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December 18, 2016


Pulse Jet Fuel Consumption

Gavriel Pincus and Delvin Ogando
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I. Problem Statement 3

II. Executive Summary 3

III. Performance Benchmarks 4

IV. Math, Science, and Engineering Concepts 5

V. Past and Present Solutions 6

VI. Market Research 8

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1. Problem Statement
Valveless pulse jets can provide thrust in different fashions ranging from propane, diesel, or

methanol sources. Based on these fuel mixtures, the most efficient fuel source for energy output and

thrust values can be determined.

o In this source it can be seen that there are many different ways of fueling and starting a pulse

jet. Therefore, there are many improvements that can be potentially made as part of that


2. Executive Summary

I selected the topic of propulsion design and engineering when it comes to efficiency in a pulse jet. I

chose this project because as an individual my career goals in life revolve around Aerospace

Engineering and how to optimize propulsion engines. My goal in this specific project is to

manufacture a pulse jet engine and conduct tests as to improve fuel consumption in order to make

the engine a viable option for transportation. In order to accomplish these goals I plan on first

researching a basic pulse jet design that could be manufactured without much difficulty. After this

jet has been completed I plan on testing the jet with various different fuel sources from which I will

test to see which is the most efficient. With this information I would adapt my pulse jet in order to
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accommodate this fuel and perhaps add modifications to the jet itself in order to improve efficiency.

Upon completion of these tests a process and final test paper is planned that would detail every part

and result as a concluding part of the final project. Some of the resources required for this project

include stainless steel for the pulse jet construction, various types of fuel to be used for testing, and

a remote way of monitoring heat and exhaust as the jet is tested. If this where to be accomplished,

the old and forgotten way of propulsion that was used many years ago could be reinvigorated and

potentially be used in the future to transport goods using drones quickly and efficiently. To

conclude the goal for this project is to build a pulse jet in order to conduct tests that would improve

upon the initial design of the pulse jet as it pertains to fuel efficiency.

3. Performance Benchmarks

The main goal of this project is to produce a pulse jet with which various tests can be conducted on

fuel efficiency that would result in a more efficient design.

Improve fuel efficiency

o Test how quickly a preset amount of fuel runs out once the engine is started.

Improve wasted energy

o Test how hot the engine gets. This is measured because the more residual heat that is

produced effectively increases the wasted heat energy.

Reduce noise by improving upon the original design.

o Measure how loud the engine gets while running. This would be recorded by
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measuring the max decibels produced while the engine is running.

o Is the Pulse Jet too loud? Test to see what decibel limit is acceptable and try to

achieve a rating under that level.

4. Math, Science, and Engineering


This project pertains mostly to the field of Aerospace Engineering and design. Due to this the

overall formulas and concepts required to accomplish the goal of the project mostly pertain to

aeronautical concepts and propulsions design.

Aerospace Concepts and Knowledge

o Kadenacy Oscillation

o The oscillation of pressure in a pulse jet as a result of inertia. Gases

stretched and compressed between the inside and outside pressures of the jet.

As a result the jets structure oscillates akin to breathing. (How Pulse Jets


o Elements of Resonance

o The combustion chamber is the place of the greatest impedance which means

the movement of gas is the most restricted there. Although this is true, the

pressure swings are also the greatest. As a result the chamber is a speed node
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but a pressure antinode. The distance between a node and an antinode is a

quarter of the wavelength. This is the smallest section of a wave that a pulse

jet can withstand. (How Pulse Jets Work)

o Acoustic Resonance

o The explosion within the combustion chamber creates a pressure wave that

hits the engine tube and its trapped air, causing it to ring like a bell. That

pressure wave travels up and down the tube. Once the wave front reaches an

end, part of it reflects back. Reflections from opposed ends meet and forma a

standing wave. (How Pulse Jets Work)

Construction Concepts


A process from which materials like metal or thermoplastics are fused

which requires more temperature rather than techniques such as

brazing and soldering. Within welding there are other ways of use like

friction welding or shielded active gas welding. Different energy

sources can be used when welding. These range from an electric arc,

an electron beam, friction, ultrasound, or a gas flame. Welding as it is

known today has only become popular doing the early 20th century.

Before then the only welding process was forge welding.

5. Past and Present Solutions

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Engine Designs


o Essentially the first working pulse jet, developed by the French in 1909. The

inventor Georges Marconnet figured that a blast inside a chamber would prefer to go

through a bigger exhaust opening, rather than squeezing through a relatively narrow

intake. Due to the lack of a turbulent combustion chamber, mixing fuel and air was

difficult and the combustion was of a relatively low intensity. In essence this design

was also a early ramjet seeing as it needed ram pressure at the intake in order to

work. (How Pulse Jets Work)


o Developed by French engineers at the French SNECMA Corporation the Escopette

took the original design of a pulse jet and inversed the fuel intake backwards. After

this was done the blowback that would have contributed to the negative effects of the

pulse jet were turned into thrust.. The tailpipe used is not just a straight pipe but

rather a series of steps of increasing section. This tailpipe device is used to increase

the pressure wave once running. This design used compression and rarefaction

waves very effectively based on the structure of the jet itself. (How Pulse Jets Work)

Chinese CS

o During the 1950s the CS Company built and sold model pulse jet engines to the

mass market. In this design the intake port branches out from the chamber very close

to the exhaust proper. Instead of fresh mixture entering the chamber on one side and

hot gasses on the other, they enter virtually from the same side, in streams that
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impinge on each other at an angle of around 45 degrees. (How Pulse Jets Work)


o The Lockwood-Hiller design is one of the most popular pulse jet designs to date

despite the simple appearance. The fuel mixture developed was generated by mixing

propane gas which was injected through a jet built into the combustion chamber.

This design was capable of pushing out 280 lbs of thrust although it only weighed 30

lbs. (How Pulse Jets Work)

6. Market Research

If this project were to succeed, the market aspects of the result could be very useful. In reality

over the past two years the remote control community has started to start using pulse jets once

again. They have begun doing this seeing as new developments in pulse jet technology has been

discovered that improve aspects of the original design. In addition to this data, the YouTuber

ColinFurze has brought mass media attention to the topic of pulse jets due to his work when it

comes to designing and testing large scale models. If I were to mass produce this product the

community I would seek to sell to would be he large group of Remote Control airplane enthusiasts

as well as someone who might want to use my pulse jet to develop a new type of transportation.

They will buy this product because if accomplished this jet would be more efficient than the

original design and therefore more sought after. In addition to this, I plan on creating the pulse jet

without spending an enormous amount of money. As a result the retail price of the pulse jet will not
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be too costly. Some of the materials required are very easy to find such as stainless steel, propane,

gasoline, diesel, or rubber tubing.

1. Gantt Chart


Works Cited

"COLINFURZE." COLINFURZE. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2016.

"How Pulse Jets Work." Pulse Jet Engines. N.p., 2014. Web. 19 Dec. 2016.

"Home made jet & pulsejet engine." Home made jet & pulsejet engine. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec.


"Pulsejet." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2016.