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Kurdistan Region Government - Iraq

Ministry Of Higher Education &

Scientific Research
Duhok Polytechnic University

Technical Engineering College

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering Department

Report Of
fluid of mechanic
Name of Experiment
Archimedes principle and buoyancy force

Name: Balen Karim

2nd Class / Group ( B )

Date : 22/ 11 /2016
Year : 2015-2016

Archimedes (c. 287 BC to 212/211 BC) lived in the Greek

city-state of Syracuse, Sicily, up to the time that it was
conquered by the Romans, a conquest that led to his
death. Of his works that survive, the second of his two
books of On Floating Bodies is considered his most
mature work, commonly described as a tour de force.
More than 2000 years ago,
Archimedes noticed that objects seem to weigh less
when they were placed in water. This effect produced by
liquid or gas causes objects to float. When an object is
placed in water, the water exerts an upward force or the
up thrust
upon the object. This up thrust is the force produced by
water in reaction to the force of the weight of the object
that is introduced in water. This
up thrust or the upward force is termed as Buoyancy
. Water puts pressure from all sides of the object to
support its weight. However, the water pressure is
highest at its deepest end

Archimedes' principle: indicates that the

upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed
in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to
the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and it acts
in the upward direction at the center of mass of the
displaced fluid. Archimedes' principle is a law of
physics fundamental to fluid mechanics. It was
formulated by Archimedes of Syracuse
Object: the objective of this lab is to measure the
buoyant force
On a number of object
1. Graduated cylinder.
2. Digital balance.
3. Vernier.
4. Ruler.
5. String.
6. Extra masses.
7. Beakers.
8. Jar.
The density, (pronounced "rho"), of an object is the
ratio of its mass to its volume
= V

Since very few substances have exactly the same

density, this property can be used to identify an element
or compound. The density of water is 1 g/ cm3 which is
the same as 1 x 103 kg/m3. The ratio of the density of
any solid or liquid or to that of water is called its specific
gravity (S). Since it is the ratio of two densities, specific
gravity has no units and is independent of the system of
When you are swimming in a pool or in the ocean you
seem to weigh less. This is because the water exerts a
buoyant force on you. The apparent loss of weight that
you feel when you are submerged in the water is equal to
the buoyant force exerted you by the water. Salt water is
denser than fresh water and exerts more force; your
apparent weight is less in salt water than in fresh water.
In some extremely salty bodies of water like the Salton
Sea or the Dead Sea it is almost impossible to sink.
In other words, if you weigh an object in air and then
weigh it while it is submerged in a liquid, its weight in the
liquid, called its "apparent weight" will be the smaller of
the two. This is because the liquid exerts a larger buoyant
force on the object than air does. One way to understand
buoyant forces is to consider an element of volume, V,
somewhere in a container of liquid. This element is in
equilibrium, that is, it is neither rising nor falling in the
container. This means that the weight of the liquid, which
acts downward, is exactly balanced by an upward force
provided by the liquid below it. This upward force is the
buoyant force. If the volume of liquid, V, is replaced by
an object of the same volume, the object will feel the
same force. The magnitude of the buoyant force,
therefore, is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid
Fb =mg = .g . V
Where is the density of the liquid, V is the volume of
the submerged part of the object, and g is the
acceleration due to gravity. The force is directed upward.
This is called Archimedes' principle. He is said to have
discovered this principle while he was taking a bath.
If the object's weight is less than the weight of the
displaced liquid, it will float. It may also be able to
support additional weight. The amount of weight a
floating object can support is the difference between the
object's weight and the weight of the liquid that the
object would displace if it were totally submerged. An
object that floats will have negative apparent weight
when it is totally submerged.

Figure 1: Free-body diagram of a mass in a


Part 1:
1. Find the mass of each jar and Find the mass of the
block piece and the jar with water.
2. Set a beaker of water on the platform attached to the
balance. Tie a piece of string to a rubber band. You will
use this to make a sling that you can use to lower the
cylinders into the water so that they are completely
submerged, but not touching the bottom. Be sure the pan
is still hanging from the arm of the balance and tie the
other end of the string to the hook that the pan hangs
Mass of Mass of Total Fb = total
beaker piece mass mass x g
1 122g 220g 342g 3.35 N
from. Make sure that the string does not touch the sides
of the beaker. Find the mass of piece in water.
3. now find the buoyancy force from the equation :
Buoyancy force (Fb ) = Weight of substance in air (W s.air)
Weight of substance in liquid (WS.Liquid).
Part 2: (use beaker to increase the displaced
volume of water)
1. Put one piece of masses in jar and notice how it will
sink to the bottom of jar.
2. Put the same mass in a specific beaker and notice how
it submerged partially in the jar.
3. now increase the masses in beakers until last point
before beaker sink in jar. Record that mass in your result,
then Find the mass of beaker with mass of piece and
record it. Multiplying this mass with gravity acceleration
will represent the bouncy force Fb on the beaker.
4. Use Archimedes principle to check your result.
Use the Vernier caliper to measure the height and the
diameter of one Beaker to find the volume. Multiplying
the volume with density of water will produce the
maximum mass which beaker can hold.

High of beaker = 7.7 cm
Wide of beaker = 3.7 cm
Depth of beaker = 3.1 cm
Volume of beaker = high wide depth
V =
V= 90.7 cm3
Fb= V
= 9810 90.7
= 0.889 N

Weight of Weight of Loses Volume Weight

pieces in pieces in weight=F Displacem displacem
air water b ent ent
Water Water
225 g 135 g 90 g 90.7 10- 0.889 N

V= /4 d2 h
= /4 (6.95)28.9

Volume of Mass = water x Fb = mass x g

beaker volume

1 0.000337m3 0.337 m3 3.3 N


1. A 1000 cm3 gold brick ( = 19.3 g / cm 3, so mass =

19.3 kg) and a 1000 cm3 aluminum brick ( = 2.7
g/cm3, so mass = 2.7 kg) are immersed in water.
Which brick experiences the greater buoyant force?
Justify your answer.

A/ higher density means the weight of water displaced is

less than the weight of object so buoyancy force will not
be able to make the object float and it will sink, so less
buoyancy for heavier objects. because that the density of
gold more than the density of aluminum is mean the
aluminum has a buoyancy force higher than gold

2. Why is it easier to float in the sea than in

a river or swimming pool?
5/ The density of the sea water is more than the
density of river water. Thus upward thrust is
larger. When a body is submerged in sea water
the weight of the sea water is displaced is equal
to the weight of the river water. A larger body is
to be submerged in it. Hence it is easier to swim
in a sea water than a river water

3. How can a ship made of steel (steel =

7.88 g/cm3) float in water?

A/ Ships can also be made of metals like steel (denser

than water) or tough plastics (usually denser than
water). You would imagine that a boat made of dense
stuff would sink, but the boat floats primarily because
of its shape. Boats stay afloat with heavy loads
because they're hollow; they aren't solid hunks of wood
or metal. This means that the boat experiences a
really strong "buoyant force," upward, against the pull
of gravity which is downward. You can see this for
yourself if you put a plastic bowl upright in a pot of
water or a bathtub. If you set the bowl in the water, it
will float, but if you fill the bowl with water, it may sink
to the bottom (depending on if the plastic is denser
than the water or not).

4. Explain how a hot air balloon fly.

A/ Hot air balloons fly when the air inside the hot
air balloon is less dense than the air surrounding
it. Hot air is less dense than cool air; the heated
air causes the balloon to rise simply because it is
lighter than an equal volume of cold air.
Buoyancy is an upward force that the air exerts,
and it helps hot-air balloons and blimps stay in
the air.