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Geographic Information System (GIS) is a special type of information system that

is used to input, store, retrieve, process, analyze and visualize geospatial data
and information in order to support decision making. It is essentially a spatial
decision support tool. GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and
database technology. The ability to separate information in layers, and then
combine it with other layers of information distinguishes GIS from other
information systems and is the reason why GIS hold such great potential as
research and decision-making tools. GIS are now used extensively in
government, business, and research for a wide range of applications including
environmental resource analysis, land use planning, location analysis, tax
appraisal, utility and infrastructure planning, real estate analysis, marketing and
demographic analysis, habitat studies, and archaeological analysis. It has been
extensively used in natural resources management, facilities management, land
management and in the management of street networks like address matching,
locational analysis or site selection, development of evacuation plans.

The role of Geospatial Technology (GIS) in the Kenya Vision 2030 will be
discussed basing on the three key pillars of the vision: Economic; Social; and
Political Governance.

Economic pillar: Moving the Economy up the Value Chain.

The economic pillar aims to achieve an economic growth rate of 10 per cent per
annum and sustaining the same till 2030 in order to generate more resources to
address the millennium development goals. This ambitious goal is to be attained
by having a dedicated campaign to alleviate existing constrains to the future
growth, efficient use of our resources, formalization productivity and distribution
will increase jobs, incomes and public revenues). GIS will play a big role in
economic growth business growth is location based and GIS has proven to be
very useful in asset management, suitability analysis, policy making and impact
analysis, site selection and marketing. This is done by having GIS help select the
best areas for business location, best economic development activity thats most
suitable for what regions and it also assists to determine the growth if any in
business and the impact of this to the economy. A GIS is a tool for managing
business information of any kind according to where its located. You can keep
track of where customers are, site businesses, target marketing campaigns,
optimize sales territories, and model retail spending patterns.

Six key sectors have been identified to deliver the 10 per cent economic growth
rate per annum envisaged under the economic pillar: tourism; agriculture;
manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; business process outsourcing; and
financial services.

1. Tourism
Kenya aims to be one of the top ten long-haul tourist destinations in the world,
offering a high-end, diverse, and distinctive visitor experience. This is to be done
through; aggressively developing Kenyas coast by establishing resort cities in
two key locations; achieving higher tourist revenue yield by increasing the
quality of service and charges in countrys premium safari parks, and by
improving facilities in all under-utilised parks; creating new high value niche
products (e.g. cultural, eco-sports and water-based tourism); attracting high-end
international hotel chains; and investing in new conference facilities to boost
business tourism.

Tourism is an activity highly dependent on environmental resources. It is also a

phenomenon, which in the event of a lack of planning and management is likely
to erode its environmental base. Hence, the strength of tourism planning can be
enhanced by GIS applications. Geographical Information Systems can be
regarded as providing a toolbox of techniques and technologies of wide
applicability to the achievement of sustainable tourism development. Web based
Geographic information systems provide ideal platforms for the convergence of
tourist information and their analysis in relation to population settlements,
surrounding social conditions, spatial characteristics, location and the natural
environment. They are highly suitable for analyzing spatial data, revealing trends
and interrelationships that would be more difficult to discover in tabular format.
Moreover, GIS allows policy makers to easily visualize the problems, in relation to
existing trends and the natural environment and so more effectively target
resources. This application of GIS in tourism can have advantages both for
tourists and for the tourism development authorities. The tourists will find,
visualization of tourist sites through digital images or videos; valuable
information on tourist locations; selective information like route planning,
accommodation, cultural events and special attractions; easily accessible
information over the internet; and interactive maps that respond to user
queries. The planning authorities will have great advantages in planning;
database management; data updating; and planning for new site selections.

2. Agriculture.

Kenya aims to promote an innovative, commercially-oriented, and modern

agricultural sector, through, transforming key institutions in agriculture and
livestock to promote agricultural growth; increasing productivity of crops and
livestock; introducing land use polices for better utilisation of high and medium
potential lands; developing more irrigable areas in arid and semi-arid lands for
both crops and livestock; and improving market access for our smallholders
through better supply chain management. Vision 2030 aims at adding value to
our farm and livestock products before they reach local and international
GIS is used in a variety of agricultural applications such as managing crop yields,
monitoring crop rotation techniques, and projecting soil loss for individual farms
or entire agricultural regions. Balancing the inputs and outputs on a farm is
fundamental to its success and profitability. The ability of GIS to analyze and
visualize agricultural environments and workflows has proven to be very
beneficial to those involved in the farming industry. From mobile GIS in the field
to the scientific analysis of production data at the farm managers office, GIS is
playing an increasing role in agriculture production throughout the world by
helping farmers increase production, reduce costs, and manage their land more
efficiently. The use of GIS software will help forecast elements that may affect
agricultural productivity. Identifying and understanding the changeable elements
in land empowers one to create accurate forecasts, and plan for maximum
productivity. It will also provide a clear map of all geographical data, thus the
ability to discover efficiencies for effective land management.

3. Manufacturing.

Kenya aims to have a robust, diversified, and competitive manufacturing sector,

through restructuring key local industries that use local raw materials but are
currently uncompetitive, exploiting opportunities in value addition to local
agricultural produce, and adding value to intermediate imports and capturing the
last step of value addition. In addition to fabrication, assembly, and material
control, manufacturing operations involve activities similar to transportation,
pipeline/utility, and municipal organizations; thus manufacturing could benefit
from the application of GIS to a large class of logistics and operations
management functions. GIS is used in site selection, material control, scheduling,
and store planning and operations. GIS is thus becoming an integral part of the
decision making process for the manufacturers.

4. Wholesale and Retail Trade.

The vision is to raise earnings by giving the large informal sector opportunities to
transform itself into part of the formal sector that is efficient, multi-tiered,
diversified in product range and innovative. GIS is used to do inventory, organize,
analyze and present economic development data to retain or attract companies
into an area. It offers the benefits of traditional database and multimedia
systems while adding powerful spatial, analytical, map publishing and data
integration capabilities that releases Internet map servers that are used to
strengthen this lead and thus offering information to people who have an interest
in an area and this attracts companies into the area. Organizations can go
beyond standard data analysis by using GIS tools to integrate, view, and analyze
data using geography. GIS accelerates retail location/site selection by identifying
a site of high demand potential. GIS has solutions designed to help companies
identify, analyze, and prioritize the fresh and upcoming business prospects and
optimize existing sales and marketing programs to enhance their profit
5. Business process outsourcing (BPO).

This is the provision of business services via internet to companies and

organizations in developed world over the internet. We envision is to become the
top off-shoring destination in Africa through attracting at least five major leading
information technology (IT) suppliers, and at least ten large multinational
companies and global BPO players to the country, and strengthening at least five
local players to become local champions through stand-alone operations or joint
ventures. GIS would provide tools for managing business information of any kind
according to where its located; will keep track of where customers are, site
businesses, target marketing campaigns, optimize sales territories, and model
retail spending patterns.

6. Financial Services.

He vision is to is to create a vibrant and globally competitive financial sector

promoting high-levels of savings and financing for Kenyas investment needs;
and for Kenya to become a regional financial services centre. Financial
services/banking is a competitive business; market share and brand recognition
alone are not enough to attract and retain customers. To be more effective, many
banks, credit card companies, credit unions, and other financial services
organizations are turning to GIS to help them understand their data better than
ever. GIS allows organizations to: enhance understanding of risk, customer
interaction, and economic conditions using spatial models based on geography
and geodemographics; improve profitability and operational performance by
sharing knowledge-based decision making across departments; grow line-of-
business collaboration across departments with economic forecasts,
neighbourhood studies, and territory analysis; reduce business complexity
through a more accurate analysis of real-world market conditions; and increase
market understanding based on a single, common view of business performance
using geoextended workflow and business processes.

Social Pillar: Investing in the People of Kenya.

In building a just and cohesive society, that enjoys equitable social development
in a clean and secure environment, the quest will be on the basis of
transformation in eight key social sectors, namely: Education and Training;
Health; Water and Sanitation; the Environment; Housing and Urbanisation;
Gender, Youth, Sports and Culture, and special provisions for Kenyans with
various disabilities and previously marginalised communities; equity and poverty
elimination; and Science, technology and innovations. GIS is becoming a routine
analysis and display tool for spatial data that is used extensively in applications
such as land-use mapping for urban planning purposes, demographic mapping
that is used for facilities location, utilities infrastructure mapping thats used for
precise gas, water, and electric line mapping, and multiple applications in natural
resource assessment among others and like all technologies, GIS co-evolves with
the societies of which it is a part.

1. Education and training.

Kenya will provide a globally competitive and quality education, training and
research; and aims to be a regional centre of research and development in new
technologies. This is to be achieved by integrating early childhood into primary
education, reforming the secondary curricula and strengthening partnerships
with the private sector as well as rejuvenate the special needs education
facilities and incorporate adult raining. This entails the creation of new school,
recruitment of new teachers, and creation of a supply chain of computers to
schools as well as assistance being offered to the schools in poor areas.

GIS is a multidisciplinary field that encompasses almost each and every aspect of
life and thus should be introduced in the Kenyan education curriculum. This will
aid in demystifying science and technology and creation of employment. Building
of new schools entails planning and mapping of old schools to make sure that
some areas dont have more schools than they need at the expense of others
and GIS can offer the best maps for both the existing and the expected school
locations. GIS population versus schools or versus literacy level mapping of the
Kenyan society would assist the government come up with the best locations of
these new schools, the number of teachers required in each of the schools, as
well as the best areas to introduce the adult learning centres.

2. Health.

The country aims to provide an efficient integrated and high quality affordable
health care system. Kenya also intends to become the regional provider of choice
for highly-specialised health care, thus opening Kenya to health tourism. This
will be achieved through, provision of a robust health infrastructure network
countrywide; improving the quality of health service delivery to the highest
standards; promotion of partnerships with the private sector; and providing
access to those excluded from health care for financial or other reasons.

GIS plays a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving
the quality of care, increasing accessibility of service, finding more cost-effective
delivery modes, and preserving patient confidentiality while satisfying the needs
of the research community for data accessibility. GIS has continued to be used in
public health for epidemiological studies. By tracking the sources of diseases and
the movements of contagions, agencies can respond more effectively to
outbreaks of disease by identifying at-risk populations and targeting intervention.
Public health uses of GIS include tracking child immunizations, conducting health
policy research, and establishing service areas and districts. GIS provides a way
to move data from the project level so that it can be used by the entire
organization. Using GIS for demographic analysis to estimate the demand for
various types of services can benefit individual physicians. GIS can enhance
customer service for a health care provider, using, dynamic maps that show the
location of services and making them readily available over the Web.

3. Water and Sanitation.

Kenya is a water-scarce country. The country aims to conserve water sources and
enhance ways of harvesting and using rain and underground water. The 2030
vision for Water and Sanitation is to ensure that improved water and sanitation
are available and accessible to all. This will be realised through specific
strategies, such as raising the standards of the countrys overall water, resource
management, storage and harvesting capability, rehabilitating the hydro-
meteorological data gathering network, constructing multipurpose dams, and
constructing water and sanitation facilities to support a growing urban and
industrial population.

GIS is used to study drainage systems, assess groundwater, and visualize

watersheds, and in many other hydrologic applications; this would greatly help
determine the best areas to sink wells and the wells distribution in relation to the
population in those areas; it will also help determine the best areas to irrigate
and thus boost the agricultural production, access to water and sanitation.

GIS is also used in the planning, engineering, operations, maintenance, finance,

and administration functions of their water/wastewater networks. Thusplans like
water supply networks, and the underground canal from Tana River to Garissa
would be best planned, executed and managed using GIS which would help
determine the best locations of these networks. Creation of dams is a task that
requires determinations of dam locations and the lake size created by the dam;
the best locations of these dams can be determined by GIS through mapping of
soil structures.

4. The Environment.

Kenya aims to be a nation that has a clean, secure and sustainable environment
by 2030. This will be achieved through: promoting environmental conservation to
better support the economic pillars aspirations, improving pollution and waste
management through the application of the right economic incentives,
commissioning of public-private partnerships for improved efficiency in water
and sanitation delivery, enhancing disaster preparedness in all disaster-prone
areas and improving the capacity for adaptation to global climatic change.
GIS is used every day to help protect the environment; it is used to produce
maps, inventory species, measure environmental impact, or trace pollutants. In
the conservation and rehabilitation of our forest cover, GIS is essential as it will
help it determining of the extent of destruction of the forests and thus come up
with a proper plan on the conservation measures and mechanisms. Comparison
of surfaces modelled by use of GIS at different times (years) would help curb
further destructions and map out areas to be reclaimed back. Solid waste
management can best be accomplished through the use of GIS; an example is
the relocation of the Dandora dump site; an evaluation of the new dumping site
in terms of environmental impact on the population is best done through GIS.
Kenya depends highly on wildlife for her tourism industry; there is thus the need
to map out the migratory routes of the wildlife to minimize the human-wildlife
conflict; and even reclaim wildlife conservation areas.

5. Housing and Urbanisation.

The 2030 vision for housing and urbanisation is an adequately and decently-
housed nation in a sustainable environment. This will be attained through:
better development of and access to affordable and adequate housing, enhanced
access to adequate finance for developers and buyers, pursuit of targeted key
reforms to unlock the potential of the housing sector, and, initiation of a
nationwide urban planning and development campaign, starting with Kenyas
major cities and towns. GIS is used to help visualize and plan the land use needs
of cities, regions, or even national governments. Thus GIS would be used in the
visualization and planning for new housing or upgrading of the existing housing
schemes; it will also be extensively used in the planning and development of new
metropolis like the upcoming Tatu and Konza cities. Land mapping through GIS
will highly improve on the speed of service delivery and will eliminate the
problems associated with unplanned development in the cities. Well planned
cities/urban cities will result in well managed resources including housing for the
urban populace.

6. Gender, Youth and Vulnerable groups.

The vision is to have gender equity in power and resource distribution, improved
livelihoods for all vulnerable groups, and responsible, globally competitive and
prosperous youth. Kenya also aims to capitalise on her international reputation
as an athletic superpower by opening up the country for top global sports
events, encouraged by corporate sponsorship. The Government will provide
stricter enforcement of copyright laws in music and the performance arts, and
provide facilities for the most talented musicians and actors. The country aims to
be a competitive destination for global film producers. GIS should be used in
population mapping in order to come up with a better formula for increasing
participation of women in all economic, social and political decision making (an
example in the increased number of female parliamentary representatives); this
will also enhance the equitable distribution of the youth and female enterprise
funds and the construction and distribution of social and economic amenities
based on the population size. GIS will also be used in the financial management
of the allocated funds in the administrative areas, reducing cases of
embezzlement of public funds and biased allocation of funds.

7. Equity and poverty elimination.

The vision is to reduce the number of people living in poverty to a tiny proportion
of the total population. Kenya is aiming to attain a society that guarantees
equality of opportunity in accessing public services and providing income
generating activities as widely as possible. Kenya should learn from other
countries who have embraced GIS in alleviating poverty; for example, the
ecological dimension of poverty, watershed atlas, vulnerability atlas and
mapping of the food insecurity in rural and urban India have been the efforts,
closer to direct poverty mapping, in support of poverty alleviation process in the
country. All these have been the products of information technology applications,
especially remote sensing and GIS techniques. There is thus the need for
mapping of the current poverty distribution in the country which can be done
using GIS and from this map the government can place citizens at a level of
income sufficient to cater for basic requirements of a healthy, productive life to
regions where they do not exist currently. This would go a big way into assisting
reduce inequalities across the economic and social initiatives proposed by vision

8. Science, technology and innovations.

Vision 2030 will be based on the creation of international competitiveness

through more efficient productivity at the firm and household level with the
government support. In order to achieve this there is need for more efficient
improvement of social welfare, education curricula and specialized research
centres, universities as well as business firms and agriculture. There is need for
the country to come up with policies and centres whose sole responsibility is to
instil the culture of science, technology and innovation to our populace in order
to attain the standards in the aspirations of the Vision 2030. There will be no
development if technology is put aside as we try to meet the goals. GIS, being a
multidisciplinary application, will greatly aid in the goals. Each and every
development carried out, for instance, transport networks, housing, urban and
regional planning, poverty mapping, expansion and diversification of education,
crime mapping, resource management, asset management and location
planning, public health planning and disease surveillance, and expansion of
social amenities, has a spatial concept and only systems with spatial capabilities
(GIS), are best suited to handle the applications.
Political Pillar: Moving to the Future as One Nation.

The political pillar aims to realise an issue-based, people-centred, result-oriented

and accountable democratic system. The transformation of the countrys political
governance system under Vision 2030 will take place across five strategic areas:
rule of law; electoral and political processes; democracy and public service
delivery; transparency and accountability; and security, peace building and
conflict management.

1. Rule of Law.

The vision is adherence to the rule of law as applicable to a modern, market-

based economy in a human rights-respecting state. As our legal systems
embrace the use of technology in their operations, GIS will come in handy in
cases of mapping the locations of the judicial installations for ease access by the
populace, crime mapping and compliance of the law. An instance is the mapping
of tax compliance amongst property owners in an urban area and traffic

2. Electoral and political processes.

The 2030 Vision seeks to cultivate genuinely competitive and issue-based

politics. Specific strategies will involve, introducing laws and regulations
covering political parties, enhancing the legal and regulatory framework covering
the electoral process, and conducting civic education programmes to widen
knowledge and participation among citizens, leading to an informed and active
citizenry. The role of GIS will be in the mapping of political hooliganism
hotspots, electoral boundaries, political parties popularity within the country,
level of political awareness in different location of the country, and the level of
civic education required per region. It will also help in the improvement of voter
tally reporting and recording to real time and thus reduce the cases of results

3. Democracy and public service delivery.

The aim is to create a people-centred and politically-engaged open society.

Geographic information systems provide unparalleled power to examine social,
economic, and political circumstances. It can be used to come up with databases
that are accessible to the public with information on the all that appertains to the
governed and the governors with reference to their geographical locations, basic
rights and legalities, and public amenities. This will open up the populace to the
areas/sectors neglected by the government in service provision and thus help in
addressing the governance issues.

4. Transparency and accountability.

The vision is to have transparent, accountable, ethical and results-oriented

government institutions. This will be attained through strengthening the legal
framework for anti-corruption, ethics and integrity, promoting results-based
management within the public service, encouraging public access to information
and data, introducing civilian oversight around the key legal, justice and security
institutions, and strengthening parliaments legislative oversight capacity. GIS
will be used in the creation of databases with information on all areas of
operations in government services to the populace; making the databases
accessible will improve transparency and accountability. Through the interfaces,
the citizenry will have a forum for participating in governance and
administration. With the era of government transparency and accountability,
there is need for showing not only the way government is spending money but
also where money is being allocated. Maps help us describe conditions,
situations, and help tell stories, often related to ones own understanding of
content. Using maps helps citizens quickly visualize and understand what the
government is doing in the areas that are important to them. GIS can be used as
an effective tool in responding to the increasing demand for government
transparency; it has promoted the concept that online mapping and open access
to geospatial data could create a more open and transparent government.
Through Web GIS, the government can deliver information with more context and
citizens will be able to visualize and understand the implications of various
government economic activities.

5. Security, peace building and conflict management.

Vision 2030 aims at security of all persons and property throughout the
Republic. This will be achieved through: promoting public-private cooperation
and civilian/community involvement for improved safety and security, deepening
policy, legal and institutional reform for improved enforcement of law and order,
promoting national and inter-community dialogue in order to build harmony
among ethnic, racial and other interest groups, promoting peace building and
reconciliation to improve conflict management and ensure sustained peace
within the country, and, inculcating a culture of respect for the sanctity of human
life that does not resort to the use of violence as an instrument of resolving
personal and community disputes. This should start with the family, schools, the
church and all public institutions. GIS data and analysis are used for boundary
delimitation and demarcation, field mission planning and operations,
humanitarian intervention, logistics, resource allocation, and critical analysis and
visualization for situational awareness and security. Through the use of mapping
applications, the government will be able to solve problems on boundary
conflicts; this will enhance peaceful coexistence amongst communities. The
security arms of the government will benefit greatly if GIS was incorporated into
their operations: Inventory of location of police stations, crimes, arrests,
convicted perpetrators, and victims; plotting police beats and patrol car routing;
alarm and security system locations, location of key emergency exit routes, their
traffic flow capacity and critical danger points.

Which way?

GIS, being a multidisciplinary science, integrates so well in all aspects in focus in

the vision 2030. Its application would foster a faster realisation of the goals,
while offering a platform for the analysis of the progress against set targets, with
options on continued review of the targets while ensuring set standards are met.
Each and every component in the vision has a geographic component; be it
designing new roads, rail routes, new urban settlements, new businesses,
emergency evacuation routes, climatic conditions suitable for a certain
agricultural activity, location and distribution of schools and social amenities or
the right soil type for a certain crop; it is thus imperative that the government
impresses GIS as it is best suited to deal with data with a spatial component. GIS
will also aid in a faster decision making as it eliminates the manual processes in
many tasks, for instance, map making, and will increase the pool of the populace
able to use and interpret geographic data.

Despite the various GIS applications available for use, there are still many
challenges preventing the uptake of the technology in our processes. This may
explain why it might take a long time before the technology is fully incorporated
into our government plans. The bureaucratic policy in government procurement
coupled with the lack of will to embrace the technology, are a great hindrance in
the acquisition of the hardware and software necessary to implement the GIS
applications. The cost of the software is also a hindrance; the GIS software
houses have placed a massive price tag to the software, thus hindering
individual take up of the applications. The government is also reluctant to invest
and fund the individuals or corporations interested in the GIS uptake. Since data
constitutes a great deal in GIS, the limited shared databases in the country make
it even more expensive to acquire data. There is also a limited number of
individual in the country trained to be able to use the technology; this is because
our current education system has not incorporated GIS in the curriculum as other
countries, like Rwanda, have done.

In conclusion, GIS is vital in the actualisation of the vision 2030; it will be a great
boost as it integrates easily into any aspect of the key three pillars of the dream.
There is thus need to introduce GIS as a subject in our education curriculum,
starting at the basic primary level of education. This is possible as other
countries, like Rwanda, have successfully integrated GIS in their education
curriculum. This will result in a populace that not only embraces GIS, but is well
versed with it and thus increased development.

What geospatial scientists and engineers do

Geospatial engineers
Modern geospatial technologies are used to create solutions in an ever-widening range of
industries. Currently, there are more well-paid jobs than there are geospatial engineering
graduates in private industry and the government sector, in Australia and overseas.

Geospatial engineers measure large-scale and/or highly dynamic features using technology such

global navigation satellite positioning systems, such as GPS

airborne LiDAR

terrestrial laser scanners

high-resolution mobile laser scanning

robotic total stations


Geospatial engineers face the challenge of managing and combining huge volumes of geospatial
data from various measurement techniques of differing precision and at differing times.
Mapping and visualisation
This includes mapping in 3D of everything from the interior of buildings to the Earths terrain, and
the generation of amazing flythroughs for land use planning and management.

Spatially-enabled industries
This includes robotics and machine automation, smart buildings and smart infrastructure, car
navigation systems, transport logistics and new digital services for mobile phones.

Geodesists are principally researchers who work with the fundamental coordinate framework that
maps our world. This kind of research is usually done at the postgraduate level and geodesists
work in universities and federal and state government agencies, such as Geoscience Australia
and the NSW Department of Lands, which are charged with the maintenance of the national or
state coordinate frameworks.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialists

GIS specialists use ongoing developments in digital technology to enhance the ways that
information can be used. Integrating these databases in real time with GPS positions or other
devices opens up a new world of location-based services one of the many uses of GIS.

Location-based services
This is about linking social networks, navigation and business directories on mobile phones, to
access information in new ways, create new services or just find your friends. Location-based
services use powerful applications from Google, Apple, Facebook,Microsoft and others.

GIS is used in mine management to optimise work flows. It is used by councils for asset
management and by emergency management authorities to coordinate activities, especially
during large disaster events. GIS is used in traffic management and environmental monitoring,
and is increasingly being used across the corporate sector, especially in the insurance industry.

Spatial Data Infrastructure

Ultimately web services of geo-data can be linked to provide a spatial data infrastructure (SDI)
that could be used to benefit everybody. GIS specialists ensure that these layers inter-link for
analysis and planning, to meet the needs of the community and our changing natural and built

What remote sensing professionals do

Surveyors and geospatial engineers use modern satellite, aerial and land-based positioning
technology to provide mapping services for flood plain studies, coastal monitoring, natural
resource management, agriculture, sustainable development, and many more applications.

Remote sensing professional link this data with satellite imagery and other forms of remote
sensing data for a range of environmental monitoring applications, such as salinity and soil
moisture monitoring for precision agriculture, or for emergency management of hazards such as
earthquakes and tsunamis, real-time bushfire or flood monitoring, etc.

Graduates could work for Geoscience Australia, CSIRO, state government lands departments,
some local councils or research institutions.