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GEOGRAPHY

India is a peninsula Aravalli ranges extends from Gujarat to


Neighbouring countries - Capitals Rajasthan (Oldest mountain ranges in
1. Bangladesh - Dhaka (Share major portion of India)
India) Delhi is the extension part of Aravalli range.
2. China - Beijing Andaman & Nicobar is extension part of
3. Pakistan - Islamabad Himalayas
4. Nepal - Katmandu Vindhya & Satpura ranges.
5. Myanmar - Naibeda Gir range is Saurashtra
6. Bhutan - Timbu Gir lion is our national animal before 1970
7. Afghanistan - Kabul
Rajmahal hills extension Gara, khasi,
28 States & 7 unoin territories Jaintia
Chattisgarh Raipur (capital) Western Ghats Maharashtra to oddisha
Jammu & Kashmir - Srinagar summer Eastern Ghats
capital
Nilgiri hills is the place where western ghats
Jammu winter capital
& Eastern ghats meets.
Indias planned city Chandigarh
Mahendragiri (in odissia) is the highest
NCT National Capital territory India peak in Eastern ghats,.
Delhi
Anaimudi is the highest peak in western
Capital of Lakshadeep Kavarathi ghats.
Smallest bird sanctuary Pitty Island in Thottabetta is the highest peak in T.N.
Lakshadweep
It is also in western ghats
Capital of Dadra Nagar Havelli Silvassa
Cardamom (Vyf;fha;) hills
Tropic of Cancer
Passes through Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya RIVERS
Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jhargand, West i) Brahmaputra
Bengal, Tripura, Mizoram Manasorrover lake Brahramaputra is
Divides India into two halves at 23 originated
Di-Sanghito is the name given to
Mountains Brahmaputra in China
Himalayas starts in pamir knot. Dihang is the name given to Brahmaputra in
Godwin Austin (K2) is Indias largest peak & Arunachal Pradesh.
is located in Karokkoram (originated before In Assam it is known as Brahmaputra
himalayas) range
In Bangladesh it is known as Jamuna
Siyachin Glacier is in Karakkoram range
Jamuna & Ganga joins in Bangladesh & it is
Ladakh & Sazkar are two ranges in Solely named as Padma
Karakkoram range.
In delta region it is known as Macna.
Himadri, Himachal & Shiwalik are 3 ranges
Major Tributaries (JizahW)
in Himalayas (western part)
a) Tista (b/w India & Bangladesh)
Eastern part of Himalayas Purvachal b) Subansri
Worlds larget peak Mt. Everest is in Nepal c) Manas
2nd worlds largest peak is Kanjanjanha d) Dhihang Dibang
Purvachal contains the follows ranges: Largest riveran island in the world Majuli is
i) Batkaibum in Assam
ii) Bariel
iii) Manipur hills ii) Indus
iv) Mizor hill Originates near to Manasorover (in India)
Gara, khasi, Jaintia are three hills in lake & drains in Pakistan.
Meghalaya Major Tributaries
Maysyndrum Indias highest rainfall a) Jhelum b) Chenab c) Ravi d) Beas e)
region is in khasi hills. Sutluj
1
GEOGRAPHY
Kabini & krishnaraja sagar 2 dams in
Indias highest Granity Dam Bhakranangal Karnataka
is in Sutluj Mettur dam in T.N.
Indias Longest canal is Indira Gandhi Sagar Trichy, Tanjore, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam
Canal is in Thar Desert. Cauvery Delta District in Tamil Nadu.
Subaravathi, Amaravathi, Arkkavathi,
iii) Ganga Shisha, Noyyal, Bhavani are major
Alaknanda & Bakiratha rivers meet at tributaries of cauvery.
Haridwar, which is named as Ganga.
Originates in Himalayas Other Important rivers in Tamil Nadu
Gangotri, Yamunotri & Glaciers are in i. ghyhW - Kanchipuram Vellore, South
Uthraghand Arcot Cuddalore, North Arcot - Vellore
River Yamuna is originated from here. ii. nghd;dhW Krishnagiri T.V. Malai
Yamuna is the tributary river of Gangas & VPM - PDY
joins in Allahabad. iii. nts;shW Nrh;tuhad; Fd;W flY}h;
Haridwar, Ujjain, Allahabad, Nashik iv. fhtphp
(happens Kumbamela in India) v. itif kJiu - ,uhNk];tuk;
Mahakumbamela occurs once is 144 years vi. itg;ghW tpUJefh;> rptfhrp
(12x12) vii. jhkpugudp (tw;whj ejp) jpUr;nre;J}h;
Tributaries Stanely resorvoir is in mettur dam
a) Ramganga b) Gomti c) Sarda d) Rati e) In T.N. cauvery is originated from
Ghaggara Okkanakal hills.
e) Kosi - Sorrow of Bihar , originated in
Nepal

Other river Yamuna, Sone


Tributaries of Yamuna: a) Chambal b)
Betwa Vande matram was first sung in congress
b) Kell session at 1896.
Farakka Dam Hoobly river passes through Morning song of India National Anthem
kolkuttai. In 1911 king wales visited Inida
Damadar, Subarnarekha, Mahanadi, In 1911, first national anthem was sung first
Brahmadi are other rivers.

Godavari
Nashik (in Maharastra) Godavari is
originated
Rivers Krishna & Godaveri joins & forms a National Aquatic animal Gangetic
delta known as kolleri lake Dolphin. It is announced in 2008.
Vaiganga, Warda, Penganga, sabari, Manjra National Heritage animal Elephan
are the major tributaries of Godaveri Acc to census 2001 our total forest area is
Thungabathra, Hagari, Sina are the major 23.28%, but forest coverage area is 20% &
tributaries of Krishna. the targeted forest area by the govt is 33%
i) National forest policy 1988
Indias largest tiger reserve is Nagarjuna
ii) Social forestry 1976
Sahar reserve (in Andhra) in Nagarjuna
Sahar lake (near Krishna river) In Arunachal Pradesh more than 90% of
area were forests
Cauvery Areawise M.P. is the place covered largely
Coorg district of Karnataka Origin place by forest
Lowest forest area Haryana

2
GEOGRAPHY
i) Wild life protection Act 1972 xvi) Seshachalam (Andhra Pradesh)
ii) Environmental protection Act 1986 Velvadar is a national park in Gujarat
iii) Project Gir Lion 1972 (Saurashtra region). It is famous for black
iv) Project Tiger 1973 buck.
v) Project Crocodile 1974 Largest no. of national park.
vi) Rhinos conservation - 1987 1. Madhya Pradesh 2. Andaman & Nicobar
vii) Project elephant 1902 islands.
viii) Project snow leopard 2002
Reserves in Tamil Nadu
In India there are 18 Biosphere Pulikat lake is a bird Sanctuary
Indias first national park is Corbett in Guindy national park
Uthraghand. Vedanthankal bird sanctuary
Indias Largest national park is dessert Nilgiri biosphere reserves
national park in Rajasthan Mudumalai wild life sanctuary
Kaibul Lamjao national park is in Lolttak Point calimere bird sanctuary
lake in Manipur. It is the worlds only Vettangudi bird sanctuary
fwating national park
Gulf of mannar biosphere reserves
Indias first Tiger reserve is Bandipur Tiger
Marine national park (both in T.N &
reserve in Karnataka
Gujarat)
Indias largest Tiger reserve is Nagarjuna
Sahar reserve, Srisailam
Indias fist Biosphere reserve is Gulf of
Mannar

List of Biospher reserves: Geology + Minerals:


i) Great Nicobar (Indias Southern most
Fe Ore &MnDharwar System
part)
Cu, Pb& Zn Aravalli Series of Dharwars
ii) Gulf of Mannar Major metallic minerals Dharwar&Cuddapah
iii) Agasthiya malai Limestone, Dolomite, Gypsum,
iv) Nilgiri CaSO4Cuddapah&Vindhyan
v) Pachmarhi (in M.P) Coal Gondwana system
vi) Achanakumara Amarkantak (in Petroleum Tertiary rocks
Chattisgarh)
Coal:
vii) Simlipal (in oddisha)
Carbon % : Anthracite > Bituminous > Lignite >
viii) Sunderbans Sunderbans delta is Peat
worlds largest delta (it is formed by Indian Coal: Bituminous & Non-cooking grade
Ganga & Brahmaputra) Coal Gondwana (200 My) 97% reserves,
Sundari trees are found Tertiary (55 My) 3% reserves
It is in W.B.
ix) Manas (Assam) Gondwana Coal:
1. Damodar Valley Jharkhand + West
x) Nokrek (Meghalaya)
Bengal
xi) Dihan Dibang (Arunachal pradesh) 2. Mahanadi Valley Chattisgarh + Orissa
xii) Didru Saikawa (Arunachal Pradesh) 3. Wardha Godavari Valley MP, Maha&
xiii) Kanjanjanha (Sikkim) AP
xiv) Manda devi (Uthragand) 4. Son valley MP, Chattisgarh& UP
xv) Rann of Kachch (Gujarat)
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GEOGRAPHY
State Coal Fields 2. Gujarat Region:
1. Jharkhand Jharia Largest coal field, Ankleshwar, Kalol, Nawajam, Kosamba, Kathana,
Giridh, Bokaro, Karanpura , Barkol, Mehsana, Sanand, Lunej (Khambar)
Daltenganj, Ramgarh, Hutar,
Auranga 3. Rajasthan :Saraswathi&Rajeswari (BarmerDt)
2. Chhattisgarh Chirimiri Kurasia, Bisrampur, Jaisalmer Dt.
Jhilmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur,
Sendurgarh. Hardo-Arand, 4. West Coast off-shore oil fields:
Korba, Mand-Raigarh, Johilla Mumbai High
3. Orissa Talcher, Rampur Himgir, Bassein
Jharsuguda Aliabot Is Gulf of Khambat
4. Madhya Singrauli, Sohajpur, Umaria,
Pradesh Pench-Kanhan, Pathkera, Rewa 5. East Coast off-shore oilfields:
5. Maharashtra Chanda-Wardha, Kamptee, Krishna Godavari basin Rawa field.
Bander, Umred Kaveri basin.
6. Andhra Singareni, Kothagudam, Tandur
Pradesh 6. Tamil Nadu: Narimanam, Kovilappal
7. West Bengal Raniganj First coalmine in ONGC: Oil and Natural Gas Commission (1956)
India, Darjeeling [Dalingkot
coalfield] Oil Pipelines:
8. Uttar Part of Singrauli coalfield 1. Naharkatiya Nunmati Barauni Haldia
Pradesh pipeline
2. Mumbai High Mumbai Ankleshwar Koyali
Tertiary Coal: pipeline.
1. Assam - Makum, Nazira, Mikir Hills, 3. Salaya Koyali Mathura pipeline.
Dilli- Jeypore.
2. Meghalaya - Daranggiri, Cherapunji, Oil Production
Laitryngew, Mawlong, Langrin 1. Mumbai High
3. Arunachal Pradesh Namchik Namphuk 2. Gujarat
4. Jammu Kashmir - Kalakot 3. Assam
4. TN
Lignite:
1. Tamil Nadu - NeyveliJayamkondacholapuram Natural Gas:
2. Gujarat - UmarsarKuchchh Dt. GAIL: Gas Authority of India Limited (1984)
3. Jammu Kashmir - NichahomBaramulla Dt. 1. Gujarat Nanda Khambat basin
4. Rajasthan - Palana Bikaner Dt. Andada
2. Tamil Nadu Adiyakkamangalam
5. Kerala - Varkala
3. Assam Khovaghat
Coal Reserves 4. Andhra Pradesh Lingla
1. Jharkhand 5. Rajasthan TanotJaisalmer basin
2. Orissa 6. Offshore Fields : K G Basin Ravva Field
3. Chhattisgarh Kaveri offshore, Mumbai High, Bassein
4. West Bengal Field, Kachchh Offshore.
5. Madhya Pradesh
Gas Production
Jharia (JK) Largest Coal Field 1. Mumbai High
Raniganj (WB) Oldest Coal Fiedl 2. Gujarat
3. Andhra Pradesh
Petroleum / Mineral Oil: 4. Assam
First oil field discovered Makum (Assam)
First oil drilled Digboi (Assam) Gas Pipelines:
1. Hazira Bijaipur Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline:
1. North-East Region: Worlds longest underground pipeline.
Indias longest pipeline 1750 km
Assam - Digboi, Moran-Hugrijan, Naharkatiya,
Rudrasagar, Galeki. HaziraBijaipurJagadishpur
Arunachal Pradesh Nigru (TirapDt) / Ningru Supplies gas to 3 power houses.
Nagaland Borholla 1. Kawas Gujarat
2. Anta Rajasthan
3. Auraiya UP
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GEOGRAPHY
Supplies gas to 6 Fertilizer plants:
1. Bijaipur MP 4. Orissa:
2. SawaiMadhopur Rajasthan Puri
3. Jagdishpur UP
4. Shahjahanpur UP Bio-energy
5. Aonla UP Okhla Delhi
6. PiyalaBabrala UP
Geothermal energy:
2. Jamnagar Loni LPG Pipeline ManikaranKulluDt, HP
Longest LPG pipeline in the world 1269 TattapaniChattisgarh
km long.
Connects Jamnagar (Gujarat) to Loni(UP) Tidal energy Potential
Gulf of Khambat 7000 MW
Power Gulf of Kachchh 1000 MW
HEP : Sunderbans 100 MW
HEP Potential 84, 000 MW @ 60% Load factor
Wave Energy:
HEP Potential: Vizhinjam Kerala
1. Brahmaputra 42% Andaman & Nicobar Is
2. Indus 24%
3. Ganga 13% Nuclear Energy:
4. East Flowing Rivers 11% Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) 1948
5. West Flowing Rivers 7% Atomic Energy Institute, Trombay 1954
6. Central Indian Basins 3% Bhabha Atomic Research centre (BARC) 1967

Electricity Installed Capacity: (2002-03) 6 Nuclear Power Stations:


Hydro Thermal Gas 1. TN Kalpakkam
AP Maharashtra Maharashtra 2. Karnataka Kaiga
Karnataka Gujarat Gujarat 3. Maharashtra Tarapur
Maharashtra West Bengal AP 4. Gujarat Kakrapara
Punjab Uttar Pradesh TN 5. Rajasthan Rawatbhatta
TN TN 6. UP Narora

Total Installed Capacity: (2002-03) Minerals


1. Maharashtra 13, 180 MW i) Metals ii) Non-Metals
2. AP 7, 616 MW
3. Gujarat 7, 323 MW i) Metals ii) Non -
4. TN 7, 146 MW metals
5. Karnataka 5, 197 MW Ferrous Non-Ferrous
Limestone
Total Electricity Generated Iron ore Gold Dolomite
1. Maharashtra Manganese Silver Nitrate
2. Gujarat Chromite Copper Potash
3. AP Pyrites Lead Mica
4. TN Nickel Bauxite Gypsum
5. UP Cobalt Tin
NHPC, NTPC 1975 Tungsten Magnesium

Wind Energy: Iron Ore: [MHLS]


1. TN: Ores:
Muppandal Perungudi 1. Magnetite 72% pure Iron
Kaiyattar 2. Haematite 60 70% pure Iron
3. Limonite 40 60% pure Iron
2. MaharashtraSatara 4. Siderite 40 50% pure Iron

3. Gujarat: Reserves: Production


Lamba Largest in Asia 1. Jharkhand 1. Karnataka
Mandvi 2. Orissa 2. Orissa
3. Karnataka 3. Chhattisgarh
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GEOGRAPHY
KalahandiDt
1. Karnataka BolangirDt (Balangir)
Bellary district Bellary, Hospet, Sandur
ChikmagalurDt Baba Budan Hills 2. Madhya Pradesh:
Kummangudi, Kudremukh Balaghat Chhindwara NimarMandla
ShimogaDt JhabuaDt
Chitradurg Dt.
TumkurDt 3. Maharashtra:
Nagpur Bhandara Dt.
2. Orissa: Ratnagiri
MayurbhanjGurumahisini, Sulaiat,
Badampahar 4. Karnataka
KendujharKiriburu, Meghahataburu Dharwad, North Kanara Dt.
SundergarhBonai Belgaum
Shimoga Chitradrug Bellary
3. Chhattisgarh: TumkurDt
DurgDtDalli, Rajhara ChikmagalurDt
DantewadaBailadila (BastarDt)
5. Andhra Pradesh:
4. Jharkhand: VijayanagaramDt
PurbiNaomundi mines AdilabadDt
PaschmisinghbhumDtGua
6. Rajasthan:
5. Goa: BanswaraDt
Sanquelim Udaipur Dt
Sanguem
Quepem Chromite:
Satari 1. Orissa:
Ponda Cuttack Dt Sukinda
Bicholim KendujharDt
Purbi&PaschmiSinghbumDtNaomundi&Gua DharkanalDt

6. Maharashtra: 2. TN Salem
Ratnagiri Dt. 3. Andhra Kammam
ChandrapurDt 4. Maharashtra ChandrapurDt
BhandaraDt 5. Karnataka Hassan Dt

Orissa: Copper:
Barabil-Koira Valley Indias richest haematite 1. Jharkhand SinghbhumDt, HazaribaghDt
ore deposits. 2. Madhya Pradesh:
BalaghatDtMalanjkhand cu mines
7. Andhra Pradesh:
KarimnagarDt 3. Rajasthan:
Warangal Dt AlwarDtKho-Dariba
Kurnool Dt JhunjhunaDtKhetriSinghana
Cuddapah Dt. Udaipur DtDelwaraKirovli
AnantpurDt BhilwaraDt
8. Tamil Nadu:
Salem Tirthamalai hills 4. TN SouthArcotDt
NilgirisMadapalli, Killimalai
Bauxite: (Al)
Manganese: Associated with laterite rocks.
Gondite&Kodurite series of Dharwar system Ore of Aluminium

1. Orissa: 1. Orissa: (Largest Produces)


Sudergarh Dt. Kalahandi Dt.
KendujargarhDt SambalpurDt
GangpurDt BolangirDt (Balangir)
KoraputDt
6
GEOGRAPHY
KoraputDtDamanjodiPanchpatmali SonanadiSinghbum Dt.
Mines
SundergarhDt Silver:
2. Jharkhand: Ores:
GumlaDt 1. Agentine
LohardagaDt 2. Stephanite
PalamurDt 3. Pyrargyrite
4. Prousite
3. Gujarat Found mixed with Cu, Au, Zn &Pb
Bhavnagar Dt Al Aluminium
Jamnagar Dt Au Gold
JunagadhDt Ag Silver
KachchhDt Pb Lead
AmreliDt Zn Zinc
Sn Tin
4. MP: Mn Manganese
Shahdol, Mandla, Satna, Balaghat Dt. Fe- Iron
Jabalpur Katni
Production:
5. Maharashtra: 1. Rajasthan Zawar (Udaipur Dt)
Kolaba, Thane, Ratnagiri Zawar (Udaipur) Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Silver
Satara, Pune, Kolhapur (Ag)

6. Chhattisgarh: Mica:
Durg + BilaspurDtMaikala Hill 3 Types Muscovite, Phlogopite, Biotite
Amarkantak Pl Surguja, Raigarh, Bilaspur
1. AP
7. Tamil Nadu: Nellore Dt.
Salem Dt.
NilgiriDt 2. Rajasthan
Galena (pbs) Lead ore Jaipur - Bhilwara - Ajmer -
Sphalerite (Zns) Zinc Ore Udaipur
Zinc & Lead: Tonk - Sikar
Galena: Ore of lead (cubic sulphide) Dungarpur
3. Jharkhand Hazaribagh, Kodarma
Zinc deposits: 4. Bihar Gaya, Hunger
1. Udaipur Dt, Rajasthan Zawar [99% of Zn 5. TN CBE, MDU, TRY
in India] 6. Kerala Allepey
2. UdhampurDt, JK 7. WB Puralia, Bankura
3. South ArcotDt, TN PuranaCuddapah, Vindhyan

Lead deposits: Limestone:


1. Rajasthan Udaipur (Zawar, Debari), Cuddapah&Vindhyan, cretaceous
Dungarpur, Banswara, Alwar. formations.
CaCo3 Limestone
Gold Dolomite Limestone with > 10% Mg
occurs Quartz veins in Dharwarschists (Lode 1. MP Satna, Jabalpur, Katni, Rewa, Damoh,
deposit) Mandsaur, Morena
Placer deposits River sands 2. Chhattisgarh Raipur, Mahasamund, Durg,
Bilaspur, Jangir
3 Gold Fields: 3. AP Cuddapah, Nalgonda, Adilabad,
1. Kolar Gold Field Kolar Dt. Karimnagar, Guntur
2. Hutti Gold Field Raichur Dt. 4. Rajasthan Chittaurgash, Ajmer, Siroli,
Karnataka Udaipur, Kota.
3. Ramagiri Gold Field AnantpurDt 5. Gujarat Junagadh, Amreli, Jamnagar
Andhra Pradesh 6. TN Trichy
7. Karnataka Gulbarga
Jharkhand: 8. Maharashtra Chandrapur
Placer deposits Subarnarekha river
7
GEOGRAPHY
Dolomite: 2. Andhra LambarpurPedagatta Project
1. Orissa Sundergarh (NalcondaDt)
2. MP Jhabua, Balaghat, Jabodpur Puliventula Project/ TumlaPalli Project
3. Chhattisgarh Bilaspur, Jangir, Durg (CudappahDt)
4. AP Khammam
5. Jharkhand Palaman Cotton Textile Industry
6. Gujarat Vadodara KawasjiDhaber: First cotton textile millin Mumbai
7. UP Mirzapur in 1854
8. Maha Nagpur
Cotton Industry
Phosphate: 1. Organised sector (Mills)
1. Rajasthan Udaipur 2. Decentralised sector i) Power looms -59% cloth
2. Uttarkhand Dehradun ii) Handlooms 19% cloth
3. MP Jhabua, Chhatarpur 1782 Mills Public sector 192 mills, Co-op sector
4. UP Lalitpur 151 mills,
Private sector 1439 mills
Apatite:
1. AP VizajDt Important centres
2. WB PuruliaDt 1. Mumbai
2. Coimbatore
Magnesite: 3. Ahmedabad
TN Leading producer 4. Kanpur
Salem Dt. Tamil Nadu: Largest no. of mills (439 mills)
Leading cotton textile producing states:
Diamonds: 1. Maharashtra
1. Panna MP 2. Gujarat
2. Golconda, Wajrakarurkimberlite (Anantpur) 3. Tamil Nadu
AP
Sugar Industry:
Atomic Minerals: India Largest producer of sugarcane
Uranium: &canesugar.
Singhbhum, Hazaribagh Jharkhand 8% of world sugar production.
Gaya Bihar sugar industry seasonal industry
Sahranpur UP sugar factories 506
SinghbhumJadugudaBaghjanta Mines weight losing crop:
Meghalaya Domiasat sugar to sugarcane 9 to 12%
Udaipur cumines Rajasthan
Leading sugar producers:
Thorium: 1. Maharashtra > 33%
Th Ores Monazite sands, Ilmenite sands 2. UP
3. Tamil Nadu
Monazite sands:
1. Kerala Palghat, Kollam Dt. UP Factories:
2. AP Vizag 1. Ganga-Yamuna doab: Sahranpur,
3. Orissa Mahanadi delta Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Ghaziabad,
Baghpat&Bulandshahr.
Beryllium oxide: Moderator in Nuclear reactor 2. Tarai Region: Lakhimpur, Basti, Gonda,
Deoria, Gorakhpur, Bhraich, sitapur, Faizabad.
Salt:
1. Gujarat coast Maharashtra Factories:
2. Rajasthan Sambhar lake Pune, Kolhapur, Sangli, Ahmednagar,
3. TN coast Solapur, Manmad.
4. Maharashtra coast
5. HP Mandi produces Rock salt TN:
CBE, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai,
Uranium Villupuram&Trichy.
1. Jharkhand Banduguranj Project
(singhbumDt), Muhaldih Petrochemicals Industry:
Mumbai: Hub of Petrochemicals
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GEOGRAPHY
3 Major District 4, 70, 000 14
Cracker Units: Roads
Auraiya UP 4 Rural Roads 26, 50, 000 80
Jamnagar, Gandhar, Hazira Gujarat Total 33, 13, 769 100
Nagothane, Ratnagiri Maharashtra NH:
Haldia WB Only 2% of total road lengthbut carry 40%
vizaj AP of the road traffic.

Organisations Other Roads Border Roads, International


1. IPCL Indian Petrochemical Corp Ltd. Highways.
2. PCL Petrofils Co-op Ltd.
3. CIPET Central Inst of Plastics Engg& Tech BRO: Border Road Organisation (1960)
Constructed road connecting Chandigarh
PCL Units (Gujarat) Vadodara, Naldhari with Manali (HP) &Leh (JK)

Plastic Materials Prodn: Road Density:


Mumbai, Barauni, Mettur, Pimpri&Rishra Length of roads / 100 Km2 Road Density
Highest Kerala 387.24 km
Nylon + Polyester Yarns: Lowest JK 10.48 km
Kota, Pimpri, Mumbai, Modinagar, Pune, National Average 75.42 km
Ujjain, Nagpur &Udhna.
National Highways:
Acrylic staple fibre: NH1 Delhi Ambala Ludhiana Jalandhar
Kota, Vadodhara Amritsar
NH2 Delhi Agra Kanpur Allahabad
Transport & Communication Varanasi Mohana Aurangabad Bashi
Road Transport: Dhanbad Bardhaman Kolkata.
Total road length 33.1 lakh km NH3 Agra Gwalior Shivpuri Biaora
Nagpur plan 1943 Indore Dhule Nashik Thane Mumbai
20 year road plan 1961 NH4 Thane Panvel Pune Satara
Kolhapur Belgaum Hubli Chitradurg
Roads Tumkur Bangalore Krishnagiri Vellore
National Highways (NH) Central Govt. Chennai
Stage Highways (SH) NH5 Chennai Nellore Ongole Guntur
Major District Roads State Govt. Vijaywada Eluru Vizaj Srikakulam
Rural roads Chhatrapur Bhubaneshwar Cuttack
Baleshwar Baharajora (Jharkhand)
NHAI: National Highways Authority of India NH6 Kolkata Baharagora Sambalpur
1995 Raipur Nagpur Amravati JalgaonDhule
NHDP: National Highways Dvt project by NHAI NH7Kaniyakumari Tirunelveli MDU
1. Golden Quadrilateral: Dindigul Karur Salem Krishnagiri
4/6 lanes Bangalore Anantpur Kurnool Hyderabad
5846 km long Nizamabad Adilabad Nagpur Jabalpur
Katni Mangawan Varanasi
2. N-S & E-W corridors: NH8 Delhi Jaipur Ajmer Beawar
N-S corridor: 4076 Km long Udaipur Ahmedabad Vadodara Surat
Srinagar(JK) ----------------------- Mumbai
Kaniyakumari (TN) NH9 Pune Solapur Hyderabad
Vijayawada Machulipatnam
E-W corridor: 3640 Km long NH10 Delhi Rohtak HisarFazilka
Porbandar (Gujarat) ----------------------- NH15 Pathankot Amritsar Bathinda Ganga
Sikhar (Assam) nagar Bikaner Pokhran Jaisalmer Barmer
Radhanpur
s.no. Roads Length(Km) % of NH17Panvel Ratnagiri Panaji Mangalore
total Kannur Kozhikode Thrissur.
road NH47 Kanniyakumari Trivandrum Kollam
length Kochi Ernakulam Thrissur Palakkad CBE
1 NH 65, 769 2 Salem
2 SH 1, 28, 000 4 NH45 Chennai Villupuram TrichyDindigul
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GEOGRAPHY
NH48 Bangalore Hassan Mangalore 2. North central Allahabad
NH49 Kochi Ernakulam Madurai Ramnad 3. East central Hajipur
4. South central Secunderabad
North - South Corridor: 5. West central Jabalpur
Srinagar Jammu Pathankot Jalandhar 6. South East Central Bilaspur
Ludhiana Aunbala Delhi Agra Gwalior 7. Northern New Delhi
Jhansi Sagar Narshimpur Nagpur Adilabad 8. Eastern Kolkata
Nizamabad Hyderabad Kurnool Anantpur 9. Southern Chennai
Bangalore Krishnagiri Salem Dindigul 10. Western Mumbai church gate
Madurai Kanyakumari 11. North Eastern Gorakhpur
12. North East Frontier Maligaon (Guwahati)
East-West Corridor: 13. South Eastern Kolkata
Porbandar Rajkot Radhanpur Sirohi 14. South Western Hubli
Udaipur Chittaurgarh Shivpuri Jhansi 15. East Coast Bhubaneshwar
Kanpur Lucknow Faizabad Gorakhpur 16. North western Jaipur
Muzzaffarpur Purnia Siliguri Bongaigaon
Guwahati Silchar. Rail Factories:
1. Chittaranjan Locomotive works Chittaranjan,
N-S & E-W meet @ Jhansi WB
N-S & GQ share: 2. Diesel Locomotive works Varanasi, UP
1. Agra Delhi route 3. Integral coach Factory Perambur, Chennai
2. Krishnagiri Bangalore route 4. Rail Coach Factory Kapurthala, Punjab/
Lalganj, UP
Longest NH: 5. Wheel and Axle Factory Bangalore, Karnataka
NH7 2, 369 km (Kanyakumari Varanasi) 6. Diesel component works Patiala, Punjab
NH6 1, 949 km (Dhule - Kolkata)
Water Transport:
Shortest NH: i) Inland waterways.
NH 47 A Ernakulam Wellington Is ii) Oceanic waterways
(Kochi)
Inland waterways:
Descending order: Navigable waterways 14, 500 km (1%)
NH7 > NH6 > NH5 > NH15 > NH2 > NH8 > Rivers: Navigable 3700 km
NH17> NH 4 > NH3 Used 2000 km
Canals : Navigable 4300 km
Rail Transport:- Navigable by Mech vessels 900 km
1853 : First train from Mumbai to Thane for 34 km.
Length : 63, 221 km Inland Waterways Authority 1986

Ganges National Waterways of India:


i) Broad gauge 1.676 m, 46,807km, 74.14% NW1 Allahabad Haldia 1620 km
ii) Metre gauge 1.000 m, 13, 290 km, 21.02% NW2 Sadiya Dhubri 891 km
iii) Narrow gauge 0.762 0.610m, 3, 124 km, NW3 Kottapuram Kollam 205 km
4.94% along with Udyogmandal and champakar
Indian railway route 41% electrified canals

Konkan Railway (1998): Oceanic Waterways:


Connects Mangalore, Karnataka with roha, coastline 7, 517 km
Maharashtra Ports 12 Major ports (6 on each coast), 185
760 km long Minor ports (state Govt)

Freight: (H L) Foreign Trade:


1. coal 70% by value
2. cement 95% by volume ocean routes
3. food grains
4. Raw material for steel plants Capacity of Indian ports (cargo) 500 million
tonnes.
16 Railway zones:
1. Central- Mumbai CST Major Ports:
10
GEOGRAPHY
West Coast East Coast Also due to segregation / fragmentation of
1. Kandla 7. Tuticorin large compact village.
2. Mumbai (Natural harbour, 8. Ex: Gujarat Plains
Chennai [oldest but
Biggest Port) artificial 3. Hamleted settlements:
harbour] Fragmented into several units physically
3. Nhavasheva (Jawaharlal 9. Ennore separated from each other bearing a
Nehru) Largest container common name para, palli, nagla, dhani
port& Modern Port Motivated by social & ethnic factors.
4. Marmagao (Natural harbour @ 10. Vizag Ex.: Middle & lower Ganga plain,
(Deepest land Chhattisgarh, lower valleys of Himalayas.
zuari estuary) locked & protected
port) 4. Dispersed settlements:
5. New Mangalore 11. Paradwip Isolated huts/hamlets of few huts in remote
6. Kochi Natural harbour, Queen 12. Kolkata - jungles or on small hills with farms or
Haldia pastures on slopes.
of Arabian sea (Tidal ports) Due to fragmented nature of land resource
base.
Air Transport: Ex.: Meghalaya, Uttarkhand, HP
1911: 10 km travel b/w Allahabad &Naini
1953 :Air transport was nationalised & 2 corp set Patterns:
up Air India, Indian (Indian Airlines) Most common Pattern Rectangular /Square
1992: Open sky policy for cargo. 1. Linear/String:
Along road, river, canal
Airports 12 International Airports, 112 Ex.: Coastal Kerala, Dun Valley (Doiwala,
Domestic Airports. Lachiwala, Kanwarwala)

International Airports: 2. Radial:


1. New Delhi 2. Mumbai 3. Chennai 4. Roads coverage @ a nodal position
Kolkata 3. Star shaped:
5. Bangalore 6. Hyderabad 7. Kochi 8. Inter-road space filled up in radial pattern.
Trivandrum 4. Spider web:
9. Amritsar 10. Ahmedabad 11. Guwahati Inter-connecting roads b/w the radial roads
12. Panaji (Goa) 13. Srinagar (JK) filled up.
5. Checkerboard / Rectangular:
Pawan Hans Ltd: Junction / crossing of 2 important
Helicopter service operating in hilly areas & highways.
tourism in North Eastern sector. Ex. Northern plains of India.
Heli service to petroleum sector & tourism 6. Triangular / Arrowhead:
B/w 2 rivers @ their junction / confluence
Rural Settlements of 2 roads.
4 types: 7. Fanshaped:
1. Clustered, Agglomerated/Nucleated settlements At fan head / delta head
2. Semi-clustered/ Fragmented settlements Ex: MP Asland, Garahakota
3. Hamleted settlements TN Kanyakumari
4. Dispersed settlements / Isolated settlements 8. Circular pattern:
Around lake /hill
1. Clustered settlements: 9. Semi-circular:
Highly productive alluvial plains, valleys of Encircle partly
shiwaliks& in NE states. Ex: UP Bhimbal
Security reasons Bundelkhand region, Rajasthan siwan
Nagaland.
Maximum utilisation of available resources Towns
Rajasthan Census Towns: (All criteria should be satisfied)
i) Minimum population of 5000 persons.
2. Semi-clustered settlements: ii) Atleast 75% male working population in non-agri
Due to agglomerated tendency in a pursuits.
restricted area of dispersed settlement or iii) Atleastpoplu density of 400 persons / Km2
consolidated territorial base.
11
GEOGRAPHY
Statutory Towns: Godwin Austin (K2) is Indias largest peak &
Places which have municipal / corporation / is located in Karokkoram (originated before
cantonment board / notified town area himalayas) range
committee.
Siyachin Glacier is in Karakkoram range
city :poph> 1 lakh Ladakh&Sazkar are two ranges in
Town: poph< 1 lakh Karakkoram range.
Power Projects Himadri, Himachal &Shiwalik are 3 ranges
Rosa UP in Himalayas (western part)
ParoHydel Arunachal Pradesh
Sasan UMPP MP Eastern part of Himalayas Purvachal
Darliparli Orissa Worlds larget peak Mt. Everest is in Nepal
Udangudi TN 2nd worlds largest peak is Kanjanjanha
Nathpa JhakriHydel HP Purvachal contains the follows ranges:
Birbhum Coal Project WB v) Batkaibum
vi) Bariel
ALCO:
NALCO Koraput (Orissa) vii) Manipur hills
BALCO Korba, Ratnagiri (Maha) viii) Mizor hill
HINDALCO Renukoot (UP) Gara, khasi, Jaintia are three hills in
INDAL Muri (Jhar), Alupuram (Kerala), Belur Meghalaya
(Kar), Hirakud (Orissa) Maysyndrum Indias highest rainfall
region is in khasi hills.
India is a peninsula
Aravalli ranges extends from Gujarat to
Neighbouring countries - Capitals
Rajasthan (Oldest mountain ranges in
1. Bangladesh - Dhaka (Share major portion of
India)
India)
2. China - Beijing Delhi is the extension part of Aravalli range.
3. Pakistan - Islamabad Andaman & Nicobar is extension part of
4. Nepal - Katmandu Himalayas
5. Myanmar - Naibeda Vindhya &Satpura ranges.
6. Bhutan - Timbu Gir range is Saurashtra
7. Afghanistan - Kabul Gir lion is our national animal before 1970
28 States& 7 unoin territories Rajmahal hills extension Gara, khasi,
Chattisgarh Raipur (capital) Jaintia
Jammu & Kashmir - Srinagar summer Western Ghats Maharashtra to oddisha
capital Eastern Ghats
Jammu winter capital Nilgiri hills is the place where western
Indias planned city Chandigarh ghats& Eastern ghats meets.
NCT National Capital territory India Mahendragiri (in odissia) is the highest
Delhi peak in Eastern ghats,.
Capital of Lakshadeep Kavarathi Anaimudi is the highest peak in western
Smallest bird sanctuary Pitty Island in ghats.
Lakshadweep Thottabetta is the highest peak in T.N.
Capital of Dadra Nagar Havelli Silvassa It is also in western ghats
Tropic of Cancer Cardamom (Vyf;fha;) hills
Passes through Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya RIVERS
Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jhargand, West i) Brahmaputra
Bengal, Tripura, Mizoram Manasorrover lake Brahramaputra is
Divides India into two halves at 23 originated
Di-Sanghito is the name given to
Mountains Brahmaputra in China
Himalayas starts in pamir knot.

12
GEOGRAPHY
Dihang is the name given to Brahmaputra in Farakka Dam Hooblyriver passes through
Arunachal Pradesh. kolkuttai.
In Assam it is known as Brahmaputra Damadar, Subarnarekha, Mahanadi,
In Bangladesh it is known as Jamuna Brahmadi are other rivers.
Jamuna& Ganga joins in Bangladesh & it is
Solely named as Padma Godavari
In delta region it is known as Macna. Nashik (in Maharastra) Godavari is
Major Tributaries (JizahW) originated
f) Tista (b/w India & Bangladesh) Rivers Krishna &Godaveri joins & forms a
g) Subansri delta known as kolleri lake
h) Manas Vaiganga, Warda, Penganga, sabari, Manjra
i) Dhihang Dibang are the major tributaries of Godaveri
Largest riveran island in the world Majuli is Thungabathra, Hagari, Sina are the major
in Assam tributaries of Krishna.
Indias largest tiger reserve is
ii) Indus NagarjunaSahar reserve (in Andhra) in
Originates near to Manasorover (in India) NagarjunaSahar lake (near Krishna river)
lake & drains in Pakistan.
Major Tributaries Cauvery
b) Jhelum b) Chenab c) Ravi d) Beas e) Coorg district of Karnataka Origin place
Sutluj Kabini&krishnarajasagar 2 dams in
Karnataka
Indias highest Granity Dam Bhakranangal Mettur dam in T.N.
is in Sutluj Trichy, Tanjore, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam
Indias Longest canal is Indira Gandhi Sagar Cauvery Delta District in Tamil Nadu.
Canal is in Thar Desert. Subaravathi, Amaravathi, Arkkavathi,
Shisha, Noyyal, Bhavani are major
iii) Ganga tributaries of cauvery.
Alaknanda&Bakiratharivers meet at
Haridwar, which is named as Ganga. Other Important rivers in Tamil Nadu
Originates in Himalayas viii. ghyhW - Kanchipuram Vellore, South
Gangotri, Yamunotri& Glaciers are in Arcot Cuddalore, North Arcot - Vellore
Uthraghand ix. nghd;dhWKrishnagiri T.V. Malai VPM
River Yamuna is originated from here. - PDY
Yamuna is the tributary river of Gangas& x. nts;shWNrh;tuhad; Fd;WflY}h;
joins in Allahabad. xi. fhtphp
Haridwar, Ujjain, Allahabad, Nashik xii. itifkJiu - ,uhNk];tuk;
(happens Kumbamela in India) xiii. itg;ghWtpUJefh;>rptfhrp
xiv. jhkpugudp (tw;whjejp) jpUr;nre;J}h;
Mahakumbamela occurs once is 144 years
(12x12) Stanelyresorvoir is in mettur dam
Tributaries In T.N. cauvery is originated from
c) Ramganga b) Gomti c) Sarda d) Rati e) Okkanakal hills.
Ghaggara Vandematram was first sung in congress
j) Kosi - Sorrow of Bihar , originated in session at 1896.
Nepal Morning song of India National Anthem
In 1911 king wales visited Inida
Other river Yamuna, Sone In 1911, first national anthem was sung first
Tributaries of Yamuna: a) Chambal b) National Aquatic animal Gangetic
Betwa Dolphin. It is announced in 2008.
d) Kell National Heritage animal ElephanT
13
GEOGRAPHY
Acc to census 2001 our total forest area is xxviii) DidruSaikawa (Arunachal Pradesh)
23.28%, but forest coverage area is 20% & xxix) Kanjanjanha (Sikkim)
the targeted forest area by the govt is 33% xxx) Mandadevi (Uthragand)
iii) National forest policy 1988 xxxi) Rann of Kachch (Gujarat)
iv) Social forestry 1976 xxxii) Seshachalam (Andhra Pradesh)
In Arunachal Pradesh more than 90% of Velvadar is a national park in Gujarat
area were forests (Saurashtra region). It is famous for black
Areawise M.P. is the place covered largely buck.
by forest Largest no. of national park.
Lowest forest area Haryana 2. Madhya Pradesh 2. Andaman & Nicobar
ix) Wild life protection Act 1972 islands.
x) Environmental protection Act 1986
xi) Project Gir Lion 1972 Reserves in Tamil Nadu
xii) Project Tiger 1973 Pulikat lake is a bird Sanctuary
xiii) Project Crocodile 1974 Guindy national park
xiv) Rhinos conservation - 1987 Vedanthankal bird sanctuary
xv) Project elephant 1902 Nilgiri biosphere reserves
xvi) Project snow leopard 2002 Mudumalai wild life sanctuary
Point calimere bird sanctuary
In India there are 18 Biosphere Vettangudi bird sanctuary
Indias first national park is Corbett in Gulf of mannar biosphere reserves
Uthraghand. Marine national park (both in T.N &
Indias Largest national park is dessert Gujarat)
national park in Rajasthan Transport
KaibulLamjao national park is in Cheapest mode of transport is shipping
Lolttaklake in Manipur. It is the worlds NHAI (found in 1995)
only fwating national park
BRO Border Road Orgn (1960)
Indias first Tiger reserve is Bandipur Tiger
Total NH 220
reserve in Karnataka
Major NH:
Indias largest Tiger reserve is
NH1 Delhi to Amristar
NagarjunaSahar reserve, Srisailam
NH2 Delhi to Kolkatta
Indias fist Biosphere reserve is Gulf of NH3 Agra to Mumbai
Mannar NH4 - Mumbai to Chennai
List of Biospher reserves: NH5 Chennai to Kolcutta (3rd longest)
xvii) Great Nicobar (Indias Southern most NH6 Kolcutta to Mumbai (2nd longest)
part) NH7 Indias longest NH (2369 km)
xviii) Gulf of Mannar Kanyakumari to Varanasi
xix) Agasthiyamalai NH8 Delhi to Mumbai (Via Rajasthan,
xx) Nilgiri Gujarat)
xxi) Pachmarhi (in M.P) (Jaipur, Ahmadabad)
xxii) AchanakumaraAmarkantak (in NH15 Amristar to Radhanpur (in Gujarat)
Chattisgarh) Passes through desert
xxiii) Simlipal (in oddisha) NH17 Panvel (Maharashtra) to Ernakulam
xxiv) Sunderbans Sunderbans delta is Through Western Coast
worlds largest delta (it is formed by NH45 Chennai to Dindugal
Ganga & Brahmaputra) NH47 Salem to Kanyakumari (via Kerala)
Sundari trees are found NH7A Tirunelveli to Tuticorin
It is in W.B. NH39 connects India & Myanmar
xxv) Manas (Assam) Border that connects India & Myanmar is
xxvi) Nokrek (Meghalaya) morienu.
xxvii) Dihan Dibang (Arunachal pradesh)
14
GEOGRAPHY
NH31A Connects China via Sikkim Central Mumbai
Golden Quardilateral Highway NH2 North Central Allahabad (U.P)
NH4 NH5- NH 8 East Central Hajipur (Bihar)
Length 5846 km S.E. Central Bilaspur (Chattisgarh)
North south corridor highway Srinagar West Central Jabalpur (M.P.)
to Kanyakumari South Central Secundarabad
It connects NH7+NH1+NHIA +NH4 East Coast railway Bhuvaneshwar
(Jalandhar to Srinagar) Length 4076 km
Kongan railway (west coast) Navy
East west corridor highway Borbandhar Mumbai (Belapur)
to silchar (Assam) length 3640km
Maximum route length Northern railway
NH28 5th longest NH
Southern railway part of Andhra, T.N. ,
Greatest Road density Kerala pdy, kerala
Lowest road density J & K
Shortest highway NH47A (Ernakulam to
wellington Highway cochin)

WATER TRANSPORT
Inland waterway authority was established
in 1986. Its H.Q. is in Noida (V.P.)
National waterway (NW)
NW1 Allahabad to Haldia (Ganga river) 1620
km
NW2 Sadiya to Dubri (Brahmaputr) Assam 891
km
NW3 Thotthapuram to Kollam (Kerala) 205 km
NW4 Kakkinada to Marakkanam (T.N)
Bakkingham Canal
NW5 Talcher to Dhumra
In Brahmani river (in odhisha)
Talcherriver is famous for Lignite

Major Harbours
i) Kandla (Gujarat) ii) Mumbai iii) Goa iv)
Mangalore v) Cochin vi) Tuticorin vii) Chennai viii)
Ennore ix) Visakapattinam x) Paradwip (odissa) xi)
Kolcutta

Indias longest wast line Gujarat


2nd longest coast line Andhra Pradesh
Railway
First railway line 1853 Mumbai to Thane
In T.N. Chennai to Arakkonam
17 Railway zones
Northern Delhi, Southern Chennai,
Western Mumbai, Eastern Kolcutta
N.E. Gorakpur (Bihar)
N.E. (Frontier) Maligan (Gauhati)
N.W. Jaipur
SE Kolcutta
SW Hubli (Karnataka)
15