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International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE)

ISSN: 0976-1353
0976 Volume 13 Issue 2 MARCH 2015.


Dr.B.Jayachandriah#1 and V.Vinay Kumar*2
Professor and Vice-Principal,
Principal, Mechanical Engineering, Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti,
Chittoor Dist, A.P, India
Final Year B.Tech Student, Mechanical Engineering,
Engineering Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti,
Chittoor Dist, A.P, India

Abstract In present day Shell and Tube Heat

H Exchanger is heat exchangers are tubes, tube sheets, shell and shell-side
the most common type of heat exchanger widely used in oil Nozzles,, tube side channels and nozzles, channel covers,
refineries, automobiles, aerospace applications because it suits pass divider, baffles etc. Most commonly used STHE have
for high pressure applications. An attempt is made in this large heat transfer surface area-to-volume
area ratios to provide
paper is Design of Shell and Tube Double Pass Heat Exchanger
high heat transfer efficiency in comparison with others.
with helical baffle and comparing with segmental baffle using
kern method. Then the modelling is done by using CATIA V5 Shell and tube heat exchangers with segmental baffles have
software. The model contains 7 tubes each having a diameter of low heat transfer Co-efficient
efficient due to the segmental baffle
20mm, Length 500mm and Inner Diameter of Shell is 90mm, arrangement causing high leakage flow by passing through
Length 600mm. The material of the Shell is made up of Steel the heat transfer surface and high pressure drop that causes a
AISI 1010, Tube as Copper and baffle as Aluminum.
luminum. The Helix big problem for industries as the pumping costs increases.
angle of baffle is varying from 0 to 30 degrees .The results are
drawn the thermal and hydraulic analysis of a Helixchanger B. DEVELOPMENTS IN SHELL AND TUBE
(Continuous Helical baffled Heat Exchanger) and comparing EXCHANGER
with segmental baffle.
It gives us a clear idea that the Overall heath transfer The developments for shell and tube exchangers
coefficient is maximum in helixchanger as compared to
focus on better conversion of pressure drop into heat
segmental baffle.. The pressure drop decreases with the
increase in helix angle. Helix angle of 6 degree may provide transfer i.e. higher Heat transfer co-efficient
co to Pressure
better heat transfer than
han the one with an angle of 18 degree as drop ratio, by improving the conventional baffle design.
it expenses pumping cost. With single segmental baffles, most of the overall pressure
rop is wasted in changing the direction of flow. This kind
of baffle arrangement also leads to more grievous
Keywords Helical Baffles, Helix angle, Kerns Method, shell
undesirable effects such as dead spots or zones of
and tube heat exchanger, Overall Heat transfer coefficient,
recirculation which can cause increased fouling, high
leakage flow that bypassess the heat transfer surface
Pressure Drop.
giving rise to lesser heat transfer co-efficient,
co and large
I. INTRODUCTION cross flow. The cross flow not only reduces the mean
temperature difference but can also cause potentially
damaging tube vibration.
Heat exchangers are one of the mostly used
equipment in process industries. Heat exchanger is a device
specially designed for efficient transformation of heat from
one fluid to another fluid over solid surface. In Heat
exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes as it
passes through the exchangers, and hence the temperature of
iding wall between the fluids also changes along the
length of exchanger.

A. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger:

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) consists of

bundle of tubes enclosed with in cylindrical shell,
shell one fluid
pass through the tubes and second fluid
id flows between the Fig.1 .Shell
Shell and tube heat exchanger
tube and shells. The basic components of a shell and tube

International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE)
ISSN: 0976-1353 Volume 13 Issue 2 MARCH 2015.

C. Helixchanger thermal performance of Helix exchanger with plain copper

The Helical Baffle heat Exchanger is otherwise known tubes or with grooved copper tubes of same size and
as a Helix changer solution that removes many of the Specification by using co-current flow. During this
deficiencies of Segmental Baffle Heat Exchanger. It is very experimental investigation Attempts were made for both
effective where heat exchanger are predicted to be faced exchangers at same operating conditions and it was found
with vibration condition Quadrant shaped baffle segment are that grooved copper tubes helix changer have a better
arranged right angle to the tube axis in a sequential pattern thermal performance as compared to plain copper tubes
that guide the shell side flow in a helical path over the tube helix changer at a particular angle, 25 . Sunilkumar
bundle. The Helical flow provides the necessary Shinde, et al, [6] has done analyses the conventional
characteristics to reduce flow dispersion and generate near segmental baffle heat exchanger by using the Kern method
plug flow conditions. The shell side flow configuration with varied shell side flow rates. He evaluated form his
offers a very high conversion of pressure drop to heat results High Heat Transfer Co-efficient and lower pressure
transfer. Advantages over segmental STHE are increased drop are more effectively obtained in a Helixchanger. The
heat transfer rate, reduced bypass effects, reduced Shell flow pattern in the shell side of the continuous helical baffle
Fouling Factor, Prevention of flow induced vibration & heat exchanger is rotational & helical due to the geometry of
Reduces Pumping cost. continuous helical baffles results in significant increase in
heat transfer coefficient. Timothy J. Rennie et al have done
an experimental study of a double-pipe helical heat
exchanger. Flow rates in the inner tube and in the annulus
were varied and temperature data recorded. Overall heat
transfer coefficients were calculated using Wilson plots...

OBJECTIVE OF THE PAPER: This paper contains

comparison of helical baffle heat exchanger with segmental
baffles. The model is done by using CATIA V5 shown in
fig.3.The Main objective of this paper is to show that the
helical baffle inside the STHE has greater heat transfer
Fig.1 Helical baffle heat exchanger coefficient and can be operated with lower pressure than the
segmental baffle
D. Kern Method

The first attempt is to provide methods for calculating

shell-side pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient were III. DATA COLLECTION
those in which correlations were based on experimental data
for typical heat exchangers. One of these methods is the TABLE.1 Geometrical parameters of a heat exchanger
well-known Kern method, which was an attempt to correlate
data for standard exchangers by a simple equation analogous S.NO DESCRIPTION UNIT VALUE
to equations for flow in Tubes. However, this method is
1. Heat exchanger length, L Meter 0.600
restricted to a fixed baffle cut (25%) and cannot adequately
account for baffle-to-shell and tube-to-baffle leakages. 2. Shell inner Diameter , Meter 0.092
However, the Kern equation is not particularly accurate; it 3. Shell outer Diameter, Meter 0.090
does allow a very simple and rapid calculation of shell-side
4. Tube length, l Meter 0.500
coefficients and pressure drop to be carried out and has been
successfully used since its inception. 5. Tube inner diameter, Meter 0.019
6. Tube outer diameter, Meter 0.020
II. LITERATURE REVIEW 7. Number of tubes, - 7
8. Tube Pitch Triangular, Meter 0.030
Gang yong Lei et al [1] have showed the effects of baffle
9. Baffle inclination angle, Deg 0 to 30
inclination angle on flow and heat transfer of a heat
10. Baffle spacing, B Meter 0.025
exchanger with helical baffles, where the helical baffles are
separated into inner and outer parts along the radial direction 11. Side plate Diameter , Meter 0.090
of the shell. While both the inner and outer helical baffles 12. Baffle Thickness Meter 0.001
baffle the flow consistently, smoothly and gently, and direct
flow in a helical fashion so as to increase heat transfer rate
and decrease pressure drop and impact vibrations, the outer TABLE.2. Fluid Properties
helical baffle becomes easier to manufacture due to its
relatively large diameter of inner edge. Lutcha J et al [2]
have done experiments to the improvement of tubular heat Fluid Flow Temperature Density Thermal
exchangers with helical baffles for investigation of the flow (k) Kg/ conductivity
field patterns generated by various helix angles which is Shell side 298 998 0.6129
expected to decline pressure at shell side and increase heat Tube side 353 974 0.6687
transfer process significantly. Pardeep Kumar et al [3],
experimental Investigation has been carried-out to know the

International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE)
ISSN: 0976-1353 Volume 13 Issue 2 MARCH 2015.


Modelling is a pre-processor tool, the modeling of shell This paper is explained as to show that the helical baffle
and tube heat exchanger is created using the CATIA V5 heat exchanger has better performance than the segmental
software is a feature-based, parametric solid modeling baffle. For that we selected Double Pass Heat Exchanger
system with many extended design and manufacturing and the half sectional view is shown below Fig 6.
applications. As it is sophisticated computerized software
which gives friendly experience. As a comprehensive
CAD/CAE/CAM system, covering many aspects of
mechanical design, analysis and manufacturing, CATIA
represents the leading edge of CAD/CAE/CAM technology.

Fig 6. Sectional View of Double Pass Heat Exchanger

A. Thermal Analysis of Segmental Baffle
1. Tube Clearance (C)
= 0.030 0.020
= 0.010 m
2. Bundle Cross-flow Area (AS)
AS = ( .C.B) /
= (0.09 0.010 0.025)/ 0.03
Fig.2 . Isometric view of shell and tube heat exchnager = 0.75*10
3. Equivalent Diameter ( )
= 4 ( 3/4) (do. /8 )%/& do/2(
= 4 (0.03 3/4) (0.02 /8)%/&(
= 0.0296m
4. Maximum Velocity (*+,- )
*+,- = . / A
= 0.0089/ (/40.09)
= 2.96 m/sec
5. Reynoldss number (Re)
Re = / *+,- /0
= (998 2.96 0.02961)/0.8937 10
Fig.3 Tubes surrounding with Helical Baffles
= 97874
Helical baffles inside the shell and tube heat exchangers are 6. Prandtl Number (Pr )
designed in Catia v5 software as shown in the below Fig 5. 6 = 5.767 9: 25<
7. Heat Transfer Coefficient ( )
= (0.36 > ?@ A.BB 6C/ )/
= (0.36 0.6129 97874A.BB 5.767C/ )/0.0296
=7428 W/mk
8. No. of Baffles ( D )
D = E / (ED + )
= 0.600 / (0.025 + 0.001)
D 24

9. Pressure Drop (GH)

GH = &I J ( D + 1) (/ 2/ L
Where, L = (0 /0 )A.CN , L =1.1335
Fig.4 . Helical Baffles in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
I = exp (0.576 0.19RS?@ )
I = exp [0.576-0.19ln (97874)] = 0.20

International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE)
ISSN: 0976-1353 Volume 13 Issue 2 MARCH 2015.

Pressure Drop I =exp (0.576-0.19ln (162021)) = 0.18

A.TAC U (TNVC)A.AW% Pressure Drop, J = c /[
GH = &TWWXA.TWYC.C ( c =1 kg/sec
GH = (0.18 555.56T (9 + 1) 0.09)/
= 11.94 Kpa
(2 998 0.296 1.133)
B. Thermal Analysis of Helical Baffle Heat
Exchanger GH = 0.746Kpa.
1. Tube Clearance (C)
C = C. Thermal analysis for Tube Side:
= 0.030 0.020 1. Tube Clearance (C)
= 0.010 m C =
2. Baffle spacing (ED ) = 0.030 0.020
ED = Z Tan = 0.010 m
= Z 0.09tan (12) 2. .Reynoldss number (Re)
=0.06009 m Re =/ * /0
3. Cross-flow Area ([ ) = (974 1.4 0.019)/0.365 10
AS = ( .C. ED ) / =70981
= (0.09 0.010 0.025) / 0.03 3. Nusselts Number (Nu)
= 1.80*10 Nu= 0.023 ?@ A.X 6 A.N
4. Equivalent Diameter ( ) = 0.023 70981A.BB 2.22A.N
U ... (Pr = 2.22 for water at 80 c)
= 4 \] _ ]doT . _` / & do/2(

N X = 240
= 4 (0.03 3/4) (0.02T /8)%/&( 0.02)/2( 4. Heat transfer Coefficient ( )
= (Nu d )/
= 0.0296m.
= (240 0.6687)/0.019
5. Maximum Velocity (*+,- ) = 8024 W/mk
*+,- = . / [
= 4.9 m/sec. (ef )
6. Reynoldss number (Re) Over All Heat Transfer Coefficient for both shell
Re =/ *+,- /0 side & tube side is given by
= (998 4.9 0.02961)/0.8937 10
1/g = [1/ (+ [1/ / ( + &6 ln (6 /6 )/ > )(
= (1/7428) + (1/80240.02/0.019)+ ((0.01ln
7. Prandtl Number (Pr)
(0.01/0.0095)/ 386)
Pr = 5.767 at 25c
g = 3743 W/mk

8. Heat Transfer Coefficient ( )

= (0.36 > ?@ A.BB 6 b )/
=(0.36 0.6129 162021A.BB 5.767b )/ 0.0296 A. Shell Side: The Table.3 shows the results of Overall
= 9801 W/mk heat transfer coefficient, Pressure drop at various helix
angles of Helical Baffles including Segmental Baffle.
5.3 Hydraulic Analysis for Shell Side:
1. No. of Baffles ( D ) TABLE.3. Shell Side Result

D = E / (ED + ) Helix Angle Heat transfer Over All Heat Pressure Drop
= 0.600 / (0.06009 + 0.001) coefficient Transfer
D 9 (deg) W/mk Coefficient GH(Kpa)
2. Pressure Drop (GH) Segmental 7428 3734 11.94
GH = [I J ( D + 1) ]/ 2/ L 6 14423 5333.3 5.09
12 9801 4381.97 0.746
Where L = (0 /0 )A.CN
18 7789 3928 0.207
L =1.1335 24 6559 3588 0.09
I = exp (0.576 0.19RS?@ ) 30 5685 3396 0.05

International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE)
ISSN: 0976-1353
0976 Volume 13 Issue 2 MARCH 2015.

B. Tube Side: The Table below shows the results of heat C. Heat Transfer Coefficient (Tube Side): The graph
transfer coefficient for various input velocities of hot plotted between Velocity and Heat transfer coefficient
fluid at Tube side is shown in the below Graph 2. The Heat transfer
TABLE.4. Tube Side Result Coefficient increases with the increase in velocity in the
Tube side.
S.NO Velocity Heat Transfer
m/sec coefficient
W/mk 12000

Heat Transfer Coefficient

1. 1 6444.51 10000
2. 1.2 7456 8000
3. 1.4 8435.6 6000 Tube side Heat

4. 1.6 9386 4000 transfer coffient
5. 1.8 10303
6. 2 11220
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
A. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient: The graph plotted
between helix angle and over all Heat transfer Graph 3.Velocity vs. Heat Transfer Coefficient (Tube Side)
coefficient is shown in the below Graph.1. This shows
an increase
se in overall heat transfer in 6
6 helix angle than
the segmental baffle (seg 0).
6000 Overall Heat
Overall Heat Transfer

5000 1. The above results give us a clear idea that the helical
4000 baffle heat exchanger has far more better Over Heat

transfer coefficient than the segmental Heat Exchanger.


2000 2. In shell side the pressure drops are lower than the
1000 conventional segmental heat exchanger. The pressure
0 drop is decreases with the increases of helix angle in all
the cases considered. However, the effects of helix


angles on pressure drop are small when helix angle

greater than 18 degree.
Helix Angle (deg)
3. In Tube side Heat Transfer Coefficient increases with
the increase in Inlet Velocity. Results in greater Heat
Graph.1 Helix Angle vs. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
4. The kern method available in the Introduction is only
B. Pressure Drop: The graph plotted between helix angle for the segmental baffle Heat exchanger, but the
and Pressure Drop is shown in the below Graph 2.This modified formula is used to approximate the t Thermal
shows a clear idea that the pressure require to pump in performance of helical baffle heat exchanger.
segmental baffle is high when compared with Helical 5. Suitable helix angle may be selected based upon the
baffle. The pressure gradually decreases with the desired output and industrial
industria applications. Helix angle
of 6 may provide better heat transfer than the one with
increase in helix angle.
an angle of 18, , however at the expense
ex of lesser
14 pressure drop.
Pressure Drop

Pressure Drop
(Ps) Kpa

Future work:
6 The conventional methods used for the design
4 and development of STHE are expensive. CFD provide
2 alternative to cost effectiveness speedy solution to
0 STHE design and optimization. The extension of this
work can be done by using Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) analysis for knowing velocity and
Helix Angle(deg) pressure flow patterns over the helical baffles in STHE.

Graph.2 Helix Angle vs. Pressure Drop

International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE)
ISSN: 0976-1353 Volume 13 Issue 2 MARCH 2015.


[1]. Gang yong Lei, Ya-ling He and Rui Li, Ya-Fu Gao , Effects of
baffle inclination angle on flow and heat transfer of a heat exchanger with
helical baffles, Science Direct-Chemical Engineering and Processing,
(2008), 1-10.

[2]. Lutcha J, et al, Performance improvement of tubular heat exchangers

by helical baffles, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 68, 263-
270 (1990)

[3].Pardeep Kumar et al, Experimental Study on Heat Enhancement of

Helix changer with Grooved Tubes,, University institute of Engineering &
Technology, KUK, Haryana, India, IJLTET Vol. 3 Issue 4 March 2014
ISSN: 2278-621X (2014).

[4]. Peng B, Wang Q.W, Zhang C, An experimental study of shell and

tube heat exchangers with continuous helical baffles, ASME Journal of
Heat transfer, 129:1425-1431 (2007)

[5]. Prithiviraj M and Andrews M, Three Dimensional Numerical

Simulation of Shell- and-Tube Heat Exchangers, Foundation and Fluid
Mechanics, Numerical Heat Transfer Part A - Applications, 33(8),
pp.799816, (1998).

[6]. Serth Robert W, Process heat transfer principles and application,

ISBN: 0123735882, 246-270, (2007).

[7]. Sunilkumar Shinde, Mustansir Hatim Pancha, Comparative

Thermal Performance Analysis Of Segmental Baffle Heat Exchanger With
Continuous Helical Baffle Heat Exchanger using Kern method, (IJERA)
Vol.2,Issue4,July-August 2012,pp.2264-2271

[8]. V K PRAVIN et al, Experiential investigation of shell and tube heat

exchanger using kern method, IJPRET, 2014; Volume 2 (6): 64-82

[9]. Wadekar Vishwas, Enhanced and Compact Heat exchangers, A

Perspective from process Industry, 5th international conference on
Enhanced and Technology, pp. 35-41(2005).

[10]. Wang Qui, Dong Chen GUI, Xuging, Pengji Yan, Design of Shell-
and-Tube Heat Exchanger With Continuous Helical Baffles, ASME
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Dr. B. Jayachandriah: Professor and Vice-Principal at Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology,

Srikalahasti. He has completed his masters in mechanical engineering from BITS Pilani College,
specialization in IC Engines. He completed his PhD from JNTUH, Hyderabad specialization in IC
Engines CFD. The author has more than 25 years experience in Teaching & research in various
subjects of Mechanical Engineering and he has guided about 15 Masters Thesis & number of
B.Tech projects. He has credit to 50 publications in various national and International journals and

V.Vinay Kumar: Final B.Tech Student at Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti.

He is persuing B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering. He is member in Indian Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ISME). He is persuing his degree with distinction marks.

B.Rohith, K.Rajesh, B.Rajeev, and E.Lokesh are Final B.Tech Students at Srikalahasteeswara
Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti. They are persuing B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering.