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The Bhagavad Gita

Chapter 3

Translated by
Michael Douglas Neely
Chapter 3/Verse 13 27

Table of Contents Chapter 3/Verse 14 29


Table of Contents 2 Chapter 3/Verse 15 30
Introduction 4 Chapter 3/Verse 16 31
The Translator and the Translation 4 Chapter 3/Verse 17 32
Chapter 3 Verse Detail 6 Chapter 3/Verse 18 34
Chapter 3/Verse 1 10 Chapter 3/Verse 19 35
Chapter 3/Verse 2 11 Chapter 3/Verse 20 37
Chapter 3/Verse 3 13 Chapter 3/Verse 21 38
Chapter 3/Verse 4 14 Chapter 3/Verse 22 40
Chapter 3/Verse 5 15 Chapter 3/Verse 23 41
Chapter 3/Verse 6 17 Chapter 3/Verse 24 43
Chapter 3/Verse 7 18 Chapter 3/Verse 25 44
Chapter 3/Verse 8 20 Chapter 3/Verse 26 46

Chapter 3/Verse 9 21 Chapter 3/Verse 27 47


Chapter 3/Verse 10 23 Chapter 3/Verse 28 48
Chapter 3/Verse 11 24 Chapter 3/Verse 29 49
Chapter 3/Verse 12 25 Chapter 3/Verse 30 50
Chapter 3/Verse 31 51

Chapter 3/Verse 32 52

Chapter 3/Verse 33 54

Chapter 3/Verse 34 55

Chapter 3/Verse 35 57

Chapter 3/Verse 36 58

Chapter 3/Verse 37 60

Chapter 3/Verse 38 62

Chapter 3/Verse 39 63

Chapter 3/Verse 40 65

Chapter 3/Verse 41 66

Chapter 3/Verse 42 67

Chapter 3/Verse 43 69
this time period on my academia.edu
profile: https://independent.academia.edu/MichaelNeely
Introduction In mid-2007 I lost interest in studying Sanskrit and stopped
The Bhagavad Gita has been translated into English hundreds studying it. In 2014 my interest in Sanskrit was rekindled. I felt
of times since its first translation into English by Charles a calling to come back to it and started reviewing various
Wilkens in 1785. The translations range from poetic Sanskrit primers and textbooks.
interpretations inspired from various English translations to
highly academic ones. I chose to translate the Bhagavad Gita
from Sanskrit to English to improve my Sanskrit proficiency, In July 2015 I felt confident enough to start translating
for the love of the wisdom of the book, and because there are the Bhagavad Gita in order continue increasing my proficiency
many academic translations on the market and online to in the Sanskrit language while feeling the excitement of
reference. In particular, the Winthrop Sargeants and Laurie L. actually reading and comprehending the Sanskrit of
Pattons versions were constantly consulted during this the Bhagavad Gita and then translating the Sanskrit into
translation for clarification and comparison. English.

I am not a Sanskrit professor nor do I claim to be an expert in


The Translator and the the Sanskrit language. Various translations of the Bhagavad
Gita, Sanskrit primers and textbooks, and the Academic Room
Translation Sanskrit-English Dictionary app were consulted during this
translation. In particular, I relied heavily on the Sanskrit primer
I am a mostly self-taught Sanskrit enthusiast. I went to a Devavanipravesika by Robert and Sally Goldman, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit presentation at a yoga studio sometime in the late Reference Manual by William Bucknell, and the app just
1990s. That was my first exposure to any structured Sanskrit mentioned in making sure I understood the Sanskrit underlying
class. The studio arranged a second follow-up class, but no one the translation.
showed up, except me. I will take that as an omen. In 2003 I
took two Sanskrit workshops that emphasized learning the In my translations, I tried to be as literal as possible, not adding
Sanskrit alphabet and some noun declensions and verb anything to the translation that was not in the original Sanskrit
conjunctions. In 2005 I was able to find a Sanskrit mentor to text. For each verse translated, I show the Sanskrit devanagari
teach me Sanskrit until about mid-2006. From mid-2006 to text, the transliteration of the Sanskrit in English (IAST
mid-2007 I continued my Sanskrit studies and Sanskrit to format), and the English translation I created. After that, I
English translations. You can see my translation work during broke down each word of the Sanskrit text into its
pre-sandhi form and listed the various grammatical identifiers
of each word. I also explain why my translation is different
from other translations and provide other background
information essential to understanding the verses. Every
translation has it place in the world. My disagreement with a
translation is just an exercise in how it departs from the literal
translation.

Some Sanskritists may criticize this book given I am not a


credentialed Sanskritist in the guise that I made certain
grammar and translation errors. I am not immune to error, but I
am definitely confident that I provide a valuable Sanskrit and
Bhagavad Gita resource in this book. If one feels moved to
criticize my work, I would appreciate a detailed response in
regards to my error and not some off the cuff rebuke from on
high. I understand societys tendency to give the benefit of the
doubt to a credentialed person over a non-credentialed
enthusiast, but just be aware that credentialed and
uncredentialed people make errors all the same. This book is
filling a void that has not been provided by the credentialed
Sanskrit community that rarely engages the Sanskrit enthusiast
community in any public outreach minus the availability of
their print and online publications.
seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling) while

Chapter 3 Verse Detail controlling the senses with the mind will be unattached and be
the better one. Krishna implores Arjuna to perform controlled
action, for action is better than inaction. In fact, action must
The Two-Fold Method of Samkhya and Yoga be engaged, even if just for the sake of maintaining the body.

With Krishnas previous discourse on Yoga, in which one may All action binds one to karma except action based in devotion.
forsake bondage in action, he also spoke in equivocal terms So one must perform devotion-based action and let go of
with how understanding is superior to action. Arjuna has attachment to the result. Krishna speaks of cultural lore in
become confused by this given Krishna is still imploring him to stating that a deity, Prajapati, created offspring with devotion
act by fighting in an imminent battle. Krishna begins a fresh in order for prosperity to grow and enable wishes to be
discourse in chapter three of The Bhagavad Gita by pointing accomplished. The next couple of verses are interesting:
out that the two previous spoken philosophies, Samkhya and
Yoga, are not antithetical to one another, but a part of a 3:11. By this you must cause the gods to be; they, the gods,
must cause you to be. Causing each other to be, you shall attain
two-fold method.
the highest bliss.

Krishna explains that one does not attain freedom from karma 3:12. The devotion produced gods will give, indeed, wished
by not acting nor does renunciation bring about perfection. In pleasures to you. With these [wished pleasures] one who
fact, it is impossible not to engage in action, regardless of enjoys not giving gifts to them [the gods], one, indeed, is a
thief.
whether or not one wills it because the gunas (innate
tendencies) in nature force one into action. This is a very 3:13. Those good who partake the remainder of devotion are
important statement. The gunas of nature impel one to act, liberated from all evils. But the evil ones who enjoy sin, they
regardless of a persons will. create sustenance from a position of self-interest.

Even if one tries to suppress the senses while still thinking


about the objects of the senses, that one is considered a These three verses allude to the fact that beings and gods cause
each others existence and that devotion must be reciprocal.
hypocrite. Yet, one who commences in the Yoga of action (see
Greed is no less than sinful.
previous article in this series) by the senses of action (i.e.,
The next two verse lay out the circular chain from existence to 3:19. Therefore, perpetually unattached, you must perform
devotion: action to be done. Indeed, unattached, performing action a
person attains the highest.
3:14. Beings exist from sustenance. The production of food is
from the rain. Rain exists from devotion. Devotion is produced This is a constant message throughout the Bhagavad Gita. One
from action. must lean on ones internal self and let go of aims in actions or
non-actions. One must strive to be self-reliant and perform
3:15. You must know action originates in Brahman and necessary actions. Action is not sinful if properly engaged,
originating in the imperishable is Brahman! Therefore, the even if it is in the way of the world, for the world follows
all-pervading Brahman is eternally established in devotion. the most excellent one.

As the following verses state, the divine does not need to act,
but yet does:
Krishna admonishes one who does not engage in this chain by
the following verse: 3:22. O Arjuna, of me nothing whatsoever is to be done in the
three worlds. Nothing not attained is to be attained.
3:16. Thus, one who does not cause the wheel, set in motion, to
Nevertheless, I engage in action.
turn in this world, that malicious and sense-delighted one lives
vainly, O Arjuna. 3:23. Indeed, if I, unwearied, should not engage in action at all,
humankind would follow my path everywhere, O Arjuna.

3:24. These worlds would perish if I would not perform action.


Krishna then proceeds to explain how superior action is
I would be a maker of confusion and would destroy these
practiced:
creatures.
3:17. But who, indeed, delights in the self, should be contented
in the self and indeed, a human content in the self, of one
nothing is found to be done. And once again, verse 3:25 brings home that actions should be
performed with non-attachment and one should be desirous to
3:18. Indeed, of that one there is no aim with action nor with
do the way of the world.
non-action and here of that one there is no need of support
whatever of anyone in all beings. Yet, a wise one should never disturb the wisdom of the
ignorant, but should allow them to enjoy all their actions. One
should stick to ones own business and allow others to do
theirs. Then Krishna returns to the topic of the g uas, And the superiority of nature over ones will is again
emphasizing the superiority of them over the ego in nature: emphasized:

3:27. Everywhere actions are being performed by the guas of 3:33. One acts accordingly from one's own nature, even one
nature. The self confused by the ego thinks, "I am the doer." endowed with knowledge. Beings follow nature. What will
restraint accomplish?
3:28. But knowing the truth of the two roles of gua and
action, O Arjuna, having thought, "the g uas work in the
guas." One is not attached.
And the unity found in duality:
3:29. Those who are bewildered by the guas of nature are
attached in actions by the guas. The knower of the whole 3:34. Of the sense and in the aim of the sense, passion and
should not cause disturbance in them, the fools, not knowing hatred abide. Of those two, one should not come to be subdued.
the whole. Indeed, those two are dualities of the one.

Then Krishna describes proper action, and again, implores The next verse is extremely poignant concerning ones own
Arjuna to fight. dharma in regards to the dharma of others:

3:30. Having renounced all actions in me with the mind on the 3:35. Better one's wicked dharma than the good performed
supreme spirit, having become free from desire, one without from the dharma of another. Residence in one's dharma is
the "mine." Freed from distress of the mind, you must fight! better than the overwhelming dharma of another.

3:31. Faithful, non-spiteful humans who constantly practice


this doctrine of mine, they are liberated, even by actions.
Arjuna then questions Krishna on what impels a person against
So even though, one should not disturb fools in their actions, their will:
one should know how to discriminate their inferior action and
3:36. Arjuna said, Then this is impelled by what? Even a
not be tainted by that.
person not wishing commits evil. O Krishna, like instigated
3:32. But the indignant ones who do not practice this doctrine from a force.
of mine, you must know them, lost, senseless, and confusing all
knowledge.
Krishna answers and close this discourse by focusing on the 3:43. Thus, having learned the self is superior to intelligence,
gua of rajas and its nature of enmity and how one can having composed oneself by the self, you must destroy the
overcome this force by action. enemy that is difficult to confront in the form of desire, O
Arjuna.
3:37. The Blessed One said, This desire and this anger are
rajas. Based in the g ua [rajas] is great consumption and great
sin. Here you must know this enemy, [rajas].

3:38. Just as a person conveying an oblation is enveloped with


smoke, a mirror by dust, and just as an embryo is enveloped
with a fetal membrane. Just so, by that [rajas] is that
[knowledge] covered.

3:39. O Arjuna, with that knowledge covered, the wise ones


with the imperishable enemy in the form of desire and with
fire, difficult to satiate.

3:40. It is said, the senses, mind, and understanding are the


abode of it [rajas, the imperishable enemy]. By these [the
senses, mind, and understanding], it causes confusion in the
embodied one, having covered knowledge.

3:41. Therefore, you having restrained the senses at first, O


Arjuna, indeed, you must kill this devil, destroyer of
knowledge and discrimination.

3:42. They said, the senses are superior, the mind is superior to
the senses, but understanding is superior to the mind. But who
is superior to understanding is that one.
arjunas (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
Chapter 3/Verse 1 Arjuna

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, singular) = one said


jyyas (stem form: jyyas) (comparative, feminine,

nominative, singular) = better

- ced (conjunction) (indeclinable) = if

arjuna uvca karmaas (stem form: karman) (neuter, ablative of comparison,


singular) = than action
jyyas cetkarmaaste mat buddhirjanrdana
te (pronoun, 2rd person, genitive, singular) = your
tatki karmai ghore m niyojayasi keava 3- 1
mat (stem form: mat) (feminine, nominative, singular) =
Arjuna said, O Krishna, if your opinion is that understanding is opinion
better than action, then why do you cause me to engage in this
terrible action, O Krishna? buddhis (stem form: buddhi) (feminine, nominative, singular) =
understanding

janrdana (masculine, vocative, singular) = O Agitator of Men


(epithet of Krishna)

tad (neuter, nominative, singular) = then

kim (interrogative) (neuter nominative, singular) = why?

karmai (stem form: karman) (neuter, locative, singular) = in


action
ghore (stem form: ghora) (neuter, locative, singular) = terrible

mm (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, singular) = me


Chapter 3/Verse 2

niyojayasi (7th class verb root: yuj) (ni + yojayasi) (present



indicative, parasmaipada, causative, 2nd person, singular) =
you cause to engage
-
keava (stem form: keava) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O vymireeva vkyena buddhi mohayasva me
Handsome Haired One (epithet of Krishna)
tadeka vada nicitya yena reyo'hampnuym 3- 2

With words that seem equivocal, just so you cause confusion in


my understanding. Without a doubt, tell that one [way] by
which I should attain the better.
vymirea (stem form: vymira) (neuter, instrumental, reyas (stem form: reyas) (comparative, neuter, accusative,
singular) = with equivocal singular) = the better

iva (adverb) (indeclinable) = that seem aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

vkyena (stem form: vkya) (neuter, instrumental, singular) = pnuym (5th class verb root: p) (present indicative,
with words parasmaipada, optative, 1st person, singular) = I should attain

buddhim (stem form: buddhi) (feminine, accusative, singular)


= understanding

mohayasi (4th class verb root: muh) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, causative, 2nd person, singular) = you cause
confusion

iva (adverb) (indeclinable) = just so

me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

tad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that

ekam (neuter, accusative, singular) = one

vada (1st class verb root: vad) (present tense, imperative,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = tell

nicitya (5th class verb root: ci) (nis + citya) (gerund)


(indeclinable) = without a doubt

yena (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, instrumental, singular) = by


which
rbhagavn (stem form: rbhagavant) (masculine, nominative,
Chapter 3/Verse 3 singular) = the Blessed Lord (epithet of Krishna)

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd



person, singular) = one said

loke (stem form: loka) (masculine, locative, singular) = in the


world
-
asmin (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, locative, singular) = in
rbhagavnuvca this

loke'smindvividh nih pur prokt maynagha dvividh (stem form: dvividh) (feminine, nominative,
singular) = two-fold
jnayogena skhyn karmayogena yoginm 3- 3
nih (stem form: nih) feminine, nominative, singular) =
method
The Blessed One said, in this world the method is two-fold, as
previously declared by me, O Arjuna. By the yoga of pur (adverb) (indeclinable) = previously
knowledge of the Skhyas and by the yoga of action of the
yogins. prokt (2nd class verb root: vac) (pra + ukt) (past passive
participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = declared

may (pronoun, 1st person, instrumental, singular) = by me

anagha (stem form: anagha) (masculine, vocative, singular) =


Blameless One (epithet of Arjuna)

jnayogena (stem form: jnayoga) (jna + yogena)


(tatpura compound, masculine, instrumental, singular) = by
the yoga of knowledge
skhynm (stem form: skhya) (masculine, genitive,
plural) = of the followers Skhya Chapter 3/Verse 4
karmayogena (stem form: karmayoga) (karma + yogena)
(tatpura compound, masculine, instrumental, singular) = by

the yoga of action
-
yoginm (stem form: yogin) (masculine, genitive, plural) =of
the yogins na karmamanrambhnnaikarmya puruo'nute

na ca sanyasandeva siddhi samadhigacchati 3- 4

From abstention of actions a person does not attain freedom


from karma. And from renunciation, indeed, one does not
approach perfection.
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 3/Verse 5
karmam (stem form: karman) (neuter, genitive, plural) = of
actions

anrambht (stem form: anrambha) (an + + rambht)
(masculine, ablative, singular) = from abstention -

naikarmyam (stem form: naikarmya) (neuter, accusative, na hi kacitkaamapi jtu tihatyakarmakt


singular) = freedom from karma
kryate hyavaa karma sarva praktijairguai 3- 5
puruas (stem form: purua) (masculine, nominative, singular)
= a person
Indeed, nobody, even for an instant, ever stands not
anute (5th class verb root: a) (present indicative, participating in action. Indeed, all are caused to perform action,
tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one attains regardless of one's will, by the innate guas.

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

ca (conjugation) (indeclinable) = and

sanyasant (stem form: sanyasana) (neuter, ablative,


singular) = from renunciation

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

siddhim (stem form: siddhi) (feminine, accusative, singular) =


perfection

samadhigacchati (1st class stem form: gam) (samadhi +


gacchati) (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person,
singular) = one approach
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not praktijais (adjective) (masculine, instrumental, plural) = by the
innate
hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed
guais (stem form: gua) (masculine, instrumental, plural) = by
kacid (indefinite construction) (indeclinable) = anyone the guas

kaam (stem form: kaa) (neuter, nominative, singular) = an


instant

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

jtu (adverb) (indeclinable) = ever

tihati (1st class verb root: sth) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one stands

akarmakt (stem form: akarmakt) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = not participating in action

kryate (8th class verb root: k) (present indicative, causative,


passive, 3rd person, singular) = one is caused to perform

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

avaas (avaa) (masculine, nominative, singular) = regardless


of one's will

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action

sarvas (stem form: sarva) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


all
karmendriyi (stem form: karmendriya) (karma + indriyi)
Chapter 3/Verse 6 (tatpura compound, neuter, accusative, plural) = the senses
of action

sayamya (1st class verb root: yam) (sam + yamya) (gerund)


(indeclinable) = restraining

-
yas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
karmendriyi sayamya ya ste manas smaran who
indriyrthnvimhtm mithycra sa ucyate 3- 6
ste (present indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) =
one sits

One who sits restraining the senses of action remembering the manas (stem form: manas) (neuter, instrumental, singular) =
objects of the senses by the mind, that deluded self is a by the mind
hypocrite, it is said.
smaran (5th class verb root: sm) (present participle,
parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, singular) =
remembering

indriyrthn (stem form: indriyrtha) (indriya + arthn)


(tatpura compound, masculine, accusative, plural) = objects
of the senses

vimhas (4th class verb root: muh) (vi + mha) (past passive
participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = deluded

tm (stem form: tman) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


self

mithycras (stem form: mithycra) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = hypocrite
sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) = Chapter 3/Verse 7
that one

ucyate (2nd class verb root: vac) (present indicative, passive,



tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it is said
-

yastvindriyi manas niyamyrabhate'rjuna

karmendriyai karmayogamasakta sa viiyate 3- 7

But who commences the yoga of action by the senses of action,


having controlled the senses by the mind, that unattached one
is superior, O Arjuna.
yas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) = sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
who that one

tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but viiyate (1st class verb root: i) (present indicative,
tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one is superior
indriyi (stem form: indriya) (neuter, accusative, plural) =
senses

manas (stem form: manas) (neuter, instrumental, singular) =


by the mind

niyamya (1st class verb root: yam) (ni + yamya) (gerund)


(indeclinable) = having controlled

rabhate (1st class verb root: rambh) ( + rabhate) (present


indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one
commences

arjuna (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O


Arjuna

karmendriyais (stem form: karmendriya) (karma + indriyais)


(tatpura compound, neuter, instrumental, plural) = by the
senses of action

karmayogam (stem form: karmayoga) (karma + yogam)


(tatpura compound, masculine, accusative, singular) = the
yoga of action

asaktas (1st class verb root: saj) (a + saktas) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = unattached
niyatam (1st class verb root: yam) (ni + yatam) (past passive
Chapter 3/Verse 8 participle, masculine, accusative, singular) = controlled

kuru (8th class verb root: k) (imperative, parasmaipada, 2nd


person, singular) = you must perform!

- karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action
niyata kuru karma tva karma jyyo hyakarmaa
tvam (pronoun, 2nd person, nominative, singular) = you
arraytrpi ca te na prasiddhyedakarmaa 3- 8
karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
You must perform controlled action. Action, indeed, is better action
than inaction. And even the maintenance of your body ought
not be accomplished from inaction. jyyas (comparative, masculine, nominative, singular) = better

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

akarmaas (stem form: akarman) (a + karmaas) (neuter,


ablative of comparison, singular) = than inaction

arraytr (stem form: arraytr) (arra + ytr) (tatpura


compound, feminine, nominative, singular) = maintenance of
the body

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

te (pronoun, 2nd person, genitive, singular) = of your

na (indeclinable) = not
prasiddhyet (4th class verb root: sidh) (pra + siddhyet)
(optative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = ought to be Chapter 3/Verse 9
accomplished

akarmaas (stem form: akarman) (a + karmans) (neuter,


ablative, singular) = from inaction
-

yajrthtkarmao'nyatra loko'ya karmabandhana

tadartha karma kaunteya muktasaga samcara 3- 9

Aside from the action done from the aim of devotion, this
world is bound by action. Free from attachment, you must
accomplish action based on that aim, O Arjuna.
yajrtht (stem form: yajrtha) (yaja + artht) (tatpura samcara (1st class verb root: car) (sam + + cara)
compound, masculine, ablative, singular) = from the aim of (imperative, parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = you must
devotion accomplish

karmaas (stem form: karman) (neuter, ablative, singular) =


from action

anyatra (adverb) (indeclinable) = aside from

lokas (stem form: loka) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


world

ayam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


this

karmabandhanas (stem form: karmabandhana) (karma +


bandhanas) (bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative,
singular) = bound by action

tat (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that

artham (stem form: artha) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


the aim

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action

kaunteya (stem form: kaunteya) (masculine, vocative, singular)


= Son of Kunti (epithet of Arjuna)

muktasagas (mukta + sagas) (bahuvrih compound,


masculine, nominative, singular) = free from attachment
sahayajs (stem form: sahayaj) (saha + yajs) (feminine,
Chapter 3/Verse 10 accusative, plural) = together with devotion

prajs (stem form: praj) (feminine, accusative, plural) =


progeny


- sv (6th class verb root: sj) (gerund) (indeclinable) = having
created
sahayaj praj sv purovca prajpati
pur (adverb) (indeclinable) = once upon a time
anena prasaviyadhvamea vo'stviakmadhuk 3- 10
uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd
Once upon a time having created progeny together with person, singular) = one said
devotion, Prajpati said "By this you will bring forth! This will
be your wish fulfilling cow." prajpatis (stem form: prajpati) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = Prajpati (Lord of Creation)

anena (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, instrumental, singular)


= by this

prasaviyadhvam (1st class verb root: su) (pra + saviyadhvam)


(future imperative, tmanepada, 2nd person, plural) = you will
bring forth!

eas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


this

vas (pronoun, 2nd person, genitive, plural) = your

astu (2nd class verb root: as) (present imperative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = it will be
iakmadhuk (stem form: iakmadhuk) (feminine,
nominative, singular) = wish fulfilling cow Chapter 3/Verse 11

devnbhvayatnena te dev bhvayantu va

paraspara bhvayanta reya paramavpsyatha 3- 11

By this you must cause the gods to be; they, the gods, must
cause you to be. Causing each other to be, you shall attain the
highest bliss.
devn (stem form: deva) (masculine, accusative, plural) = the
gods Chapter 3/Verse 12
bhvayata (1st class verb root: bh) (causative imperative, 2nd
person, plural) = you must cause to be

anena (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, instrumental, singular) -


= by this
inbhognhi vo dev dsyante yajabhvit
te (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) = they
tairdattnapradyaibhyo yo bhukte stena eva sa 3- 12
devs (stem form: deva) (masculine, nominative, plural) = the
gods
The devotion produced gods will give, indeed, wished
bhvayantu (1st class verb root: bh) (causative, imperative, pleasures to you. With these [wished pleasures] one who
3rd person, plural) = they must cause to be enjoys not giving gifts to them [the gods], one, indeed, is a
thief.
vas (pronoun, 2nd person, accusative, plural) = you

parasparam (adverb) (indeclinable) = each other

bhvayantas (1st class verb root: bh) (causative, present


participle, parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, plural) =
causing to be

reyas (stem form: reyas) (neuter, accusative, singular) = bliss

param (stem form: para) (neuter, accusative, singular) = highest

avpsyatha (5th class verb root: p) (ava + psyatha) (future


tense, 2nd person, plural) = you shall attain
in (6th class verb root: i) (past passive participle, bhukte (6th class verb root: bhuj) (present tense, tmanepada,
masculine, accusative, plural) = wished 3rd person, singular) = one enjoys

bhogn (stem form: bhoga) (masculine, accusative, plural) = stenas (stem form: stena) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
pleasures thief

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

vas (pronoun, 2nd person, dative, plural) = to you sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, 3rd person, singular) =
one
devs (stem form: deva) (masculine, nominative, plural) = the
gods

dsyante (1st class verb root: d) (future tense, tmanepada,


3rd person, plural) = they will give

yajabhvits (stem form: yajabhvita) (yaja + bhvits)


(tatpura compound, past passive participle, masculine,
nominative, plural) = devotion produced

tais (pronoun, 3rd person, instrumental, plural) = with these

dattn (stem form: datta) (masculine, accusative, plural) = gifts

apradya (1st class verb root: d) (a + pra + dya) (gerund)


(indeclinable) = not giving

ebhyas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, dative, plural) = to


them

yas (relative pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative,


singular) = one who
yajaiinas (stem form: in) (yajaia + inas)
Chapter 3/Verse 13 (tatpura compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = they
who partake in the remainder of devotion

santas (stem form: sat) (masculine, nominative, plural) = good


- mucyante (1st class verb root: muc) (present tense, passive,


tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they are liberated
yajaiina santo mucyante sarvakilbiai
sarvakilbiais (stem form: sarvakilbia) (sarva + kilbiais)
bhujate te tvagha pp ye pacantytmakrat 3- 13 (tatpura compound, neuter, instrumental, plural) = from all
evils
Those good who partake in the remainder of devotion are
liberated from all evils. But the evil ones who enjoy sin, they bhujate (6th class verb root: bhuj) (present indicative,
create sustenance from a position of self-interest. tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they enjoy

te (correlative pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative,


plural) = they

tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but

agham (stem form: agha) (neuter, accusative, singular) = sin

pps (stem form: ppa) (masculine, nominative, plural) = the


evil ones

ye (relative pronoun, masculine, nominative, plural) = who

pacanti (1st class verb root: pac) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they create sustenance

tmakrat (stem form: tmakraa) (tma + krat)


(tatpura compound, neuter, ablative, singular) = from a This verse is typically translated with a literal ritual sacrifice
position of self-interest tone or a metaphorical one involving devotion. I choose the
latter given I am using the word "devotion" in place of the
word "sacrifice" throughout the verses in this chapter. The
essence of this verse is that one needs to act with a sense of
devotion for all without doing things for one's own
self-interest.
annt (stem form: anna) (neuter, ablative, singular) = from
Chapter 3/Verse 14 sustenance

bhavanti (1st class verb root: bh) (present indicative,



parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they exist

- bhtni (1st class verb root: bh) (past passive participle,


neuter, nominative, plural) = beings
anndbhavanti bhtni parjanydannasambhava
parjanyt (stem form: parjanya) (masculine, ablative, singular)
yajdbhavati parjanyo yaja karmasamudbhava 3- 14 = from rain

annasambhavas (stem form: annasambhava) (anna +


sambhavas) (bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative,
Beings exist from sustenance. The production of food is from singular) = the production of food
the rain. Rain exists from devotion. Devotion is produced from
action. yajt (stem form: yaja) (masculine, ablative, singular) =
from devotion

bhavati (1st class verb root: bh) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = exists

parjanyas (stem form: parjanya) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = rain

yajas (stem form: yaja) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


devotion

karmasamudbhavas (stem form: karmasamudbhava) (karma +


samudbhavas) (bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative,
singular) = produced from action
karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
Chapter 3/Verse 15 action

brahmodbhavam (stem form: brahmodbhava) (brahma +


udbhavam) (masculine, accusative, singular) = originates in
Brahman (the all pervading spirit)
-
viddhi (2nd class verb root: vid) (imperative, parasmaipada,
karma brahmodbhava viddhi brahmkarasamudbhavam 2nd person, singular) = you must know

tasmtsarvagata brahma nitya yaje pratihitam 3- 15 brahmkarasamudbhavam (stem form:


brahmkarasamudbhava) (brahma + akara + samudbhavam)
You must know action originates in Brahman and originating (tatpura compound, masculine, accusative, singular) =
in the imperishable is Brahman! Therefore, the all-pervading originating in the imperishable is Brahman
Brahman is eternally established in devotion.
tasmt (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine/neuter, ablative,
singular) = therefore

sarvagatam (1st class verb root: gam) (sarva + gatam) (past


passive participle, neuter, nominative, singular) = all-pervading

brahma (stem form: brahman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


Brahman

nityam (adverb) (indeclinable) = eternally

yaje (stem form: yaja) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


devotion

pratihitam (1st class verb root: sth) (prati + hitam) (past


passive participle, neuter, nominative, singular) = established
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus
Chapter 3/Verse 16
pravartitam (4th class verb root: vt) (pra + artitam) (past
passive participle, causative, neuter, accusative, singular) = set

in motion

- cakram (stem form: cakra) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


wheel
eva pravartita cakra nnuvartayatha ya
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
aghyurindriyrmo mogha prtha sa jvati 3- 16
anuvartayati (4th class verb root: vt) (anu + vartayati)
(causative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = he causes to
turn
Thus, one who does not cause the wheel, set in motion, to turn
in this world, that malicious and sense-delighted one lives iha (adverb) (indeclinable) = in this world
vainly, O Arjuna.
yas (relative pronoun, masculine, nominative, singular) = one
who

aghyus (stem form: aghyu) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= malicious

indriyrmas (stem form: indriyrma) (indriya + rma)


(masculine, nominative, singular) = sense-delighted

mogham (adverb) (indeclinable) = vainly

prtha (stem form: prtha) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O


Prtha (Son of Prtha) (epithet of Arjuna)
sas (correlative pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative,
singular) = that one Chapter 3/Verse 17
jvati (1st class verb root: jv) (present indicative,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = he lives

yastvtmaratireva sydtmatptaca mnava

tmanyeva ca santuastasya krya na vidyate 3- 17

But who, indeed, delights in the self, should be contented in the


self and indeed, a human content in the self, of one nothing is
found to be done.
yas (relative pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, tasya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = of
singular) = who one

tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but kryam (8th class verb root: k) (gerundive, neuter, nominative,
singular) = to be done
tmaratis (stem form: tmaratis) (tma + ratis) (bahuvrih
compound, feminine, nominative, singular) = delights in the na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
self
vidyate (2nd class verb root: vid) (present indicative, passive,
eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it is found

syt (2nd class verb root: as) (optative, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, singular) = one should be

tmatptas (verb root: tp) (tma + tptas) (bahuvrih


compound, past passive participle, neuter, nominative,
singular) = one contented in the self

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

mnavas (stem form: mnava) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = a human

tmani (stem form: tman) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


the self

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

santuas (stem form: santua) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = content
na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 3/Verse 18 eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

tasya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = of



that one


-
ktena (8th class verb root: k) (past passive participle, neuter,
naiva tasya ktenrtho nkteneha kacana instrumental, singular) = with action

na csya sarvabhteu kacidarthavyapraya 3- 18 arthas (stem form: artha) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
aim

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not


Indeed, of that one there is no aim with action nor with
non-action and here of that one there is no need of support aktena (8th class verb root: k) (a + ktena) (past passive
whatever of anyone in all beings. participle, neuter, instrumental, singular) = with non-action

iha (adverb) (indeclinable) = here

kacana (adverb) (indeclinable) = anyone

na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

asya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = of


that one

sarvabhteu (1st class verb root: bh) (sarvabhteu) (sarva +


bhteu) (past passive participle, masculine, locative, plural) =
in all beings
kacid (adverb) (indeclinable) = whatever Chapter 3/Verse 19
arthavyaprayas (stem form: arthavyapraya) (artha +
vyaprayas) (tatpura compound, masculine, nominative,

singular) = need of support
-

tasmdasakta satata krya karma samcara

asakto hycarankarma parampnoti prua 3- 19

Therefore, perpetually unattached, you must perform action to


be done. Indeed, unattached, performing action a person attains
the highest.
tasmt (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, ablative, singular) = pruas (stem form: prua) (masculine, nominative, singular)
therefore = a person

asaktas (1st class verb root: saj) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, singular) = unattached

satatam (adverb) (indeclinable) = perpetually

kryam (gerundive, neuter, accusative, singular) = to be done

karma (neuter, accusative, singular) = action

samcara (1st class verb root: car) (imperative, parasmaipada,


2nd person, singular) = you must perform!

asaktas (1st class verb root: saj) (a + saktas) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = unattached

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

caran (1st class verb root: car) ( + caran) (present participle,


parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, singular) = performing

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


action

param (stem form: para) (masculine, accusative, singular) = the


highest

pnoti (5th class verb root: p) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one attains
karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, instrumental, singular) =
Chapter 3/Verse 20 by action

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed



hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = verily

-
sasiddhim (stem form: sasiddhi) (feminine, accusative,
karmaaiva hi sasiddhimsthit janakdaya singular) = perfection

lokasagrahamevpi sapayankartumarhasi 3- 20 sthit (1st class verb root: sth) ( + sthit) (past passive
participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = attained

janakdayas (stem form: janakdaya) (janaka + dayas)


Verily indeed by action, Janaka and others attained perfection. (bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
Indeed, observing, you are worthy to do, indeed, even the way Janaka and others
of the world.
lokasagraham (stem form: lokasagraha) (loka +
sagraham) (tatpura compound, masculine, accusative,
singular) = the way of the world

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = also

sapayan (1st class verb root: pa) (present participle,


parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, singular) = observing

kartum (8th class verb root: k) (infinitive) (indeclinable) = to


do
arhasi (1st class verb root: arh) (present tense, parasmaipada,
2nd person, singular) = you are worthy Chapter 3/Verse 21

yadyadcarati rehastattadevetaro jana

sa yatprama kurute lokastadanuvartate 3- 21

Whatever the most excellent one does, indeed, so to for the


other person. That one does which is standard. The world
follows that.
yad yad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, nominative, singular) = lokas (stem form: loka) (masculine, nominative, singular) = the
whatever world

carati (1st class verb root: car) ( + carati) (present tense, tad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = that one does
anuvartate (4th class verb root: vt) (anu + vartate) (present
rehas (superlative, masculine, nominative, singular) = most indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it follows
excellent

tat tad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, nominative, singular) =


this and that

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

itaras (stem form: itara) (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine,


nominative, singular) = other

janas (stem form: jana) (masculine, nominative, singular) = a


person

sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


that one

yad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = which

prama (stem form: prama) (neuter, accusative, singular)


= standard

kurute (present indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) =


does
na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 3/Verse 22
me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = of me

prtha (masculine, vocative, singular) = O Son of Pth (epithet


of Arjuna)
-
sti (2nd class verb root: as) (present tense, parasmaipada, 3rd
na me prthsti kartavya triu lokeu kicana person, singular) = it is

nnavptamavptavya varta eva ca karmai 3- 22 kartavyam (8th class verb root: k) (gerundive, neuter,
nominative, singular) = to be done
O Arjuna, of me nothing whatsoever is to be done in the three
worlds. Nothing not attained is to be attained. Nevertheless, I triu (stem form: tri) (masculine, locative, plural) = in the three
engage in action.
lokeu (stem form: loka) (masculine, locative, plural) = in the
worlds

kicana (indefinite article) = anything whatever

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

anavptam (5th class verb root: p) (an + ava + ptam) (past


passive participle, masculine, accusative, singular) = not
attained

avptavya (5th class verb root: p) (ava + ptavya)


(gerundive, masculine, accusative, singular) = to be attained

varte (4th class verb root: vt) (present indicative, tmanepada,


1st person, singular) = I engage
eva ca (adverb) (indeclinable) = nevertheless
Chapter 3/Verse 23
karmai (stem form: karman) (neuter, locative, singular) = in
action

yadi hyaha na varteya jtu karmayatandrita

mama vartmnuvartante manuy prtha sarvaa 3- 23

Indeed, if I, unwearied, should not engage in action at all,


humankind would follow my path everywhere, O Arjuna.
yadi (conjunction) (indeclinable) = if sarvaas (adverb) (indeclinable) = everywhere

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

aha (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not

varteyam (4th class verb root: vt) (optative, parasmaipada, 1st


person, singular) = I should engage

jtu (adverb) (indeclinable) = at all

karmai (stem form: karman) (neuter, locative, singular) = in


action

atandrita (stem form: atandrita) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = unwearied

mama (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

vartma (stem form: vartman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


path

anuvartante (4th class verb root: vt) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they follow

manuys (stem form: manuya) (masculine, nominative,


plural) = humankind

prtha (stem form: prtha) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O


Son of Pth (epithet of Arjuna)
utsdeyus (1st class verb root: sad) (ud + sdeyus) (optative, 3rd
Chapter 3/Verse 24 person, plural) = they would perish

ime (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


these


- loks (stem form: loka) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
worlds
utsdeyurime lok na kury karma cedaham
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
sakarasya ca kart symupahanymim praj 3- 24
kurym (8th class verb root: k) (optative, parasmaipada, 1st
person, singular) = I would perform
These worlds would perish if I would not perform action. I
would be a maker of confusion and would destroy these karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
creatures. action

ced (conjunction) (indeclinable) = if

aham (pronoun,1st person, nominative, singular) = I

sakarasya (stem form: sakara) (masculine, genitive,


singular) = of confusion

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

kart (stem form: kart) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


maker

sym (2nd class verb root: as) (optative, parasmaipada, 1st


person, singular) = I would be
upahanym (2nd class verb root: han) (upa + hanym)
(optative, 1st person, singular) = I would destroy Chapter 3/Verse 25
ims (pronoun, 3rd person, feminine, accusative, plural) =
these

prajs (stem form: praj) (feminine, accusative, plural) =


-
creatures
sakt karmayavidvso yath kurvanti bhrata

kurydvidvstathsaktacikrurlokasagraham 3- 25

As the unwise are attached performing in action, O Arjuna, so


the wise, unattached, should perform desirous to do the way of
the world.
sakts (1st class verb root: saj) (past passive participle, lokasagraham (stem form: lokasagraha) (loka +
masculine, nominative, plural) = attached sagraham) (tatpura compound, masculine, accusative,
singular) = the way of the world
karmai (stem form: karman) (neuter, locative, plural) = in
action

avidvsas (2nd class verb root: vid) (a + vidvsas) (perfect


participle, parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, plural) = the
unwise

yath (adverb) (indeclinable) = as

kurvanti (8th class verb root: k) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they perform

bhrata (stem form: bhrata) (masculine, vocative, singular) =


O Descendant of Bharata (epithet of Arjuna)

kuryt (8th class verb root: k) (optative, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, singular) = one should perform

vidvn (2nd class verb root: vid) (present participle, masculine,


accusative, singular) = the wise

tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = so

asaktas (1st class verb root: saj) (a + saktas) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = unattached

cikrus (8th class verb root: k) (desiderative, 3rd person,


singular) = desirous to do
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 3/Verse 26
buddhibhedam (stem form: buddhibheda) (buddhi + bheda)
(compound, masculine, accusative, singular) = the
fragmentation of wisdom

- janayet (4th class verb root: jan) (optative, causative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one should cause to
na buddhibheda janayedajn karmasaginm create
joayetsarvakarmi vidvnyukta samcaran 3- 26
ajnm (stem form: aja) (a + jnm) (masculine, genitive,
plural) = of the ignorant

One should not cause the creation of the fragmentation of karmasaginm (stem form: karmasagin) (karma + saginm)
wisdom of the ignorant, attached to action. The wise one (tatpura compound, masculine, genitive, plural) = of those
practicing union should cause [them] to enjoy all actions. attached to action

joayet (6th class verb root: ju) (optative, causative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one should cause to
enjoy

sarvakarmi (stem form: sarvakarman) (sarva + karmi)


(compound) (neuter, accusative, plural) = all actions

vidvn (2nd class verb root: vid) (present participle, masculine,


nominative, singular) = the wise one

yuktas (7th class verb root: yuj) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, singular) = union

samcaran (1st class verb root: car) (sam + + caran) (present


participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = practicing
praktes (stem form: prakti) (feminine, genitive, singular) = of
nature

kriyamni (8th class verb root: k) (present participle,


Chapter 3/Verse 27 tmanepada, neuter, nominative, plural) = being performed

guais (stem form: gua) (masculine, instrumental, plural) = by


the guas

- karmi (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, plural) =
actions
prakte kriyamni guai karmi sarvaa

ahakravimhtm karthamiti manyate 3- 27 sarvaas (adverb) (indeclinable) = everywhere

ahakravimhtm (stem form: ahakravimhtman)


(ahakra + vimha + tm) (bahuvrih compound,
Everywhere actions are being performed by the g uas of masculine, nominative, singular) = the self confused by the ego
nature. The self confused by the ego thinks, "I am the doer."
kart (stem form: kart) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
doer

aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = (quotation marks)

manyate (1st class verb root: man) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one thinks
tattvavid (masculine, nominative, singular) = knowing the truth
Chapter 3/Verse 28
tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but

mahbho (stem form: mahbhu) (mah + bho) (masculine,


vocative, singular) = O Mighty Armed One (epithet of Arjuna)
-
guakarmavibhgayos (stem form: guakarmavibhga) (gua +
tattvavittu mahbho guakarmavibhgayo karma + vibhgayos) (tatpura compound, masculine,
genitive, dual) = of the two roles of gua and action
gu gueu vartanta iti matv na sajjate 3- 28
gus (stem form: gua) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
But knowing the truth of the two roles of gua and action, O guas
Arjuna, having thought, "the g uas work in the g uas." One is
not attached. gueu (stem form: gua) (masculine, locative, plural) = in the
guas

vartante (4th class verb root: vt) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they work

iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = (quotation marks)

matv (1st class verb root: man) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having thought

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

sajjate (1st class verb root: saj) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one is attached
praktes (stem form: prakti) (feminine, genitive, singular) = of
Chapter 3/Verse 29 nature

guasamhs (4th class verb root: muh) (gua +


samhs) (tatpura compound, past passive participle,

masculine, nominative, plural) = those who are bewildered by
- the g uas

prakterguasamh sajjante guakarmasu sajjante (1st class verb root: saj) (present indicative, 3rd
person, plural)= they are attached
tnaktsnavido mandnktsnavinna viclayet 3- 29
guakarmasu (stem form: guakarman) (gua + karmasu)
(tatpura compound, neuter, locative, plural) = in actions by
the g uas
Those who are bewildered by the guas of nature are attached
in actions by the guas. The knower of the whole should not tn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) = them
cause disturbance in them, the fools, not knowing the whole.
aktsnavidas (stem form: aktsnavid) (masculine, accusative,
plural) = not knowing the whole

mandn (stem form: manda) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


fools

ktsnavid (stem form: ktsnavid) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = the knower of the whole

na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not

viclayet (1st class verb root: cal) (vi + clayet) (causative,


optative, parasmaipada, 3rd singular) = one should cause
disturbance
mayi (pronoun, 1st person, locative, singular) = in me
Chapter 3/Verse 30
sarvi (stem form: sarva) (neuter, accusative, plural) = all

karmi (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, plural) =


actions
-
sanyasya (2nd class verb root: as) (sam + ni + asya) (gerund)
mayi sarvi karmi sanyasydhytmacetas (indeclinable) = having renounced
nirrnirmamo bhtv yudhyasva vigatajvara 3- 30
adhytmacetas (stem form: adhytmacetas) (adhytma +
cetas) (neuter, instrumental, singular) = with the mind on the
supreme spirit
Having renounced all actions in me with the mind on the
supreme spirit, having become free from desire, one without nirs (stem form: nirs) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
the "mine." Freed from distress of the mind, you must fight! free from desire

nirmamas (stem form: nirmamas) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = one without the "mine"

bhtv (1st class verb root: bh) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having become

yudhyasva (4th class verb root: yudh) (imperative,


tmanepada, 2nd person, singular) = you must fight!

vigatajvaras (stem form: vigatajvara) (vigata + jvaras)


(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = freed
from distress of the mind
ye (relative pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative,
Chapter 3/Verse 31 plural) = they who

me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = of mine


- matam (stem form: mata) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
doctrine
ye me matamida nityamanutihanti mnav
idam (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = this
raddhvanto'nasyanto mucyante te'pi karmabhi 3- 31
nityam (adverb) (indeclinable) = constantly
Faithful, non-spiteful humans who constantly practice this
doctrine of mine, they are liberated, even by actions. anutihanti (1st class verb root: sth) (anu + tihanti) (present
indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they practice

mnavs (stem form: mnava) (masculine, nominative, plural)


= humans

raddhvantas (stem form: raddhvant) (masculine,


nominative, plural) = faithful

anasyantas (stem form: anasyant) (masculine, nominative,


plural) = not spiteful

mucyante (6th class verb root: muc) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they are liberated

te (correlative pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative,


plural) = they

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even


karmabhis (stem form: karman) (neuter, instrumental, plural) =
by actions Chapter 3/Verse 32

ye tvetadabhyasyanto nnutihanti me matam

sarvajnavimhstnviddhi nanacetasa 3- 32

But the indignant ones who do not practice this doctrine of


mine, you must know them, lost, senseless, and confusing all
knowledge.
ye (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) = ones acetasas (stem form: acetas) (a + cetasas) (masculine,
who accusative, plural) = senseless

tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but

etad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = this

abhyasyantas (1st class verb root: asya) (abhi + asyantas)


(present participle, parasmaipada, masculine, nominative,
plural) = indignant

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

anutihanti (1st class verb root: sth) (anu + tihanti) (present


indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they practice

me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = of mine

matam (stem form: mata) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


doctrine

sarvajnavimhn (4th class verb root: muh) (sarva + jna


+ vi + mhn) (tatpura compound, past passive participle,
masculine, accusative, plural) = confusing all knowledge

tn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) = them

viddhi (2nd class verb root: vid) (imperative, parasmaipada,


2nd person, singular) = you must know

nan (4th class verb root: na) (past passive participle,


masculine, accusative, plural) = lost
sadam (preposition) (indeclinable) = accordingly

ceate (1st class verb root: ce) (present indicative,


Chapter 3/Verse 33 tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one acts

svasys (stem form: svasis) (feminine, ablative, singular) =


from one's own
-
praktes (stem form: prakti) (feminine, ablative, singular) =
from nature
sada ceate svasy prakterjnavnapi

prakti ynti bhtni nigraha ki kariyati 3- 33 jnavn (stem form: jnavant) (masculine, nominative,
singular) = one endowed with knowledge

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even


One acts accordingly from one's own nature, even one
endowed with knowledge. Beings follow nature. What will praktim (stem form: prakti) (feminine, accusative, singular) =
restraint accomplish? nature

ynti (2nd class verb root: y) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they follow

bhtni (1st class verb root: bh) (past passive participle,


neuter, nominative, plural) = beings

nigrahas (stem form: nigraha) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = restraint

kim (interrogative) (indeclinable) = what?

kariyati (8th class verb root: k) (future tense, parasmaipada,


3rd person, singular) =it will accomplish
indriyasya (stem form: indriya) (neuter, genitive, singular) = of
Chapter 3/Verse 34 the sense

indriyasya (stem form: indriya) (neuter, genitive, singular) = of


the sense

- arthe (stem form: artha) (masculine, locative, singular) = in the


aim
indriyasyendriyasyrthe rgadveau vyavasthitau
rgadveau (stem form: rgadvea) (rga + dveau) (dvandva
tayorna vaamgacchettau hyasya paripanthinau 3- 34
compound, masculine, nominative, dual) = passion and hatred

vyavasthitau (1st class verb root: sth) (vi + ava + sthitau) (past
Of the sense and in the aim of the sense, passion and hatred passive participle, masculine, nominative, dual) = abide
abide. Of those two, one should not come to be subdued.
Indeed, those two are dualities of the one. tayos (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, dual) = of
those two

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

vaam (stem form: vaa) (masculine, accusative, singular) = to


be subdued

gacchet (1st class verb root: gam) ( + gacchet) (optative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one should come

tau (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, dual) = those


two

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed


asya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = of Most translations agree on the first part of the verse:
the one "Of the sense and in the aim of the sense, of those two, passion
and hatred abide." Although, the literal grammar of translation
paripanthinau (stem form: paripanthina) (masculine, is not always very transparent in the verse from previous
nominative, dual) = two dualities translations.

The second part of the verse has some weird previous


translations and it seems the translators are confused about who
the subjects are. Basically, I see the second part of the verse as
saying, "of those two" meaning "passion and hatred," one
should not become subdued. This means that neither "passion
or hatred" should not be subdued to each other. Then, the last
part of the verse is saying "passion and hatred are two dualities
of the one." Other translations make the subject some
anonymous 3rd person versus the stated subjects of "passion
and hatred" within the context of the verse.
reyn (comparative, masculine, nominative, singular) = better
Chapter 3/Verse 35
svadharmas (masculine, nominative, singular) = one's dharma

viguas (stem form: vigua) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= wicked
-
paradharmt (masculine, ablative, singular) = from the dharma
reynsvadharmo vigua paradharmtsvanuhitt of another

svadharme nidhana reya paradharmo bhayvaha 3- 35 svanuhitt (1st class verb root: sth) (su + anu + hitt)
(compound) (past passive participle, ablative of comparison,
Better one's wicked dharma than the good performed from the singular) = than the good performed
dharma of another. Residence in one's dharma is better than
the overwhelming dharma of another. svadharme (stem form: svadharma) (masculine, locative,
singular) = in one's dharma

nidhanam (nidhana) (neuter, nominative, singular) = residence

reyas (comparative, neuter, nominative, singular) = better

paradharmas (stem form: paradharma) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = dharma of another

bhayvahas (stem form: bhayvaha) (bhaya + vahas)


(tatpura compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
overwhelming
This is one of my favorite verses since I first read the
Bhagavad Gita, so it delights me to see the grammatical Chapter 3/Verse 36
makeup of this verse.

It seems I am running into a patch of verses where the past



translations seem to be weirdly interpreted when a more
sensible translation is possible. In this verse, it is mainly the
clunky word choices from past translations that bewilder me.
-
"Viguas" can mean "destitute of merits," "worthless," "bad,"
and the like. Most past translations soften the harshness of this arjuna uvca
word by using a gentler word.
atha kena prayukto'ya ppa carati prua
I feel "nidhanam" is the most horribly translated word from the
anicchannapi vreya baldiva niyojita 3- 36
past interpretations. So much so, that it alters the core meaning
of the translation. Most past translations interpret it along the
lines of "Better is the death in one's own duty." That
interpretation is just too clunky. "Nidhanam" can mean "death" Arjuna said, Then this is impelled by what? Even a person not
and "destitute," but it also can mean an "abode" or "residence". wishing commits evil. O Krishna, like instigated from a force.
It has a spirit of settling down into something.

"Bhayvahas" can mean "bringing fear or danger,"


"formidable," "fearful." Getting at the root of the these
meanings it means something that is "overwhelming" or
"prohibitive."
arjunas (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, nominative, singular) = balt (stem form: bala) (neuter, ablative, singular) = from a
Arjuna force

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd iva (preposition) (indeclinable) = like
person, singular) = one said
niyojitas (7th class verb root: yuj) (ni + yojitas) (past passive
atha (adverb) (indeclinable) = then participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = instigated

kena (interrogative, instrumental, singular) = by what?

prayuktas (7th class verb root: yuj) (pra + yukta) (past passive
participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = impelled

ayam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


this

ppam (stem form: ppa) (neuter, accusative, singular) = evil

carati (1st class verb root: car) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = commits

pruas (stem form: prua) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= a person

anicchan(6th class verb root: i) (an + icchan) (present


participle, parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, singular) =
not wishing

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

vreya (stem form: vreya) (masculine, vocative, singular)


= Vreya (epithet of Krishna)
rbhagavn (stem form: rbhagavant) (masculine, nominative,
Chapter 3/Verse 37 singular) = the Blessed Lord (epithet of Krishna)

uvca (verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd person,


singular) = one said


kmas (stem form: kma) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
desire
-
eas (masculine, nominative, singular) = this
rbhagavnuvca
krodhas (stem form: krodha) (masculine, nominative, singular)
kma ea krodha ea rajoguasamudbhava = anger
mahano mahppm viddhyenamiha vairiam 3- 37
eas (masculine, nominative, singular) = this
The Blessed One said, This desire and this anger are rajas.
rajas (stem form: rajas) (neuter, nominative, singular) = rajas
Based in the gua [rajas] is great consumption and great sin.
Here you must know this enemy, [rajas].
guasamudbhavas (stem form: guasamudbhava) (gua +
samudbhavas) (tatpura compound, masculine, nominative,
singular) = based in the gua

mahanas (stem form: mahana) (mah + aanas)


(compound) (masculine, nominative, singular) = great
consumption

mahppm (stem form: mahppman) (mah + ppms)


(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = great
sin

viddhi (2nd class verb root: vid) (imperative, parasmaipada,


2nd person, singular) = you must know
From reviewing the past translations of this verse, it seems
enam (masculine, accusative, singular) = this there is a lack of understanding in the copula clauses and the
Sanskrit grammatical rules with applying adjectives to nouns.
iha = here
"This desire and this anger are rajas." is the first copula clause
vairiam (stem form: vairia) (masculine, accusative, singular) of the verse. One past translation believes that the second "this"
= enemy in this verse is connected to "from a force" in the last verse,
which is in the neuter gender, ablative case, and singular
number. This violates the Sanskrit grammar rules when
applying adjectives to nouns. "This" in this verse is an
adjective, and thus must take on the gender, case, and number
of the noun it modifies. In this case, it is modifying "krodhas",
which has a masculine gender, nominative case, and singular
number.

The second error from previous translations is having "rajas",


which is in the neuter gender, adjectivally modifying the
compound "based in the gua", which is in the masculine
gender. Following the same grammatical rule stated above, this
is grammatically incorrect. "Rajas" is the latter part of the
copula clause "Kma ea krodha ea rajo..." in this verse. From
this copula clause, it is then understood that rajas is the guna
being alluded to in the first part of the second copula in this
verse, "guasamudbhava mahano mahppm".

Lastly, previous translations consider the enemy alluded to in


this verse is great consumption and great sin verses the rajas.
Once again, there is confusion about numbering in this part.
"Enemy" is in the singular number and can only allude to a
singular number word. "Enemy" cannot allude to both "great
consumption and great sin". It would have to be in the dual
number.
dhmena (stem form: dhma) (masculine, instrumental,
Chapter 3/Verse 38 singular) = with smoke

vriyate (verb root: v) ( + vriyate) (present indicative,

passive, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one is enveloped



- vahnis (stem form: vahni) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
a person conveying an oblation
dhmenvriyate vahniryathdaro malena ca
yath (adverb) (indeclinable) = just as
yatholbenvto garbhastath tenedamvtam 3- 38
daras (stem form: dara) (masculine, nominative, singular)
Just as a person conveying an oblation is enveloped with = mirror
smoke, a mirror by dust, and just as an embryo is enveloped
with a fetal membrane. Just so, by that [rajas] is that malena (stem form: mala) (neuter, instrumental, singular) = by
[knowledge] covered. dust

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

yath (adverb) (indeclinable) = just as

ulbena (stem form: ulba) (neuter, instrumental, singular) = by a


fetal membrane

vtas (verb root: v) ( + vtas) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, singular) = enveloped

garbhas (stem form: garbha) (masculine, nominative, singular)


= embryo

tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = just so


tena (pronoun, 3rd person, instrumental, singular) = by that

idam (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, nominative, singular) = that


Chapter 3/Verse 39

vtam (verb root: v) ( + vtam) (past passive participle,





neuter, nominative, singular) = [knowledge] covered (The
adding of "knowledge" here will be understood in the next -
verse.)
vta jnametena jnino nityavairi

kmarpea kaunteya duprenalena ca 3- 39

O Son of Kunti, with that knowledge covered, the wise ones


with the imperishable enemy in the form of desire and with
matters belonging to Agni that are difficult to satiate.
vtam (verb root: v) ( + vtam) (past passive participle, This verse reveals why the word for "knowledge" is referred to
neuter, nominative, singular) = covered in the previous verse by several translations, which did not
make any sense at the time given the word for "knowledge" is
jnam (stem form: jna) (neuter, nominative, singular) = not mentioned in the last verse nor in any recent, previous
knowledge verse to the last verse.

etena (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, instrumental, singular) =


with that

jninas (stem form: jnin) (neuter, nominative, plural) = the


wise ones

nityavairi (stem form: nityavairin) (nitya + vairi)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, instrumental, singular)
= with the imperishable enemy

kmarpea (stem form: kmarpa) (kma + rpea)


(tatpura compound, masculine, instrumental, singular) =
with the form of desire

kaunteya (stem form: kaunteya) (masculine, vocative, singular)


= O Son of Kunti (epithet of Arjuna)

duprea (stem form: dupra) (masculine, instrumental,


singular) = with difficulty satiating

analena (stem form: anala) (masculine, instrumental, singular)


= with fire

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and


indriyi (stem form: indriya) (neuter, nominative, plural) =
Chapter 3/Verse 40 the senses

manas (stem form: manas) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


mind

- buddhis (stem form: buddhi) (feminine, nominative, singular) =


understanding
indriyi mano buddhirasydhihnamucyate
asya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = of it
etairvimohayatyea jnamvtya dehinam 3- 40
adhihnam (stem form: adhihna) (neuter, nominative,
It is said, the senses, mind, and understanding are the abode of singular) = abode
it [rajas, the imperishable enemy]. By these [the senses, mind,
and understanding], it causes confusion in the embodied one, ucyate (2nd class verb root: vac) (present indicative, passive,
having covered knowledge. tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it is said

etais (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, instrumental, plural) =


by these

vimohayati (4th class verb root: muh) (vi + mohayati) (present


indicative, causative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = it
causes confusion

eas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


it

jnam (stem form: jna) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


knowledge

vtya (verb root: v) ( + vtya) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having covered
dehinam (stem form: dehin) (masculine, accusative, singular) = Chapter 3/Verse 41
the embodied one

tasmttvamindriyydau niyamya bharatarabha

ppmna prajahi hyena jnavijnananam 3- 41

Therefore, you having restrained the senses at first, O Arjuna,


indeed, you must kill this devil, destroyer of knowledge and
discrimination.
tasmt (masculine, ablative, singular) = therefore
Chapter 3/Verse 42
tvam (pronoun, 2nd person, nominative, singular) = you

indriyi (stem form: indriya) (neuter, accusative, plural) =


senses
-
dau (stem form: di) (masculine, locative, singular) = at first
indriyi paryhurindriyebhya para mana
niyamya (1st class verb root: yam) (ni + yamya) (gerund)
manasastu par buddhiryo buddhe paratastu sa 3- 42
(indeclinable) = having restrained

bharatarabha (stem form: bharatarabha) (masculine, vocative,


singular) = O Bull of the Bharatas (epithet of Arjuna) They said, the senses are superior, the mind is superior to the
senses, but understanding is superior to the mind. But who is
ppmnam (stem form: ppman) (masculine, accusative, superior to understanding is that one.
singular) = devil

prajahi (2nd class verb root: han) (pra + jahi) (imperative,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = you must kill

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

enam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, singular) =


this

jnavijnananam (stem form: jnavijnanana) (jna


+ vijna + nanam) (tatpura compound, masculine,
accusative, singular) = destroyer of knowledge and
discrimination
indriyi (stem form: indriya) (neuter, nominative, plural) = buddhes (stem form: buddhi) (feminine, ablative of
senses comparison, singular) = than the understanding

pari (stem form: para) (neuter, nominative, plural) = superior paratas (adverb) (indeclinable) = superior

hus (1st class verb root: ah) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but
person, plural) = they said
sas (pronoun, 3rd person, nominative, singular) = that one
indriyebhyas (stem form: indriya) (neuter, ablative of
comparison, plural) = than the senses

param (stem form: para) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


superior

manas (stem form: manas) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


mind

manasas (stem form: manas) (neuter, ablative of comparison,


singular) = than the mind

tu (conjunction) (indeclinable) = but

par (stem form: par) (feminine, nominative, singular) =


superior

buddhis (stem form: buddhi) (feminine, nominative, singular) =


understanding

yas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


what
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus
Chapter 3/Verse 43 buddhes (stem form: buddhi) (feminine, ablative of
comparison, singular) = than the intelligence

param (stem form: para) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
- superior

eva buddhe para buddhv sastabhytmnamtman buddhv (1st class verb root: budh) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
having learned
jahi atru mahbho kmarpa dursadam 3- 43
sastabhya (verb root: stabh) (sam + stabhya) (gerund)
(indeclinable) = having composed oneself

Thus, having learned the self is superior to intelligence, having tmnam (stem form: tman) (masculine, accusative, singular)
composed oneself by the self, you must destroy the enemy that = self
is difficult to confront in the form of desire, O Arjuna.
tman (stem form: tman) (masculine, instrumental, singular)
= by the self

jahi (2nd class verb root: han) (imperative, parasmaipada, 2nd


person, singular) = you must destroy

atrum (stem form: atru) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


enemy

mahbho (stem form: mahbhu) (masculine, vocative,


singular) = O Mighty Armed One (epithet for Arjuna)

kmarpam (stem form: kmarpa) (kma + rpam) (tatpura


compound, neuter, accusative, singular) = the form of desire
dursadam (stem form: dursada) (neuter, accusative, singular)
= difficult to confront