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GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

YEAR 1, PART 1

www.vicensvives.es

Contents

01
Our planet Earth

02
The representation of the Earth: maps

03
The Earth s relief

04
Rivers and seas

05
Weather and climate

06
Climates and landscapes of the Earth

07
Climas yand
Society paisajes de Espaa, Europa y la CA

the environment



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Rivers and seas

1. Water in nature

2. The Earth s oceans, seas, rivers and lakes


3. Ocean dynamics

4. Rivers of Europe and the Iberian Peninsula


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Introduction

The hydrosphere is made up of all the water on the Earth,


including the water in the seas, oceans, rivers, lakes, polar ice
caps, groundwater and the water vapour in the atmosphere.

Water is the most abundant resource on the Earth. It can be


found in a solid, liquid or gaseous state.

Water is the main component in the water cycle, but it is not an


unlimited resource.

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1. Water in nature

1.1. Salt water: oceans and seas


1.2. Fresh water: rivers




The water cycle

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1.1. Salt water: oceans and seas

The majority of the water on the planet is salt water. It makes


up the Earth's oceans and seas.

An ocean is a large body of water that separates continents.


Seas are an extension of the oceans in the areas closest to the


continents.

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1.2. Fresh water: rivers

Fresh water can be found in the ground, in lakes and rivers, in


icebergs and glaciers, and in the atmosphere.

The water in rivers is constantly moving.


The flow of a river is the amount of water it carries. A river's


flow regime describes the variations in its flow throughout the
year.

If a river has a rainfall regime, its flow is affected by the


amount of rain it receives. If a river has a melt regime, the
water comes from melting snow.

Rivers affect the landscape through erosion, transport and


sedimentation.

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The water cycle

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The water cycle

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2. The Earth s oceans, seas, rivers and lakes

2.1. Water on the Earth s surface




The Earth s oceans, seas, rivers and lakes

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2.1. Water on the Earth s surface

The Earth's largest oceans are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic
Ocean and the Indian Ocean.

In many cases, the Earth's relief explains the course of rivers


and the location of lakes.

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The Earth s oceans, seas, rivers and lakes

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The Earth s oceans, seas, rivers and lakes

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3. Ocean dynamics

3.1. How oceans and seas move


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3.1. How oceans and seas move

The water in oceans and seas is always moving because of


waves, tides and ocean currents.

Waves are caused by wind moving the water on the surface of


the sea.

Tides are the rising and lowering of the water level of oceans
and seas. They are caused by the Moon's gravitational pull.

Ocean currents are like big rivers that cross oceans.


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4. Rivers of Europe and the Iberian Peninsula

4.1. European rivers




Rivers and seas in Europe

4.2. Rivers on the Iberian Peninsula




Rivers and seas on the Iberian Peninsula

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4.1. European rivers

Continental rivers, such as the Dnieper and Don rivers, rise in


spring when the snow melts.

Rivers that flow into the ocean, such as the Garonne, Loire,
Seine and Thames rivers, have a high, regular flow.

Mediterranean rivers such as the Turia and Segura rivers are


short with a very low flow in summer.

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Rivers and seas in Europe

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Rivers and seas in Europe

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4.2. Rivers on the Iberian Peninsula

The rivers on the Iberian Peninsula can be divided into three


groups, according to which body of water they flow into:

Rivers of the Cantabrian basin. These rivers are short with a


high flow.

Rivers of the Atlantic basin. These rivers are long with a high
flow.

Rivers of the Mediterranean basin. Except the Ebro River, these


rivers are short with a low and irregular flow.

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Rivers and seas on the Iberian Peninsula

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Rivers and seas on the Iberian Peninsula

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