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Mud Removal

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Objectives of Primary
Cementation
Provide complete isolation of zones
(Hydraulic Bond)
To support the casing (Shear Bond)
Protect casing string

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Mud Removal

Most important aspect of cement job


A 3-step process before cementing
Hole cleaning
Conditioning the drilling fluid
Displace the drilling fluid from the annulus

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Mud Removal
Hole Cleaning
Controlled & optimized mud properties
Wiper trips
> 95% Total hole volume in circulation
Caliper log
Conditioning Mud
Break gel strength
Lower ty + pv
Drill solids < 6%
Determine MPG to find qmin for all-around flow
Displace Mud from Annulus
Optimized slurry placement ---> CemCADE
Casing centralization optimized (STO > 75%)
Casing movement

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Criteria for Effective Mud
Removal
Cementing Operation:
Centralize casing
Casing movement
Scratchers
Wiper plugs
Washes and spacers
Flow regime selection

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The Ideal Wellbore Casing
BHST at top of Annular gap
cement Minimum: 3/4
>BHCT at TD Ideal: 1 1/2

Properly conditioned
hole and mud

No sloughing
Gauge
diameter Uniform as possible
( no washouts or restrictions)

NO LOSSES NO FLOW

Casing centered in borehole

Thin, impermeable mud filter cake Accurate BHST and BHCT


(not gelled or unconsolidated)

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Influence of the Casing
Stand-Off

Di

Do

Vnar Vwide

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Newtonian Fluid - Effect of
STO
The Effect of the Casing Stand-Off on the Annular
Flow is Qualitatively Equivalent to the Following Flow
Pattern

D1 D2

L P
L

V1 V2

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Newtonian Fluid of Viscosity
Density
In Laminar Flow :
1. Velocity P = 32 V1 = 32 V2
L D 12 D 22

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Newtonian Fluid of Viscosity
Density
In Laminar Flow :
1. Velocity P = 32 V1 = 32 V2
L D 12 D 22
V2 = (D2)2
V1 (D1)2

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Newtonian Fluid of Viscosity
Density
In Laminar Flow :
1. Velocity P = 32 V1 = 32 V2
L D 12 D 22
V2 = (D2)2
V1 (D1)2
If D2 = 2D1

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Newtonian Fluid of Viscosity
Density
In Laminar Flow :
1. Velocity P = 32 V1 = 32 V2
L D 12 D 22
V2 = (D2)2
V1 (D1)2
If D2 = 2D1

V2 = 4V1 (For 67%)

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Newtonian Fluid of Viscosity
Density
In Laminar Flow :
1. Velocity P = 32 V1 = 32 V2
L D 12 D22
V2 = (D2)2
V1 (D1)2
If D2 = 2D1
V2 = 4V1 (For 67%)

2. Reynolds Number
Re2 = V2 D2 = 4V12D1 = VD

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Newtonian Fluid of Viscosity
Density
In Laminar Flow :
1. Velocity P = 32 V1 = 32 V2
L D 12 D 22
V2 = (D2)2
V1 (D1)2
If D2 = 2D1
V2 = 4V1 (For 67%)

2. Reynolds Number
Re2 = V2 D2 = 4V12D1 = VD

Re2 = 8Re1 (For 67%)

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Laminar Flow in Eccentric
Annulus
Non-parallel plate model Ri/Ro = 0.8
1000
500

Vwide /
Vnarrow n = 1.0
100 n = 0.5
n = 0.2
50

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1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Stand-off %
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In Turbulent Flow
2 1.75
0.241 x 0.75 x 0.25 x( V
1 D )
Velocity p
1

= 4
D1 4.75
L V 2 1.75
0.241 x 0.75 x 0.25 x( 2 D2 )
= 4
D24.75
V2 =( D2 )0.714
V1 D 1
If D2 = 2D1
V2 = 1.64V1 (For 67%)

Reynolds Number
Re2= V2 D2 = 1.64V12D1 = 3.28V1D1

Re2 = 3.28Re1 (For 67%)

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Turbulent Flow in Eccentric
Annulus
1000
500

Vwide /
Vnarrow
100
50

n = 1.0
10
n = 0.5
n = 0.2
5

1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
API Stand - Off (%)

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Casing Centralization
Relative Variation of flow rate ratio as a function of eccentricity
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16 RH
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RC
FLOW RATE RATIO

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10
8 W

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% Stand-off =
w X 100
4 RH - R C

2
0

0 20 40 60 80 100
API % STAND-OFF

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Types of Centralizers
Bow Spring (Spiral or Straight):
Flexible bow springs
Centralizer OD slightly larger than OH size
Rigid Bow (or Positive) type:
Non-flexible O.D. (Slightly less than previous casing ID)
Use inside cased-hole sections
Effective in in-gauge OH intervals only
Rigid Solid slip-on type:
Solid body - no bows
Use: as per rigid type

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Reciprocation
Movement of casing up and down during the job
Must be done from the start of circulation to end
displacement
20 to 40 feet stroke
1 to 5 minutes per cycle
Needs scratchers to be effective
Casing may become stuck during movement
Excessive swab and surge pressures may be created
Excessive pull and buckling
Cannot be the only method of mud removal

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Rotation
Circular movement of pipe
Must be done from the start of circulation to end
displacement
10 to 40 rpm

Scratchers help efficiency

Needs special rotary cement heads and power


swivels
Torque must be very closely monitored
Cannot be the only method of mud removal

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Fluids Incompatibility
Results In:
Detrimental Interface Reactions
High Rheological Properties
Very high viscosities
Very high gel strengths
Change in Cement Slurry Properties
Thickening time altered
Increase in fluid loss
Reduction in compressive strength
Reduction in Hydraulic Bond
Prevented By:
Wiper Plugs
Chemical Washes
Spacers
Compatibility Testing

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Cement Wiper Plugs
Keep Fluids Separate in Casing and Reduce
Contamination
Bottom Plugs
Remove mud ahead of cement
Prevent cement falling through lighter fluid ahead
Wipe inner casing walls clean
Use 2 or more if possible
Top Plugs
Separate cement from displacing fluid
Positive indication of end of displacement

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Why Run a Bottom Plug ?
Bottom plug wipes accumulated mud cake,
scale, etc. from inner casing walls out through
float equipment into annulus.
Volume of debris can be significant and fill-up
shoetrack if not removed ahead of the top plug.
EXAMPLE: 9 5/8 47 lb/ft 10000 feet, collar at 9820
feet

Volume of 1/16 film?

Height corresponding to this volume?

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Turbulent Flow

Displacement
Preferred and best flow regime
Critical rate depends on:
Fluid rheologies
Casing stand-off
Annular gap, casing OD and bit size
Formation fracture gradient
Use Chemical Wash and/or Mudpush XT/S spacers:
10 Min. Contact time or 750 ft (use greater volume))
Spacer density to be close to that of mud
Optimize cement slurry properties:
Minimum PV and TY without settling
Fluid loss and free water controlled
Water wet the casing and formation

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Effective Laminar Flow
Alternative flow regime when Turbulent flow is not
possible
Four criteria must be satisfied:
DENSITY DIFFERENTIAL (10%)
MINIMUM PRESSURE GRADIENT (MPG)
FRICTION PRESSURE HIERARCHY (20%)
DIFFERENTIAL VELOCITY CRITERION
Viscous spacer: Mudpush XL/XLO
Viscosity adjustable (Change D149 concentration)
Volume to use: 500 ft or 60 bbls
Use 20 - 40 bbls chemical wash
Condition and clean mud
Viscosify cement slurry when necessary

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Chemical Washes
Water based fluids, low viscosity, density of water
Easy to pump in turbulent flow
CW7 for intermediate casings, water based muds
41.5 gals water, 0.5 gals D122A
CW100 for production casings, water based muds
41.25 gals water, 0.5 gals D122A, 0.25 gals J237
CW8 for intermediate casings, oil based muds
41.25 gals water, 0.5 gals D122A, 0.25 gals F40 last
CW101 for production casings, oil based muds
41 gals water, 0.5 gals D122A, 0.25 gals J237, 0.25 gals
F40

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Required Properties of
Spacers
Compatible with all other well fluids
Stability (good suspending capacity)
Controllable density and rheology
Good fluid loss control
Environmentally safe and easy to handle in the
field

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Events to be Recorded
Was the mud conditioned - rate and time?
How many centralizers were run and where?
Was the casing rotated and/or reciprocated?
Where the plugs correctly dropped?
What was the density and rheology of the spacers?
Was the correct volume of preflushes used?
The following data must be recorded on the PRISM:
All densities, if possible of displacement fluid as well
All flow rates, if possible of displacement as well
All pressures
Note any changes in flow rate, density, stoppages,
pressure peaks, etc.

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Conclusions
Condition mud prior to cementing
Centralize to give optimum casing stand-off
Rotate and/or Reciprocate casing
Use cable-type scratchers when reciprocating
Always use the bottom plugs: 2 preferred
Optimize slurry placement using CemCADE:
Turbulent flow preferred, or
Effective laminar flow technique
Use chemical wash pre-flushes
Control Mudpush spacer/cement slurry properties:
batch mix
Compatibility mud/cement/spacer : lab/field test

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