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Due: 12/19/2016

Team 103

Colleen Burrows

Jessica Byun

Charisse Haines

Arisa Kouchi

Introduction:

In this project, Al 2024 and Al 1100 were tensile tested to examine material properties. One

sample of each metal in its given form was tested. The other samples were annealed and

quenched before testing to discover the effects of heat treatment. From the raw data, the Youngs

Modulus, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and ductility were calculated.

Al 2024 is an alloy containing 3.8-4.9% Cu, 0.1% Cr, and 0.5% Fe [2]. The sample received had

temper designation T3, meaning that it has been heat-treated, cold worked, and naturally aged

[1].

Aluminum 1100-H14 is non-alloyed and strain-hardening to hard [1]. The metal indicated by

the 1100 contains less than 0.01% of other metallic elements [2].

One sample of each of the aluminums was annealed and quenched, a procedure to make the

temper designation 0.

Experimental Procedure:

One of each aluminum type was baked for 1.5 hours in a furnace at 415, cooled for 45

minutes, and quenched in water.

For each specimen, the cross-sectional areas and lengths were measured using a caliper and

tensile tested until failure with the 5K ATS 905 screw-driven load frame tensile tester with a

loading rate of 0.1 in/min.

(in)

Cross-Sectional

Area (in2)

Table 1: The original cross sectional area and length before tensile testing.

Data outputted from the tensile tester was the load and elongation measurements (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Load-elongation graph obtained from the raw data with the toe-region included.

Figure 1 shows that the 2024-T3 alloy received the most force before failure and experienced the

least displacement while the 1100-H14 alloy received the least force and the most displacement.

From this load-displacement data, the engineering stress and strain were calculated (Equations 1,

2 and Figure 2).

= AFo

Equation 1: Engineering stress ( ), where F is the force applied and Ao is the original cross-sectional

area.

l

= lo

Equation 2: Engineering strain ( ), where l is the elongation and lo is the original length of the

specimen.

Figure 2: Engineering Stress-Strain curves for all of the samples with toe region removed.

The ultimate tensile strengths (UTS) can be found by analyzing the highest stress values for each

of the four curves (Table 2). The UTS for

2024-T3 is 52,342 psi, 2024-0 is 16,967 psi, 1100-H14

is 17,330psi, and 1100-0 is 11,709psi.

The elastic portion of the engineering stress-strain curves is before plastic deformation begins to

occur after yield (Figure 3).

The Youngs Modulus (E) is the slope of the elastic region (Equation 3, Table 2). The yield

stress (y) can be found where the 0.002 strain offset line with slope E and the stress-strain curve

intersect (Table 2).

E=

= 0.00698790.004286525 = 1.86779 x 106 psi

Equation 3: Youngs Modulus value (E), which is also the slope of the elastic region of the curve. Since

there are more than two points on the curve, the slope can be found with a linear regression of the points

in the elastic region.

The ductility of the materials can be found through percent elongation (Equation 4, Table 2).

p = T OT Ey

%EL = p 100

Equation 4: Ductility (%EL), where p is the plastic strain, TOT is the strain at the fracture point, y is the

yield strength, and E is Youngs Modulus.

Engineering stress and strain use the original cross-sectional areas and lengths in the

denominator suggesting that the materials are becoming weaker after UTS. However, the true

stress and strain values correct this using instantaneous measurements. From the engineering

stress and strain, the true values are calculated (Equations 5, 6 and Figure 4).

T = |1 + |

Equation 5: Engineering stress (T), where is the engineering stress and the is the engineering strain.

T = ln |1 + |

Equation 6: True engineering stress (T), where is the engineering strain.

Figure 4: True stress-strain curves from the onset of plastic deformation (after y) up to necking (before

UTS).

The true stress is related to the true strain by the strength hardening constant and exponent,

which is only valid during plastic deformation before necking (Equation 7).

T = k nT

Equation 7: Relates the true engineering stress (T), the strength hardening exponent (n), and the strength

hardening constant (k) to the true strain (T).

In this power-law relationship, the slope of the logarithmic expression of Equation 7 is n and k is

10y-intercept (Figure 5).

The material properties found from the experiment and the published values [3,4] are in Table 2.

y (ksi) 50 50 25 11

n 5.1481 - 5.4143 -

k 1.90546 - 4.4999 -

Sample Actual

n 4.4585 - 4.7999 -

k 1.3125 - 3.5294 -

Table 2: The material properties found for each sample from the testing and the published values for the

metals. Most of the properties vary based on metal and temper designation, but the Youngs Modulus

does not because it only depends on material structure.

Conclusion:

From before to after annealing, the ultimate and yield strengths decreased for both metals. The

ductility of the 2024 alloy was consistent but increased for the 1100. Between the calculated

results and published values, the yield and ultimate stresses were consistent, but the calculated

Youngs Moduli and ductility were significantly smaller. For the 2024-0 alloy, the yield strength

is supposed to be 11 ksi, but our toe region on the engineering stress-strain curve goes past 11 ksi

and increases rapidly, which makes the calculated yield strength high in comparison to the

theoretical value. A possible reason for this error is the mechanical complications encountered

with the tester. Error also comes from the inaccuracy of displacement measurements. In the raw

data, the length is measured as the entire specimen, which is not necessarily the displacement of

the metal itself due to the clamps. More error could come from the sample slipping due to an

insufficient grip. These directly caused the calculated Youngs Modulus to be incorrect, and that

value is used in the ductility equation making it incorrect as well.

References:

http://www.alumeco.com/Knowledge-and-Technique/Aluminium-data/Temper-descriptio

ns.aspx

[2] Michael Bauccio, ASM Metals Reference Book, third ed., Ed. ASM International, Materials

Park, OH, 1993

[3] E. A. Avallone, T. Baumeister, A. M. Sadegh, Mark's standard handbook for mechanical

engineers, eleventh ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006, pp. 388.

[4] W. D. Callister Jr., D. G. Rethwisch, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction,

ninth ed., John Wiley & sons, Inc. 2013, pp. 886.

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