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Security System Using Biometric Sensors

Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

Personal identification is to associate a particular individual with an identity. It plays a


critical role in our society, in which questions related to identity of an individual such
as Is this the person who he or she claims to be?, Has this applicant been here
before?, Should this individual be given access to our system? Does this employee
have authorization to perform this transaction? etc are asked millions of times every
day by hundreds of thousands of organizations in financial services, health care,
electronic commerce, telecommunication, government, etc. With the rapid evolution of
information technology, people are becoming even more and more electronically
connected. As a result, the ability to achieve highly accurate automatic personal
identification is becoming more critical.

A wide variety of systems require reliable personal authentication schemes to


either confirm or determine the identity of individuals requesting their services. The
purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed by a
legitimate user, and not anyone else. Examples of these systems include secure access
to buildings, computer systems, laptops, cellular phones and ATMs. In the absence of
robust authentication schemes, these systems are vulnerable to the wiles of an
impostor.

Traditionally, passwords (knowledge-based security) and ID cards (token-based


security) have been used to restrict access to systems. The major advantages of this
traditional personal identification are as:

(i) They are very simple.


(ii) They can be easily integrated into different systems with allow cost.

However these approaches are not based on any inherent attributes of an individual to
make a personal identification thus having number of disadvantages like tokens may
be lost, stolen, forgotten, or misplaced; PIN may be forgotten or guessed by impostors.
Security can be easily breached in these systems when a password is divulged to an
unauthorized user or a card is stolen by an impostor; further, simple passwords are
easy to guess (by an impostor) and difficult passwords may be hard to recall (by a
legitimate user).Therefore they are unable to satisfy the security requirements of our

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electronically interconnected information society. The emergence of biometrics has


addressed the problems that plague traditional verification.

1.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES


Today's world scenario is changing day by day. Now, we have to secure our systems
from every kind of threats, so that our highly confidential data can not be leaked out
and can not be used for personal benefits. So, for securing our data from the hackers
whether outside or from inside the organization we use biometric security system. The
basic aim of this project is to design an effective and secure technique for personal
authentication using fingerprint recognition and to develop or improve existing
algorithms to make the finger print recognition more accurate in all possible ways.

In this we will do the performance enhancement of proposed framework by comparing


the performance of existing recognition system.

The objective of our project is to implement the security system using biometric
sensors using image enhancement and minutiae extraction algorithm which is capable
of doing the matching between different digitized fingerprints of standard image file
formats namely; BMP, JPEG, tif with high level of accuracy andconfidence.

1.2 MOTIVATION
Accurate automatic personal identification is critical in wide range of application
domains such as national ID cards, electronic commerce and automatic banking.
Biometrics, which refers to automatic identification of a person based on his or her
personal physiological or behavioral characteristics, is inherently more reliable and
more capable in differentiating between a reliable person and a fraudulent impostor
than traditional methods such as PIN and passwords. Automatic fingerprint
identification and face recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technology
among the different major biometric technologies which are either currently available
or under investigation.

1.3 PROBLEM DETERMINATION / IDENTIFICATION

We propose a security system using biometric sensors using simple and effective
approach for Biometric fingerprint image enhancement and minutiae extraction based

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on the frequency and orientation of the local ridges and thereby extracting correct
minutiae points.

Automatic and reliable extraction of minutiae from fingerprint images is a critical step
in fingerprint matching. The quality of input fingerprint images plays an important
role in the performance of automatic identification and verification algorithms. In this
project we presents a fast fingerprint enhancement and minutiae extraction algorithm
which improves the clarity of the ridge and valley structures of the input fingerprint
images based on the frequency and orientation of the local ridges and thereby
extracting correct minutiae.

Fingerprint based identification has been one of the most successful biometric
techniques used for personal identification. Each individual has unique fingerprints. A
fingerprint is the pattern of ridges and valleys on the finger tip. A fingerprint is thus
defined by the uniqueness of the local ridge characteristics and their relationships.
Minutiae points are these local ridge characteristics that occur either at a ridge ending
or a ridge bifurcation. A ridge ending is defined as the point where the ridge ends
abruptly and the ridge bifurcation is the point where the ridge splits into two or more
branches. Automatic minutiae detection becomes a difficult task in low quality
fingerprint images where noise and contrast deficiency result in pixel configurations
similar to that of minutiae. This is an important aspect that has been taken into
consideration in this presentation for extraction of the minutiae with a minimum error
in a particular location. A complete minutiae extraction scheme for automatic
fingerprint recognition systems is presented. The proposed method uses improving
alternatives for the image enhancement process, leading consequently to an increase of
the reliability in the minutiae extraction task.

1.3.1 BIOMETRICS

In the world of computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques


that rely on measurable physiological and individual characteristics that can be
automatically verified. In other words, we all have unique personal attributes that can
be used for distinctive identification purposes, including a fingerprint, the pattern of a
retina, and voice characteristics. Strong or two-factor authentication identifying
oneself by two of the three methods of something you know (for example, a

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password), have (for example, a swipe card), or is (for example, a fingerprint)is


becoming more of a genuine standard in secure computing environments. Some
personal computers today can include a fingerprint scanner where you place your
index finger to provide authentication. The computer analyzes your fingerprint to
determine who you are and, based on your identity followed by a pass code or pass
phrase, allows you different levels of access. Access levels can include the ability to
open sensitive files, to use credit card information to make electronic purchases, and
so on.

1.3.2 BIOMETRICAUTHENTICATION TECHNIQUES

A biometric authentication is essentially a pattern-recognition that makes a


personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or
behavioral characteristic possessed by the user. An important issue is designing a
practical approach to determine how an individual is identified. An authentication can
be divided into two modules:

i. Enrollment module

ii. Identification or Verification module

1.3.3 HOW BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY WORK?

The enrollment module is responsible for enrolling individuals into the biometric
system. During the enrollment phase, the biometric characteristic of an individual is
first scanned by a biometric reader to produce a raw digital representation of the
characteristic. In order to facilitate matching, the raw digital representation is usually
further processed by feature extractor to generate a compact but expensive
representation, called a template.

Depending on the application, the template may be stored in the central database.
Depending on the application, biometrics can be used in one of two modes:
verification or identification. Verificationalso called authenticationis used to
verify a persons identitythat is, to authenticate that individuals are who they say
they are. Identification is used to establish a persons identitythat is, to determine
who a person is.

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Although biometric technologies measure different characteristics in substantially


different ways, all biometric systems start with an enrollment stage followed by a
matching stage that can use either verification or identification.

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1.3.4.1 ENROLLMENT

In enrollment, a biometric system is trained to identify a specific person. The


person first provides an identifier, such as an identity card. The biometric is linked to
the identity specified on the identification document. He or she then presents the
biometric (e.g., fingertips, hand, or iris) to an acquisition device. The distinctive
features are located and one or more samples are extracted, encoded, and stored as a
reference template for future comparisons. Depending on the technology, the
biometric sample may be collected as an image, a recording, or a record of related
dynamic measurements. How biometric systems extract features and encode and store
information in the template is based on the system vendors proprietary algorithms.
Template size varies depending on the vendor and the technology. Templates can be
stored remotely in a central database or within a biometric reader device itself; their
small size also allows for storage on smart cards or tokens.

Minute changes in positioning, distance, pressure, environment, and other factors


influence the generation of a template. Consequently, each time an individuals
biometric data are captured, the new template is likely to be unique. Depending on the
biometric system, a person may need to present biometric data several times in order
to enroll.

Either the reference template may then represent an amalgam of the captured data
or several enrollment templates may be stored. The quality of the template or
templates is critical in the overall success of the biometric application. Because
biometric features can change over time, people may have to reenroll to update their
reference template.

Some technologies can update the reference template during matching operations. The
enrollment process also depends on the quality of the identifier the enrollee presents.
The reference template is linked to the identity specified on the identification
document. If the identification document does not specify the individuals true
identity, the reference template will be linked to a false identity.

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1.3.4.2VERIFICATION

In verification systems, the step after enrollment is to verify that a person is who
he or she claims to be (i.e., the person who enrolled). After the individual provides an
identifier, the biometric is presented, which the biometric system captures, generating
a trial template that is based on the vendors algorithm. The system then compares the
trial biometric template with this persons reference template, which was stored in the
system during enrollment, to determine whether the individuals trial and stored
templates match.

Verification is often referred to as 1:1 (one-to-one) matching.

Verification systems can contain databases ranging from dozens to millions of enrolled
templates but are always predicated on matching an individuals presented biometric
against his or her reference template.

Nearly all verification systems can render a matchno-match decision in less than a
second.

One of the most common applications of verification is a system that requires


employees to authenticate their claimed identities before granting them access to
secure buildings or to computers.

1.3.4.3 IDENTIFICATION

In identification systems, the step after enrollment is to identify who the person is.
Unlike verification systems, no identifier is provided. To find a match, instead of
locating and comparing the persons reference template against his or her presented
biometric, the trial template is compared against the stored reference templates of all
individuals enrolled in the system. Identification systems are referred to as 1: M (one-
to-M, or one-to-many) matching because an individuals biometric is compared against
multiple biometric templates in the systems database. There are two types of
identification systems: positive and negative. Positive identification systems are
designed to ensure that an individuals biometric is enrolled in the database. The
anticipated result of a search is a match. A typical positive identification system controls
access to a secure building or secure computer by checking anyone who seeks access
against a database of enrolled employees. The goal is to determine whether a person

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seeking access can be identified as having been enrolled in the system. Negative
identification systems are designed to ensure that a persons biometric information is
not present in a database. The anticipated result of a search is a no match.

Comparing a persons biometric information against a database of all who are registered
in a public benefits program, for example, can ensure that this person is not double
dipping by using fraudulent documentation to register under multiple identities.
Another type of negative identification system is a watch list system. Such systems are
designed to identify people on the watch list and alert authorities for appropriate action.
For all other people, the system is to check that they are not on the watch list and allow
them normal passage. The people whose biometrics is in the database in these systems
may not have provided them voluntarily. For instance, for a surveillance system, the
biometric may be faces captured from mug shots provided by a law enforcement
agency.

No match is ever perfect in either verification or identification system, because


every time a biometric is captured, the template is likely to be unique. Therefore,
biometric systems can be configured to make a match or no-match decision, based on a
predefined number, referred to as a threshold, which establishes the acceptable degree
of similarity between the trial template and the enrolled reference template. After the
comparison, a score representing the degree of similarity is generated, and this score is
compared to the threshold to make a match or no-match decision. Depending on the
setting of the threshold in identification systems, sometimes several reference templates
can be considered matches to the trial template, with the better scores corresponding to
better matches.

1.3.5 LEADING BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGIES

A growing number of biometric technologies have been proposed over the past
several years, but only in the past 5 years have the leading ones become more widely
deployed.

Some technologies are better suited to specific applications than others, and some
are more acceptable to users. We describe seven leading biometric technologies:

i. FacialRecognition
ii. FingerprintRecognition

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iii. HandGeometry
iv. IrisRecognition
v. SignatureRecognition
vi. SpeakerRecognition

1.3.6 FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION

Fingerprint recognition is one of the best known and most widely used biometric
technologies. Automated systems have been commercially available since the early
1970s, and at the time of our study, we found there were more than 75 fingerprint
recognition technology companies. Until recently, fingerprint recognition was used
primarily in law enforcement applications.

Fingerprint recognition technology extracts features from impressions made by the


distinct ridges on the fingertips. The fingerprints can be either flat or rolled. A flat print
captures only an impression of the central area between the fingertip and the first
knuckle; a rolled print captures ridges on both sides of the finger.

An image of the fingerprint is captured by a scanner, enhanced, and converted into a


template. Scanner technologies can be optical, silicon, or ultrasound technologies.
Ultrasound, while potentially the most accurate, has not been demonstrated in
widespread use. In 2002, we found that optical scanners were the most commonly used.
During enhancement, noise caused by such things as dirt, cuts, scars, and creases or
dry, wet or worn fingerprints is reduced, and the definition of the ridges is enhanced.
Approximately 80 percent of vendors base their algorithms on the extraction of
minutiae points relating to breaks in the ridges of the fingertips. Other algorithms are
based on extracting ridge patterns.

1.3.7 FINGERPRINTS AS BIOMETRICS

Among all biometric traits, fingerprints have one of the highest levels of reliability and
have been extensively used by forensic experts in criminal investigations. A fingerprint
refers to the flow of ridge patterns in the tip of the finger. The ridge flow exhibits
anomalies in local regions of the fingertip (Figure), and it is the position and orientation
of these anomalies that are used to represent and match fingerprints.

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Fig [1.1] Different identification on fingerprint

Although not scientifically established, fingerprints are believed to be unique across


individuals, and across fingers of the same individual. Even identical twins w34having
similar DNA, are believed to have different fingerprints. Traditionally, fingerprint
patterns have been extracted by creating an inked impression of the fingertip on paper.

The electronic era has ushered in a range of compact sensors that provide digital
images of these patterns. These sensors can be easily incorporated into existing
computer peripherals like the mouse or the keyboard (figure), thereby making this
mode of identification a very attractive proposition. This has led to the increased use of
automatic fingerprint-based authentication systems in both civilian and law
enforcement applications.

Fig [1.2]Fingerprint Sensors


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1.3.8 FINGERPRINT REPRESENTATION

The uniqueness of a fingerprint is determined by the topographic relief of its ridge


structure and the presence of certain ridge anomalies termed as minutiae points.
Typically, the global configuration defined by the ridge structure is used to determine
the class of the fingerprint, while the distribution of minutiae points is used to match
and establish the similarity between two fingerprints.
Automatic fingerprint identification systems, that match a queryprint against a large
database of prints (which can consist of millions of prints), rely on the pattern of ridges
in the query image to narrow their search in the database (fingerprint indexing), and on
the minutiae points to determine an exact match (fingerprint matching). The ridge flow
pattern itself is rarely used for matchingfingerprints.

1.3.9 MINUTIAE

Minutiae, in fingerprinting terms, are the points of interest in a fingerprint, such as


bifurcations (a ridge splitting into two) and ridge endings. Examples are:

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a.)Ridge endings - a ridge that ends abruptly

b.) Ridge bifurcation - a single ridge

that divides into two ridges

c.) Short ridges, island


or independent ridge - a
ridge that commences,
travels a short distance
and then ends

d.) Ridge enclosures - a single


ridge that bifurcates and reunites
shortly afterward to continue as a
single ridge

e.) Spur - a bifurcation with a short


ridge branching off a longer ridge

Fig [1.3] Fingerprint details

f.) Crossover or bridge - a short


ridge that runs between two
parallel ridges.

Minutiae also refer to any small or


otherwise incidental details.

But the focus when matching is only on the 2 main minutiae; ridge ending and ridge
bifurcation.

1.4 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

We require software as well as some hardware facilities. They are as follows:

1.4.1 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

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For the implementation of this project we require MATLAB software .And here we are
using Matlab R2013a ,where R2013a stands for its version.

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment


and fourth-generation programming language. A proprietary programming
language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting
of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and
interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C+
+, C#, Java, Fortran and Python.

Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox


uses the MuPAD symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic computing abilities. An
additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and model-based
design for dynamic and embedded systems.

In 2004, MATLAB had around one million users across industry and
academia. MATLAB users come from various backgrounds of engineering, science,
and economics.

1.4.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

i. RAM :

We require 2-4 GB RAM for completing the implementation part of this project.

ii. Hard disk :

We require 4-6 GB Hard Disk for completing the implementation part of this project.

iii. Operating System :

This project is compatible upto microsoft windows 7.As we are using the biometric
device named NITGEN FINGKEY HAMSTER whose driver is available for window
7 and below versions. If we choose to use some different device which is compatible
with above versions and various operating systems then we can make this project work
with any kind of operating system and their higher versions.

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iv. Biometric fingerprint device:

In the world of computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques that


rely on measurable physiological and individual characteristics that can be
automatically verified. In other words, we all have unique personal attributes that can
be used for distinctive identification purposes, including a fingerprint, the pattern of a
retina, and voice characteristics. Strong or two-factor authentication identifying
oneself by two of the three methods of something you know (for example, a password),
have (for example, a swipe card), or is (for example, a fingerprint)is becoming more
of a genuine standard in secure computing environments. Some personal computers
today can include a fingerprint scanner where you place your index finger to provide
authentication. The computer analyzes your fingerprint to determine who you are and,
based on your identity followed by a pass code or pass phrase, allows you different
levels of access. Access levels can include the ability to open sensitive files, to use
credit card information to make electronic purchases, and so on.

1.4.2.1 NITGEN FINGKEY HAMSTER

FINGKEY Hamster comes with a cutting-edge fingerprint sensor and avoids


spoofing or fake fingerprints. It is useful in all areas involving passwords. Its a high-
quality security gadget which allows to operate a PC without using passwords which
are hard to remember and are often hacked by unauthorized importers.

DESCRIPTION:

i. NIST certified interoperable template format standards (ANSI-378. ISO19794-


2/4, NFIQ)
ii. Image Compression Standard (WSQ)
iii. Live Finger Detection (LFD) technology
iv. Worlds best performing fingerprint algorithm: Top ranked in FVC (Fingerprint
Verification Competition)
v. Fast matching speed : 1,000,000 matches within a second
vi. Plug and play USB 2.0 high speed interface
vii. Supports multiple device handling
viii. 500 dpi optical fingerprint sensor
ix. Scratch free sensor surface

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x. Resistant to impact, vibration and electrostatic shock


xi. SDK for easy application software development
xii. Supports MS Windows
xiii. Supports multiple programming languages.

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CHAPTER -2
LITERATURE REVIEW

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2.1 THEORITICAL REVIEW

This is the table showing the research papers that we have referred and summary of the
concepts we have studied from those research papers

REFERENCE YEAR TITLE KEY POINTS FINDING


NUMBER S
[1] 2013 A Study of Introduction, In this
Biometric paper we
Different
Approach studied
technologies
Using about
used
Fingerprint different
Recognitio technologie
n s used
which are
pattern
based
matching,
correlation
based
matching
[2] 2013 Fingerprint Minutia In this
Recognitio algorithm, paper we
n Using implementation studied
Minutiae and system about
Extractar flow diagram minutia
algorithm ,
which we
are
implementi
ng in our
project.it
includes
various

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steps.

Table [1.1]Review of research papers

Fingerprint Recognition or fingerprint authentication refers to the automated methods of


verifying a match between two human fingerprint .Fingerprints are widely used in daily
life for more than 100 years due to its feasibility, distinctiveness, accuracy, reliability,
and acceptability.

A large number of approaches to fingerprint matching and various algorithm and


methods are behind their matching procedure.

Research on biometric methods has gained renewed attention in recent years brought on
by an increase in security concerns. The recent world attitude towards terrorism has
influenced people and their governments to take action and be more proactive in
security issues. This need for security also extends to the need for individuals to protect,
among other things, their working environments, homes, personal possessions and
assets. Many biometric techniques have been developed and are being improved with
the most successful being applied in everyday law enforcement and security
applications. Biometric methods include several state-of-the-art techniques. Among
them, fingerprint recognition is considered to be the most powerful technique for utmost
security authentication. Advances in sensor technology and an increasing demand for
biometrics are driving a burgeoning biometric industry to develop new technologies. As
commercial incentives increase, many new technologies for person identification are
being developed, each with its own strengths and weaknesses and a potential.

Research on biometric methods has gained renewed attention in recent years


brought on by an increase in security concerns. The recent world attitude towards
terrorism has influenced people and their governments to take action and be more
proactive in security issues. This need for security also extends to the need for
individuals to protect, among other things, their working environments, homes, personal
possessions and assets. Many biometric techniques have been developed and are being
improved with the most successful being applied in everyday law enforcement and
security applications. Biometric methods include several state-of-the-art techniques.
Among them, fingerprint recognition is considered to be the most powerful technique
for utmost security authentication. Advances in sensor technology and an increasing
demand for biometrics are driving a burgeoning biometric industry to develop new

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technologies. As commercial incentives increase, many new technologies for person


identification are being developed, each with its own strengths and weaknesses and a
potential niche market. This chapter reviews some well-known biometrics with special
emphasis to fingerprint.
In this Project we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutiae algorithm.

We studied two research papers titled A Study of Biometric Approach Using


Fingerprint Recognition and Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutiae Extractar their
summary is as follows:

2.1.1 RESEARCH PAPER [1]

In [1] research paper given by Ravi Subban and Dattatreya P. Mankame, we have
studied about the introduction part of this project. And we have also studied about the
various technologies which can be used to implement this project. Various techniques
are as follows:

i. Correlation-based matching:
Two fingerprintimages are superimposed and the correlation between corresponding
pixels is computed for different alignments (e.g. various displacements and rotations).

ii. Minutiae-based matching:


This is the mostpopular and widely used technique, being the basis of the fingerprint
comparison made by fingerprint examiners. Minutiae are extracted from the two
fingerprints and stored as sets of points in the two- dimensional plane. Minutiae-based
matching essentially consists of finding the alignment between the template and the
input minutiae sets that results in the maximum number of minutiae pairings.

iii. Pattern-based (or image-based) matching:


Pattern based algorithms compare the basic fingerprint patterns (arch, whorl, and loop)
between a previously stored template and a candidate fingerprint. This requires that the
images be aligned in the same orientation. To do this, the algorithm finds a central point
in the fingerprint image and centers on that. In a pattern-based algorithm, the template
contains the type, size, and orientation of patterns within the aligned fingerprint image.
The candidate fingerprint image is graphically compared with the template to determine
the degree to which they match.

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In Our project we have implemented a minutiae based matching technique.


This approach has been studied, also is the backbone of the current available
fingerprint recognition.

2.1.2 RESEARCH PAPER [2]


From [2] reference paper given by Manisha Redhu and Dr. Balakrishan, we have
studied about the algorithm (minutiae) and the implementation and the system flow
diagram.
The algorithm works on minutiae points which are present on fingerprints of every
human.and when these points are joined then the unique pattern is created of each and
every finger. So in this algorithm he fingerprint is first extracted and then further
processed so that it can b enhanced and free from noise and then the minutiae points
are marked so that the uniqueness can be defined.each and every pattern of different
fingerprints is different. This allows more security.
Implementation part is explained as below:
We have concentrated our implementation on Minutiae based method. In particular
we are interested only in two of the most important minutia features i.e. Ridge Ending
and Ridge bifurcation.
The outline of our approach can be broadly classified into 2 stages - Minutiae
Extraction and Minutiae matching. The system takes in 2 input fingerprints to be
matched and gives a percentage score of the extent of match between the two. Based on
the score and threshold match value it can distinguish whether the two fingerprints
match or not. The input fingerprints are taken from the database provided by FVC2004
(Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004).

2.3 TECHNICAL REVIEW

We have visited different sites to view about the MATLAB software and its basics,
functioning of the software, working with graphics etc. One of the sites which helped us
to know the major part of MATLAB is Mathworks.

The detail explanation about what is Mathworks and the things we find there are given
below:

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2.3.1 MATHWORKS

The MathWorks, Inc. is an American privately held corporation that specializes in


mathematical computing software. Its major products include MATLAB and Simulink.

MathWorks is the leading developer of mathematical computing software. Engineers


and scientists worldwide rely on its products to accelerate the pace of discovery,
innovation, and development.

As of June 2016, it employed over 3,600 people worldwide with 70% located at the
company's headquarters in Natick, Massachusetts, United States. MathWorks refers to
its corporate social responsibility program as its "Social Mission," which has five
components: Investments in Education, Staff-Driven Initiatives, Local Community
Support, Green Initiatives and Disaster Relief.[10] The company annually sponsors a
number of student engineering competitions, including EcoCAR, an advanced vehicle
technology competition created by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)
and General Motors (GM). MathWorks sponsors museums and science learning centers
such as the Boston Museum of Science (since 1991)[11] and the Cambridge Science
Center in the United Kingdom.[12] It also is a supporter of public broadcasting,
including National Public Radio (NPR)'s Here and Now program.[13] The company
website gathered contributions to the 2010 Haiti earthquake relief efforts.[14]

In December 2012, Uniloc filed a lawsuit against MathWorks over alleged patent
infringements in the activation software that MathWorks uses for MATLAB licenses to
combat piracy.

Using this website, we studied the basics of MATLAB, functioning of the tools in the
software, designing the graphic interface. These are explained below:

i. What is MATLAB?

MATLAB, the language of technical computing, is a programming environment for


algorithm development, data analysis, visualization, and numeric computation.
Simulink is a graphical environment for simulation and Model-Based Design for
multidomain dynamic and embedded systems. MATLAB and Simulink are also
fundamental teaching and research tools in the world's universities and learning
institutions.

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Millions of engineers and scientists worldwide use MATLAB to analyze and design
the systems and products transforming our world. MATLAB is in automobile active
safety systems, interplanetary spacecraft, health monitoring devices, smart power grids,
and LTE cellular networks. It is used for machine learning, signal processing, image
processing, computer vision, communications, computational finance, control design,
robotics, and much more.

ii. Math.Graphics.Programming.

The MATLAB platform is optimized for solving engineering and scientific problems.
The matrix-based MATLAB language is the worlds most natural way to express
computational mathematics. Built-in graphics make it easy to visualize and gain insights
from data. A vast library of prebuilt toolboxes lets you get started right away with
algorithms essential to your domain. The desktop environment invites experimentation,
exploration, and discovery. These MATLAB tools and capabilities are all rigorously
tested and designed to work together.

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Chapter-3
PROPOSED SOLUTION
AND METHODOLOGY

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PROPOSED SOLUTION
Research on biometric methods has gained renewed attention in recent years brought on
by an increase in security concerns. The recent world attitude towards terrorism has
influenced people and their governments to take action and be more proactive in
security issues. This need for security also extends to the need for individuals to protect,
among other things, their working environments, homes, personal possessions and
assets. Many biometric techniques have been developed and are being improved with
the most successful being applied in everyday law enforcement and security
applications.

A growing number of biometric technologies have been proposed over the past several
years, but only in the past 5 years have the leading ones become more widely deployed.

Some technologies are better suited to specific applications than others, and some
are more acceptable to users. We describe seven leading biometric technologies:

i. FacialRecognition
ii. FingerprintRecognition
iii. HandGeometry
iv. IrisRecognition
v. SignatureRecognition
vi. SpeakerRecognition

3.1 FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION


Fingerprint recognition is one of the best known and most widely used biometric
technologies. Fingerprint identification is the most reliable kind of personal
identification because it cannot be forgotten, misplaced, or Fingerprint is a unique
feature to an individual. It stays with a person throughout his or her life.

3.1.1 FINGERPRINT IMAGEENHANCEMENT


Fingerprint Image enhancement is used to make the image clearer for easy further
operations. Since the fingerprint images acquired from scanner or any other media are

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not assured with perfect quality, those enhancement methods, for increasing the contrast
between ridges and valleys and for connecting the false broken points of ridges due to
insufficient amount of ink, are very useful for keep a higher accuracy to fingerprint
recognition.

Originally, the enhancement step was supposed to be done using the canny edge
detector. But after trial, it turns out that the result of an edge detector is an image with
the borders of the ridges highlighted. Using edge detection would require the use of an
extra step to fill out the shapes which would consume more processing time and would
increase the complexity of the code, as shown in figure [3.1]

Fig[ 3.1]Enhancement using edge detector

3.2 HISTOGRAMEQUALIZATION
Histogram equalization is to expand the pixel value distribution of an image so as to
increase the perceptional information. The original histogram of a fingerprint image is
shown in [Figure 3.2], the histogram after the histogram equalization is shown in
[Figure3.3]

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Fig[3.2] Histogram before equalization

Fig [3.3]Histogram after equalization

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3.2.1 FINGERPRINT ENHANCEMENT BY FOURIERTRANSFORM


We divide the image into small processing blocks (32 by 32 pixels) and
perform the Fourier transform according to:
(1)

for u = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 and v = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31.

In order to enhance a specific block by its dominant frequencies, we multiply the FFT of
the block by its magnitude a set of times. Where the magnitude of the original FFT =
abs(F(u,v)) = |F(u,v)|

We get the enhanced block according to

(2)

-1
where F (F(u,v)) is done by:

(3)

for x = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31 and y = 0, 1, 2, ..., 31.

The k in formula (2) is an experimentally determined constant, which we choose


k=0.45 to calculate. While having a higher "k" improves the appearance of
the ridges, filling up small holes in ridges, having too high a "k" can result in false
joining of ridges.

3.2.2FINGERPRINT IMAGEBINARIZATION
The binarization step is basically stating the obvious, which is that the true
information that could be extracted from a print is simply binary; ridges vs. valleys. But
it is a really important step in the process of ridge extracting, since the prints are taken
as grayscale images, so ridges, knowing that theyre in fact ridges, still vary in
intensity. So, binarization transforms the image from a 256-level image to a 2-level
image that gives the sameinformation.

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Typically, an object pixel is given a value of 1 while a background pixel is given a


value of 0. Finally, a binary image is created by coloring each pixel white or black,
depending on a pixel's label (black for 0, white for 1).

The difficulty in performing binarization is that not all the fingerprint images have the
same contrast characteristics, so a single intensity threshold (global thresholding) cannot
be chosen.

A locally adaptive binarization method is performed to binarize the fingerprint image. In


this method, the image is divided into blocks (16x16), and the mean intensity value is
calculated for each block, then each pixel is turned into 1 if its intensity value is larger
than the mean intensity value of the current block to which the pixelbelongs.

Fig [3.4]Adaptive binarization after FFT

3.2.3FINGERPRINT IMAGE SEGMENTATION (ORIENTATION


FLOW ESTIMATE)
In general, only a Region of Interest (ROI) is useful to be recognized for each
fingerprint image. The image area without effective ridges is first discarded since it only
holds background information and probably noise. Then the bound of the remaining
effective area is sketched out since the minutiae in the bound region are confusing with
those false minutiae that are generated when the ridges are out of thesensor.

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To extract the ROI, a two-step method is used. The first step is block direction
estimation and direction variety check, while the second is done using some
Morphologicalmethods.

Block direction estimation


Estimate the block direction for each block of the fingerprint image with WxW in size (W is
16 pixels by default). The algorithm does thefollowing:

i. Calculates the gradient values along x-direction (g x) and y-direction (gy) for each
pixel of the block. Two Sobel filters are used to fulfill thetask.
ii. For each block, it uses the following formula to get the Least Square approximation
of the blockdirection.

tan2 = 2 (gx*gy)/ (gx2-gy2) , for all the pixels in each block.

The formula is easy to understand by regarding gradient values along x-direction and y-
direction as cosine value and sine value. So the tangent value of the block direction is
estimated nearly the same as the way illustrated by the following formula:

tan2 = 2sin cos /(cos2 -sin2 )

After finishing with the estimation of each block direction, those blocks without significant
information (ridges) are discarded based on the following formulas:

E = {2 (gx*gy)+ (gx2-gy2)}/ W*W* (gx2+gy2)

For each block, if its certainty level (E) is below a threshold, then the block is regarded
as a backgroundblock.
The direction map is shown in the following diagram. We assume there is only one
fingerprint in each image.

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Fig [3.5] Direction map

3.2.4ROI extraction by Morphological operation


Two Morphological operations called OPEN and CLOSE are adopted. The OPEN
operation can expand images and remove peaks introduced by background noise. The
CLOSE operation can shrink images and eliminate small cavities

Figure [3.7] shows the interest fingerprint image area and its bound. The bound is the
subtraction of the closed area from the opened area. Then the algorithm eliminates those
leftmost, rightmost, uppermost and bottommost blocks out of the bound so as to get the
tightly bounded region just containing the bound and innerarea.

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Fig [3.6] ROI + Bound

3.3 MINUTIAE EXTRACTION


This method is used for extracting minutia points.
3.3.1 FINGERPRINT RIDGETHINNING
Ridge Thinning is to eliminate the redundant pixels of ridges till the ridges are just one
pixel wide. An iterative, parallel thinning algorithm is used. In each scan of the full
fingerprint image, the algorithm marks down redundant pixels in each small image
window (3x3) and finally removes all those marked pixels after several scans. The
thinned ridge map is then filtered by other Morphological operations to remove some H
breaks, isolated points and spikes. In this step, any single points, whether they are
single-point ridges or single-point breaks in a ridge are eliminated and considered
processing noise.

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Fig [3.7] Thinned image

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Fig [3.8]image after removing H-breaks and spikes

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3.3.2 MINUTIAMARKING

After the fingerprint ridge thinning, marking minutia points is relatively easy. The
concept of Crossing Number (CN) is widely used for extracting the minutiae.

In general, for each 3x3 window, if the central pixel is 1 and has exactly 3 one-value
neighbors, then the central pixel is a ridge branch [Figure 3.9]. If the central pixel is 1
and has only 1 one-value neighbor, then the central pixel is a ridge ending [Figure 3.10],
i.e., for a pixel P, if Cn(P) = = 1 its a ridge end and if Cn(P) = = 3 its a ridge
bifurcation point.

0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 1
Fig[3.9]Bifurcation Fig[3.10]Termination

0 1 0

0 1 1

1 0 0

Fig[3.11] Triple counting branch

Figure 3.11 illustrates a special case that a genuine branch is triple counted. Suppose
both the uppermost pixel with value 1 and the rightmost pixel with value 1 have another
neighbor outside the 3x3 window, so the two pixels will be marked as branches too, but

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actually only one branch is located in the small region. So a check routine requiring
that none of the neighbors of a branch are branches isadded.

Also the average inter-ridge width D is estimated at this stage. The average inter-ridge
width refers to the average distance between two neighboring ridges. The way to
approximate the D value is simple. Scan a row of the thinned ridge image and sum up
all pixels in the row whose values are one. Then divide the row length by the above
summation to get an inter-ridge width. For more accuracy, such kind of row scan is
performed upon several other rows and column scans are also conducted, finally all the
inter-ridge widths are averaged to get the D.

Together with the minutia marking, all thinned ridges in the fingerprint image are
labeled with a unique ID for further operation.

Fig [3.12] Image after minutiae marking

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3.4 METHODOLOGY

3.4.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

Fig [3.13]Data Flow Diagram

In the given data flow diagram we describe the scanning and the matching process of
the thumb expression through the biometrics.

First the thumb expression is extracted through the scanner. If the thumb expression is
not enrolled then first the enrolling phase is done and the expression is saved in our
database.

If it exist then we get the message the finger print exist and enrolment is not done again.

After enrollment the entire verification is done.

the persone scans its thumb expression and the verification is done whether it exists in
the database. If it exists then verification is done and message appears fingerprint
matched.
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if does not exist the message appears fingerprint not matched

3.4.2 SYSTEM LEVEL DESIGN

A fingerprint recognition system constitutes of fingerprint acquiring device, minutia


extractor and minutia matcher.

Fig [3.14] Simplified Fingerprint Recognition System

For fingerprint acquisition, optical or semi-conduct sensors are widely used. They have
high efficiency and acceptable accuracy except for some cases that the users finger is
too dirty or dry. However, the testing database for my project consists of scanned
fingerprints using the ink and paper technique because this method introduces a high
level of noise to the image and the goal of designing a recognition system is to work
with the worst conditions to get the bestresults.
The minutia extractor and minutia matcher modules are explained in detail later on in
this paper.

3.4.3 ALGORITHM LEVEL DESIGN


To implement a minutia extractor, a three-stage approach is widely used by researchers.
They are preprocessing, minutia extraction and post-processing stage.

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Fig[3.15] Minutia Extractor

For the fingerprint image preprocessing stage, Histogram Equalization and Fourier
Transform are used to do image enhancement. And then the fingerprint image is
binarized using the locally adaptive threshold method. The image segmentation task is
fulfilled by a three-step approach: block direction,estimation, segmentation by
direction intensity and Region of Interest extraction by Morphological operations.
For minutia extraction stage, iterative parallel thinning algorithm is used. The minutia
marking is a relatively simple task. For the post-processing stage, a more rigorous
algorithm is developed to remove falseminutia.
The minutia matcher chooses any two minutiae as a reference minutia pair and then
matches their associated ridges first. If the ridges match well, the two fingerprint images
are aligned and matching is conducted for all the remainingminutiae.

3.4.4 DOMAINS OF IDENTIFICATION

It includes two sub-domains: one is fingerprint verification and the other is fingerprint
identification.

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Fig[3.16] Implementation process

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CHAPTER-4
IMPLEMENTATION AND
OUTCOMES

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4.1 IMPLEMENTATION

<Programs for Fingerprint Extraction>

i.<Program to compute coherence>

function [cimg] = compute_coherence(oimg)


[h,w] = size(oimg);
cimg = zeros(h,w);
N = 2;
oimg = [flipud(oimg(1:N,:));oimg;flipud(oimg(h-N+1:h,:))]; %pad the rows
oimg = [fliplr(oimg(:,1:N)),oimg,fliplr(oimg(:,w-N+1:w))]; %pad the cols
%compute coherence
for i=N+1:h+N
for j = N+1:w+N
th = oimg(i,j);
blk = oimg(i-N:i+N,j-N:j+N);
cimg(i-N,j-N)=sum(sum(abs(cos(blk-th))))/((2*N+1).^2);
end;
end;

ii.<Program for dimension matching>

[ndata, dimx] = size(x);


[ncentres, dimc] = size(c);
if dimx ~= dimc
error('Data dimension does not match dimension of centres')
end

n2 = (ones(ncentres, 1) * sum((x.^2)', 1))' + ...


ones(ndata, 1) * sum((c.^2)',1) - ...
2.*(x*(c'));
iii.<Program to find the spatial frequency of the ridges>

function freqim = freqest(im, orientim, windsze, minWaveLength, maxWaveLength)

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debug = 0;

[rows,cols] = size(im);

orientim = 2*orientim(:);
cosorient = mean(cos(orientim));
sinorient = mean(sin(orientim));
orient = atan2(sinorient,cosorient)/2;

% Rotate the image block so that the ridges are vertical


rotim = imrotate(im,orient/pi*180+90,'nearest', 'crop');
cropsze = fix(rows/sqrt(2)); offset = fix((rows-cropsze)/2);
rotim = rotim(offset:offset+cropsze, offset:offset+cropsze);

% Sum down the columns to get a projection of the grey values down
% the ridges.
proj = sum(rotim);
dilation = ordfilt2(proj, windsze, ones(1,windsze));
maxpts = (dilation == proj) & (proj > mean(proj));
maxind = find(maxpts);

% Determine the spatial frequency of the ridges

if length(maxind) < 2
freqim = zeros(size(im));
else
NoOfPeaks = length(maxind);
waveLength = (maxind(end)-maxind(1))/(NoOfPeaks-1);
if waveLength > minWaveLength & waveLength < maxWaveLength
freqim = 1/waveLength * ones(size(im));
else
freqim = zeros(size(im));
end
end

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if debug
%show(im,1)
%show(rotim,2);
figure(3), plot(proj), hold on
meanproj = mean(proj)
if length(maxind) < 2
fprintf('No peaks found\n');
else
plot(maxind,dilation(maxind),'r*'), hold off
waveLength = (maxind(end)-maxind(1))/(NoOfPeaks-1);
end
end
iv.<Program to normalise the coloured image todesired mean and
variance>:

function n = normalise(im, reqmean, reqvar)

if ~(nargin == 1 | nargin == 3)
error('No of arguments must be 1 or 3');
end

if nargin == 1 % Normalise 0 - 1
if ndims(im) == 3 % Assume colour image
hsv = rgb2hsv(im);
v = hsv(:,:,3);
v = v - min(v(:)); % Just normalise value component
v = v/max(v(:));
hsv(:,:,3) = v;
n = hsv2rgb(hsv);
else% Assume greyscale
if ~isa(im,'double'), im = double(im); end
n = im - min(im(:));

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n = n/max(n(:));
end

else% Normalise to desired mean and variance

if ndims(im) == 3 % colour image?


error('cannot normalise colour image to desired mean and variance');
end

if ~isa(im,'double'), im = double(im); end


im = im - mean(im(:));
im = im/std(im(:)); % Zero mean, unit std dev

n = reqmean + im*sqrt(reqvar);
end

function n = normalise(im, reqmean, reqvar)

if ~(nargin == 1 | nargin == 3)
error('No of arguments must be 1 or 3');
end

if nargin == 1 % Normalise 0 - 1
if ndims(im) == 3 % Assume colour image
hsv = rgb2hsv(im);
v = hsv(:,:,3);
v = v - min(v(:)); % Just normalise value component
v = v/max(v(:));
hsv(:,:,3) = v;
n = hsv2rgb(hsv);
else% Assume greyscale
if ~isa(im,'double'), im = double(im); end
n = im - min(im(:));
n = n/max(n(:));

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end

else% Normalise to desired mean and variance

if ndims(im) == 3 % colour image?


error('cannot normalise colour image to desired mean and variance');
end

if ~isa(im,'double'), im = double(im); end


im = im - mean(im(:));
im = im/std(im(:)); % Zero mean, unit std dev

n = reqmean + im*sqrt(reqvar);
end

v.<Program to smoothen the frequency of the image>


function nfimg = smoothen_frequency_image(fimg,RLOW,RHIGH,diff_cycles)
valid_nbrs = 3; %uses only pixels with more then valid_nbrs for diffusion
[ht,wt] = size(fimg);
nfimg = fimg;
N = 1;

%---------------------------------
%perform diffusion
%---------------------------------
h = fspecial('gaussian',2*N+1);
cycles = 0;
invalid_cnt = sum(sum(fimg<RLOW | fimg>RHIGH));
while((invalid_cnt>0 &cycles < diff_cycles) | cycles < diff_cycles)
%---------------
%pad the image
%---------------
fimg = [flipud(fimg(1:N,:));fimg;flipud(fimg(ht-N+1:ht,:))]; %pad the rows
fimg = [fliplr(fimg(:,1:N)),fimg,fliplr(fimg(:,wt-N+1:wt))]; %pad the cols

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%---------------
%perform diffusion
%---------------
for i=N+1:ht+N
for j = N+1:wt+N
blk = fimg(i-N:i+N,j-N:j+N);
msk = (blk>=RLOW & blk<=RHIGH);
if(sum(sum(msk))>=valid_nbrs)
blk =blk.*msk;
nfimg(i-N,j-N)=sum(sum(blk.*h))/sum(sum(h.*msk));
else
nfimg(i-N,j-N)=-1; %invalid value
end;
end;
end;
%---------------
%prepare for next iteration
%---------------
fimg = nfimg;
invalid_cnt = sum(sum(fimg<RLOW | fimg>RHIGH));
cycles = cycles+1;
end;
<Program to build database>
ICount = 9;
JCount = 8;
p=0;
for i=1:ICount
for j=1:JCount
filename=['10' num2str(i) '_' num2str(48) '.tif'];
img = imread(filename); p=p+1;
if ndims(img) == 3; img = rgb2gray(img); end% colour image
disp(['extracting features from ' filename ' ...']);
ff{p}=ext_finger(img,1);
end

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end
save('db.mat','ff');

<Program to extract fingerprint>


function [ ret ] = ext_finger( img, display_flag )
if nargin==1; display_flag=0; end
block_size_c = 24; YA=0; YB=0; XA=0; XB=0;
% Enhancement -------------------------------------------------------------
%% if display_flag==1; fprintf(' >>> enhancement '); end
yt=1; xl=1; yb=size(img,2); xr=size(img,1);
for x=1:55
if numel(find(img(x,:)<200)) < 8
img(1:x,:) = 255;
yt=x;
end
end
for x=225:size(img,1)
if numel(find(img(x,:)<200)) < 3
img(x-17:size(img,1),:) = 255;
yb=x;
break
end
end
for y=200:size(img,2)
if numel(find(img(:,y)<200)) < 1
img(:,y:size(img,2)) = 255;
xr=y;
break
end
end
for y=1:75
if numel(find(img(:,y)<200)) < 1
img(:,1:y) = 255;
xl=y;

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end
end
[ binim, mask, cimg, cimg2, orient_img, orient_img_m ] = f_enhance(img);
% Making Mask -------------------------------------------------------------
%%if display_flag==1; fprintf('done.\n >>> making mask '); end
mask_t=mask;
for y=19:size(mask,1)-block_size_c*2
for x=block_size_c:size(mask,2)-block_size_c*2
n_mask = 0;
for yy=-1:1
for xx=-1:1
y_t = y + yy *block_size_c;
x_t = x + xx *block_size_c;
if y_t > 0 && x_t > 0 && (y_t ~= y || x_t ~= x) && mask(y_t,x_t) == 0
n_mask = n_mask + 1;
end
end
end
if n_mask == 0
continue
end
if mask(y,x) == 0 || y > size(mask,1) - 20 || y < yt || y > yb || x < xl || x > xr
cimg2(ceil(y/(block_size_c)), ceil(x/(block_size_c))) = 255;
mask_t(y,x) = 0;
continue;
end
for i = y:y+1
for j = x-9:x+9
if i > 0 && j > 0 && i < size(mask,1) && j < size(mask,2) && mask(i,j) > 0
else
cimg2(ceil(y/(block_size_c)), ceil(x/(block_size_c))) = 255;
mask_t(y,x)=0;
break
end

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end
end
end
end
mask=mask_t;
inv_binim = (binim == 0);
thinned = bwmorph(inv_binim, 'thin',Inf);
mask_t=mask;
if numel(find(mask(125:150,150:250)>0)) > 0 &&
numel(find(mask(250:275,150:250)>0)) > 0
mask(150:250,150:250)=1;
end
method=-1; core_y = 0; core_x = 0; core_val=0; lc=0;
o_img=sin(orient_img); o_img(mask == 0) = 1;

lower_t=0.1;
[v,y]=min(cimg);
[dt1,x]=min(v);
delta1_y=y(x)*block_size_c/2; delta1_x=x*block_size_c/2;
v(x)=255; v(x+1)=255;
[dt2,x]=min(v);
delta2_y=y(x)*block_size_c/2; delta2_x=x*block_size_c/2;

v(x)=255; v(x+1)=255;
[dt3,x]=min(v);
delta3_y=y(x)*block_size_c/2; delta3_x=x*block_size_c/2;

db=60;
if dt1 < 1 && delta1_y+db < core_y && delta1_y > 15 || dt2 < 1 && delta2_y+db <
core_y && delta2_y > 15 || dt3 < 1 && delta3_y+db < core_y && delta3_y > 15
core_val=255;
end
for y=10:size(o_img,1)-10
for x=10:size(o_img,2)-10

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s1=0; t=10; %few of bad cores here


if y < 50 && x > 250
t=11;
end
if y > 38
yt=20;
else
yt=5;
end
if lc > 0.41 && (core_y + 60 < y)
break;
end
if mask(y,x)==0 || mask(max(y-t,1),x)==0 || mask(y,min(x+t, size(o_img,2)))==0 ||
mask(y,max(x-t,1))==0 || mask(max(y-t,1),min(x+t,size(o_img,2)))==0 || mask(max(y-
t,1),max(x-t,1))==0 || o_img(y,x) < lc || o_img(y,x) < 0.1
continue
end
if dt1 < 1 && delta1_y+db < y && delta1_y > 15 || dt2 < 1 && delta2_y+db < y &&
delta2_y > 15 || dt3 < 1 && delta3_y+db < y && delta3_y > 15
continue
end
test_m=min(o_img(1:y-yt,max((x-10),1):min(x+10,size(o_img,2)) ));
if numel(test_m)>0 && min(test_m) >= 0.17
continue
end
for a=y:y+2
for b=x:x+1
s1=s1+o_img(a,b);
end
end
s1=s1/6; s2=[]; i=1;
for a=y-3:y-1
for b=x:x+1
s2(i)=o_img(a,b);

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i=i+1;
end
end
if min(s2) < lower_t
s2=sum(s2)/6;
else
s2=s1;
end
s3=[]; i=1;
for a=y:y+2
for b=x+2:x+3
s3(i)=o_img(a,b);
i=i+1;
end
end
if min(s3) < lower_t
s3=sum(s3)/6;
else
s3=s1;
end
s4=[]; i=1;
for a=y:y+2
for b=x-2:x-1
s4(i)=o_img(a,b);
i=i+1;
end
end
if min(s4) < lower_t
s4=sum(s4)/6;
else
s4=s1;
end
s5=[];
i=1;

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for a=y-3:y-1
for b=x-2:x-1
s5(i)=o_img(a,b);
i=i+1;
end
end
if min(s5) < lower_t
s5=sum(s5)/6;
else
s5=s1;
end
s6=[]; i=1;
for a=y-3:y-1
for b=x+2:x+3
s6(i)=o_img(a,b);
i=i+1;
end
end
if min(s6) < lower_t
s6=sum(s6)/6;
else
s6=s1;
end
if s1-s2 > core_val
core_val=s1-s2;
core_x=x;
core_y=y;
lc=o_img(y,x);
method=1;
end
if s1-s3 > core_val
core_val=s1-s3;
core_x=x;
core_y=y;

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lc=o_img(y,x);
method=2;
end
if x < 300 && s1-s4 > core_val
core_val=s1-s4;
core_x=x;
core_y=y;
lc=o_img(y,x);
method=3;
end
if x < 300 && s1-s5 > core_val
core_val=s1-s5;
core_x=x;
core_y=y;
lc=o_img(y,x);
method=4;
end
if s1-s6 > core_val
core_val=s1-s6;
core_x=x;
core_y=y;
lc=o_img(y,x);
method=5;
end
end
end
if core_y > 37
yt=20;
else
yt=5;
end
test_smooth = 100;
if core_y > 0
test_smooth= sum(sum(o_img(core_y-yt-5:core_y-yt+5,core_x-5:core_x+5)));

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end
if lc > 0.41 && (test_smooth < 109.5 && method~=2 || test_smooth < 100) %&&
min(min(o_img(1:core_y-yt,core_x-10:core_x+10))) < 0.17
start_t=0;
core_val=1/(core_val+1);
else
core_x=0;
core_y=0;
core_val = 255;
end
mask=mask_t; path_len = 45;

% Finding Minutiae --------------------------------------------------------


%%if display_flag==1; fprintf('done.\n >>> finding minutiae '); end
minu_count = 1;
minutiae(minu_count, :) = [0,0,0,0,0,1];
min_path_index = [];
% loop through image and find minutiae, ignore certain pixels for border
for y=20:size(img,1)-14
for x=21:size(img,2)-21
if (thinned(y, x) == 1) % only continue if pixel is white
% calculate CN from Raymond Thai
CN = 0; sx=0; sy=0;
for i = 1:8
t1 = p(thinned, x, y, i);
t2 = p(thinned, x, y, i+1);
CN = CN + abs (t1-t2);
end
CN = CN / 2;
if ((CN == 1) || (CN == 3)) %&& mask(y,x) > 0
skip=0;
for i = y-5:y+5
for j = x-5:x+5
if i>0 && j>0 && mask(i,j) == 0

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skip=1;
end
end
end
if skip == 1
continue;
end
t_a=[];
c = 0;
for e=y-1:y+1
for f=x-1:x+1
c = c + 1;
t_a(c) = orient_img_m(e,f);
end
end
m_o = median(t_a); m_f = 0;
if CN == 3
[CN, prog, sx, sy,ang]=test_bifurcation(thinned, x,y, m_o, core_x, core_y);
if prog < 3
continue
end
if ang < pi
m_o = mod(m_o+pi,2*pi);
end
else
progress=0;
xx=x; yy=y; pao=-1; pos=0;
while progress < 15 && xx > 1 && yy > 1 && yy<size(img,1) && xx<size(img,2) &&
pos > -1
pos=-1;
for g = 1:8
[ta, xa, ya] = p(thinned, xx, yy, g);
[tb, xb, yb] = p(thinned, xx, yy, g+1);
if (ta > tb) && pos==-1 && g ~= pao

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pos=ta;
if g < 5
pao = 4 + g;
else
pao = mod(4 + g, 9) + 1;
end
xx=xa; yy=ya;
end
end
progress=progress+1;
end
if progress < 10
continue
end
if mod(atan2(y-yy,xx-x), 2*pi) > pi
m_o=m_o+pi;
end
end
minutiae(minu_count, :) = [ x, y, CN, m_o, m_f, 1];
min_path_index(minu_count, :) = [sx sy];
minu_count = minu_count + 1;
end
end% if pixel white
end% for y
end% for x

% Filtering False Minutiae ------------------------------------------------


%% if display_flag==1; fprintf('done.\n >>> filtering false minutiae '); end
minu_count = minu_count -1;
t_minutiae = [];
t_minu_count = 1;
t_mpi = [];
for i=1:minu_count
X = minutiae(i,1); Y = minutiae(i,2);

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rc=0;
for y=max(Y-2,1):min(Y+2, size(binim,1))
if rc > 0
break
end
for x=max(X-2,1):min(X+2, size(binim,2))
if mask(y,x) == 0
rc = rc + 1;
break
end
end
end
if rc > 0
continue;
else
t_minutiae(t_minu_count, :) = minutiae(i, :);
t_mpi(t_minu_count, :) = min_path_index(i, :);
t_minu_count = t_minu_count + 1;
end
end
minutiae = t_minutiae;
min_path_index = t_mpi;
minu_count = size(minutiae,1);
t_minu_count = 1; t_minutiae = [];
dist_m = dist2(minutiae(:,1:2), minutiae(:,1:2));
dist_test=49;
for i=1:minu_count
reject_flag = 0;
P_x = minutiae(i,1); P_y = minutiae(i,2);
for j = i + 1 : minu_count
if dist_m(i,j) <= dist_test
reject_flag = 1;
end
end

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if reject_flag == 0 && mask(P_y, P_x) > 0


reverse_p = 0;
if min_path_index(i,1) == 0
x = P_x;
y = P_y;
else
x = min_path_index(i,1);
y = min_path_index(i,2);
end
p1x=P_x; p1y=P_y;
x1=x; y1=y;
iter = 0;
for m=1:path_len
iter = iter + 1;
cn = 0;
for ii = 1:8
t1 = p(thinned, x1, y1, ii);
t2 = p(thinned, x1, y1, ii+1);
cn = cn + abs (t1-t2);
end
cn = cn / 2;
if cn ~= 3 && cn ~= 4 || m == 1
for n=1:8
if reverse_p == 0 || iter > 1
[ta, xa, ya] = p(thinned, x1, y1, n);
else
[ta, xa, ya] = p(thinned, x1, y1, 9-n);
end
if ta == 1 && (xa ~= p1x || ya ~= p1y) && (xa ~= x || ya ~= y)
p1x = x1; p1y = y1;
x1 = xa; y1 = ya;
break;
end
end

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end
end
t_minutiae(t_minu_count, :) = minutiae(i, :);
t_minu_count = t_minu_count + 1;
end
end
minutiae = t_minutiae;
minu_count = t_minu_count-1;
tmpvec1 = size(img,1).*ones(minu_count,1);
tmpvec2 = ones(minu_count,1);
minutiae_for_sc = [minutiae(:,1)/size(img,2) (tmpvec1 - minutiae(:,2) +
tmpvec2)/size(img,1)];
dist_m = sqrt(dist2(minutiae_for_sc(:,1:2), minutiae_for_sc(:,1:2)));
for i=1:minu_count
[d,ind] = sort(dist_m(i,:));
for j = 1 : minu_count
if dist_m(i,ind(j)) == 0
continue
end
theta_t = mod(atan2(minutiae(i,2) - minutiae(ind(j),2), minutiae(i,1) -
minutiae(ind(j),1)), 2*pi);
ridge_count = 0;
p_y = minutiae(i,2); p_x = minutiae(i,1);
t_x = 0; t_y = 0;
current=1; radius = 1;
while p_y ~= minutiae(ind(j),2)
if thinned(p_y, p_x) > 0 && current == 0 && (t_x ~= p_x || t_y ~= p_y)
current = 1;
ridge_count = ridge_count + 1;
else
if thinned(p_y, p_x) == 0
current = 0;
end
end

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t_x = p_x; t_y = p_y;


p_x = round(minutiae(i,1) - radius*cos(theta_t));
p_y = round(minutiae(i,2) - radius*sin(theta_t));
radius = radius + 1;
end
end
end
if core_val < 1
minutiae(minu_count+1, :) = [core_x, core_y, 5, start_t, 0,1];
minu_count = minu_count + 1;
end
if dt1 < 1
minutiae(minu_count+1, :) = [delta1_x, delta1_y, 7, 0, 1,1];
minu_count = minu_count + 1;
end
if dt2 < 1
minutiae(minu_count+1, :) = [delta2_x, delta2_y, 7, 0, 1,1];
minu_count = minu_count + 1;
end
if dt3 < 1
minutiae(minu_count+1, :) = [delta3_x, delta3_y, 7, 0, 1,1];
minu_count = minu_count + 1;
end

% Return Minutiae ---------------------------------------------------------


if display_flag == 1
%%fprintf('done.\n');
minutiae_img = uint8(zeros(size(img, 1),size(img, 2), 3));
for i=1:minu_count
x1 = minutiae(i, 1); y1 = minutiae(i, 2);
if minutiae(i, 3) == 1 %Termination
if minutiae(i, 4) > pi
for k = y1-2: y1 + 2
for l = x1-2: x1 + 2

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minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [255, 0, 0];


end
end
else
for k = y1-2: y1 + 2
for l = x1-2: x1 + 2
minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [205, 100, 100];
end
end
end
elseif minutiae(i, 3) == 2
for k = y1-2: y1 + 2
for l = x1-2: x1 + 2
minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [255, 0, 255];
end
end
elseif minutiae(i, 3) == 3 %Bifurcation
if minutiae(i, 4) > pi
for k = y1-2: y1 + 2
for l = x1-2: x1 + 2
minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [0, 0, 255];
end
end
else
for k = y1-2: y1 + 2
for l = x1-2: x1 + 2
minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [255, 0, 255];
end
end
end
elseif minutiae(i, 3) == 5
for k = y1-4: y1 + 4
for l = x1-4: x1 + 4
minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [0, 255, 0];

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end
end
elseif minutiae(i, 3) > 5
for k = y1-2: y1 + 2
for l = x1-2: x1 + 2
minutiae_img(k, l,:) = [128, 128, 0]; % gold for delta
end
end
end
end
combined = uint8(minutiae_img);
for x=1:size(binim,2)
for y=1:size(binim,1)
if mask(y,x) == 0
combined(y,x,:) = [0,0,0];
continue
end
if (thinned(y,x)) % binim(y,x))
combined(y,x,:) = [255,255,255];
else
combined(y,x,:) = [0,0,0];
end% end if
if ((minutiae_img(y,x,3) ~= 0) || (minutiae_img(y,x,1) ~= 0) ) || (minutiae_img(y,x,2) ~=
0)
combined(y,x,:) = minutiae_img(y,x,:);
end
end% end for y
end% end for x
if core_val < 1 && YA > 0
for k = YA-2: YA + 2
for l = XA-2: XA + 2
combined(k,l,:) = [20, 255, 250];
end
end

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for k = YB-2: YB + 2
for l = XB-2: XB + 2
combined(k,l,:) = [20, 255, 250];
end
end
end
end
ret=minutiae;
end

<Program for image enhancement>


function [ binim, mask, cimg1, cimg2, oimg1, oimg2 ] = f_enhance( img )
enhimg = fft_enhance_cubs(img,6); % Enhance with Blocks 6x6
enhimg = fft_enhance_cubs(enhimg,12); % Enhance with Blocks 12x12
[enhimg,cimg2] = fft_enhance_cubs(enhimg,24); % Enhance with Blocks 24x24
blksze = 5; thresh = 0.085; % FVC2002 DB1
normim = ridgesegment(enhimg, blksze, thresh);
oimg1 = ridgeorient(normim, 1, 3, 3); % FVC2002 DB1

[enhimg,cimg1] = fft_enhance_cubs(img, -1);


[normim, mask] = ridgesegment(enhimg, blksze, thresh);
oimg2 = ridgeorient(normim, 1, 3, 3);
[freq, medfreq] = ridgefreq(normim, mask, oimg2, 32, 5, 5, 15);
binim = ridgefilter(normim, oimg2, medfreq.*mask, 0.5, 0.5, 1) > 0;
end

<Main Program>
clearall; clc; addpath(genpath(pwd));
ICount = 9;
JCount = 8;
fprintf('Matching.');
load('db.mat');
%% EXTRACT FEATURES FROM AN ARBITRARY FINGERPRINT
[file path]=uigetfile('*.*','select image');
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filename=strcat(path,file);
img = imread(filename);
if ndims(img) == 3; img = rgb2gray(img); end% Color Images
ffnew=ext_finger(img,1);
%% FOR EACH FINGERPRINT TEMPLATE, CALCULATE MATCHING SCORE IN
COMPARISION WITH FIRST ONE
S=zeros(ICount*JCount,1);
fprintf('..\n');
for i=1:ICount*JCount
second=['10' num2str(fix((i-1)/8)+1) '_' num2str(mod(i-1,8)+1)];
S(i)=match(ffnew,ff{i});
drawnow
end
%% OFFER MATCHED FINGERPRINTS
Matched_FigerPrints=find(S>0.48);
if size(Matched_FigerPrints,1)>0;
disp('Fingerprint matched with database!');
else
disp('Fingerprint did not match with the database!');
end

<Program for matching fingerprints>


function [ S ] = match( M1, M2, display_flag )
if nargin==2; display_flag=0; end
M1=M1(M1(:,3)<5,:);
M2=M2(M2(:,3)<5,:);
count1=size(M1,1); count2=size(M2,1);
bi=0; bj=0; ba=0; % Best i,j,alpha
S=0; % Best Similarity Score
for i=1:count1
T1=transform(M1,i);
for j=1:count2
if M1(i,3)==M2(j,3)

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T2=transform(M2,j);
for a=-5:5 %Alpha
T3=transform2(T2,a*pi/180);
sm=score(T1,T3);
if S<sm
S=sm;
bi=i; bj=j; ba=a;
end
end
end
end
end
if display_flag==1
figure, title(['Similarity Measure : ' num2str(S)]);
T1=transform(M1,bi);
T2=transform(M2,bj);
T3=transform2(T2,ba*pi/180);
plot_data(T1,1);
plot_data(T3,2);
end
end

<Program to score the matching of fingerprint>


function [ sm ] = score( T1, T2 )
Count1=size(T1,1); Count2=size(T2,1); n=0;
T=15; %Threshold for distance
TT=14; %Threshold for theta
for i=1:Count1
Found=0; j=1;
while (Found==0) && (j<=Count2)
dx=(T1(i,1)-T2(j,1));
dy=(T1(i,2)-T2(j,2));
d=sqrt(dx^2+dy^2); %Euclidean Distance between T1(i) & T2(i)

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if d<T
DTheta=abs(T1(i,3)-T2(j,3))*180/pi;
DTheta=min(DTheta,360-DTheta);
if DTheta<TT
n=n+1; %Increase Score
Found=1;
end
end
j=j+1;
end
end
sm=sqrt(n^2/(Count1*Count2)); %Similarity Index
end

<Program for 3D to 2D transformation>


function [ T ] = transform( M, i )
Count=size(M,1);
XRef=M(i,1); YRef=M(i,2); ThRef=M(i,4);
T=zeros(Count,4);
R=[cos(ThRef) sin(ThRef) 0;...
-sin(ThRef) cos(ThRef) 0; 0 0 1]; % Transformation Matrix
for i=1:Count
B=[M(i,1)-XRef; M(i,2)-YRef; M(i,4)-ThRef];
T(i,1:3)=R*B;
T(i,4)=M(i,3);
end
end
<Program to transform the axis by some angle>
function [ Tnew ] = transform2( T, alpha )
Count=size(T,1);
Tnew=zeros(Count,4);
R=[cos(alpha) sin(alpha) 0 0;...
-sin(alpha) cos(alpha) 0 0;...
0 0 1 0; 0 0 0 1]; % Transformation Matrix
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for i=1:Count
B=T(i,:)-[0 0 alpha 0];
Tnew(i,:)=R*B';
end
end

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4.2 OUTCOMES
Here are some images of the running project.

Fig [5.1] Scanning fingerprint through biometric device

Scanning of the fingerprint is done through the biometric device. The fingerprint should
be taken properly to avoid any kind of disturbance.
In this step first the fingerprint or the thumb expression is being scanned by the scanner
for the verification or the enrollment process. The fingerprint should be kept properly to
avoid any kind of disturbance which may disturb the quality of the expression obtained.

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Fig [5.2] gui of the project

As soon as we run the project ,we have three options after we have scanned our
fingerprint expression.

First is verification in which we select a fingerprint for enrolment or for the verification.

If the fingerprint is not in the database then we build a database for it.

If it exist then we check its authorization.

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Fig [5.3] selecting fingerprint

Here after we select the option SELECT FINGERPRINT a window appears which has
the fingerprints already saved in the database. From all these fingerprints we select the
desired expression.

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Fig [5.4] selected fingerprint will appear in the box

The fingerprint expression which we select appears in the box. Now we can either save
the unsaved expression into database or check the authorization of existing expression.

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Fig [5.5]matching from database

When we select the check authorization command then the scanner starts to verify the
fingerprint expression.

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Security System Using Biometric Sensors

Fig [5.6] results

When the verification is done if the fingerprint expression matches with the one in
database then the message is displayed matched with database and if it does not
verifies then the message appears not matched with database.

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CHAPTER -5
CONCLUSION AND
FUTURE SCOPE

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5.1EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION


5.1.1 EVALUATION OF THESYSTEM

As we can see in the graph shown below, when eliminating a step from the whole
process or changing some of the parameters, the matching process is affected.
Observations:

i. When altering in such an important step such as the image enhancement part, the
performance quality of the system dropsrapidly as the noise in the image is
increased. Because when working with a biometric identification system, obtaining
clear and noise free images is a really hard thing, so this step is usuallyneeded.

ii. For the binarization step, as explained earlier, using global thresholding may
introduce a few problems and may lead to the elimination of significant details by
mistake. Here, I tried using global thresholding, with 2 different thresholds, once
using an intensity threshold of 120 and the second time using a value of 80. As we
can see from the graph, setting the threshold at 120 (although its almost the
average value for a gray-scale image) affected the system performance a lot and led
to false non-match results, while setting a fixed threshold as low as 80 gave better
results. Still, it remains better to use the adaptive threshold method because,
although it consumes more processing time, it still guarantees the quality of
theresults.

iii. If we try to remove the H-breaks step, the system wouldnt be greatly affected and
the matching process wouldnt become harder, but its considered a preprocessing
step and it doesnt add much complexity to the system, so no harm in keeping the
accuracyhigher

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Figure Fig [5.1] match percentage vs. noise


variance
5.1.2CONCLUSION

The reliability of any automatic fingerprint system strongly relies on the precision
obtained in the minutia extraction process. A number of factors damage the correct
location of minutia. Among them, poor image quality is the one with most influence.
The proposed alignment-based elastic matching algorithm is capable of finding the
correspondences between minutiae without resorting to exhaustive research.
There is a scope of further improvement in terms of efficiency and accuracy which
can be achieved by improving the hardware to capture the image or by improving the
image enhancement techniques. So that the input image to the thinning stage could be
made better, this could improve the future stages and the final outcome.
Fingerprint is the cheapest, fastest, most convenient and most reliable way to identify
someone. Fingerprint authentication has many usability advantages over traditional
systems such as passwords. Today, fingerprint recognition technology is used for
security purposes, to restrict access or to protect computers.

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As fingerprint recognition technology develops, it is expected that more affordable and


more portable fingerprint recognition devices will become available, and finger-print
recognition will be considered a safe and convenient personal identification system.

5.3FUTURE SCOPE

Biometrics is quite rightly viewed to be at the cutting edge of security technology. From
the very first commercial application of a finger print reader in 1984, we have seen new
systems and applications introduced to the market on a regular basis; some are still
firmly in the development phase whilst others, like iris and facial recognition, are
gradually being introduced into practical installations.

In many ways, it has taken the increased threat from global terrorism and organised
crime to create an acceptance of biometric security, convincing an anxious and cynical
public that systems do not necessarily pose a threat to civil liberties, provided they are
properly controlled and effectively managed.

In a recent pan-European survey of consumer attitudes conducted by LogicaCMG,


research showed that the general public were more concerned with their safety when
travelling - and with the security of managing their financial affairs - than they were
threatened by any potential privacy issues. It seems that the debate has now moved on
from questioning what is ethical and acceptable to asking what form of biometric
technology is most effective and appropriate for particular applications.

Recent system developments have seen a significant change in both the biometric
information being analysed and the quality of the reading and processing performance.
From the early finger print readers - which still carry with them an unfortunate
association with criminal identification, as well as some lingering doubts over the users
ability to fool the scanners - have come a range of iris, face, vein and voice technologies.

These emergent technologies are now providing specifiers and security managers with
real choice, allowing them to select the most appropriate system for their particular
needs - balancing the key variables of accuracy, quality, reliability, speed of performance
and cost.

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Security System Using Biometric Sensors

APPENDIX

<RIDGE FILTER>
function newim = ridgefilter(im, orient, freq, kx, ky, showfilter)

if nargin == 5
showfilter = 0;
end

angleInc = 3; % Fixed angle increment between filter orientations in


% degrees. This should divide evenly into 180

im = double(im);
[rows, cols] = size(im);
newim = zeros(rows,cols);

[validr,validc] = find(freq > 0); % find where there is valid frequency data.
ind = sub2ind([rows,cols], validr, validc);

% Round the array of frequencies to the nearest 0.01 to reduce the


% number of distinct frequencies we have to deal with.
freq(ind) = round(freq(ind)*100)/100;

% Generate an array of the distinct frequencies present in the array


% freq
unfreq = unique(freq(ind));

% Generate a table, given the frequency value multiplied by 100 to obtain


% an integer index, returns the index within the unfreq array that it
% corresponds to
freqindex = ones(100,1);
for k = 1:length(unfreq)
freqindex(round(unfreq(k)*100)) = k;
end
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% Generate filters corresponding to these distinct frequencies and


% orientations in 'angleInc' increments.
filter = cell(length(unfreq),180/angleInc);
sze = zeros(length(unfreq),1);

for k = 1:length(unfreq)
sigmax = 1/unfreq(k)*kx;
sigmay = 1/unfreq(k)*ky;

sze(k) = round(3*max(sigmax,sigmay));
[x,y] = meshgrid(-sze(k):sze(k));
reffilter = exp(-(x.^2/sigmax^2 + y.^2/sigmay^2)/2)...
.*cos(2*pi*unfreq(k)*x);

% Generate rotated versions of the filter. Note orientation


% image provides orientation *along* the ridges, hence +90
% degrees, and imrotate requires angles +ve anticlockwise, hence
% the minus sign.
for o = 1:180/angleInc
filter{k,o} = imrotate(reffilter,-(o*angleInc+90),'bilinear','crop');
end
end

% if showfilter % Display largest scale filter for inspection


% figure(7), imshow(filter{1,end},[]); title('filter');
% end

% Find indices of matrix points greater than maxsze from the image
% boundary
maxsze = sze(1);
finalind = find(validr>maxsze & validr<rows-maxsze &...
validc>maxsze & validc<cols-maxsze);

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% Convert orientation matrix values from radians to an index value


% that corresponds to round(degrees/angleInc)
maxorientindex = round(180/angleInc);
orientindex = round(orient/pi*180/angleInc);
i = find(orientindex < 1); orientindex(i) = orientindex(i)+maxorientindex;
i = find(orientindex > maxorientindex);
orientindex(i) = orientindex(i)-maxorientindex;

% Finally do the filtering


for k = 1:length(finalind)
r = validr(finalind(k));
c = validc(finalind(k));

% find filter corresponding to freq(r,c)


filterindex = freqindex(round(freq(r,c)*100));

s = sze(filterindex);
newim(r,c) = sum(sum(im(r-s:r+s, c-s:c+s).*filter{filterindex,orientindex(r,c)}));
end

<RIDGE FREQUENCY>
function [freq, medianfreq] = ridgefreq(im, mask, orient, blksze, windsze, ...
minWaveLength, maxWaveLength)

[rows, cols] = size(im);


freq = zeros(size(im));

for r = 1:blksze:rows-blksze
for c = 1:blksze:cols-blksze
blkim = im(r:r+blksze-1, c:c+blksze-1);
blkor = orient(r:r+blksze-1, c:c+blksze-1);

freq(r:r+blksze-1,c:c+blksze-1) = ...
freqest(blkim, blkor, windsze, minWaveLength, maxWaveLength);
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end
end

% Mask out frequencies calculated for non ridge regions


freq = freq.*mask;

% Find median freqency over all the valid regions of the image.
medianfreq = median(freq(find(freq>0)));

<RIDGE ORIENTATION>
function [orientim, reliability] = ...
ridgeorient(im, gradientsigma, blocksigma, orientsmoothsigma)

[rows,cols] = size(im);

% Calculate image gradients.


sze = fix(6*gradientsigma); if ~mod(sze,2); sze = sze+1; end
f = fspecial('gaussian', sze, gradientsigma); % Generate Gaussian filter.
[fx,fy] = gradient(f); % Gradient of Gausian.

Gx = filter2(fx, im); % Gradient of the image in x


Gy = filter2(fy, im); % ... and y

% Estimate the local ridge orientation at each point by finding the


% principal axis of variation in the image gradients.

Gxx = Gx.^2; % Covariance data for the image gradients


Gxy = Gx.*Gy;
Gyy = Gy.^2;

% Now smooth the covariance data to perform a weighted summation of the


% data.
sze = fix(6*blocksigma); if ~mod(sze,2); sze = sze+1; end
f = fspecial('gaussian', sze, blocksigma);
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Gxx = filter2(f, Gxx);


Gxy = 2*filter2(f, Gxy);
Gyy = filter2(f, Gyy);

% Analytic solution of principal direction


denom = sqrt(Gxy.^2 + (Gxx - Gyy).^2) + eps;
sin2theta = Gxy./denom; % Sine and cosine of doubled angles
cos2theta = (Gxx-Gyy)./denom;

sze = fix(6*orientsmoothsigma); if ~mod(sze,2); sze = sze+1; end


f = fspecial('gaussian', sze, orientsmoothsigma);
cos2theta = filter2(f, cos2theta); % Smoothed sine and cosine of
sin2theta = filter2(f, sin2theta); % doubled angles

orientim = pi/2 + atan2(sin2theta,cos2theta)/2;

% Calculate 'reliability' of orientation data. Here we calculate the


% area moment of inertia about the orientation axiS
% orientation information.

Imin = (Gyy+Gxx)/2 - (Gxx-Gyy).*cos2theta/2 - Gxy.*sin2theta/2;


Imax = Gyy+Gxx - Imin;

reliability = 1 - Imin./(Imax+.001);

% Finally mask reliability to exclude regions where the denominator


% in the orientation calculation above was small. Here I have set
% the value to 0.001, adjust this if you feel the need
reliability = reliability.*(denom>.001);

<RIDGE SEGMENT>
function [normim, mask, maskind] = ridgesegment(im, blksze, thresh)

im = normalise(im,0,1); % normalise to have zero mean, unit std dev


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fun = inline('std(x(:))*ones(size(x))');

stddevim = blkproc(im, [blksze blksze], fun);

mask = stddevim > thresh;


maskind = find(mask);

% Renormalise image so that the *ridge regions* have zero mean, unit
% standard deviation.
im = im - mean(im(maskind));
normim = im/std(im(maskind));

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Images of mathworks

Fig [1] Basics of matlab

Fig [2]Image Functions of matlab

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Fig [3] Operators of matlab

Fig [4] Operations in matlab

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Fig [5] Bitwise operations

Fig [6] Data types in matlab

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Fig [7] Characters and strings

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Security System Using Biometric Sensors

REFERENCES

[1]R. Subban and Dattatreya P. Mankame, A Study of Biometric Approach Using


Fingerprint Recognition,Lecture Notes on Software Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, May
2013

[2]M.Redhu and Dr.Balkishan, Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutiae Extractar,


International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 3, Issue 4,
Jul-Aug 2013.

[3]MathWorks:https://www.google.co.in/?
gfe_rd=cr&ei=9DgTWfi2LvDs8Afoj4HACA#q=mathworks.

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Security System Using Biometric Sensors

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Security System Using Biometric Sensors