries;
emergency access;
maintenance and security (the ongoing cost of site maintenance can be minimised by
careful planning through all stages of design);
direct routes to a full range of facilities (e.g. toilets, drinking fountains, canteen, hard court
areas, etc.);
provision of non-slip path surfaces;
passive recreational area requirements;
active recreational area requirements;
planting to stop erosion, mark boundaries, provide shade and shelter, channel pedestrian
traffic and provide visual screening (generally, planting should have regard to maintenance,
aesthetic and educational values); and
provision of disabled access throughout the site, including car parking in accordance with
the Building Code of Australia.

All design, materials and construction shall comply with the Building Code of Australia and relevant
Australian Standards.

In terms of environmentally preferred materials, contact EcoRecycle Victoria:


http://www.ecorecycle.vic.gov.au/. (With respect to construction, demolition, refurbishment or
landscaping, waste minimisation planning can lead to a reduction of site waste and a more intensive
use of materials.)

Useful security hints and practical advice can also be obtained from the Departments Emergency
and Security Management website:
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default.aspx.
(Note that this site requires an Edumail user ID and password for access.)

Details relating to landscaping must be addressed in the Design Development report.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 136 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

8.2 Roads, Footpaths and Hard courts

8.2.1 Vehicle Access Roads

Vehicle access roads provide functional and safe access onto the site. For safety reasons, they
should be separate from pedestrian access paths. On-site staff parking should be designed with
minimal site intrusion, and the extent of access roads should be minimised.

Consideration should be given to a single point of vehicle entry into each staff car parking area.

For economic reasons, delivery vehicle access is usually incorporated into the staff car park.
Delivery vehicles will require access as close as possible to areas such as administration, canteen
and technology. Direct access to these areas, however, is not mandatory and the trolleying of
equipment and goods over short distances is acceptable.

Access roads are usually constructed of heavy duty asphalt (recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt
may, where feasible, be specified) with associated kerb and channel. Speed traps, signage and
bollards should be considered in the interests of safety.

Carriageway dimensions and alignments should satisfy the relevant road authority standards. Refer to the
VicRoads website (http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/Home) for helpful information.

Consideration should also be given in the planning of site facilities to the access and circulation of
emergency vehicles such as ambulances and fire trucks, as per the relevant Australian Standards and
authority guidelines.

8.2.2 Parking Areas

There is no requirement for the Department to provide staff car parking. However, where site
conditions permit (and subject to the availability of funds), provision will be made in accordance
with the following long-term enrolments.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 137 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Enrolment Primary Secondary Special Special Special Special


School College Developmental Developmental Schools Schools
Car Car Schools Schools Car Enrolment Car Spaces
Spaces Spaces Enrolment Spaces
1-99 8 11 1-8 6 1-12 6
100-199 14 20 9-16 8 13-24 8
200-299 21 30 17-24 10 25-36 10
300-399 27 36 25-32 13 37-48 13
400-499 34 44 33-40 16 49-60 16
500-599 51 41-48 19 61-72 19
600-699 59 49-56 22 73-84 22
700-799 67 57-64 26 85-96 26
800-899 76 65-72 30 97-108 30
900-999 84 73-80 34 109-120 34
1,000-1099 92 81-88 38 121-132 38
1,100-1199 100 89-96 42 133-144 42
97-104 44 145-155 44
105-112 46
113-120 48

Considerations which may influence the location of staff car parks include:
access for staff from car park to buildings; and
access to physical education facilities (these can be shared with the community during after
hours).

A minimum of one parking bay should be provided for the disabled as part of the entitlement as
specified in the Building Code of Australia.

Provision of all parking including dimensions and layout shall conform with the Building Code of
Australia.

Staff car parks should be constructed of heavy duty asphalt with kerb and channel, line-marking and kerb
ramps that accord with the Building Code of Australia.

8.2.3 Waste Disposal

A waste disposal facility is usually incorporated adjacent to the car parking area and sited as close as
possible to the street boundary. This is necessary for safety reasons and limiting the intrusion of
pick-up trucks onto the site. The waste disposal bay should be constructed of high strength
concrete. Suitable screening should be considered around the waste disposal facility.

Access to waste disposal bins should take into consideration:


the provision of an adequate space for large vehicles to enter and manoeuvre; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 138 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

a pavement design which is sufficient to support large vehicles and withstand the tyre
scrubbing forces arising from vehicle manoeuvres.

Operational wastes are those generated once a facility is in use. These include food wastes,
beverage containers, paper, cardboard and other packaging materials. Effective design should
ensure that classrooms, staffrooms, canteens, libraries etc. have areas allocated where waste and
recycling bins are placed. The waste disposal facility (from which waste and recyclables are
collected) should be of a size to accommodate and store these materials prior to pick-up. The
facility should also take into account the size of collection vehicles and methods of collection (e.g.
lift mechanism, etc.).

The disposal facility should conform with AS 2890 in terms of size and vehicle movement requirements.

8.2.4 Pedestrian Paths

A path network is required to provide a safe, functional and direct means of access to and around
school buildings. Access is required from the car park to buildings for staff, visitors and deliveries.

Such paths must also be suitable for people with disabilities in accordance with current Australian
Standards. Access for people with disabilities is not required to every door of every building but,
rather, to each separate functional area within the school. See Disability (Access to Premises
Buildings) Standards 2010.

Paths, including steps and ramps, must be designed to avoid trip and slip hazards. Paths are
generally hard-paved or made of slip-resistant surfaces such as concrete on a crushed-rock base.
The use of slip-resistant materials and detailing is an important occupational health and safety
(OH&S) consideration.

Surfaces such as gravel and granitic sand are not acceptable due to associated maintenance
problems. Permeable surfaces such as rubber, no fines concrete and other surface treatments may
be considered, subject to budget and applicability. Recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt may,
where feasible, be specified for pedestrian paths. If light pedestrian activity is expected, then
asphalt may be used.

Path widths should suit their anticipated usage and, in general, be a minimum of 1500mm wide and
in accordance with AS 1428.

Footpaths should be wide enough at building entrances to provide sufficient paved area for students
waiting to enter, especially if external access to classrooms is employed.

Path gradients, steps and surfaces should accord with the Building Code of Australia. Some paths
may require handrails. Landings of ramps and steps must be provided with tactile ground surface
indicators (TGSI). Steps must also be provided with contrasting strip at tread nosings in accordance
with the Building Code of Australia.

Paths with gradients greater than 1:14 must be provided with handrails in accordance with AS
1428.1. Paths with gradients greater than 1:20 might also require them (see AS 1428.1).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 139 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

8.2.5 Hard courts

New Primary Schools

One double hard court is to be provided as well as a paved area equivalent in size to a single hard
court.

The hard courts are regarded as an important physical education facility and should therefore be
sited in close proximity to the gymnasium and outdoor grassed playing area.

The paved area should be conveniently located for school assembly purposes.

New Secondary Colleges

Two double hard courts are to be provided.

Hard Court Construction

Hard courts should be constructed of light duty asphalt (recycled concrete aggregate and asphalt
may, where feasible, be specified). Refer to AS 37271993, Table 4, Light Traffic for a recommended
minimum standard of construction.

Ensure that an effective and durable edge restraint is provided, extending for the full depth of the
pavement including base course. A standard municipal flush kerb is recommended.

Hard Court Marking

Hard courts are usually marked in accordance with Sport and Recreation Victoria (Department of
Victorian Communities) guidelines for basketball, netball and volleyball. The courts should be
marked in a north/south orientation.

Hard Court Fittings

Basketball and netball fittings should be provided as required, and sleeves should be supplied for
any other games posts.

8.2.6 Paved Areas

Asphalt Concrete

Asphalt surfaces shall be heavy duty with appropriate base course material placement and finishing
to conform with AS 3727-1993 and the Australian Asphalt Pavement Association guidelines.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 140 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Concrete Pavement

Concrete pavements shall be a maximum depth of 150mm with appropriate reinforcement and base
course material. Designs shall conform with Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia guidelines and
AS 3727-1993 and AS3600.

Segmental Pavers

Segmental pavers shall be heavy duty with appropriate base course material. Placement and
finishing to conform to manufacturers specification and AS 3727-1993.

Pavement Ancillaries

All pavements should have appropriate concrete edge restraints such as kerb and channel or edge
strip. Appropriate agricultural drainage pipes should be used to avoid pavement failure due to water
infiltration.

8.3 Playground Equipment

Only approved playground equipment may be erected in school grounds. In general, approved
equipment includes:
sandpits;
slides;
horizontal and vertical ladders;
horizontal bars;
gymnastic combinations;
jungle combinations;
climbing nets and frames; and
climbing ropes (fixed).

All equipment design and installation should conform to AS 1924 Parts 1 and 2, AS/NZS 4486.1 and
AS/NZS 4422.

The following items are not approved for use in schools:


seesaws;
swings (including log swings);
maypoles;
merry-go-rounds;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 141 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

roundabouts; and
flying foxes.

All apparatus must be fixed unless specifically designed to be portable. Concrete footings should be
set with the tops of the footings at least 200mm below ground level and backfilled.

Under-surfacing to an average compacted depth of 250mm should be provided and maintained in a


loose condition.

In general, playground equipment should not be more than 3 metres above ground level, with a fall
height of no more than 2.5 metres. The equipment must be at least 2.5 metres away from any
fences, buildings or other similar objects. There should be at least 2.5 metres between items of
equipment. Written confirmation that the playground equipment and its installation meet the
requirements of the Australian Standards should be provided by the supplier.

All playground equipment should be inspected weekly and repairs and maintenance carried out
immediately. Particular attention needs to be given to the under-surfacing beneath the playground
equipment.

Information and advice is available from the Playgrounds and Recreation Association of Victoria
(PRAV); tel. 9412 4013, fax. 9412 4013, email prav@netspace.net.au.

Guidelines for School Playgrounds: Playground Safety Management (Feb 2005) are also available in
the Principal Consultants section of the Infrastructure Division website
(https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/sc/sites/Infonline/default.aspx). (Note: this requires an Edumail
user ID and password for access.)

8.4 Fencing
8.4.1 Standard Perimeter Fencing

A perimeter fence to enclose or define the extent of the site should be provided to a minimum
height of 1200mm.

Any adjoining party fencing requirements will need to be investigated by the principal consultant.

8.4.2 Security Fencing

As a general rule, the Department does not provide security fencing in Victorian Government
schools. However, provision of a 2100mm high security fence should be considered where local
conditions require additional security to minimise casual and opportunistic access and vandalism.
Depending on the local circumstances, such fences can not only keep students inside the grounds
but can also prevent access to the grounds by unwanted visitors.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 142 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

The recommended type is palisade fencing, 2100mm high and with vertical bars.

Different levels of security may be considered appropriate for different facilities. Classrooms benefit
from a high degree of protection, particularly if the design has lockers located under external
verandas. Other areas may still need to be fenced, but to a lesser standard.

Security against unauthorised access can also be achieved through environmental design using
landscaping features such as planter boxes and changes in levels.

Careful consideration must be given to gates so that latches and controls are operable by people
with disabilities but without compromising security.

8.4.3 Pool Fencing

Pool fencing (conforming to AS 1926.12007, Swimming Pool Safety Part 1 Safety Barriers for
Swimming Pools) must be provided for all swimming pool areas.

Careful consideration must be given to gates so that latches and controls are operable by people
with disabilities but without compromising security.

8.5 Landscaping

8.5.1 Sports Playing Field

The available stripped top soil resulting from building works should be utilised and spread to assist
in creation of flat playing areas. Assessments of the fill required compared with the yield of top soil
available from the building site, plus any additional material required, should be undertaken at the
commencement of the planning process to define what is practical for the site.

All playing surfaces need to be drained with falls across the playing surface and adequate sub-
surface drainage. At least two quick-coupling valves should be provided within the playing areas.

All grass mixes should be drought tolerant, with a minimum of flowering species (such as clover) to
minimise the attraction of bees.

New Primary Schools

A flat, well drained, grassed open playing area should be provided subject to the dictates of
topography and available space (nominal field/oval dimensions of 110 x 90 metres).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 143 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

New Secondary Schools

A flat, well drained, grassed open playing area should be provided (nominal field/oval dimensions of
165 x 135 metres).

8.5.2 Irrigation Systems

Appropriate water reticulation should be provided to enable grassed areas to be maintained. Quick-
coupling valves should be provided in a suitable layout.

The installation of an irrigation system alone may not achieve the best results in water conservation.
Systems should be carefully chosen using expert advice where appropriate. An ongoing irrigation
management plan is recommended to prevent over irrigation. A good example of best practice is
included in the South East Water website www.southeastwater.com.au. Refer to Education &
Environment Irriga`on Management and download the document Efficient Irrigation: A
Reference Manual for Turf and Landscape. The websites Irrigation Calculator is of further
assistance.

Water Restrictions

The design of planted areas needs to assess the availability of mains water supply under prevailing
water restrictions operating in the school location, and also any likely changes in the situation.

Use of harvested rainwater may be possible, assuming this is not already being utilised for the
flushing of toilets. Other sources, such as bore water, are also likely to be restricted in times of
water shortage.

8.5.3 General Grassed Area

All areas of the site not required for other purposes will be converted to general grassed areas.
Trees may be planted through these areas to provide future shade.

Refer Section 8.8 Landscape Cultivation and Planting Guidelines, for planting information.

8.5.4 Garden Beds


2
Provide a minimum 150m of ground level mulched garden beds to match existing grades and site
contours, where possible, and service these with fixed water spray systems. The use of a dripper
system should be explored in lieu of expensive pop-up sprays. Fixed spray heads should be avoided
due to vandalism. Garden beds should be located in less heavily trafficked areas.

Composts and mulches can reduce water consumption and eliminate weed problems, thereby
reducing maintenance costs. Composts and mulches made to standards AS 4454 (composts, soil

Building Quality Standards Handbook 144 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

conditioners and mulches), AS 3743 (potting mixes) and AS 4419 (soils for landscaping and gardens)
should be employed in landscaping applications where feasible to do so.

Refer Section 8.8 Landscape Cultivation and Planting Guidelines, for planting information.

8.5.5 Shade Areas

Due to Australias high skin cancer rates, sun protection is an important health and safety issue that
schools need to address. Providing well-designed shade at the school will help protect students and
staff from the suns harmful UV rays.

Effective shade provides shelter from the suns UV radiation at the right time of day and at the right
time of year. Shade alone can reduce overall exposure to the suns ultraviolet (UV) rays by about
75%.

Shade should be designed to offer the greatest protection during peak UV radiation times and usage
periods. In Victoria, UV Index levels are highest from September to April. About 60% of daily UV
radiation reaches the earths surface during the middle of the day. Therefore, sites with high usage
at that time have a higher priority for shade.

When planning for shade, refer to Shade for Everyone: a Practical Guide for Shade Development. Call
SunSmart on (03) 9635 5148 for a free copy, or download a version from the SunSmart website:
www.sunsmart.com.au.

When planning school grounds, consideration should be given to developing shade areas
appropriate for student use. SunSmart recommends that shade audits be conducted to:
establish usage patterns at the site;
determine the daily/seasonal movements of the sun;
assess the quantity and usability of existing shade;
assess the need for additional shade; and
provide recommendations concerning additional shade (if required).

The best types of shade have extensive overhead or side cover, and are away from highly reflective
surfaces. The shaded area should also be an inviting space so that students will want to use it.

When planning school grounds, consideration should be given to developing appropriate shade
areas for student use. This can be done in a variety of ways.

Natural Shade

Natural shade should be a major element of shade provision within a school. Trees with dense
foliage and wide spreading canopies provide the best protection.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 145 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Where possible, preserve all existing and suitable shade trees on site. Optimise the use of this
existing shade by, for example, removing low branches so that students can play underneath.

For the longer term, locate shade planting in areas where students tend to gather, such as lunch and
passive playground areas. The shade tree chart on page 19 of Shade for Everyone provides
information to help select trees appropriate to the site. Plant groups of trees in clusters to increase
the overall size of the canopy and therefore increase protection.

Built Shade

As trees can take years to grow, it is recommended that built shade be constructed in the shorter
term. Note that shade sail structures require building permits and engineering certification.

Shade structures must be made in accordance with Building Code of Australia and Australian
Standards. Any shade structure in fixed play equipment areas should be designed with reference to
AS/NZS 4486.1:1997. The UPF (ultraviolet protection factor) rating system for shade fabric is
presented in AS/NZS 4399:1996. SunSmart recommends that shade fabrics have a UPF of 15 or
higher. These offer 90% protection from UV radiation. The shade area should be of sufficient height
(three metres minimum) to make it light and airy and a welcoming space to use.

Safety is a major consideration when designing built shade:


Columns and posts should be clearly visible, with rounded edges and/or padding, and
located to minimise intrusion into play and circulation areas.
Cables and guy ropes should be avoided where possible. If required, locate them in garden
areas and provide marking and padded protection.
Vertical barriers at the sides of the shade structure should be designed to prevent climbing.

Design shade structures to reduce indirect UV radiation. Modify or select surfaces to reduce
reflected UV radiation, for example, replace smooth concrete with brick, grass or tanbark. Vertical
surfaces such as walls should also be made of materials that reduce reflected UV radiation (for
example, brick).

8.5.6 Landscaping in Bushfire Prone Areas

Bushfires are a natural and challenging feature of the Victorian landscape. Well planned and
managed vegetation can provide many benefits in bushfire-prone areas. It can:
reduce fire intensity;
reduce wind speed;
deflect and filter embers (small particles of burning material and other burning debris); and
provide shelter from radiant heat.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 146 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

The schools site plan can be used to develop a plan which incorporates planting and landscaping. All
external features on site need to be considered, for example, overhead wires, existing trees and
shrubs, hard areas, service areas, paths and roadways, playgrounds and sports fields.

For more comprehensive information, refer to the Departments Landscaping Guidelines for
Bushfire Prone Areas. Also see Section 8.8 Landscape Cultivation and Planting Guidelines.

8.6 Covered Ways

Covered ways link both permanent and relocatable facilities.

In general, the covered way is a simple structure that comprises a galvanised frame with metal roof
decking. Roofing and guttering shall be provided in accordance with Section 4.4 Roof.

In the case of new school developments, covered ways should be provided to link relocatable units
with permanent buildings. It is normal practice for relocatable buildings to be sited in cluster
arrangements along a central covered way access spine. Take-offs from the central covered way are
to be provided at entrance points.

Covered ways may also be considered as a means of providing undercover external access around
and between permanent buildings. They can also provide useful shade to buildings and windows.
This should be addressed by the principal consultant as part of the building design process.

8.7 Improvements (new schools) Landscape Finishes

8.7.1 Seating

Formal outdoor seating (100mm length per student and an overall school minimum of 20 metres)
shall be provided. Seating configurations should take into account prospect/vista, shade, age group,
gender and their benefit in terms of social development and interaction.

8.7.2 Litter Bins

Outdoor litter bins (one for every 30 students and a school minimum of one) shall be provided.

8.7.3 Flagpole

One flagpole, with all the attachments needed to raise a flag, shall be provided.

Security may be advisable to avoid unauthorised use.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 147 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

8.7.4 External Signage

A system of external signs listing different parts of the school and clearly directing people to their
intended location should be provided. It is of particular importance that signs at the entry to the
site clearly direct visitors to the school office.

Signs are important for both delivery and periodic maintenance, and should be vandal proof,
informative, accurate and visually interesting. Signs are labels which establish a tone and, as such,
are key to many first and lasting impressions.

Signage should accord with Draft Disability (Access to Premises Buildings) Standards 2009 and the
Building Code of Australia.

8.8 Landscape Cultivation and Planting Guidelines

The development of school grounds and cultivation of school gardens has important practical and
aesthetic benefits.

Deciduous trees to the north (or evergreens set back a distance twice their height), and evergreens
to the east and west can block summer morning and evening sun if external blinds are not provided.
The maintenance costs of deciduous trees should be considered.

8.8.1 General Planting Hints


Approximate planting distances:
: Plants of up to one metre (300mm to 600mm apart);
: Plants from one to two metres (one metre apart); and
: Plants from two to two and a half metres (one and a half to two metres apart).
This allows for the usual 30% death rate.
Plant eucalypts and other large trees within a suitable distance from buildings and
sewerage. This ranges from two to six metres, depending on the size of the tree. The
distance from the tree to any building should be at least the anticipated height of the mature
tree.
Trees in clumps look more natural if planted in uneven numbers. Vegetation groupings
should create significant places and gestures within school grounds.
Plant several clumps of one particular type. For instance, five clumps of different species of
acacias, melaleucas or eucalypts would emphasise the diversity of plants within each genus;
while flowering times, fragrance, texture and leaf shape are some of the variables within
each genus. A suitable area for such planting would be an unused corner at the edge of an
oval or playground.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 148 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Avoid planting trees under the eaves of classrooms or planting tall shrubs in front of
windows. Judicious planting, however, can shade some windows and provide a cooling
effect. Deciduous trees offer shade in summer and let in the light during winter.
Plant shade trees near car parks. Avoid limb droppers and troublesome root systems Refer to
Section 8.8.3 for a list of plants to avoid.
Avoid planting trees with large seed pods, such as Eucalyptus ficifolia, near hard-paved
areas. Children can slip on these pods.
Avoid thorny, poisonous or fruit bearing plants. Refer to Section 8.8.3 for a list of plants to
avoid.
Before planting native trees, attempt to find out which trees and plants are indigenous to
the area. Such plants have a high success rate and are valuable in terms of local ecology.
Plant shrubbery areas thickly so that weeds wont survive.
In general, shrubs will grow as wide as they are high, and for this reason one metre
garden beds are not useful planting areas.
Small or established trees:
: for native trees, results are better with small trees, particularly in hard soils; and
: in areas of high traffic, established trees are suggested.

8.8.2 Vegetation Fuel Management

Combustible material is a major factor influencing the intensity and spread of bushfires. When
developing a landscaping plan, consideration should be given to fuel management. Consider the
following strategies:
if planting close to buildings, choose native or exotic grass species that remain green
throughout summer;
less flammable ground cover plants can reduce the travel speed of fire;
avoid plants that produce fine fuel which is easily ignited (fine fuel includes tree and shrub
litter, leaves, twigs, bark strips, mulches, ferns, low plants, grass, decaying material and
debris on the ground);
do not plant trees that are particularly combustible, for example, trees with ribbon bark,
open crown, fine leaves or high oil content;
create breaks between fuels along the ground plant islands, rather than continuous runs
of vegetation;
form breaks between fuels vertically plant in such a way that fuels cannot form a
continuous or linked ladder from ground-level grasses to bushes, and from understorey to
tree tops;
consider the position and nature of existing trees; make sure that new planting will not
create a fuel ladder with these trees;
if planting to provide shade, choose species with dense foliage and spreading canopies;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 149 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

as a general rule, plants which grow to a height greater than four metres should not be
closer than ten metres from any structure; and
look at descriptions and plant dimensions when selecting plants, but also observe how
particular plants grow in your area. (Refer Section 8.8.4 Particular Plants Bushfire Prone
Areas)

For further information, refer to the Departments Landscaping Guidelines for Bushfire Prone Areas.

8.8.3 Particular Plants General Characteristics and Information

Quick Growing Native Trees


Eucalyptus globulus Tasmania Blue Gum
Eucalyptus leucoxylon rosea Red Flowered Yellow Gum
Eucalyptus nicholii Willow Leafed Peppermint
Eucalyptus saligna Sydney Blue Gum
Eucalyptus torquata Coral Gum

Quicker Growing Deciduous Trees


Acer negundo Box Elder
Alnus incana Grey Alder
Fraxinus raywoodii Claret Ash
Quercus cerris Turkey Oak

Hardy Native Shrubs Large

Acacia cultriformis Knife-edge Wattle


Acacia floribunda Catkin Acacia
Acacia iteaphylla Gawler Range Wattle
Acacia longifolia Sallow Wattle
Acacia pravissima Ovens Wattle
Acacia stricta Hop Wattle
Acacia verniciflua Varnish Wattle
Callistemon citrinus Lemon Scented Bottlebrush
Callistemon linariifolius Narrow Leaf Bottlebrush
Callistemon salignus Pink Tips Bottlebrush
Callistemon viminalis Weeping Bottlebrush
Casuarina nana

Building Quality Standards Handbook 150 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Grevillea rosmarinifolia Rosemary Grevillea


Grevillea Clearview David
Grevillea Pink Pearl
Grevillea glabrata
Grevillea poorinda hybrids
Hakea laurina Pin Cushion Hakea
Hakea saligna Willow Hakea
Hakea suaveolens Sweet-scented Hakea
Leptospermum lanigerum Woolly Tea-tree
Leptospermum petersenii Lemon-scented Tea-tree
Melaleuca armillaris Bracelet Myrtle
Melaleuca decussata Cross Leaf Honey Myrtle
Melaleuca diosmifolia

Hardy Native Shrubs Small-Medium

Acacia conferta Golden Top


Acacia drummondii Drummonds Wattle
Anigozanthos flavida Kangaroo Paw
Astartea fascicularis
Callistemon pinifolius Green Bottlebrush
Calocephalus brownii Cushion Bush
Grevillea Crosbie Morrison
Grevillea dimorpha
Grevillea juniperina
Grevillea lavandulacea
Leptospermum flavescens Tantoon
Leptospermum scoparium Manuka
Melaleuca hypericifolia Red Honey Myrtle
Melaleuca incaca Grey Honey Myrtle
Rhagodia hastata Salt Bush
Thryptomene paynei

Thicket Planting

Acacia mearnsii Black Wattle


Acacia melanoxylon Black Wood

Building Quality Standards Handbook 151 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Plants to Avoid (Harmful to Humans)

Hedera helix English Ivy


Kalmia latifolia Kalmia
Laburnum species Golden Rain Tree
Lantana species Lantana
Ligustrum vulgare Common Privet
Melia azedarach White Cedar
Myoporum insulare Boobialla
Nerium species Oleander
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry Laurel
Wisteria sinensis Wisteria

Plants to Avoid (Limb Droppers)


Eucalyptus botryoides Mahogany Gum
Eucalyptus camaldulensis River Red Gum
Eucalyptus cladocalyx Sugar Gum
Eucalyptus mannifera White Brittle Gum
Eucalyptus viminalis Manna Gum (Ribbon Gum)

Trees with Troublesome Root Systems


Fraxinus species some Ashes
Populus species Poplars
Salix babylonica Weeping Willow
Ulmus procera English Elm

8.8.4 Particular Plants Bushfire Prone Areas

The following shrubs and trees are recommended in bushfire prone areas.

Shrubs
Acacia boormanii Snowy River Wattle
Acacia cyclops W.A. Coast Wattle
Acacia flexifolia Bent-Leaf Wattle
Acacia glandulicarpa Hairy-pod Wattle
Acacia howittii Sticky Wattle
Acacia pravissima Owens Wattle

Building Quality Standards Handbook 152 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Acacia iteaphylla Gawler Range Wattle


Acacia myrtifolia Myrtle Wattle
Acacia vestita Hairy Wattle
Agonis juniperina Juniper Myrtle
Atriplex nummularia Old Man Saltbush
Banksia marginata Silver Banksia
Buxus sempervirens English Box
Chaenomales japonica Japonica
Cistus spp. Rock Rose
Correa alba Coastal Correa
Duranta plumieri Sky Flower
Dais cotinifolia Pompom tree
Elaegnus pungens variegata Variegated Oleaster
Erythrina crlsta-galli Coral Tree
Escallonia macrantha Escallonia
Eupomatia laurina Bolwarra (Copper Laurel)
Grevillea rosmarinifolia Rosmary Grevillea
Hebe spp. Veronica
Lagerstroemia indica Crepe Myrtle
Lonicera nitida Box-Leaf Honey Suckle
Myoporum Insulare Boobialla
Myoporum montanum Waterbush
Myrtus pendunculata Myrtle
Osmanthus heterophyllus Osmanthus
Photinia glabra Rubens Chinese Firebush
Photinia glabra Robusta Chinese Firebush
Pieris japonica Japanese Pearl Flower
Rhagodia parabolica Saltbush
Rhapilolepis delacouri Indian Hawthorn
Rhododendron spp. Rhododendron
Telopea oreades Victorian Waratah
Telopea truncata Tasmanian Waratah
Viburnum tinus Laurustinus

Building Quality Standards Handbook 153 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Westringia fruticosa Native Rosemary


Westringia glabra Violet Westringia

Azaleas, Camellias and Rhododendrons

These plants do have fire resistant qualities and should, if possible, be retained where they currently
exist. (It should be noted that some varieties have poisonous leaves and others can cause
dermatitis.)

Trees name Average height


Acacia Melanoxylon Blackwood
Acer campestre Common Maple
Acer negundo Box Elder Maple
Acer platanoides Norway Maple
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore
Acmena smithii Lilly Pilly
Aesculus carnea Pink Flowered Chestnut
Alnus glutinosa Common Alder
Alnus jorullensis Evergreen Alder
Angophora costata Rusty Gum Myrtle
Brachychiton populneus Kurrajong
Buckinghamia celsissima Ivory Curl Flower
Calodendron capense Cape Chestnut
Casuarina cunninghamiana River She-Oak
Celtis australis Hack Berry
Ceratonia siliqua Carob
Ceratopetalum apetalum Coachwood
Cornus capitata Evergreen Dogwood
Elaeocarpus reticulatus Blue Oliveberry
Eucalyptus gummifera BIoodwood
Eucalyptus maculata Spotted Gum
Eucryphia moorei Leatherwood
Fraxinus species Ash Trees
Gordonia axillaris Cordonia
Griselina littoralis N.Z. Broadleaf
Lagunaria patersonii Pyramid Tree

Building Quality Standards Handbook 154 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Site Works & School Landscaping

Lagerstroemia indica Crepe Myrtle


Laurus nobilis Laurel (Sweet Bay)
Ligustrum lucidum Privet
Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Tree
Metrosideros excelsa N.Z. Xmas Tree
Nothofagus cunninghamii Myrtle Beech
Oreocallis wickhamii (syn.Embothrium w.) Tree Waratah
Olea europaea Olive
Photinia serrulata Chinese Hawthorn
Pittosporum eugenioides Tarata
Platanus acerifolia London Plane Tree
Populus simenii Simons Poplar
Prunus laurocerasus Cherry Laurel
Prunus Lusitanica Portugal Laurel
Quercus canariensis Algerian Oak
Quercus cerris Turkey Oak
Quercus suber Cork Oak
Quercus virginiana Live Oak
Salix alba spp. vitellina Golden Willow
Schinus molle Peppercorn Tree
Stenocarpus sinuatus Firewheel Tree
Syzygium coolminianum Lilly Pilly
Syzygium floribundum Weeping Lilly Pilly
Tilla vulgaris Linden
Tristania conferta Brisbane Brush Box
Tristania laurina Kanooka
Ulmus glabra Scotch Elm
Ulmus parvifolia Chinese Elm
Ulmus pumila Siberian Elm
Zelkova carpinifolia European Zelkova

For further information, refer to the Departments Landscaping Guidelines for Bushfire Prone Areas.
See also Australian Plants for Fire Prone Areas (1994), http://anpsa.org.au/fire.html.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 155 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

9. WORKPLACE HEALTH & SAFETY

9.1 Safety in Design

The issues noted in this section require consideration during all phases of the project. Note that
legislation places requirements on designers, owners and management of all workplaces.

The PREP Design Development Report must show that the design complies with Section 28 of the
Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004. An acceptable approach is for the principal consultant and
school to review potential risks involved in the project design, and to provide either solutions to
eliminate the risk or a means of control for each risk, so far as is reasonably practicable.

A basic reference is the WorkSafe Victoria publication, A handbook for workplaces OH&S in schools
A practical guide for school leaders. A particularly useful section is Addressing Key Risks in
Schools (page 12) which provides a list of risks and examples of control measures.

While legislation in Victoria does not yet extend to design for safe construction, consideration of the
way in which the building needs to be constructed, and elimination or amendment of design
features which are difficult to build, will yield benefits in the areas of cost and time control.

9.2 Victorian Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004

This Victorian legislation places an obligation on owners and designers of buildings and employers to
ensure that all persons employed (including contractors) in or on their premises are provided with
safe workplace conditions.

Reference needs to be made to the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007 for such
matters as prevention of falls, hazardous substances (including asbestos), and hazardous industries
construction.

The implications of the Victorian Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 apply generally across all
kinds of building projects and the built environment and are not unique to schools. An obvious area
of hazard is access to roofs (see Section 4.04).

Under Department Circular S4342007 Occupational Health and Safety Act Duties of Designers,
principal consultants are required to comply with Sections 27 and 28 of the Victorian Occupational
Health and Safety Act 2004. In consultation with the school, consultants must develop a list of
potential risks associated with the identified workplace and user activities. Schematic design and
design development reports are to be accompanied by a statement from the school that it has
considered the design from an OH&S perspective and is satisfied that it provides a workplace that
will be safe and without risk to health.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 156 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

9.3 A Handbook for Workplaces OH&S in Schools A Practical


Guide for School Leaders

This WorkSafe Victoria reference should be consulted as part of the process in the design of school
projects. A summary of selected items is provided here for reference:

Reference Comment Action


Roles of School Liaising with building designers Design to provide a safe environment.
leadership p.6 to ensure that new buildings and
renovations and alterations to
existing buildings are designed
to provide a safe environment
(i.e. eliminating risks through
good design).

Risk p.14 Likelihood of injury from Control by provision of adequate storage


handling heavy equipment. for heavy items at heights between knee
and shoulder level.

Risk p.14 Likelihood of injury from Control by pulley systems, accessible


hanging objects/displays at a display boards within staff members arm
height. reach.

Risk p.14 Likelihood of injury from Control by workplace design locating


computer based tasks of long printers at a distance from desks.
duration.

Risk p.15 Likelihood of injury from Control by designing storage areas to


hazardous ways of handling and reduce turns and distances that need to be
accessing materials in crossed, provide for use of trolleys, provide
classrooms, etc. adequate storage.

Risk p.18 Injuries resulting from slips, trips Eliminate risks through good design.
and falls from:
Flooring slip-resistant, changes of level
uneven ground highlighted.
wet/slippery floors Stairs high visibility, correct handrails,
suitable covering re maintenance.
trip hazards.
Roofs devise means of retrieving balls.
Environment glare off shiny surfaces, dim
light, floors wet by rain or condensation,
spill resistance.

Risk p.19 Slip and trip, and falls, and Slip-resistant surfaces.
impact injury at stairs and steps.
Slip-resistant steps at nosings of treads.
Luminance and colour-contrasting strips at

Building Quality Standards Handbook 157 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

nosings of treads (incorporating slip


resistivity).
Eliminate isolated low steps.
Sturdy hand rails (Ref AS 1428.1).
TGSs on landings and around stairways that
are open underneath.
Consideration should be given to installing
photo-luminescent strips at tread nosings
and elsewhere in stairways and egress
routes.

Risk p.19 Slips in general environment. Slip-resistant surfaces.


No areas where water or grease can
accumulate.
Slip-resistant strips.
Mats at entries recessed or with tapered
edges (refer the Building Code of Australia).
Avoidance of trailing power leads.

Risk p.19 Trips in general environment. Secure floor coverings and entry mats.
Avoid low level obstacles.
Provide suitable places for bikes.
Provide storage for personal items.

Risk p.19 Falls from roofs. Pitch roof so that balls fall back to ground
level.
Designate staff members to retrieve balls
using suitable equipment such as extended-
handle ball retrievers.
Provide guards to skylights or use impact
resistant materials to prevent falls through
skylights.

Risk p.20 Health and safety of contractors. Provide safe access to enable maintenance
to plant on roofs, repairs to roofs, cleaning
gutters (See Clause 4.4.2.1.8 Safe Access to
Roofs).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 158 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

9.4 Sub-floor Spaces

Sub-floor spaces must be closed off from access by children.

The 2005 post-occupancy evaluation reported a school built on a sloping site where floors had been
designed as suspended timber floors to minimise costs and excavation. The sub-floor spaces were
high enough for children to enter and had not been closed off as part of the design, creating an area
where children were unsupervised and at risk of injury.

9.5 Hazardous Materials and Conditions

The schools Occupational Health and Safety Representative should (before the commencement of
any demolition, refurbishment or maintenance works) ensure that the builder/contractor arranges
an examination of the building structure, equipment, fittings and all parts of the site by a competent
specialist to determine, as far as practicable, the presence of noxious, toxic or explosive materials or
conditions hazardous to the health of the school community or public if disturbed.

The nature and location of each hazard shall be recorded by the builder/contractor, and both the
record and the proposed method of dealing with identified hazards should be included in a work
plan. The principal consultant in conjunction with the Departments Program Manager is
responsible for the receipt and management of this information, including identification of special
factors that may have cost implications, etc.

For further information, refer to Australian Standard AS 2601. Additional advice in relation to
general emergency matters is obtainable from the Departments Emergency & Security
Management Unit, tel: 03 9589 6266;
https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default.aspx.
(Note that this site requires an Edumail user ID and password for access.)

To ensure that principal consultants have carried out their duties in accordance with all occupational
health and safety requirements, they need to submit monthly reports to the Program Manager who,
in turn, will collate these and submit them to the Department (likewise on a monthly basis).

9.6 Asbestos

It is the Departments aim to ultimately remove asbestos from all school buildings. While the most
dangerous forms of this material have been attended to, asbestos-containing materials are still
present in many existing facilities.

Asbestos management is governed by Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007, Chapter 4
Hazardous Substances and Materials, Part 4.3 Asbestos.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 159 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

All schools have had a Division 5 Asbestos Register (previously known as Asbestos Audit) carried out
in accordance with Division 5 of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007. This details
the presence of any known visual asbestos-containing materials within the school.

Before undertaking any maintenance, refurbishment, capital or demolition works, a school-


appointed School Asbestos Co-ordinator will ensure that works involving the removal or disturbance
of asbestos are carried out by contractors licensed by the Victorian WorkCover Authority, and that
they have the required level of public liability and current asbestos insurance.

The School Asbestos Co-ordinator must ensure that the builder/contractor responsible for the
management and/or removal of existing asbestos material in school buildings complies with
Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007, Chapter 4 Hazardous Substances and Materials,
Part 4.3 Asbestos.

The principal consultants role in the course of a major building project is to:
ensure that a Division 5 Asbestos Register is included within the tender documentation or
made available to tenderers during the tender process;
ensure that a Division 6 Asbestos Register (detailing the condition of the area to be worked
in) is undertaken prior to the commencement of any project works;
liaise with contractors prior to the commencement of any project works;
liaise with contractors during the progression of works to ensure all that mandatory
regulations are adhered to; and
ensure the contractor conforms to the Departments Asbestos Management Plan.

The following are requirements for asbestos works on Department sites:


the school site is to be totally vacant during all asbestos removal works;
all asbestos materials within the construction zone shall be removed as part of the project;
and
at the completion of the project, the principal consultant shall be responsible to arrange a
new Division 5 Asbestos Register and provide copies to the Department and the school.

9.7 Copper-Chrome-Arsenate (CCA) Treated Timber

Copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) treated pine must not be used in any exposed location where
students or members of the public are likely to come into intimate and frequent contact. For a list of
alternative timbers to be used, refer to AS 56042005.

AS 56042005 identifies the different durability characteristics of various natural and untreated
timbers, and specifies timber types suitable for use under various circumstances.

The suitability of timber treatments is identified in AS 56052007 (Guide to the Safe Use of
Preservative Treated Timber).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 160 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

Specific information on particular treatments can be found in the following consumer safety sheets:
AS 5605 SupplementsConsumer safety information sheet;
AS 5605 Supp 1 Copper chrome arsenate (CCA)-treated timber;
AS 5605 Supp 2 Alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ)-treated timber;
AS 5605 Supp 3 Copper azole-treated timber;
AS 5605 Supp 4 Light organic solvent-borne preservatives (LOSP)-treated timber;
AS 5605 Supp 5 Creosote or pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC)-treated timber; and
AS 5605 Supp 6 Bifenthrin-treated timber.

9.8 Occupational Health and Safety References


The following is a useful list of publications and web-based resources related to occupational health
and safety issues.

1. A handbook for workplaces OH&S in schools A practical guide for school leaders. WorkSafe
Victoria

2. Designing Safer Buildings and Structures, 1st Edition, December 2005, WorkSafe Victoria. A
guide to Section 28 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 informs the designers of
buildings of their duty under the Act, and provides practical guidance about the approach that
can be adopted in the design process to comply with that duty.

3. DEECD Circular: S4342007 Occupational Health and Safety Act Duties of Designers.

4. School Infrastructure
(http://www.education.vic.gov.au/management/infrastructure/default.htm), a DEECD public
webpage, with particular reference to the Health and Safety and the Property and Asset
Management sub-pages.

5. Health, Security and Safety


(https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/sc/sites/Infonline/default.aspx), a DEECD intranet key
document listing, available within the Departments Principal Consultants webpage (this
requires eduweb user name and password).

6. Emergency and Security Management


(https://edugate.eduweb.vic.gov.au/Services/Schools/Infrastructure/Emergency/Pages/default
.aspx), a DEECD intranet site, available within the Departments School Infrastructure Edguate
environment (this requires eduweb user name and password).

7. Victorian Schools Reference Guide Security Management (DEECD):


http://www.education.vic.gov.au/management/governance/referenceguide/resources/7_28.h
tm

Building Quality Standards Handbook 161 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Workplace Health & Safety

8. Noise resources: http://worksafe.vic.gov.au/education, WorkSafe Victoria.

9. Falls prevention: http://worksafe.vic.gov.au/education, WorkSafe Victoria

10. Preventing slip and trip incidents in the education sector: http://hse.gov.uk/pubns/edis2.pdf
(UK Health and Safety Executive).

11. Slips and trips: http://hse.gov.uk/slips/ (UK Health and Safety Executive).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 162 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

10. PROJECT COMPLETION BUILDING MANUALS &


MAINTENANCE

10.1 Project Completion Phase

The principal consultant is responsible for ensuring that:


practical completion under the contract is achieved;
contract and design documents are complied with;
workmanship is up to standard;
regulatory requirements have been met;
inspections have been done;
commissioning reports, testing, validation of system performance and completion
statements have been obtained;
authority sign-off has been obtained (e.g. fire brigade);
warranty information has been identified, checked and provided;
Occupancy Permit or Certificate of Final Inspection has been obtained;
Essential safety measure requirements have been specified and understood;
statutory signage and component identification has been completed;
termite protection is in place; and
certification and notices are provided.

10.2 Building Manual Objective

At project completion a maintenance manual must be provided to enable a school to safely


maintain its facility and ensure that all regulatory maintenance inspection and testing procedures
are in place. This is information is vital to the schools operation and performance of duty of care,
and is required prior to occupancy.

10.2.1 Included Asset Items

Building Structure
Roof
Guttering and down pipes
External walls

Building Quality Standards Handbook 163 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

Internal walls
Special features
Windows
Doors
Door locks and furniture
Grilles and vents
Paint finishes
Floor finishes
Roller doors
Access systems
Any safety system including safety railing, lifting beams and attachment points
Fire walls
Penetrations in fire walls
Fire doors
Fire protective coverings
Fire rated shafts
Fire rated access panels
Smoke doors and vents
Fire control centre

Airconditioning and Ventilation


Fans supply and exhaust
Evaporators
Condensers
Compressors
Ducting
Control equipment and thermostats
Valves
Vents and grilles
Associated equipment
Fire dampers

Electrical
Switchboards, circuit breakers and fittings

Building Quality Standards Handbook 164 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

Cable
Switches
Appliances
Motors
Light fittings
Exit signs
Emergency lights
Heaters
Hand dryers

Security
Monitoring system
Detectors
Pagers

Plumbing
Hot water services
Gas appliances
Pipe work
Drains
Sewer
Taps and fittings
Mixing valves

Fire Systems
Sprinklers, including valves and pipe work
Fire panel
Detectors
Extinguishers
Hoses and hose reels
Hydrants
Break glass buttons
Door release
Brigade connections

Building Quality Standards Handbook 165 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

Emergency warning and intercom system


Static water storage
Fire pump sets
Alarm Signalling Equipment (ASE) identification

Communications
PABX
Handsets
Cabling
Outlets
Data outlets

Certificates
Development approval
Building approval
Determinations
Fire engineering reports
Occupancy permits
Registrations and licences
Engineer certificates
Utility providers
Authority consents

10.2.2 Required Information

Regulatory

The building manual will provide detail for all asset items, which require:
inspection and testing under the Building Regulations for essential safety measures, and
production of these records as specified in the Occupancy Permit or Certificate of Final
inspection;
inspection and testing required by any authority;
preventative maintenance to prolong life; and
maintenance to ensure the facilitys warranty status.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 166 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

Item Details

The building manual will also provide full and complete asset details as follows:
a unique asset item number in agreed format;
detailed description;
the building system the asset item belongs to (e.g. fire system);
the type of asset item (e.g. sprinkler);
asset item manufacturer and/or brand;
asset item installer, including installation date;
asset item warrantor, warranty details and end date;
service provider for any repairs required, including any qualifications the repairer must
have to meet regulations or to ensure warranty;
asset item location including marked-up site map, building number, room number and area
description;
model and serial numbers;
colour and material;
asset item capacity, rating, size and performance;
expected life in years;
cost of asset item;
frequency of maintenance as required by regulation or warrantor, whichever is more often;
and
a complete list of all checks required to be undertaken at each frequency; this should also
reference to appropriate Australian Standard.

10.2.3 Manual Layout

It is proposed that most of the asset information be provided on spreadsheets, which will be
provided in the required format. This will allow the contractor to enter the information efficiently
and maintain a standard across all the different building systems.

Hard-copy manuals must be provided in the following format:

Physical Appearance
An A4, four-ring binder, 50mm thick maximum size.
Clearly labelled and numbered.
One binder for each system, more than one if extra space is required.
Ten labelled tabs in each binder.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 167 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

Manual Sections

1) Introduction
i. Builders details
ii. Sub contractors details
iii. Contents list

2) Scope of manual
i. How to use the manual
ii. System outline

3) Occupational Health & Safety


i. Job safety analysis sheets for each plant
ii. Accident prevention measures
iii. Safety equipment requirements
iv. Safety procedures
v. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

4) Operation
i. Design explanation
ii. Set points
iii. Test points
iv. Detailed operating instructions
v. Simple How to Operate instructions
vi. Interface connections with other systems
vii. Performance measures

5) Maintenance
i. Asset item list
ii. Asset description and detail sheets as above
iii. Photo of asset
iv. Site map showing location

6) Test and inspections


i. Annual maintenance plan, including inspection and test frequencies
ii. Inspections, tests and adjustments required for each asset item and the Australian
Standard reference number.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 168 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

7) Trouble shooting
i. Example faults and repairs
ii. Frequently occurring faults or adjustments
iii. Issues found and resolved during commissioning

8) Commissioning and test reports


i. Equipment performance standards
ii. Actual testing data results recorded at handover

9) Manufacturers specifications
i. Component lists for each asset item
ii. Maintenance specifications
iii. Warranty details
iv. Brochures

10) Drawings
i. Site map layout
ii. Schematics
iii. As-built drawings
iv. Detailed construction drawings

10.3 Manuals and Maintenance Log Books


Maintenance log books must be provided to schools in accordance with the provisions of the
Departments Annual Contracts: Guidelines for Building Services Maintenance in Schools and Part 12
of the Building Regulations 2006.

The Building Code of Australia, Part I, also requires the maintenance of safety measures and
equipment including:
building fire integrity;
means of egress;
signs;
lighting;
fire fighting services and equipment;
air-handling systems;
automatic fire detection systems;
occupant warning systems;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 169 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Project Completion Building Manuals & Maintenance

lifts;
standby power supply systems;
building clearance and fire appliance access;
glazing, balustrading, balconies, swimming pools, refrigerated chambers
bush fire provision;
building use and application;
laboratory safety measures;
dangerous goods storage and handling; and
any other specified measure.

Typically, the maintenance requirements related to a Building Permit will be set out in the
Occupancy Permit or the Certificate of Final Inspection, but not all requirements regarding
maintenance will be specified as these certificates relate to the permit only.

10.4 Termites
One aspect of maintenance gaining increased attention is the control of termite activity. All school
projects should now incorporate protective measures against termite attack on the buildings
forming part of the project. These measures create barriers to concealed access but do not ensure
permanent protection against termites without active and ongoing maintenance. Maintenance
requirements applying to the selected system of protection should be communicated to the school
in its operation and maintenance manuals.

The Department publication Protocol for Use of Termiticides in Schools provides advice in this
regard.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 170 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

APPENDIX 1

BUILDING ELEMENTS

Building Quality Standards Handbook 171 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

LIST OF ELEMENTS
This attachment contains the National Public Works Conference Cost Control Manual list of element
numbers, element codes, and element definitions. For a further detailed explanation, refer to the
Manual. The element numbers are only used to determine the order of the elements. The element
codes should be used for coding bills of quantity items as well as analysis by manual or computer
means. An element is a portion of a project which fulfils a particular physical purpose, irrespective
of construction and/or specification.

Element Elemental Element


Number Code

Preliminaries

00 PR Preliminaries

Substructure

01 SB Substructure

Superstructure

02 CL Columns (Framed Buildings)


03 UF Upper Floors
04 SC Staircases
05 RF Roof
06 EW External Walls
07 WW Windows
08 ED External Doors
09 NW Internal Walls
10 NS Internal Screens and Borrowed Lights
11 ND Internal Doors

Finishes

12 WF Wall Finishes
13 FF Floor Finishes
14 CF Ceiling Finishes

Fittings

15 FT Fitments
16 SE Special Equipment

Services

17 SF Sanitary Fixtures
18 PD Sanitary Plumbing

Building Quality Standards Handbook 172 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

Element Elemental Element


Number Code
Services (continued)
19 WS Water Supply
20 GS Gas Service
21 SH Space Heating
22 VE Ventilation
23 EC Evaporative Cooling
24 AC Airconditioning
25 FP Fire Protection
26 LP Electric Light and Power
27 CM Communications
28 TS Transportation Systems
29 SS Special Services

Centralised Energy Systems


30 CE Centralised Energy Systems

Alterations
31 AR Alterations and Renovations

Site Works
32 NP Site Preparation
33 XR Roads, Footpaths and Paved Areas
34 XN Boundary Walls, Fencing and Gates
35 XB Outbuildings and Covered Ways
36 XL Landscaping and Improvements

External Services
37 XK External Stormwater Drainage
38 XD External Sewer Drainage
39 XW External Water Supply
40 XG External Gas
41 XF External Fire Protection
42 XE External Electric Light and Power
43 XC External Communications
44 XS External Special Services

External Alterations
45 XX External Alterations and Renovations

Special Provisions
46 YY Special Provisions

Building Quality Standards Handbook 173 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

DEFINITIONS OF ELEMENTS

Preliminaries
00 PR Preliminaries
It includes preliminary items as defined in Section 2 of the Australian Standard Method of
Measurement of Building Works, where ascertainable. The percentage that this cost bears
to the remainder of the net project cost will be stated on the summary page of the Cost
Analysis Form (CA2).

Substructure
01 SB Substructure
The structurally sound and watertight base upon which to build.

It includes basement and foundation excavations; piers, piles, pedestals, beams and strip
footings; foundation walls; drop aprons; hardcore filling; work slabs and damp-proofing or
other membranes; floor structures; subsoil drainage; ducts, pits, bases and service tunnels;
entrance steps, ramps and their finishes; steps and ramps in the one floor level; structural
screeds and toppings; covered swimming pools; all other work up to but excluding the
lowest floor finish.

It excludes site preparation (32 XP); basement walls (06 EW); columns above tops of bases
(02 CL, 06 EW, 09 NW); floor finishes (13 FF); all non-structural work associated with the
internal services.

Superstructure
02 CL Columns
The upright supports to upper floors and roof forming part of a framed structure.

It includes internal and external columns from tops of columns to bases; column casings; all
protective non-decorative coatings.

It excludes portal frames (05 RF); columns to non-framed (load bearing) structures (06 EW, 09
NW); columns supporting awnings and attached covered ways (05 RF); columns supporting
exposed attached external stairs (04 SQ all finishes (06 EW, 12 WF).

Note: Columns below lowest floor finish (e.g. in filled areas) are included in this element
because of the impracticability of splitting a column into two elements.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 174 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

03 UF Upper Floors
Floor structures above that at the lowest level.

It includes all beams; concrete, precast and in-situ floors; waffle slab and filler block floors;
metal floors; computer floors; timber framed floors; structural screeds and toppings;
concealed insulation; balconies; overhangs and sunhoods integral with floors; steps and
ramps in the one floor level; all protective non-decorative coatings.

It excludes landings and ramps between floor levels (04 SC); balcony balustrades (06 EW);
internal and external finishes (04 SC, 06 EW, 13 FF, 14 CF).

04 SC Staircases
The structural connections between two or more nominal floor levels or to roof, plant
rooms and motor rooms, together with associated finishes.

It includes landings; ramps between floor levels; fire escapes; supporting framework; access
ladders; spiral staircases; tread, riser, string and soffit finishes; balustrades and handrails.

It excludes steps and ramps at changes in the one floor level (01 SB, 03 UF); ground level
entrance steps (01 SB); lifts and escalators (28 TS).

05 RF Roof
To provide a structurally sound and watertight covering over the building.

It includes portal frames; roof construction; gable and other walls in roof spaces; parapet
walls and roof balustrades; thermal insulation; roof lights and dormers with their sun
screenings; eaves, verges and fascias; rainwater goods; internal storm water drainage runs;
awnings and open lean-to roofs; all protective non-decorative coatings.

It excludes rainwater goods to balconies and other unenclosed floor areas (03 UF); all
non-structural work associated with the internal services; independent roofs to exposed
attached external stairs (04 SC).

06 EW External Walls
The vertical enclosure around the building other than windows and external doors from
substructure to roof.

It includes structural walls; basement walls and tanking above lowest floors finish; spandrel,
curtain and window walls; external shop fronts; glazed screen walls; columns and isolated
piers to non-framed (load bearing) structures; gallery and balcony walls and balustrades;
solar screen walls; plant room air flow screens; all insulation to external walls; all external
finishes to all columns, slab edges, beams, projecting overhangs and walls; lintels and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 175 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

flashings at openings; ring beams and stiffening beams not integral with floor, ceiling or roof
slabs.

It excludes all internal finishes to external walls (except screens and the like) and columns
(12 WF); sills, thresholds and linings (07 WW, 08 E13); walls in roof (05 RF) and substructure
(01 SB) and all doors (08 ED); sun protection to windows (07 WW) and sunhoods integral with
floors (03 UF); fire places, hearths, flues and stacks (21 SH, 29 SS); beams integral with slabs
(03 UF, 05 RF).

07 WW Windows
Openings in external walls to provide light and ventilation.

It includes flyscreens; louvres; guard grilles; remote control gear; sun protection to
windows; curtains, blinds, track and pelmets; window sills and linings; hardware;
decoration.

It excludes lintels and flashings (06 EW); special blackout facilities (16 SE); roof-lights and
dormers (05 RF); window walls and glazed screens (06 EW); sunhoods integral with floors (03
UF); solar screen walls (06 EW); window cleaning equipment (16 SE).

Note: Includes hardware and decorations, glazing and infill panels within window frames.
Clerestory windows occurring in external walls to clerestories are included in this element.

08 ED External Doors
The access ways into the building both for pedestrians and vehicles.

It includes frames; linings; glazing; architraves; hardware; panels and highlights over; fly
doors; roller shutters; garage doors; fire doors; grille and chain wire doors; gates; service
cupboard doors and thresholds; decoration.

It excludes frames forming an integral part of wire mesh or glazed screen walls (06 EW);
lintels and flashings (06 EW); under floor access doors (01 SB); framing and glazing to
sidelights to doors with or without highlights (06 EW).

09 NW Internal Walls
Permanent division of internal spaces into separate rooms or to enclose duct and other
non-useable areas.

It includes walls; internal columns and isolated piers to non-framed (load bearing)
structures; lintels, damp courses and bearing strips; stiffening beams not integral with floor,
ceiling or roof slabs; part height solid walls glazed over to ceiling; unducted air-flow grilles;
fire walls and smoke screens.

It excludes internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS); wall finishes (12 WF); works in roof
(05 RF) and substructure (01 SB); part height solid walls (10 NS); fireplaces, hearths, flues and
stacks (21 SH, 29 SS); beams integral with slabs (03 UF, 05 RF).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 176 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

Note: Part height solid walls are screens (by definition) and included in element I0 NS.

10 NS Internal Screens and Borrowed Lights


To screen off or temporarily divide internal spaces into separate compartments and to allow
the transfer of light through internal walls.

It includes proprietary type office partitioning; glazed screens; internal shop fronts; fold
away and operable walls; overhead frameworks and supporting beams; chain wire and grille
screens; toilet partitions and screen walls; borrowed lights; balustrades and rails not
associated with staircases; all finishes and decorations.

It excludes all doors (11 ND); counters and wall hatches (15 FT).

11 ND Internal Doors
Passage ways through internal walls, internal screens and partitions, and to provide access
to service cupboards and ducts.

It includes frames; linings; glazing; architraves; pelmets; hardware and door grilles; chain
wire and grille doors; toilet doors; cell and strong room doors; fire doors roller shutters;
service cupboard doors; duct access panels; fanlights and panels over and linings to blank
openings; decoration.

It excludes frames forming integral parts of demountable, wire mesh or glazed screens, etc.
(10 NS); lintels (09 NW); framing and glazing to sidelights to doors (10 NS).

Finishes
In general, where a finish incorporates a special type of formwork, only that cost additional to the
cost of rough formwork is to be included in the finish. The rough formwork cost is part of the
structure.

12 WF Wall Finishes
To finish and decorate all interior faces of columns, external walls and internal walls.

It includes finishes to internal faces of external walls and columns: acoustic wall linings;
extra costs involved for face bricks, face and coloured blocks and off form concrete;
splashbacks, dados and regulation wall vents.

It excludes finishes to internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS); skirtings (13 FF) and
cornices (14 CF); all external finishes to external walls and columns (06 EW); finishes to both
sides of external screens (06 EW); all protective non-decorative coatings.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 177 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

Note: Finishes to internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS) are included in that element.
Finishes to internal faces of external screens, etc. are included with the relevant
sub-elements in external walls (06 EW).

13 FF Floor Finishes
To provide a satisfactory finish on which to walk, and applied to upper floors and
substructure.

It includes all preparatory work and finishing; balcony floor finishes; skirtings; screeds;
timber floor finishes; dividing strips; mats and mat-wells; duct and pit covers; carpeting used
as a permanent floor finish; timber and other finishes to concrete floors; finishes to steps in
the one floor level.

It excludes structural screeds and toppings (01 SB, 03 UF); landing and stair finishes (04 SC);
trafficable roof covering (05 RF); timber framed floors (03 UF, 01 SB); finishes to external
thresholds (08 ED); door sills (08 ED, 11 ND).

Note: Element includes all floor finishes to areas measured in the building area (BA).

14 CF Ceiling Finishes
To finish and decorate all internal soffits of upper floors and roof over rooms and external
soffits over unenclosed covered areas.

It includes preparatory work; suspended false ceilings; proprietary suspended ceiling


systems; acoustic ceiling linings; extra costs involved for off-form concrete; linings to roof
lights; ceiling manholes; framing to bulkheads and cornices.

It excludes eaves soffits (05 RF); stair and landing soffits (04 SC); ceiling joists where not
suspended (03 UF, 05 RF); soffits of projecting overhangs (06 EW); all protective
non-decorative coatings (03 UF, 04 SC, 05 RF); airconditioning grilles (24 AC).

Fittings
15 FT Fitments
To fit out the building with built-up fitments and fixed items included in the main contract.

It includes benches; cupboards; shelving; racks; seats; counters; chalkboards; notice boards,
signs and name plates; coat rails and hooks; mirrors; wall hatches; daises and stages.

It excludes loose furniture and furnishings (46 YY); curtains and blinds (07 WW); special
equipment (16 SE); internal screens and borrowed lights (10 NS).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 178 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

16 SE Special Equipment
To provide items of equipment of unitary, commercially available type and/or of a type not
covered by other elements.

It includes window cleaning, gymnasium, mortuary and photographic equipment;


audio-visual aids; laboratory, laundry, kitchen and central sterile services department (CSSD)
type equipment; dental and workshop equipment; boiling water units; sink heaters;
laboratory stills; special blackout facilities; bed pan washers; linen and refuse disposal
equipment; refrigerators and refrigerated drinking water coolers; incinerators; sanitary
macerators; circulating fans; all cold, hot, gas and other valves and cocks, controls, electric
wiring and piping integral with this equipment; specified builders work in connection with
this equipment.

It excludes cool rooms and process cooling, incineration plant of custom design or built-up
type, and other special services (29 SS) or external special services (44 XS); loose equipment
not covered in the main contract (46 YY); fire fighting equipment (25 FP); sanitary fixtures (17
SF); refrigeration plant associated with airconditioning (24 AC).

Services
17 SF Sanitary Fixtures
To fit out the building with normal fixtures connected to the soil and waste plumbing
systems and all associated ancillaries.

It includes WC suites; urinals; basins; sinks and tubs; troughs and runnels; drinking fountains;
slop hoppers; showers; hobs; shower curtains and trays; terminal outlets integral with
fixtures; flusherette valves; soap and toilet paper holders; towel rails and hand driers.

It excludes sanitary macerators, bed pan washers, kitchen, laundry and sterilising equipment
and refrigerated drinking water coolers (16 SE); sanitary incinerators (29 SS); floor wastes
and all loose traps (18 PD); terminal outlets not integral with fixtures (19 WS).

18 PD Sanitary Plumbing
The disposal of all waste and soiled water from fixtures and equipment out to the external
face of external walls.

It includes stacks and vents; all loose traps; floor wastes; internal sewer drainage runs,
pumps and ejectors; acid resisting pipes and drains; box ducting and paintwork.

It excludes rainwater disposal systems (05 RF); incinerator flues (16 SE, 29 SS, 44 XS); duct
access panels (11 ND).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 179 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

19 WS Water Supply
Systems to supply water from point of building entry to the points of consumption. The
water may be at ambient temperature, heated or cooled and may be treated by
clarification, filtration, softening, de-mineralisation, distillation, desalination or other
means. The water may be supplied from town mains, bores, rivers, lakes, rainwater tanks,
centralised energy systems or other sources.

It includes storage tanks; pumps; water treatment plants; water heaters and coolers;
reticulation pipe work including pipeline components; terminal outlets not integral with
fixtures and/or equipment; controls other than those associated with water consuming
items of equipment; box ducting; insulation; sheathing; painting and identification; building
and electrical work forming part of the contract for water supply.

It excludes meters, extensions and connections to town mains or other sources (39 XW);
self-contained unitary equipment such as boiling water units, sink heaters and laboratory
stills (16 SE).

20 GS Gas Services
To supply town, natural, simulated natural and liquefied petroleum gas from point of
building entry to points of consumption. The gas may be supplied from town mains, storage
cylinders, bulk storage tanks or other sources.

It includes portable gas cylinders; booster compressors; manifolds and regulators; box
ducting, painting and identification; building and electrical work forming part of the gas
services element; reticulation pipe work and pipeline components; terminal outlets not
integral with fixtures and/or equipment; gas detection systems.

It excludes outlet cocks integral with appliances (16 SE); hot water heaters (16 SE, 19 WS);
space heaters (21 SH) and other like equipment; meters, extensions and connections to
town mains or other sources (40 XG).

Note: Gas appliances forming part of an airconditioning, space heating water supply system
or other system should be included under the appropriate element. Gas controls, valves,
regulators and other pipelines components directly associated with gas fired equipment
should be included under the element appropriate to gas-fired equipment.

21 SH Space Heating
To heat the interior of buildings by means of convection, radiation or any other form of
heating.

It includes unitary heaters; reticulated steam, hot water or hot oil systems; warm air
systems; electric floor or ceiling heating systems; fireplaces, hearths and associated work in
chimney stacks; boiler plant installed within the heated building and servicing only element
21 SH in that building; insulation and painting; controls and associated electrical work.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 180 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

It excludes any system which also provides air cooling/airconditioning (24 AC) or evaporative
cooling (23 EC).

Note: Boiler plant and pipe reticulation located outside the building served, serving multiple
buildings, or serving other elements such as (24 AC) or (19 WS) are to be included under
centralised energy systems (30 CE). Gas storage and reticulation systems are to be included
under external gas (40 XG) if located outside the building served or if serving other elements,
or under gas service (20 GS) if located within the building served otherwise, they are to be
included in 21 SH.

Electric cabling terminates at the junction with electric light and power (26 LP). Controls and
electric wiring integral with equipment items are to be included with those items.

22 VE Ventilation
To ventilate buildings by means of supply and/or exhaust systems.

It includes mechanical ventilators; non-mechanical roof ventilators; supply and/or exhaust


fans; ducted systems; exhaust hoods; ducting, plant, controls and associated electrical
world.

It excludes any system which also involves space heating (21 SH); airconditioning (24 AC);
evaporative cooling (23 EC); circulating fans (16 SE); regulation wall vents (12 WF); door grilles
(11 ND); plant room air flow screens (06 EW); louvred windows (07 WW).

Note: Dust extraction is to be included under special services (29 SS). Electric cabling ends at
the junction with electric light and power (26 LP).

23 EC Evaporative Cooling
To cool air within a building by evaporative processes; the system can include ancillary
heating.

It includes evaporative coolers, rock bed regenerative systems and ancillary heating devices;
ducting, insulation, painting and associated electrical work.

It excludes door grilles (11 ND); airconditioning (24 AC); systems which heat (21 SH) and/or
ventilate (22 VE) only.

Note: Air relief grilles in doors and walls are to be included under respective building
elements. Electric cabling terminates at the junction with electric light and power (26 LP).

24 AC Airconditioning
To maintain and control the temperature, humidity and quality of air under predetermined
limits within buildings.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 181 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

It includes package airconditioners; systems for cooling only; ductwork, plant, controls and
associated electrical work; airconditioning grilles.

It excludes door grilles (11 ND) and systems which heat (21 SH) and/or ventilate (22 VE) only;
special cool rooms (29 SS); special hot rooms (29 SS); evaporative cooling (23 EC).

25 FP Fire Protection
To detect and/or extinguish fires.

It includes sprinklers and other automatic extinguishing systems; fire indicator board;
manual and automatic fire alarm installations; fire fighting equipment; hydrant installations
and hose reels and cupboards; hand appliances.

It excludes fire doors (08 ED, 11 ND); fire proofing (02 CL, 03 UF, 05 RF, 12 WF, 14 CF, etc.).

26 LP Electric Light and Power


To provide all light and power and emergency light and power from and including main
distribution board to and including power outlets and light fittings.

It includes main distribution board*; sub-mains and distribution boards; emergency lighting
systems; power sub-mains to mechanical equipment and sub-mains and/or sub-circuits to
other equipment and/or final sub-circuits.

It excludes other electrical installations listed under other elements such as special services
(29 SS); communications (27 CM) and centralised energy systems (30 CE).

* Where the main switchboard supplies only one building, it shall be considered as a main
distribution board.

27 CM Communications
To provide audio and video communication within a building.

It includes the following systems: telephone, internal telephone, public address, call,
emergency warning and intercommunication, personal paging, clock and/or bell, TV antenna
and closed circuit TV.

It excludes document hoists and conveyor systems (28 TS); cables between buildings (43 XC).

Note: Document hoists and conveyor systems are to be included in 28 TS. Cables between
buildings are to be included in 43 XC.

28 TS Transportation Systems
To transport personnel and/or goods from floor to floor or area to area.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 182 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

It includes all lifts, hoists and conveyor systems; escalators; all associated equipment and
work other than structural building work.

It excludes such items as walls to shafts and lift wells and machine rooms (06 EW, 09 NW).

29 SS Special Services
To provide services or installations not covered by other elements.

It includes monitoring systems; cool rooms and process cooling; special conditioned rooms;
staircase pressurisation systems; compressed air; medical and industrial gas systems; dust
extraction systems; security systems; lightning protection; stage lighting and theatre
equipment; reticulated soap dispenser systems; laundry, heat and water reclaim systems
and the like.

It excludes equipment items (16 SE); communication services (27 CM).

Centralised Energy Systems


30 CE Centralised Energy Systems
To produce and supply steam, heating, hot water, chilled water and/or other cooling or
heating media and/or site generated electrical energy to a number of buildings and/or to
multiple energy consuming elements.

It includes the piping reticulation within central plant room or plant house and up to branch
off-takes to energy consuming functional elements; sections of the main piping reticulation
running to, within or through buildings served; cabling within the central plant room or
house and all work which forms part of the energy system element; buildings to house such
plant, service tunnels, ducts and/or conduits.

It excludes emergency generating plant and cabling from central switch board to other
buildings (42 XE).

Note: Interfaces between element 30 CE and other elements are those points where
branches serve single elemental systems or where branches leave common mains within
buildings to serve single elemental systems.

Centralised energy systems may range from very large boiler and/or chiller and/or electrical
generating plants serving large and complex sites (e.g. airports, major hospitals, universities
or colleges) to small boiler installations supplying energy to space heating and domestic hot
water systems in relatively small single buildings (e.g. school classroom blocks, pavilion type
hospital wards, etc.).

Where energy generators supply the whole of their production to one functional system
only and are contained within the alignment of the building served, they are to be
considered part of that functional system.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 183 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

Engineering systems serving the central plant room or plant house are to be included under
appropriate elements for the building housing the centralised energy plant.

Alterations
31 AR Alterations and Renovations
To alter or renovate any existing building including works to the substructure, finishes,
fittings and internal services.

It includes work in connecting a new building to an existing; redecorations; refitting out and
all mechanical and electrical services in connection therewith; underpinning to existing
buildings for alteration works.

It excludes complete demolitions of existing buildings, site clearance and removal of any
paving, fences and outbuildings (32 XP); alterations and renovations to external services and
site works (45 XX); any work involved in connecting new services to old in existing buildings
(39 XW, 40 XG, 42 XE, etc.).

Site Works
32 XP Site Preparation
All basic work necessary prior to proceeding with buildings and external works.

It includes demolitions; site clearance, general levelling and filling; hoardings; retaining
walls; removal of any paving, fences, trees, services; temporary diversions of services;
underpinning to adjacent buildings.

It excludes alterations and permanent diversion of services (45 XX); alterations to buildings
(31 AR) and existing site works (45 XX); any work involved in permanent connections of new
services to existing (39 XW, 40 XG, 42 XE, etc.).

33 XR Roads, Footpaths and Paved Areas


Trafficable areas between and around buildings (outside fully enclosed covered areas and
unenclosed covered areas as defined, outbuildings, etc.) for vehicles and pedestrians.

It includes car parks; playgrounds; kerbs; crossovers; bollards; steps and associated
balustrades; weed poisoning.

It excludes uncovered bridge links (35 XB); sports pitches, lawns, site landscaping and
improvements (36 XL); cut and fill (32 XP).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 184 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

34 XN Boundary Walls, Fencing and Gates


To enclose or define the extent of the site.

It includes all walls, fences and gates at the site boundary.

It excludes all walls, fences and gates that subdivide the site (36 XL); all retaining walls (32
XP).

35 XB Outbuildings and Covered Ways


To provide small buildings supplementary to the main building(s) as well as covered areas or
bridge links for pedestrian or vehicular site circulation.

It includes detached covered ways not alongside buildings; garages; bicycle sheds;
incinerator buildings; residential and gatekeepers cottages; garbage shelters; workshops;
chapels; stores; sheds; stair blocks; all electrical, mechanical and other services in
connection therewith.

It excludes attached covered ways alongside buildings; boiler and plant houses (30 CE); water
towers (39 XW); gas meter (40 XG) and water meter (39 XW) shelters; pump houses (39 XW),
substations (42 XE) and similar engineering services buildings.

35 XL Landscaping and Improvements


To improve the appearance of the site and provide incidental site facilities for the use of the
occupants.

It includes grassing and turfing; garden plots and planting; trees, screen, dwarf, play and
entrance walls; seats; fountains; petrol bowsers (pumps) and tanks; sculptures; flagpoles;
signs and notices; cricket nets and basketball posts; sports pitches and goal posts; open air
swimming pools.

It excludes paving (33 XR); site clearance (32 XP); boundary walls, fencing and gates (34 XN);
walls required to retain the site (32 XP).

External Services
35 XK External Stormwater Drainage
To dispose of rain and surface water from the site.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 185 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

It includes pipe runs from the external face of buildings; inspection pits; sumps; road gullies;
culverts; box drains; grated trenches; runs from pools and fountains; outfalls and head
walls; agricultural and sub-soil drains; connections to existing runs and pits.

It excludes pipe runs, pits, etc. under buildings from internal downpipes (05 RF); road gutters
(33 XR); temporary drainage as site preparation (32 XP); diversions to existing runs (45 XX).

38 XD External Sewer Drainage


To dispose of soil and waste water from the site.

It includes pipe runs from the external face of buildings; grease gullies; inspection pits and
manholes; acid resisting and special drains; dilution pits; petrol and plaster arresters; septic
tanks; collection and holding wells; absorption trenches; transpiration areas; pumps and
ejectors; connections to existing runs, pits and mains.

It excludes pipe runs, pits, etc. beneath buildings (18 PD); diversions to existing runs (45 XX).

39 XW External Water Supply


Systems to supply water up to the external faces of new buildings and up to other major
consuming points such as irrigation and ground watering outlets. The water may be at
ambient temperature, heated or cooled and may be treated by clarification, filtration,
softening, demineralisation, distillation, desalination or other means. The water may be
supplied from town mains, bores, rivers, lakes, rainwater tanks, centralised energy systems
or other sources.

It includes storage tanks; water towers; pumps; water treatment plants; water heaters and
coolers; reticulation pipe work including pipeline components; terminal outlets not integral
with fixtures and/or equipment; insulation; sheathing; painting and identification; meters
and meter enclosures included under the contract; water bores; irrigation and ground
watering systems; building and electrical work forming part of this element.

It excludes diversion to existing runs (45 XX).

40 XG External Gas
To supply town, natural, simulated natural and liquefied petroleum gas up the external
faces of new buildings and other consuming points. The gas may be supplied from town
mains, storage cylinders, bulk storage tanks or other sources.

It includes storage cylinders and tanks, meters and regulators forming part of the contract;
meter enclosures; reticulation pipe work and pipe-line components; building and electrical
work forming part of the external gas supply contract.

It excludes diversions to existing runs (45 XX).

Building Quality Standards Handbook 186 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

41 XF External Fire Protection


To supply fire hydrant and gas or vaporising agent runs up to external faces of new
buildings, external sprinkler systems, and for site connections and connection of fire
detection systems between buildings. Also to detect and/or extinguish fires in fixed plant or
equipment located in the open air.

It includes standby and booster pumps; pipe runs; storage and reticulation of gas and
vaporising agents; hydrant points; overhead and underground cables for fire detection
systems.

It excludes trenches for cabling (42 XE).

42 XE External Electric Light and Power


To supply electric power to main distribution boards of buildings and to provide lighting and
power to external site areas.

It includes connections to source of power supply; consumer mains; sub-station equipment;


emergency generating plant; main switchboard*, underground and overhead cables; pylons
and all trenches for cabling; street and area lighting; illuminated signs and building flood
lighting.

It excludes communications cables (43 XC); work to existing electrical work (45 XX).

Note: Communications cables are to be included in 43 XC. Fire alarm cables are to be
included in 41 XF.

* Where the main switchboard supplies only one building, it shall be considered as a main
distribution board and included in 26 LP.

43 XC External Communications
To provide external communication cables to terminating frames of buildings and to provide
communications systems between buildings and to external site areas.

It includes Telstra (or other installer) work; underground and overhead cables; pylons;
connections to existing cables; external speakers; hooters; clocks; bells; closed circuit TV;
community antenna systems.

It excludes trenches for cabling (42 XE).

44 XS External Special Services


To provide external service or installations not included in other elements.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 187 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

It includes external connections to items included in special services (29 SS); service tunnels,
ducts and conduits in connection with external reticulation of services elements; dust
extraction plant; incineration plant; bulk storage for medical and industrial gases.

External Alterations
45 XX External Alterations and Renovations
To alter/renovate any existing site works and external services.

It includes resurfacing paved and grassed areas; renovating outbuildings, renewing fencing
and gates; permanent diversion of drainage, cold water and other external service runs.

It excludes renovating existing buildings (31 AR).

Special Provisions
46 YY Special Provisions
Items not included in the net project cost but which may be included in the building contract
or to make up the gross project cost. Such items may include contract contingencies,
provisions for rise and fall, design and supervision fees, loose furniture and loose
equipment, operational maintenance. Each provision should be separately itemised.

As the cost schedule is based on fixed price (lump sum tenders which already include
contingencies and escalations), no further amount is added to the budget for a school for
these sub-elements.

The amount for fees covers only consultants; fees associated with services (electricity, etc.)
and lodgements (permits, etc.) are included with the relevant element.

Loose furniture and loose equipment are separate from fitments (15 FT) and special
equipment (16 SE). These latter are usually installed or fixed in place as part of the building
contract. The cost of loose furniture and loose equipment need not necessarily be included
in this contract or attract consultant fees. A decision on this matter should be made for
each project.

Where some part of a building will be due for maintenance during the period that the
builder is in possession, on-going maintenance may be included in the building contract. A
decision on this matter should be made (and the cost determined) for each project.

Note: Builders Work and Allowances

Where work on engineering services and the like is performed by nominated sub-contract or
separate contract and included in any element, any monetary allowance for builders profit and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 188 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Building Elements

attendance on the nominated sub-contract or separate contract and any builders work in
connection therewith shall be included with the element concerned. Any hoisting, testing or
commissioning shall be included with the element concerned.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 189 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

APPENDIX 2

TECHNICAL DATA SHEETS


&
STANDARD DRAWINGS

Building Quality Standards Handbook 190 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Clay and Ablution Trough

1. Fixture Details

1.1 Use

Primary schools and secondary colleges.

1.2 Construction

1800mm long x 450mm wide x 150mm deep, 1.2mm thick satin finish 304 Stainless Steel trough,
with special purpose tapware and waste outlets. Flat rim or fascia to suit project documentation.

1.3 Tapware

Cold Water Only:

Ablution Trough two spray outlets, 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above trough
rim level.

Clay Trough right side: one spray outlet, 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above
trough rim level; left side: one laboratory-type gooseneck outlet with tap on pillar, spray
outlet nominally 200mm above trough rim level.

Hot and Cold Water:

Ablution Trough right side: one spray outlet, 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above
trough rim level.

Clay Trough left side: one laboratory-type gooseneck outlet with tap on pillar, spray
outlet nominally 200mm above trough rim level.

Central one hot and cold swivel spray outlet, 20mm minimum/45mm maximum above
trough rim level, to serve clay trough and ablution trough.

2. Plumbing Connection

2.1 Water Supply

Primary schools normally have cold water only.

Secondary colleges normally have hot and cold water.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 191 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

2.2 Waste

Combined DN50 trapped outlet to sewer.

DN40 outlet with DN40 gate valve to settling tank or storage tank.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus

Subject to the relevant retail water company and its requirements:

the preferred arrangement is storage tank with contents regularly emptied, disposal not to
sewer

or, if required by relevant retail water company, PVC settling tank with outlet trapped and
connected to sewer.

3. Trade Waste Application


If trade waste application is required (and provided the installation is a typical school installation),
the following data for this fixture should be added to the Application for Trade Waste Agreement
or Consent.

Refer also to the relevant retail water companys Application Guide Information Required for
Making a Trade Waste Application and Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Sections:

1 to 5 To suit particular school


6(a) Insert School
6(b) Insert School Classes
7 Insert Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm
8(a) Leave blank
8(b) Insert Traces of clay
8 Insert relevant data as below:

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6

[Number] Clay & Ablution Waste water 80 10 0.16


Trough containing traces of
clay

10 Add Not applicable


11 to 13 Circle No

Building Quality Standards Handbook 192 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

14 Insert Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system.

4. User Information
All waste containing clay, plaster, etc. is to pass through the storage tank or settling tank.

Note signage.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage at fixture to read: This fixture is not to be used for acids, solvents or other
contaminated wastes.

Refer to the publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the
trade waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 193 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Drip Trough and Rack

1. Fixture Details
1.1 Use
Normally only secondary colleges.

1.2 Construction
Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F1).

1.3 Tapware
Chrome-plated hose cock with wall plate, 20 BSP outlet. Locate tap in centre of trough, outlet
nominally 300mm above trough rim level.

2. Plumbing Connection
2.1 Water Supply
Cold water only.

2.2 Waste
Trapped DN50 outlet to sewer.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus


Not normally required for this fixture, unless special application, and this Technical Data Sheet may
not then be applicable.

3. Trade Waste Application


Not normally required for this fixture.

4. User Information
Note signage.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage at fixture to read: This fixture is not to be used for acids, solvents or other
contaminated wastes.
No special requirement.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 194 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 195 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Frame Bath

1. Fixture Details

1.1 Use
Normally only secondary colleges.

1.2 Construction
Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F4).

1.3 Tapware
One laboratory-type gooseneck outlet.
Refer also to Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank with Dosing Tank Hydraulics Detail
(drawings H1 and H2).

2. Plumbing Connection

2.1 Water Supply


Cold water only.

Refer also to Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank with Dosing Tank Hydraulics Detail
(drawings H1 and H2).

2.2 Waste

DN50 outlet to Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus


Normally Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank with Dosing Tank, all as per detail and
the requirements of the relevant retail water company.

Outlet from Solvent Interceptor and Wet Feed Neutralising Tank to be trapped and connected to
sewer.

3. Trade Waste Application


Provided the installation is a typical school installation the following data for this fixture should
be added to the Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 196 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Refer also to the relevant retail water companys Application Guide Information Required for
Making a Trade Waste Application and Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Sections:
1 to 5 To suit particular school
6(a) Insert School
6(b) Insert School Classes
7 Insert Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm
8(a) Tick Solvents
8(b) Leave blank
9 Insert relevant data as below:

Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6

[Number] Frame Bath Waste water containing traces of solvents and acids 20 5 0.08

10 Add Not applicable


11 to 13 Circle No
14 Insert Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system.

4. User Information
Note signage.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage to read: This fixture is only to be used for wastes containing diluted acids and
solvents.

Refer to publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the trade
waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 197 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 198 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Photographic Trough

1. Fixture Details

1.1 Use
Normally only secondary colleges.

1.2 Construction

Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F3).

1.3 Tapware

One laboratory-type gooseneck outlet.

Refer also to Photographic Trough Water Connection Detail, Hydraulics Detail (drawing H3).

2. Plumbing Connection

2.1 Water Supply

Hot and cold.

Refer also to Photographic Trough Water Connection Detail Hydraulics Detail (drawing H3).

2.2 Waste

DN50 outlet to Mixing Tank.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus

PVC Mixing Tank to the requirements of the relevant retail water company, minimum capacity to be
greater of 100 litres or 15 minutes retention for each discharge from the trough.

Outlet from Mixing Tank to be trapped and connected to sewer.

3. Trade Waste Application


Provided the installation is a typical school installation the following data for this fixture should be
added to the Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Refer also to the relevant retail water companys Application Guide Information Required for
Making a Trade Waste Application and Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 199 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Sections:

1 to 5 To suit particular school


6(a) Insert School
6(b) Insert School Classes
7 Insert Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm
8(a) Tick Photographic Wastes
8(b) Leave blank
9 Insert relevant data as below:

Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6

[Number] Photographic Waste water containing traces of 20 5 0.04


Trough photographic solutions from rinsing
operations

10 Add Not applicable


11 to 13 Circle No
14 Insert Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system.

4. User Information
Note signage.

All photographic rinsing wastes to pass through the Mixing Tank.

Spent photographic solutions shall be placed in containers for off-site disposal by a registered EPA
contractor.

Discharges to Mixing Tank to be not more frequently than one full photographic trough per 15
minutes per 100 litre capacity of Mixing Tank.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage to read: This fixture is only to be used for photographic rinsing wastes.

Refer to publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the trade
waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 200 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 201 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 202 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Potting Trough

1. Fixture Details

1.1 Use
Normally only secondary colleges.

1.2 Construction

Refer to Fitment Detail (drawing F2).

1.3 Tapware

Chrome plated hose cock with wall plate, 20 BSP outlet. Locate tap in centre of trough, outlet
nominally 300mm above trough rim level.

2. Plumbing Connection

2.1 Water Supply

Cold water only.

2.2 Waste

DN50 outlet to Silt Pit.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus

Silt Pit to the requirements of the relevant retail water company.

Outlet from Silt Pit to be connected to sewer, and bypass Acid Neutralising Tank.

3. Trade Waste Application


Provided the installation is a typical school installation the following data for this fixture should be
added to the Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Refer also to the relevant retail water companys Application Guide Information Required for
Making a Trade Waste Application and Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 203 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Sections:

1 to 5 To suit particular school


6(a) Insert School
6(b) Insert School Classes
7 Insert Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm
8(a) Leave blank
8(b) Insert Traces of soil
9 Insert relevant data as below:

Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6

[Number] Potting Trough Waste water containing traces of soil 80 10 0.16

[Number] Floor Area Waste water containing traces of soil 40 20 0.08

10 Add Not applicable


11 to 13 Circle No
14 Insert Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system.

4. User Information
Note signage.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage to read: This fixture is not to be used for acids, solvents or other contaminated
wastes.

Remove bucket. Clean out soil and other debris from bucket and pit. Replace bucket.

Refer also to publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the
trade waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 204 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 205 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Secondary College Science Room Plumbing Fixtures

1. Fixture Details

1.1 Construction
Refer to BQSH Section 5.2

1.2 Tapware

Refer to BQSH Section 5.4

2. Plumbing Connection
2.1 Water Supply

Refer to BQSH Section 5.4

Student benches and fume cupboards normally have cold water only.

Demonstration bench, troughs, sinks in prep area and glass washing sink normally have hot and cold
water.

Demonstration bench to have master control valve to isolate student benches.

2.2 Waste

Refer to BQSH Section 5.2

Wastes generally connected to acid drains.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus

In ground Acid Neutralising Tank to the requirements of the relevant retail water company.

3. Trade Waste Application


A secondary college science room usually contains the following fixtures, with wastes that require
treatment:

demonstration bench with laboratory sink;

student benches (approximately nine), each with a laboratory sink;

Building Quality Standards Handbook 206 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

fume cupboard; and

laboratory trough.

Science rooms are serviced by a prep area that usually contains the following fixtures, with wastes
that require treatment:

laboratory sink;

laboratory trough;

glass washing sink; and

fume cupboard.

For a typical school installation as above with the prep area servicing two science rooms, the
following data should be added to the Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Refer also to the relevant retail water companys Application Guide Information Required for
Making a Trade Waste Application and Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Sections:

1 to 5 To suit particular school


6(a) Insert School
6(b) Insert School Classes
7 Insert Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm
8(a) Tick Acids/Alkalis
8(b) Leave blank
9 Insert relevant data as below:

Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6

[Number] Laboratory Sink Waste water containing traces of acid 220 42 0.42

[Number] Glass Washing Sink Waste water containing traces of acid 40 10 0.08

[Number] Laboratory Trough Waste water containing traces of acid 30 9 0.09

[Number] Fume Cupboard Waste water containing traces of acid 18 4.5 0.04

10 Add Not applicable

Building Quality Standards Handbook 207 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

11 to 13 Circle No
14 Insert Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system.

4. User Information
Note signage

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage in prominent central location to read: Fixtures in this room are not to be used for
the discharge of contaminated wastes other than diluted acids.

Refer to publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the trade
waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 208 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Secondary College Home Economics Room


Plumbing Fixtures

1. Fixture Details

1.1 Construction

Refer to BQSH Section 5.2

1.2 Tapware

Refer to BQSH Section 5.4

2. Plumbing Connection

2.1 Water Supply

Refer to BQSH Section 5.4

Student benches normally have hot and cold water.

Demonstration bench to have master control valves to isolate student benches.

2.2 Waste

Refer to BQSH Section 5.2

Wastes generally connected to a grease interceptor.

Dishwashing machine normally commercial type, with discharge temperature too high for UPVC
pipe work.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus

In-ground grease interceptor to the requirements of the relevant retail water company.

3. Trade Waste Application


A secondary college home economics room usually contains the following fixtures, with wastes that
require treatment:

demonstration bench with general-purpose sink; and

Building Quality Standards Handbook 209 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

student benches (approximately fourteen), each with a general purpose sink.

Home economics rooms are serviced by a prep area that usually contains the following fixtures, with
wastes that require treatment:

general-purpose sink; and

dishwashing machine.

For a typical school installation as above with the prep area servicing two home economics rooms,
the following data should be added to the Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Refer also to the relevant retail water companys Application Guide Information Required for
Making a Trade Waste Application and Application for Trade Waste Agreement or Consent.

Sections:

1 to 5 To suit particular school


6(a) Insert School
6(b) Insert School Classes
7 Insert Mon. to Fri. between 9.00 am and 4.00 pm
8(a) Tick Oil/Fat Emulsions
8(b) Leave blank
9 Insert relevant data as below:

Col 1 Column 2 Column 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6

[Number] Double Bowl Sink Waste water containing traces of grease 60 30 0.18

[Number] Single Bowl Sink Waste water containing traces of grease 450 150 1.35

[Number] Floor Area Waste water containing traces of grease 10 10 0.03

[Number] Dishwashing Machine Waste water containing traces of grease 15 4 0.04

10 Add Not applicable


11 to 13 Circle No
14 Insert Stormwater run-off is directed into a stormwater drainage system.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 210 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

4. User Information
Note signage.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide signage in prominent central location to read: Fixtures in this room are not to be used for
the discharge of contaminated wastes other than greasy wastes.

Refer to publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the trade
waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 211 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Secondary College Trade Area Plumbing Fixtures

1. Fixture Details

1.1 The trade area is part of technology and is only applicable to secondary colleges.
Requirements are to be resolved on an individual basis, and may include:

machine shop;

automotive practice; and

electroplating.

Fixtures required can be diverse, and wastes may require specialised treatment.

Water supply may have particular requirements.

1.2 Construction

Refer to BQSH Section 5.2 for general requirements.

Specialised fixtures to suit particular requirements.

1.3 Tapware

Refer to BQSH Section 5.4 for general requirements.

2. Plumbing Connection

2.1 Water Supply

Refer to BQSH Section 5.4 for general requirements.

2.2 Waste

Refer to BQSH Section 5.2 for general requirements.

2.3 Treatment Apparatus

To be assessed on an individual basis.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 212 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

3. Trade Waste Application


To be assessed on an individual basis.

4. User Information
To be assessed on an individual basis.

Note signage.

5. Operation & Maintenance


Provide appropriate signage at fixtures.

Refer to publication Self-Monitoring of Trade Waste Apparatus at Schools available from the trade
waste section of the relevant retail water company.

Building Quality Standards Handbook 213 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 214 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Technical Data Sheets

Building Quality Standards Handbook 215 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Postcode Areas within NatHERS Zones

APPENDIX 3

POSTCODE AREAS Within NatHERS ZONES

(NatHERS Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme)

Building Quality Standards Handbook 216 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Postcode Areas within NatHERS Zones

NatHERS Zone 20 NatHERS Zone 21 NatHERS Zone 24 NatHERS


(*overlap with Zones (*overlap with Zones 24 and/or 25) (*overlap with Zone 25) Zone 27
24 and/or 25)
3310 3523 3646 3000 3060 3122 3175 3232 3333 3847 3934 3140 3460 3764 3487
3311 3525 3647 3002 3061 3123 3177 3233 3335 3850 3936 3158 3461 3766 3488
3315 3527 3649 3003 3062 3124 3178 3235 3337 3854 3937 3289 3462 3767 3489
3317 3535 3666* 3004 3063 3125 3179 3236 3338 3856 3938 3290 3467 3770 3490
3318 3536 3669 3005 3064 3126 3180 3237 3340 3857 3939 3291 3468 3775 3491
3319 3539 3670 3011 3065 3127 3181 3239 3427 3858* 3940 3293 3469 3777 3494
3380 3550 3672 3012 3066 3128 3182 3240 3428 3860* 3941 3294 3521 3778 3496
3381 3551 3673 3013 3067 3129 3183 3241 3429 3862* 3942 3300 3522 3779* 3498
3384 3555 3675 3015 3068 3130 3184 3242 3430 3865 3943 3323 3658 3785 3500
3385 3556 3677 3016 3070 3131 3185 3243 3750 3869 3944 3324 3659 3786 3501
3387 3557 3678* 3018 3071 3132 3186 3249 3751 3870 3945 3330 3660 3787 3505

3388 3558 3682 3019 3072 3133 3187 3250 3752 3871 3946 3334 3662 3788 3506

3390 3559 3683 3020 3073 3134 3188 3251 3754 3873 3950 3341 3663 3789 3507

3391 3561 3685 3021 3074 3135 3189 3254 3755 3874 3951 3342 3664 3792 3509

3392 3562 3687 3022 3075 3136 3190 3260 3759 3875* 3953 3345 3665 3793 3512

3393 3563 3688 3023 3076 3137 3191 3264 3760 3878 3954 3350 3697 3795 3529
3351 3698 3796 3530
3395 3564 3690 3025 3078 3138 3192 3265 3761 3880 3956
3352 3699* 3799 3531
3396 3565 3691* 3026 3079 3139 3193 3266 3765 3882 3957
3355 3700* 3833* 3533
3399 3570 3693 3027 3081 3141 3194 3267 3781 3885* 3958
3356 3704 3889 3537
3400 3571 3694 3028 3082 3142 3195 3268 3782 3886 3959
3357 3705* 3893 3540
3401 3572 3695 3029 3083 3143 3196 3269 3783 3887 3960
3360 3707* 3895 3542
3407 3573 3701* 3030 3084 3144 3197 3270 3791 3888* 3962
3361 3708 3896* 3544
3409 3607 3725 3031 3085 3145 3198 3271 3797 3890* 3964
3363 3709 3898* 3546
3412 3608 3726 3032 3087 3146 3199 3272 3802 3891* 3965
3364 3711* 3900* 3549
3413 3610 3727 3033 3088 3147 3200 3273 3803 3892 3966
3370 3712* 3566
3414 3612 3728 3034 3089 3148 3201 3274 3804 3902 3967
3371 3713 3567
3415 3613 3730 3036 3090 3149 3202 3276 3805 3903 3971
3373 3714 3568
3418 3614 3732 3038 3091 3150 3204 3277 3806 3904 3975
3375 3715 3575
3419 3616 3733 3039 3093 3151 3205 3280 3807 3909 3976
3377 3717 3576
3420 3617 3746 3040 3094 3152 3206 3281 3808 3910 3977
3378 3718 3578
3422 3618 3041 3095 3153 3207 3282 3809 3911 3978
3408 3719 3579
3423 3620 3042 3096 3154 3211 3284 3810 3912 3979
3431 3720 3580
3424 3621 3043 3097 3155 3212 3285 3812 3913 3980
3432 3722* 3581
3453 3622 3044 3099 3156 3214 3286 3813 3915 3981
3433 3735 3583
3463 3623 3045 3101 3159 3215 3287 3814 3916 3984
3434 3737 3584
3464 3624 3046 3102 3160 3216 3292 3815 3918 3987
3435 3738 3585
3465 3629 3047 3103 3161 3217 3301 3816 3919 3988
3437 3739 3588
3472 3630 3048 3104 3162 3218 3302 3818 3920 3990
3438 3740* 3589
3475 3631 3049 3105 3163 3219 3303 3820 3921 3991
3440 3741* 3590
3478 3633 3050 3106 3165 3220 3304 3821 3922 3992 3441 3744 3591
3480 3634 3051 3107 3166 3221 3305 3822 3923 3995 3442 3747 3594
3482 3635 3052 3108 3167 3222 3309 3823 3925 3996 3444 3749 3595
3483 3636 3053 3109 3168 3223 3321 3824 3926 3446 3753 3597
3485 3637 3054 3111 3169 3224 3322 3825* 3927 3447 3756 3599
3515 3638 3055 3113 3170 3225 3325 3831 3928 3448 3757
3516 3639 3056 3114 3171 3226 3328 3835 3929 3450 3758
3517 3640 3057 3115 3172 3227 3329 3840 3930 3451 3762
3518 3641 3058 3116 3173 3228 3331 3842 3931 3458 3763
3520 3644 3059 3121 3174 3230 3332 3844 3933

Building Quality Standards Handbook 217 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Glossary of Abbreviations

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations


ACA Australian Communications Authority
ACCS Australian Carpet Classification Scheme
ACIF Australian Communications Industry Forum
ACMA Australian Communications and Media Authority
ACQ Alkaline Copper Quaternary
AG Australian Gas (Installation Code)
Amp Ampere (unit of electric current)
ANP Access Network Programs
AP Access Point
APAS Australian Paint Approval Scheme
ARI Average Recurrence Interval
AS Australian Standard
AS/NZS Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard
ASE Alarm Signalling Equipment
AV Audio Visual
AVMRS Audio Video Media Retrieval System
BCA Building Code of Australia
BD Building Distributor
BDSL Business Digital Subscriber Line
BQSH Building Quality Standards Handbook
CAC Ceiling Attenuation Class
CASES Computerised Administrative Systems Environment in Schools
Cat Category
CCA Copper Chrome Arsenate
CD Campus Distributor
CES Certificate of Electrical Safety
CFA Country Fire Authority (also refer MFB)
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CP Consolidation Point (cabling)
CPR Cabling Provider Rules
CSSD Central Sterile Services Department
dB Decibel
DDA Disability Discrimination Act
DEECD Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
DHW Domestic Hot Water
DIN Deutsche Industrie Norm (German industry standard)
DN Normal Diameter
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
ELCB Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
ELV Extra Low Voltage
EPA Environment Protection Authority
ES Encoding Server
ESD Ecologically Sustainable Design
ESM Emergency & Security Management
ESMU Emergency & Security Management Unit (DEECD)
EWR Electrical Works Request
FE Fast Ethernet
FFL Finished Floor Level
FHR Fire Hose Reel
FTA Free-to-air

Building Quality Standards Handbook 218 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Glossary of Abbreviations

FSTC Field Sound Transmission Class


FWG Floor Waste Gully
GBCA Green Building Council of Australia
GDD Graphical Data Display
GE Gigabit Ethernet
GIC Gas Installation Code (see AG, above)
GPC General Purpose Classroom
GPO General Purpose Outlet
GWIP Government Wide-Band Internet Protocol
HSRP Hot-Standby Router Protocol
HV High Voltage
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Airconditioning
Hz Hertz
ICT Information and Communication Technologies
ID Infrastructure Division (DEECD)
IDS Intrusion Detection System
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IP Internet Protocol
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO International Standards Organisation
IT Information Technology
ITD Information Technology Division (DEECD)
j Joule (basic unit of energy)
kAmp Kilo-ampere (1,000 ampere)
kj Kilojoule (1,000 joules)
kW Kilowatt (1,000 watts)
kWh Kilowatt Hour (measure of energy use)
LAN Local Area Network
LC Lucent Connector or Local Connector
LED Light-Emitting Diode
LOSP Light organic solvent-borne preservatives
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Lux Unit of light intensity
LV Low Voltage
LWAPP Lightweight Access Point Protocol
m Metre
mA Milli-ampere
MATV Master Antenna Television
MD3 Ministerial Direction No. 3
MDF Main Distribution Frame
MDF Medium Density Fibre Board
MEP Mechanical Energy Performance
MFB Metropolitan Fire Brigade (also refer CFA)
MIMO Multiple-input Multiple-output
MJ Megajoule (equal to 1,000,000 joules)
mm Millimetre
m Micrometre (one millionth of a metre)
MS Media Server
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
MWh Megawatt Hours
NAC Network Access Controller
NatHERS Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme
NDT Network Termination Device

Building Quality Standards Handbook 219 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Glossary of Abbreviations

NETPOP Network Point of Presence


NMF Network Management Framework
NMI National Metering Identifier
NMS Network Management System
NRC Noise Reduction Coefficient
NOx Nitrous Oxide
ODF Ozone Depletion Factor
OH&S (OHS) Occupational Health and Safety
OM Operations Manager
OSPF Open Shortest Path First (routing protocol)
pa Pascal
PA Public Address (System)
p.a. Per Annum
PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC (1) Personal Computer
PC (2) Prime Cost
PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PEC Pigment-emulsified Creosote
POE (1) Post-occupancy Evaluation
POE (2) Power Over Ethernet
PRAV Playgrounds and Recreation Association of Victoria Inc
PREP Project Review and Evaluation Panel
PRMS Physical Resources Management System (now School Maintenance System)
PS Primary School
PVC Poly Vinyl Chloride
QoS Quality of Service
R Rating (thermal)
RCD Residual Current Device
REC Registered Electrical Contractor
RFC Requests for Comments
RJ Registered Jack
Rpm Revolutions Per Minute
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RU Rack Unit
SAA Standards Australia Association
SC Secondary College
SDS Special Developmental School
SEPP State Environment Protection Policy
SEAV Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria (now Sustainability Victoria)
SIP Session Information Protocol
SMF Synthetic Mineral Fibres
SMS School Maintenance System
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SON High-pressure Sodium Lamps
SPC State Purchase Contracts
SRAB Schools Resource Allocation Branch
SS Storage System
ST Spanning Tree
STP Shielded Twisted Pair
SWEP Schools Water Efficiency Program
SV Sustainability Victoria

Building Quality Standards Handbook 220 October 2011


Department of Education and Early Childhood Development
Glossary of Abbreviations

TCD Telstra Commitment Date


TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TEFC Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
TGSI Tactile Ground Surface Indicator
TO Telecommunications Outlet
UPF Ultraviolet Protection Factor)
UPVC Unplasticised PVC
UV Ultraviolet
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
V Volt (the voltage or potential difference specified for any appliance)
VGA Video Graphics Array
VIPP Victorian Industry Participation Policy
VLAN Virtual LAN
VM Virtual Matrix
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
VoD Video on Demand
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
VPN Virtual Private Network
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
W Watt (measure of the power rating of electric appliances)
W/sqm Watts per square metre
WAN Wide Area Network
WAP Wireless Access Point
WC Water Closet/Toilet
WELS Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards
WEP Wired Equivalent Protocol
WERS Window Energy Rating Scheme
WiNS Wireless Networks for Schools
WLAN Wireless LAN
WLC Wireless LAN Controller
WoVG Whole of Victorian Government
XLPE Extra Long Polyethylene

Building Quality Standards Handbook 221 October 2011