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Cristian Medina

English 301
17 March 2017
Annotated Bibliography Working
Performance-Enhancing drugs in sports Research
What are some ways to deter athletes from taking performance-enhancing drugs?

Working Thesis:
Despite the perceived control over Performance-Enhancing drugs in organizations such as Major

League Baseball in America, steroids are still running rampant in other sport leagues and are a

growing problem in small towns across the United States, where there is little media coverage.


Performance-enhancing drugs have long been part of the athletic landscape. First reported use of

these enhancers date all the way back to the 1880s when Welch cyclist Arthur Linton died

during a race from Trimethy; a combination of cocaine, alcohol, and Stychnine. Bisk 2017.

Steroids have been in the news in recent years due to The Steroid Era in Major League

Baseball, and with the rise and fall of Tour De France winner Lance Armstrong. Most athletes

take Anabolic steroids, which are used to help muscle growth and become stronger. (Mayo 2015)

The most prominent steroid hormone produced by the body is Testosterone. Athletes have also

been known to take what is known as Gonadotropin; also known as Human Growth Hormone.

The potential side effects include joint pain, an enlarged heart, diabetes, high cholesterol, etc.
(Mayo 2015)

1. Hatton CK, Performance-enhancing drugs: Understanding the risks. Physical

Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America.

This article explains the different types of performance-enhancing drugs and what they

actually do to your body. The article then goes on to describe the various risks that both

men and women face when taking these drugs. There is good background information I can

use in this article to back my point up.

2. Reardon CL. Drug abuse in athletes, Dove Medical Press

This article delves into performance-enhancing drugs taken by athletes in-particular and

the benefits they reap from the substances when they are performing in their sport. This

is a useful article in that I can show why these drugs are more common than people want

to admit and the reason for that.

3. Savulescu J. ,Foddy B. , Clayton M. Why we should allow performance enhancing

drugs in sport; 666-670

This article takes a different approach to Performance-enhancing drugs. Instead of

health effects, this article focuses more on the morality of these substances. Not only

so, but it argues how it is ethically fine to take these substances. This article will play a

large role in my counterargument in why performance-enhancing drugs are acceptable

to use.
4. Cakic V. (2009) Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: ethical pragmatic

considerations in the era of cosmetic neurology 611-613

This article describes the recent prominence of neurological enhancers that people use

to take to either focus more on various tasks, achieve greater success in academia, and

etc. This article will balance out my editorial because it shows that

performanceenhancing drugs are not just limited to physical activity