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CORROSION LANGUAGE MODULE 1

AND TERMINOLOGY
OVERVIEW

Cost of Corrosion
Fundamental Chemistr y
Cells and electrochemistry
Forms of Corrosion
WHAT IS CORROSION?

Spontaneous , exothermic reaction of a metal with its


environment to form compounds.
The metal rever ts back to the natural form found in nature.
In order to made metals (smelting, or reduction), chemical
energy is given to the ore material to make it a metal.
Thus metals contain more energy than rust.
The rusting process releases this energy back to the
environment.
COST OF CORROSION

Annually, between 3~ 6% of GDP.


The US spends approx. 276 Billion annually (1999 figures).
( equal to the DOD budget!)
In the UAE the GDP in 2008 was 792 Billion Dhs. Cost of
corrosion was therefore between 24 and 48 Billion Dhs.
But, of these costs, between 20 and 40% is preventable, using
current technology and best practices.
The UAE economy could therefore save between 5 and 10
Billion Dhs annually if best practices were implemented.
Current world annual cost of corrosion: $3.3 Trillion.
DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT COSTS

Direct costs: Indirect costs:


Replacement of infrastructure. Loss of consumer
Product loss. confidence.
Plant shutdown. Disruption to society.
Corrosion resistant materials. Litigation.
Cathodic Protection. Fines.
Coatings. Increased regulation.
Inhibitors. Failure analysis.
Manpower. Research and
Inspection. development.
Loss of life/ injur y. Education and training.
Loss of reliability (redundancy).
FORMS OF CORROSION

Uniform Erosion Corrosion


Galvanic Fretting
Dealloying Microbiological
Pitting Corrosion
Crevice High Temperature
Stress Corrosion Corrosion
Cracking Hydrogen Damage
Intergranular Sulfide Stress
Corrosion Corrosion
CORROSION Chemistr y
FUNDAMENTALS
ATOMS AND IONS

Elements are unique types of atoms.


Nucleus containing:
Protons
Neutrons
Orbiting electrons
Listed in the Periodic Table of elements
Chemistr y involves adding and subtracting electrons to atoms.
Since electrons are charged, the resulting IONS have
electrical charge.
THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS
IONS

However, electrons are negatively charged, so removing


electrons makes the ion positively charged
Compounds are a positive ion and a negative ion held
together by electrostatic attraction. Overall the compound is
neutral.
Fe 3+ + 3Cl - FeCl 3
In water, some ions are soluble and are surrounded by a
solvation sphere of water molecules. State symbol: ( aq)
CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND SPONTANEIT Y

A chemical reaction may be spontaneous or non spontaneous.


Spontaneous reactions are exothermic.
Reverse the direction of reaction and change the energy
changes:

Spontaneous, exothermic
Fe (s) Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 e -
Non spontaneous, endothermic
CORROSION 2
Electroche
FUNDAMENTALS mistr y
ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Corrosion is electrochemical.
The transfer of electrons from one substance to another.
Spontaneous chemical reactions liberate energy. This energy
can be used to push electrons around a circuit, giving them a
voltage.
The materials proper ties change:
Fe (s) Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 e -
In order for corrosion we need 4 things:
Anode
Cathode
Electrical path
electrolyte
ELECTRODES NEEDED FOR CORROSION

ANODE CATHODE
Oxidation (loss of Reduction (gain of
electrons). electrons).
Corrosion. Protection from
Source of electrons. corrosion.
More Active metals. Consumption of
Low [O 2 ]. electrons.
More Noble metal.
High [O 2 ].
CONDUCTIVE PATHS NEEDED FOR
CORROSION

Metallic path Electrolytic path


Allows the movement of Allows the movement of
ELECTRONS. IONS.
From the anode to the Positive ions flow from
cathode. the anode.
Must be made of metal. Must be an electrolyte
REAL CURRENT. (water or a molten
salt).
CONVENTIONAL
CURRENT.