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7, JULY 2011 2713

V. CONCLUSIONS A High-Isolation Dual-Polarization Microstrip Patch
Antenna With Quasi-Cross-Shaped Coupling Slot
A proposed CHES antenna is small in the horizontal dimension (di-
ameter), compared with a corresponding spiral antenna that radiates Jie Lu, Zhenqi Kuai, Xiaowei Zhu, and Nianzu Zhang
a tilted CP beam based on the first and second radiation modes; the
diameter for the CHES is reduced to 77% of that for the spiral. Anal-
ysis of the frequency response for the CHES reveals that the angle of
Abstract—A novel dual-polarization microstrip patch antenna fed by
the maximum radiation in the elevation plane, max , remains relatively quasi-cross-shaped slot with high isolation (greater than 50 dB) over a wide
unchanged; max is between 28 and 34 in a design frequency range bandwidth from 3 to 4 GHz is investigated. Four identical slots—referred
of 11.7 GHz to 12.75 GHz. Within this frequency range, the axial ratio to “quasi-cross slot”—are arranged symmetrically in an unconnected
in the beam direction is less than 3 dB, the input impedance is almost cross configuration in the center. The isolation between two orthogonal
polarizations of the proposed antenna can be greatly improved over the
constant, and the gain reduction in the fixed direction (always observed conventional cross slot. A prototype was fabricated and measured. The
in the beam direction fixed at the center design frequency) due to the maximum achievable gain of the proposed antenna is 9.6 dBi with a gain
beam rotation is very small. variation of 0.6 dBi over the bandwidth of 200 MHz (3.4–3.6 GHz). The
design is suitable for array application in MIMO system. Details of the
proposed design and experimental results are presented and discussed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Index Terms—Aperture coupling, dual polarization, high isolation.

The authors thank V. Shkawrytko, S. Kirita, and H. Mimaki for their
assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. I. INTRODUCTION
Microstrip patch antennas have been applied to compact and multi-
functional MIMO systems for years, as they are compact, have a low
REFERENCES profile, and are lightweight. The well-known aperture-coupled patch
antennas first presented by Pozar [1] have been developed into a variety
[1] H. Nakano, Y. Ogino, and J. Yamauchi, “Array antenna composed of of dual-polarization slot-coupled patch antennas reported in [2]–[11].
bent four-leaf elements,” in Proc. 3rd Eur. Conf. on Antennas and Prop- Their designs, available designs in the open literature, have two or-
agation (Eucap2009), Berlin, Germany, Mar. 2009, pp. 1187–1190.
thogonal offset slots [2], [3], cross-shaped slots [4]–[7] or H-shaped
[2] H. Nakano, Y. Ogino, and J. Yamauchi, “Bent two-leaf antenna radi-
ating a tilted, linearly polarized, wide beam,” IEEE Trans. Antennas slots [8]–[10]. Moreover, a combined edge/aperture feeding and feed-
Propag., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3721–3725, Nov. 2010. forward circuit provides good isolation [11], [12].
[3] H. Nakano, Y. Shinma, and J. Yamauchi, “A monofilar spiral antenna In general, better isolation results when the field excited is more sym-
and its array above a ground plane—Formation of a circularly polarized metrical. The geometry of common orthogonal offset slots [2] can only
tilted fan beam,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. provide the isolation of 18 dB over the impedance bandwidth. The iso-
1506–1511, Oct. 1997.
[4] J. A. Kaiser, “The Archimedean two-wire spiral antenna,” IRE Trans.
lation, though, is better than 35 dB, which can be achieved by the sym-
Antennas Propag., vol. AP-8, no. 3, pp. 312–323, May 1960. metrical arrangement of slots [3]. To decrease the coupling between
[5] J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka, Antennas, 3rd ed. New York: Mc- two orthogonal polarizations, H-shaped slots are also a good choice.
Graw Hill, 2003, ch. 8. The isolation between two feeding ports with two orthogonal H-shaped
[6] H. Nakano, J. Yamauchi, and S. Iio, “Tapered backfire helical antenna slots is more than 36 dB over the operating band [8]. Tzung-Wern chiou
with loaded termination,” Electron. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 158–159, and Kin-Lu Wong propose a hybrid feeding combining in-phase aper-
Feb. 1982.
[7] H. Nakano, “Antenna analysis using integral equations,” in Anal-
ture-coupled feeding (H-shaped coupling slot) and out-of-phase gap-
ysis Methods for Electromagnetic Wave Problems, E. Yamashita, coupled probe feeding to obtain a high isolation of more than 40 dB [9].
Ed. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1996, vol. 2. A slot with a simple configuration, a cross-shaped coupling slot, is
[8] R. F. Harrington, Field Computation by Moment Methods. New York: used to excite the two orthogonal modes and thereby generate dual
Macmillan, 1968. linear polarizations. A power combiner joins the two feed lines located
symmetrically with respect to the center of the cross, and an air bridge
provides a crossover between the two orthogonal feed circuits; this was
introduced by C. H. Tsao et al. to construct an aperture-coupled an-
tenna [4]. Using the geometry of a cross slot that had a narrow central
part, Mariano Barba showed that the isolation between two polariza-
tions is typically 36 dB over a 24% impedance bandwidth (return losses
> 24 dB) [5]. Bjorn Lindmark adopted a single 50
feed line exciting

Manuscript received May 17, 2010; revised October 31, 2010; accepted Jan-
uary 15, 2011. Date of publication May 10, 2011; date of current version July
07, 2011. This work was supported in part by the National 973 project under
Grant 2010CB327400, in part by the National High-Tech Project under Grant
2009AA011801, and in part by NSFC under Grant 60921063.
The authors are with the State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, School
of Information Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096,
China (e-mail:;;;
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this communication are avail-
able online at
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2011.2152333

0018-926X/$26.00 © 2011 IEEE

Furthermore. and (2) Strong coupling will been simulated in HFSS [13]. The value of g should be greater than the width of one slot (2 mm). which are of the same size and arranged symmetrically in a cross configuration (see Fig. and strong antenna. Slots The quasi-cross-shaped slot consists of four slots. and feed lines. A. a patch printed on low dielectric substrate with an air space). As mentioned in Section I. feed lines is employed to decouple feed lines and patch edges—this is discussed in Section II. Second. the value should be less than a0L (assume that the (b) Top view of the antenna. The space between two slots. 59. is g. 1(a)). Geometry of dual-polarized quasi-cross slot-coupled microstrip patch mm. > 45 dB) between two polarizations over the entire center of the cross slot can be easily eliminated. the height and relative permittivity of the patch substrate are h = 1 mm and "= 2 65: . it could be that the best substrate is air (in fact. within the available range of 2–8. Further. As a result of this. because when g is less than or slightly greater than 2 Fig. These disadvantages are overcome in the model proposed in this It is well known that the distribution of surface currents on the patch communication by using a quasi-cross-shaped coupling slot—dis. it is found in the simu- lation that good isolation and radiation performance can be obtained. These are discussed in greater detail in Sections III and IV. gain can be improved with the geometry of Fig. so the surface currents between the two antennas . L = 19 2 mm : . can adequately reflect the purity of the linear polarization generated cussed in Section II. The air space between the upper layer and patch is h = 8 mm. cross slot can be overcome by using a quasi-cross-shaped slot. as much as possible. B . respectively. higher than that of the conventional cross-shaped slot which has a gain of about 7. It con- sists of quadrate radiating patch.6 mm. A prototype of the proposed antenna has been implemented. the height and coupling will occur between the two polarizations. For the proposed antenna. air gap. (c) Coupling slots on the ground plane. 1(c) compared to that rity of two linear polarizations generated by a cross slot is not high of the conventional cross slot. In order to impedance bandwidth is difficult to reach when a conventional cross. as low as possible. single slot slots are fed centrally). the orthogonal slots will either overlap or be too close. which is about 0 =10 (see Fig. 1(c)). 2: Antenna A—a patch occur between two orthogonal polarizations in the center of the cross antenna with a conventional single coupling slot.. II. as The results reported in the above-mentioned papers shows that high there is no overlap in the center of the quasi-cross. which are parallel. and Antenna B—a slot if the field around the slot is not strictly symmetrical.5 dBi [7]. slots. (a) Side view of the antenna. the impurity of two linear polarizations and one leg of the cross-shaped aperture and two 100 lines exciting the the coupling between two orthogonal polarizations in the center of the other leg symmetrically to achieve an isolation greater than 35 dB [6]. because (1) The pu. the space between two slots. VOL. the gain of the antenna is 9. two antennas fed by different slots have enough to keep them strictly orthogonal. 1. as shown as Fig. 1. 7. Further. NO. 2. C . : . ANTENNA ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGNS The architecture of the proposed antenna is shown in Fig. edges of the patch. g = 4 mm . the a = 27 8 mm side length of the patch. the structure of U-shaped folded by the coupling slot. when the value of g is chosen to be 4 mm (or twice the width of one slot).6 dBi at operating frequency. Geometries of antenna A and B. JULY 2011 Fig.g. the coupling in the isolation (e. B. the simulated and measured results are also presented. in order to relative permittivity of the feed substrates are h = 0 508 mm : and "=22 : . avoid strong coupling between the feed lines in the upper layer and the respectively. demonstrate that the purity of two linear polarizations and the antenna shaped coupling slot is used for dual-polarization. The isolation between two polarizations is enhanced to more than 50 dB over a broadband. Patch and Air Gap It is known that patches on high dielectric constant substrates have a lower bandwidth than the ones on low dielectric substrates. First. the air space between the upper layer and patch is h = 8 mm .2714 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. patch antenna with the proposed dual coupling slots.W = 2 mm .

3. the surface currents distributed in the quasi-cross-shaped slot. as shown in Fig. NO. cancels out in the z -axis direction. Besides. the purity of linear polarization and because of the strong electric field coupling between the feed lines. The purity of linear polarization is poor because the direction of surface currents varies greatly. As a re. on which the surface current distribution is whirly. 5. 6. Therefore. 1(a)). VOL. the far-field radiation increases. (b) Antenna B. however. 3(b). which are separated by the ground plane the surface current intensity distributed in the middle and edges of the (see Fig. which leads to a drop in the antenna gain. were compared. which deteriorated the isolation the cross polarization level of antenna B is lower than that of antenna over the bandwidth (3.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. the gain of antenna B is higher than that of antenna A. so the purity of the linear polarization of an. 4. The simulated radiation patterns of antennas A and B (a) E-plane radi- ation patterns and (b) H-plane radiation patterns. Moreover. the current distribution on the patch is in C. not whirly. In Fig. 5(a). and two edges of patch . Photograph of the proposed antenna. the stubs of microstrip lines are straight. 3(a) depicts the surface current distribution on the Fig. This spur appears on S21 mainly A. 59. Moreover. 4. The feed networks of the antenna. there was a sult. since (f2) and the lower layer (f1). The feed networks of the proposed antenna consist of the upper layer tenna B is much higher than in the case of antenna A. than that in the dual-polarized microstrip an- middle and edges of the patch are opposite and their far-field radiation tenna with conventional cross slot. 7(a). Fig. Fig. The general design of the feed networks is shown in patch is in the same direction. The distribution of surface currents on the patch (a) Antenna A and ified design. Fig. Feed Lines one direction. antenna gain is higher in the dual-polarized microstrip antenna with which feed the horizontally polarized slots. (a) The general design. However. 7.0–4. (b) The mod- Fig.0 GHz). spur lying on S21 as shown in Fig. JULY 2011 2715 Fig. patch of antenna A.

g = 4 mm.8 GHz) and 610 MHz (3. 5(b). 5(a).4–3. (b) 3. L = 19:2 mm.5 GHz. The simulated and of the coupling between the two orthogonal polarizations are shown measured isolation between port 1 and port 2 is shown in Fig. 3(b) is longer than that of the slot in layer (f2). That is mainly be- 3:2 mm. in Fig. 6. (a) Simulated and measured S for the design in Fig. 7(b). The front-to-back The antenna was fabricated. away from the edges of patch as possible.4–3. 8. In the lower layer. a = 27:8 mm. 7. With this modification. Measured radiation patterns of the proposed antenna at (a) 3. ratio of the proposed antenna is less than 10 dB. respectively. the spurs disappear from S21 and the The E-plane and H-plane radiation patterns of ports 1 and 2 within curves are more flat.5 GHz. The center fre. TABLE I SIMULATED AND MEASURED GAIN OF THE PROPOSED ANTENNA Fig. To keep the slots fed centrally and the feed lines as far Good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained. as shown in Fig. (c) The measured S other dimensions of the antenna are given in the caption of Fig. 7(b). f 2 t = 3:2 mm. Fig. as shown in Fig. It is shown that the cross-polarization components are and phase. f 1 u1 = 1:57 mm.6 GHz. The and S for the design in Fig.91 GHz) for port 1 and port 2. in E and H planes. 5(b). and f 1 u2 = 0:8 mm. W = 2 mm. ground-plane size = 120 mm 2 120 mm. The regions antennas in MIMO system.3–3. NO. The Fig. f 2 u2 = 1 mm.6 GHz) of that are part of the radiation area for vertical polarization. 7. which met the bandwidth requirement (3. 59. as shown in sured bandwidth (3.4 GHz.0 GHz) was more than 50 dB. VOL. (c) 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 45 and 46 for E plane and H plane. which is worse than quency was designed to be at 3. f 1 t = a conventional cross-shaped slot coupled antenna. f 2 u1 = 1:57 mm. 8(a)–(c)). the dual slots are fed uniformly in amplitude sented in Fig. The upper layer (see Fig.2716 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION.6 GHz) were measured and are pre- of the modified design. the design of feed lines were It can be seen that the isolation against frequency across the entire mea- modified to allow them to be folded U-shaped structures. 5(b). In all three cases (Fig. 7. respectively. 7(c). respectively. measured impedance bandwidth (return loss > 10 dB) was 570 MHz (3. Measured S parameters against frequency. In the lower layer (f1) the operating bandwidth (3. JULY 2011 Fig. the cross-polarization level is less than 017 dB within 3-dB beamwidth of III. 5(a). In the upper cause the length of the slot in Fig. 3(a) and hence the backward radiation of a quasi-cross-shaped slot . as can be seen in Fig. 5(b)) has a similar configuration all 038 dB down from the copolarization components on boresight as the lower one.23–3.0–4. 8. (b) The simulated and measured S for the design in Fig.

(TL). 59. The an- linear polarization. 2002. REFERENCES The measured average axial ratio and left-hand (LH) CP gain are 2. 5. no. Antennas Propag. vol. Fusco. which is introduced to suppress an omnidirectional radiation pattern. Antennas antennas having mushroom patches generate a uniform vertical electric Propag. vol.. 56.” in Proc. R. the ative (ENG) transmission line (TL) to obtain a vertical polarization and modified design of folding feed lines. The omnidirectional circularly polarized (CP) antenna is very attrac- bilities. Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Pozar. Antennas Propag. 12. pattern and CP property [1]. Lett. Wong. 1995. Y. zeroth-order resonance (ZOR) tenna for dual or circular polarization.-L. this antenna is planar type and simply designed without a dual feeding structure and 90 phase shifter. Chiou. revised November 06. and T.. L. 3. Symp.03 dB [1] D.. Wong. I. 1996. Brachat and J. 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F.” Electron. Lett. The antenna utilizes the ZOR mode of epsilon negative (ENG) transmission line (TL) to obtain an omnidirectional radiation pattern and a vertical polarization. Index Terms—Epsilon negative transmission line (ENG TL). directional circularly polarized antenna. no.2152337 0018-926X/$26..” IEEE Trans. “Broadband dual-polar. for wireless communication systems such as Global Position Systems [7] J. vol. Nov.” IEEE Trans. date of current version July 07.-W. tenna is proposed using the ZOR mode of epsilon negative (ENG) [13] Ansoft HFSS Version 11. The maximum gain of the proposed Utilizing Zeroth-Order Resonance of Epsilon antenna within the operating bandwidth was 9.” presented at the National Conf.” Electron.. omni- [2] A. However.” in Proc. Gao. Because the omnidirectionality and [5] M. L.” in Proc. these meta- IEEE Trans. [3] P. 7. vol. Antennas transmitting antennas. 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