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various classes of materials shown in Figure from thermal studies of the particular de- REFERENCES

13 of the paper amply demonstrate this sign used. 1. See reference 1 of M. L. Manning's discussion.
point. This difficulty can be avoided by It is hoped that the data in this paper 2. See reference 2 of M. L. Manning's discussion.
testing elements and then combining these will assist in the establishing of insulation
elements, factoring their individual degrada- standards for electrical apparatus based on 3. RELATION OF TRANSFORMER DESIGN TO FIRE
PROTECTION, E. D. Treanor, L. C. Whitman.
tion in combination with the operating performance rather than by arbitrary defi- AIEE Transactions, volume 71, part III, August
temperature of these elements determined nitionl. 1952, pages 678-81.

Applications of Relays ror Unbalanced


considered which produce currents of
double frequency in the rotor parts should
not be confused with those accompanying
loss of field which produces slip frequency
Faults on Generators currents.

J. E. BARKLE FRANqK VON ROESCHLAUB Application of Negative-Sequence


MEMBER AIEE MEMBER AIEE Relays
The re-evaluation of the capability of
COMPANION papersl-3 have de- grees of damage may be expected, and for generators to withstand the damaging ef-
scribed the thermal effects on syn- values above 200 per cent serious damage fects of negative-sequence current, as
chronous machine rotors of negative-se- can result. well as the general feeling that backup
quence current caused by unbalanced This rev-ision of the standard is of con- protection for the generators is increas-
faults, accurate methods of calculating siderable interest to utility system engi- ingly desirable with the increased size of
the magnitude of the generator negative- neers in general and to the relay engineer the machines in common use, has led to
sequence current under fault conditions, in particular because the quantitative the development of relays2 that protect
and relays designed for the specific pur- statement of current-time capability of the generator specifically against exces-
pose of protecting machines against such the generator makes available a basis for sive negative-sequence current. In gen-
conditions. The purpose of this paper is coordination of system and machine re- eral, these relays consist of suitable time-
to discuss the application of these nega- laving. overcurrent elements supplied through
tive-sequence relays and to review the MIany utilities use some form of relay- negative-sequence filters from the current
effect of this protection on general sys- ing on generators that is considered to be transformers on the generator leads.
tem relaying. A simplified method of backup for system relaying. Included They respond only to negative-sequence
calculating generator negative-sequence are different forms of overcurrent protec- current in the generator, ignoring those
current is included, and a brief discussion tion, phase-balance protection, and single- components that do not contribute to the
of the effectiveness of various generator zone distance relaying. Some of these rotor heating, and their time-current
backup relay schemes in providing gen- forms of backup relaying might be ex- characteristics are chosen to match the
erator rotor protection on unbalanced pected to provide protection of the gener- limitations established in the standards.
faults is given. ator against excessive negative-sequence Since the negative-sequence relay
Numerous tests by manufacturers of current, but in general the relay charac- matches the generator thermal capability
synchronous rotating machines and also teristics do not match the thermal capa- curve, it permits operation to a point just
theoretical considerations have justified a bilitv curve of the generator. There- below that where the possibility of ma-
revision in the American Standards Asso- fore, it is desirable to consider using a re- chine damage arises, giving a maximum
ciation Standard C50, paragraph 3.130 lay specifically designed to prevent rotor margin for co-ordination with other re-
on "Short-Circuit Requirements," to a failure due to excessive negative-sequence lays with a minimum of application effort.
more realistic and practical requirement current, since adequate relays have been
taking into account the thermal time con- made available and the capabilities of SIMPLIFIED CALCULATIONS
stant of the machine rotor. The new generators have been defined more To determine the operating time of the
paragraph states that the length of time closely. negative-sequence relay and the degree of
that a synchronous machine can with- In considering the effect of negative- co-ordination with other relays during a
stand an unbalanced fault without injury sequence current on synchronous ma- specific fault condition, it is necessary to
is a function of the mean-square value of chines, unbalanced faults are of primary calculate the generator negative-sequence
the negative-sequence current. Thus, concern. It can be shown that a line-to- current decrement curve. Lawrence and
the time integral of I22 should not ex- line fault causes the highest magnitude of Ferguson' present a rigorous method of
ceed specified values for different types of negative-sequence current and has the calculating the negative-sequence cur-
machines if no injury is to result. With most severe effect on the machine rotor;
I1 expressed in per unit based on the gen- therefore, only line-to-line faults are spe- Paper 53-41, recommended by the AIEE Relays
erator rating, and t in seconds, the speci- cifically discussed in this paper. In order Committee and approved by the AIEE Committee
on Technical Operations for presentation at the
fied time integral values of I22 are 30 for to simplify the presentation, the detailed AIEE Winter General Meeting, New York, N. Y.,
turbine generators, synchronous condens- discussion is confined to turbine genera- January 19-23, 1953. Manuscript submitted
October 22, 1952; made available for printing
ers, and frequency changer sets, and 40 tors for which the specified time integral November 18, 1952.
for hydraulic-turbine and engine-driven value of 122 is 30. J. E. BARKLB: is with the Westinghouse Electric
generators. For values of 122t up to 200 Although the heating effects in the rotor Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa.; FRANK VON
ROESCHLAUJB is with Ebasco Services, Inc., New
per cent of those specified, varying de- are somewhat similar, the conditions here York, N. Y.

APRIL 1953 Barkle, von Roeschlaub-Relays for Unbalanced Faults on Generators 277
G

EXTERNAL REACTANCE-PER UNIT ON GENERATOR BASE


Figure 1. Equivalent negative-sequence current in generator for C
line-to-line faults as a function of external reactance, generator
transformer reactance, and system size Figure 2. Assumed general system and equivalent circuits for determining
generator equivalent negative-sequence current by simplified calculation
rent decrement curve, and example When these factors are considered, one (Xe) The equivalent negative-sequence
curves for line-to-line faults under differ- logically concludes that a great deal of current (I2eq) is that constant value of
ent system conditions are shown in Fig- time spent in calculating exact answers current that produces the same rotor
ures 3 to 13 of their paper. is not justified, and that relatively simple heating effect in a given length of time as
In applying negative-sequence relays approximations will suffice in applying the actual negative-sequence current
for generator protection, factors concern- the relays. which decays with time. It is determined
ing accuracies and influencing the appli- A negative-sequence current relay set to from the decrement curves by determining
cation should be borne in mind. The re- trip a generator on the basis of the time the time (t) at which the time integral of
lays are constructed with standard manu- integral of 122 being something less 122 is 30, and
facturing tolerances, which means that than 30 would be unnecessarily con-
servative and would not permit full utili- I2eq= V/30/t
there are variations within narrow limits
in individual relay time-current charac- zation of the machine capability. It also Curves are shown in Figure 1 for a gener-
teristics. Calculation of an exact decre- would be in the direction of allowing ator connected through'the external re-
ment curve is a very difficult procedure shorter times for given currents with a actance to an infinite bus, to a system
even when all of the necessary data are greater tendency to interfere with other consisting of five generators similar to the
available, because there are minor vari- system relaying. Therefore, the time at one under consideration, or to one similar
ables such as voltage level, frequency, and which 122t is equal to 30 for different sys- generator. The upper three curves are
temperature effects that cannot be in- tems and conditions becomes of primary for the case with XTG equal to zero; that
cluded; therefore, even the most rigor- importance on the assumption that few, is, there is no generator transformer. The
ous solution will have some error. When if any, relays will be set for smaller values lower three curves include the effect of a
a decrement curve of 12 is calculated, it and correspondingly shorter times. generator transformer of 15-per-cent re-
must be integrated to determine the time actance; the dashed curve for the infinite
at which the relay will operate when it is GENERATORS WITHOUT VOLTAGE bus case with a 7.5-per-cent transformer
set to match the capability curve of 122t REGULATORS is included to show the effect of a lower
equal to 30. This integration can be ac- The data in Figures 3 to 12 of the Law- reactance transformer.
complished mathematically, but it is a rence-Ferguson paper,' giving decrement One of the basic questions in applying
long, tedious process; therefore, the rea- curves for a generator without a voltage the generator negative-sequence relay is
sonable solution is by graphical integra- regulator, are replotted in Figure 1 to whether the relay trips so quickly on sys-
tion, and the result is a time that is ac- show the variation of the equivalent neg- tem unbalanced faults that it interferes or
ceptably accurate in comparison to the ative-sequence current as a function of the fails to co-ordinate with the system re-
time that could be determined by any system size, the generator transformer re- lays, including backup protection. This
more precise method of integration. actance (XTG), and the external reactance permits a choice of some arbitrary maxi-

278 Barkle, von Roeschlaub Relays for Unbalanced Faults on Generators APRIL 1953
mum time required by system relays to system generation is represented by one X2G = negative-sequence reactance of gener-
clear a system unbalanced fault under any or more generators, which are contlected ator G.
condition. The authors believe that for to a common system bus through trans- X2S = negative-sequence reactance of system
generation.
the majority of systems no co-ordination formers; if desired, this can be assumed as XTG =reactance of generator transformer.
difficulties will arise if the negative-se- an infinite bus. The generator bus and XTS=reactance of system generation trans-
quence relay does not trip in less than 4 the system bus are connected by the ex- former.
seconds; that is, if the generator negative- ternal reactance, and load is assumed on Xe =external reactance.
ZLG = shunt impedance to absorb load taken
sequence current produced by the system both busses. from the generator bus.
fault is so small that the negative-se- Where no generator transformers exist, ZLS = shunt impedance to absorb load taken
quence relay time is 4 seconds or longer. the transformer reactance can be set from the system bus, neglected when
With I2eq2t 30, the magnitude of I2eq re- equal to zero; where no load exists, the infinite bus is assumed.
I2(init) = initial negative-sequence compo-
quired to give 4 seconds is 2.74 per unit. load impedance can be set equal to infin- nent of generator current.
Based on the foregoing assumption, there- ity. Thus the system of Figure 2 can be I2(.u.t) = sustained negative-sequence com-
fore, co-ordination can be assured in all rearranged to suit the needs. ponent of generator current.
cases where 12eq is less than 2.74. Figure The circuit of Figure 2(B) is that used All reactances and impedances should be
1 shows that this condition is met for to calculate the initial value of the nega-
any case of a generator connected to the tive-sequence current. Note that the expressed as per-unit quantities. Where
the system is assumed to be of infinite
system through a transformer of 7.5 per shunt loads are neglected in this circuit capacity relative to generator G, the re-
cent or more reactance with a line-to-line because of the small effect of these high actances XTS, XdS', X2S, and Xds are set
fault on the system side of the trans- impedance branches when combined with equal to zero, and impedance ZLS is
former. It also is met when the genera- the low transient reactance of the genera-
tor is directly connected (XTG=O) to a
infinite.
tor. The voltages behind the transient Having obtained the values Of 12 (init)
system consisting of only one generator of reactances of both generators are assumed and 12(sust)) a compromise method is used
equal size. equal to 1.0 per unit. to obtain a value of I2eq. This is based on
The only cases where there need be any The circuit for calculating the sustained the assumption that 12eq is equal to the sus-
concern over the relay operating time are component is given in Figure 2(C).
tained value of current plus 36.8 per cent
those with no transformer and with a sys- The shunt impedances representing the of the transient component, the latter
tem of five or more generators, and the loads should be included, and should be value being the magnitude of the transient
relay engineer may wish to have a close set in magnitude and impedance angle to
component at a time equal to the time
estimate of the relay time for co-ordina- carry the load current with normal volt-
constant. Thus
tion checks. The curves of Figure 1 can age applied. For the steady-state condi-
be used to give a first approximation of tion, the internal voltage of generator G is I2eq = 12(.ust) + 0.368(I2(init) -I2(sust) ) (1)
the value of I2eq. While these curves are set equal to the field current required for This value of I2eq then is used to obtain
drawn for specific assumed characteristics the assumed generator load. This is ob- the time required to make hIe2t = 30.
for the generator and the system, minor tained from the saturation curve of the For times longer than 10 seconds, the
variations will not change the values of generator and is the excitation current transient component of 12 has a small ef-
I12o materially. There will be cases, under load expressed as a per-unit value fect and the equivalent negative-sequence
however, where the conditions of Figure 1 based on the excitation required to pro- current, I2e,, approaches the sustained
are not sufficiently close to the actual sys- duce rated voltage on the air-gap line as current in magnitude. Therefore, for
tem conditions and a closer approximation 1.0 per unit. The internal voltage of the these cases it is sufficiently accurate to
of [2eq and the relay time will be desired. system generation is obtained in a similar set 12eq equal to 12(.u8t) with the realization
Where the time is of the order of 10 sec- manner when actual generators are used, that the time so determined is somewhat
onds or less, the following simplified calcu- or is set equal to 1.0 per unit if an infinite longer than that actually permissible.
lating procedure gives values of 12eq having bus is assumed. The true value of time is between the
less than 10-per-cent error when com- The definitions of the constants in the values calculated from equation 1 and by
pared with values calculated by the rigor- circuits of Figures 2(A), 2(B), and 2(C) assuming 12eq equal to 12(Bust).
ous method of Lawrence and Ferguson. are as follows:
The error is in the conservative direction; EdG'=internal voltage of generator G, as- GENERATORS WITH VOLTAGE REGULATORS
that is, the time calculated using the ap- sumed equal to 1.0 per unit. The results of calculations in the Lawr-
proximate 12eq is somewhat shorter than EdG= field current of generator G, taken ence-Ferguson paper for generators with
the time the generator actually can toler- from the saturation curve for the
particular load, with 1.0 per unit voltage regulators show that the sustained
ate the fault condition for which the cal- equal to the field current necessary magnitude of current is appreciably
culation is made. to produce rated voltage on the air- higher than for cases where there is no
The simplified method for generators gap line. regulator. This is caused by the increase
without voltage regulators involves calcu- EdS'= internal voltage of system generation, in generator excitation as the regulator
assumed equal to 1.0 per unit.
lation of the initial (I2(init)) and sustained EdS = field current of system generation attempts to maintain the terminal volt-
(I2(Sust)) magnitudes of generator negative- determined in the same manner as age. Also, the generator negative-se-
sequence current after substitution of the EdG; set equal to 1.0 per unit when quence current is largest when the shunt
an infinite bus is assumed for the
proper circuit constants in the equivalent system. branch representing the load is neglected.
circuits of Figure 2. Figure 2(A) is the XdG'=transient reactance of generator G. The result is that the transient compo-
general circuit assumed, and it can be Xds'= transient reactance of system genera- nent of the generator negative-sequence
adapted to fit most conditions by varying tion. current is of less importance, and a close
the constants. Generator G is the gener- XdG = synchronous reactance of generator approximation of 12e, is obtained by as-
G.
ator in question and is assumed connected Xds = synchronous reactance of system suming it equal to the sustained magni-
to a bus through a transformer. The generation. tude of current, I2,-ust). The circuit for

APRIL 1 953 Barkle, von Roeschlaub-Relays for Unbalanced Faults on Generators 279
calculating the sustained current is that separate relay with greater sensitivity to tive-sequence current relay. Likewise, if a
shown in Figure 2(C) with the shunt load sound an alarm. Automatic tripping of negative-sequence relay is employed
branches neglected; the constants are the generator is not required because the alone, consideration should be given its
the same except for the internal voltages generator can stand currents of this mag- adequacy as the only backup relay on the
of the generators. On a sustained fault, nitude for a considerable length of time. generator.
the regulator will drive the exciter to ceil- In systems where a number of genera-
ing voltage, and the internal voltages of tors are connected to a common bus, SEQUENTIAL TRIPPING SCHEMES
both generators should be taken as the either directly or through transformers, Systems of sequentiai tripping of bus
generator ceiling excitation in per unit. there is always a possibility that the neg- circuit breakers, generator circuit break-
For most generators, this will be of the ative-sequence relay will trip several or ers, and generator excitation by means of
order of 3.0 to 3.5 per unit. An internal all of these machines on prolonged nega- timing relays started by conventionally
voltage of 1.0 is used for the system when tive-sequence current. This contingency applied primary relays often can be
an infinite system is assumed. There- is inherent in the provision of generator worked out for particular switching, line,
fore, for the case of a generator with a protective relaying where the backupfunc- and bus arrangements. For example,
voltage regulator tion also is provided, and it can be evalu- where one generator supplies a bus to
ated only against the reliability of the re- which several lines are connected, the line
I2eq =I2(BU8t) (2) lays themselves against incorrect opera- relays that normally trip their corre-
tion when normal relaying and normal sponding line circuit breakers can each
Co-ordination of Generator Relay clearing devices function properly. The start a timing relay which clears the bus
function of the relays here discussed is to if the circuit breaker on the faulted line
with System Relays protect the generators against damage fails to clear the fault. Similarly the
and against prolonged shutdown for rotor bus differential relay can be connected to
Application of this calculating method inspection, If they operate properly,
to generator relaying over a wide range of trip the generator field circuit breaker
their use entails the possibility of a shut- either directly or through a time-delay re-
generator sizes and system sizes indicates down of a bus to obtain freedom from
that unbalanced fault conditions and the lay. Such schemes are cumbersome and
damage to the machines connected often impractical; it is usually impossible
negative-sequence current caused by them thereto. Slower forms of protection, such
can be allowed to persist for several sec- to make them protect a generator under
as manual or other types of relaying de- some conditions that are dangerous but
onds without causing excessive generator
vices, impose the need for a rotor inspec- that do not entail a fault that can be
rotor heating. In any case where the
tion to determine whether the machine detected by normal relays. For example,
generator is connected to the system has been damaged after a prolonged un-
through a transformer, a fault on the sys- the failure of a circuit breaker to clear all
balanced fault, and the resulting outage is three poles may leave a large single-phase
tem side of the transformer can be per-
costly and time-consuming. Thus, reli- load on a generator without in any way
mitted for at least 4 seconds; it is only for able automatic relaying that eliminates
faults at the generator terminals that the starting the sequence of timing that is in-
the need for an outage is desirable. tended to protect the machine against
time becomes as low as 2 seconds. A The philosophy in the preceding para-
fault at the generator terminals ordinarily such excessive unbalanced current. In
graph can be extended to include the en- any event, the applicability of these
would be cleared in a matter of cycles, and tire system. A system unbalanced fault
even if cleared by backup relaying the schemes can be determined only by care-
that is not cleared causes negative-se- ful examination of the particular bus ar-
time would be much less than 2 seconds. quence current in all sources of generation
If for no other reason than to maintain rangement involved, including a study of
to varying degrees. Those having the all the various contingencies for which the
system stability, faults of the nature de- largest magnitude of 12 will trip first, and
scribed in this paper ordinarily will be protection is desired.
as each one is removed from the system
cleared quickly. Therefore, in the major- the negative-sequence current in the re-
ity of applications, the negative-sequence RELAY SCHEMES
maining generators increases. There-
relay can be applied without concern fore, there is a possibility of cascading the Various types of relays can be used with
about the tripping time interfering with an individual generator to provide pro-
entire system and causing a serious out-
backup relaying. age. This possibility is considered ex- tection that backs up both the primary
This fact is particularly significant be- tremely remote because it implies a rather relaying and the circuit breakers. Time-
cause it means that the generator nega- heavy fault and failure of the system first- overcurrent relays actuated by generator
tive-sequence relay can be applied as an line and backup relaying to clear the current can be employed if fault currents
apparatus protective relay. The relay are high enough to permit a safe pickup
fault.
characteristics are co-ordinated with the setting without risk of tripping on load
generator characteristics, and it can be current. Since co-ordination of these
viewed as a device to protect the genera- Generator Backup Relaying backup relays with primary relaying on
tor against failure on negative-sequence lines and busses requires relatively slow
current; the function of clearing system A number of generator backup relay operation, the chief factors determining
unbalanced faults is incidental. schemes are in use, including the overcur- the generator fault current are the syn-
The negative-sequence relays are de- rent, distance, and phase-balance relays chronous impedance and excitation. The
signed to detect negative-sequence cur- mentioned previously, as well as special synchronous impedance for a typical
rents on the order of 0.7 per unit or tripping sequences controlled from con- turbine generator exceeds 100 per cent,
greater. In some cases, it may be desir- ventional line and bus relays. These and the fault current available to actuate
able to have a relay that will indicate the have varying degrees of effectiveness in simple overcurrent relays decays after the
presence of a smaller negative-sequence protecting the machine rotor and when occurrence of a fault to a value less than
current of perhaps 0.10 per unit. This they are used they should be studied to full-load current when no voltage regula-
function can be accomplished by using a determine the need for a generator nega- tor is used. The minimum pickup setting

1280 Barkle, von Roeschlaub Relays for Unbalanced Faults on Generators APRIL 1953
of a relay must exceed full load by a safe unbalanced fault conditions, the phase- The time-current characteristic of the
margin, and a relay with such a setting balance relay has been used for generator negative-sequence relay is matched closely
could operate then as a backup device backup protection. This relay has an to the capability of the generator to with-
only if a generator voltage regulator acted advantage over the voltage-restrained stand the damaging current. In general,
to increase excitation, and thereby the and distance types in that no potential the time-current characteristics of other
fault current, to a value above this pickup source is required for its operation; it forms of relaying are either arbitrary or
setting. This dependence upon operation operates solely from the generator phase are determined solely with respect to the
of a regulator to assure operation of the current. This relay, actuated by a co-ordination required by system relays.
generator backup relay is the outstanding comparison of phase currents, however, As a result, other forms of relaying may
shortcoming of the overcurrent relay for does not give adequate protection for a not provide adequate protection for the
this purpose. small generator connected to a relatively machine during unbalanced faults, and
This disadvantage of the simple over- large sy-stem and subjected to a sustained during some operating conditions, such as
current relay has been eliminated to some fault. Under this condition the positive- balanced fault conditions, they may tend
extent by the development of an over- sequence generator current is relatively to trip the generator more quickly than is
current relay which includes voltage small because of the effect of paralleling a necessary from the standpoint of damage
restraint. In applying such relays, it is large synchronous reactance with a small to the generator.
necessary to determine the voltage at the system reactance; the negative-sequence In the majority of applications it is not
generator terminals under the fault con- generator current is relatively large be- necessary to make any calculations of gen-
ditions for which the relay is expected to cause the negative-sequence reactance of erator negative-sequence current to de-
protect the generator. The calculations the generator may be of the same order termine the relay clearing time because
involved in this application procedure of magnitude as the system reactance. the time will be sufficiently long to elimi-
may be quite complex, and impose the The currents impressed upon the relay nate any question of co-ordination with
need of using wide margins in application thus tend to be balanced negative-se- system relaying. For those cases where
to assure co-ordination with primary re- quence current, preventing the operation it is deemed necessary to check the relay
laying on lines and busses. Since such of the relay, although the total current in times more accurately, a relatively simple
relays are expected to operate on both 3- the generator may be sufficient to cause method of calculation is described in this
phase and single-phase faults, it is often damage. paper. Basically, the relay can be con-
difficult to obtain adequate protection of sidered as an apparatus protective relay
the generator in addition to proper co-or- Conclusions and its application made without con-
dination. sidering system relaying.
The single-zone distance relay repre- Two aspects of generator negative-se- This paper has dealt specifically with
sents a refinement of the voltage-re- quence current relaying warrant almost unbalanced current protection for turbine
strained overcurrent relay. Such relays equal weight: the first is the assurance generators because the most severe limi-
are set to detect faults on the system be- that the relay provide adequate protec- tations exist for this type of machine. The
yond the bus to which the generator is tion for the generator; the second is that same basic considerations, as given here,
connected, and in general are arranged to the relay must never operate falsely under apply for the other types of synchronous
trip the generator through a fixed time normal conditions or when normal relay- machines.
delay. It is by means of this time delay ing operates correctly. It is also desir-
that co-ordination with the other primary able that the system data upon which the References
relaying is obtained, and because the relay application depend be easily calcu-
time delay is fixed adequate generator lable in a sufficiently accurate form to as- 1. GENERATOR NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE CURRENTS
FOR LINE-TO-LiNE FAULTA, R. F. Lawrence,
protection is not always obtainable. sure correct relay operation for all cases. R. W. Ferguson. AIEE Transactions,volume 72,
In general, the application procedures A comparison of the various relay schemes part III, February 1953, pages 9-16.
discussed indicates that the negative-se- 2. PROTECTlON OF GENERATORS AGAINST UN-
for this type of relay are the con- BALANCED CURRENTS, J. E. Barkle, W. E. Glass-
ventional ones commonly employed in quence relay fulfills these requirements burn. AIEE Transactions, volume 72, part III,
line protection, and may be regarded as with the greatest reliability. It measures April 1953, pages 282-86.

simpler than the application procedures the negative-sequence current in the gen- 3. TURBINE GENERATOR ROTOR HEATING DURING
SINGLE-PHASE SHORT CIRCUITS, M. D. Ross, E. I.
required for the voltage-restrained over- erator, which is the direct cause of rotor King. AIEE Transactions, volume 72, part III,
February 1953, pages 40-45.
current relay. heating; other relay schemes determine
this parameter either indirectly or not at 4. ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. ASA
In view of the greater damage risk to C50-1943, American Standards Association (New
which the generator is subjected under all. York, N. Y.), March 29, 1943.

of system stability will effect the I2 equiva ated.


Discussion lent, probably in the downward direction, Under normal system conditions, olne does
not expect the lack of transpositions on one's
thus lengthening the permissable time the
J. R. Linders (Cleveland Electric Illuminat- fault can be safely carried by the generator. high-voltage system to effect generator
ing Company, Cleveland, Ohio): The Of more concern to me would be the in- heating due to small negative-sequence
authors have done an excellent job of bring- volved condition when a stuck line circuit currents which are crated by such opera-
ing the problem of negative-sequence breaker results in a conductor burned in tion. However, in view of the very heavy
generator currents out of the realm of two. The resulting fault may involve one, loading which we can expect on some cir-
theoretical calculations into the field of two, or three conductors and/or ground. In cuits under emergency conditions may not
practical applications. any case the sequence network impedances the negative-sequence components be of
The approach to this problem has been will change. The authors' opinion as to concern?
based on assuming the system constant dur- whether the I2 equivalent of the machine Under sustained abnormal system condi-
ing the entire period under consideration. under question will increase or decrease tions, the frequency may depart from
Practically this may not be the case. Loss under these conditions would be appreci- normal by as much as 10 per cent. Would

APRIL 1 953 Barkle, von Roeschlaiub--Relays for Unbalanced Faults on Generators 281
the authors care to comment on: 1. the described in the preceding paragraph, and output terminals the voltage causes current-
effect of negative-sequence currents in the also the unnecessary complexity which to flow in the relay. Positive-sequence cur-
generator under these abnormal frequency would be incurred by inclusion of the sta- rents at =' 10 per cent of normal frequency
conditions, and 2. the frequency character- bility problem. would produce an open-circuit output volt-
istic of the negative-sequence relays which For cases of an open conductor, an open age of the same frequency equal to 5 per
are mentioned by the authors and discussed conductor with one phase grounded, and cent of the voltage produced by 1.0 per-unit
in the companion papers. so forth, the negative-sequence current will negative-sequence current at normal fre-
probably decrease appreciably compared to quency. The 5-per-cent voltage impressed
that obtained during a line-to-line fault. on the negative-sequence current relay is
J. E. Barkle and Frank von Roeschlaub: The specific case in point can be studied by not sufficiently high to cause relay opera-
The results of the study in this paper are proper connection of the sequence networks2 tion. Therefore, normal operation at i 10-
based on the assumption that the system is of Figure 2 of the paper. The procedure per-cent frequency will not cause operation
constant during the period under considera- outlined in the paper then can be followed. of the relay.
tion, that is, the generator and system in- Negative-sequence currents resulting from The relay characteristics are affected
ternal voltages are assumed to be equal and untransposed lines3 can be calculated as a slightly by frequency variations of 4+ 1O
in phase. The detailed conditions of the function of the system terminal impedance, per cent. For generator negative-sequence
study are given in assumptions 3, 5, and 6 of transmission-line parameters, and the posi- current of a magnitude which should cause
the companion paper.' This assumption of tive-sequence load current. Extensive relay operation, the relay time would be
voltages being in phase results in a pessi- studies of the problem have shown that such lengthened slightly. Frequency reduction
mistic value of negative-sequence current. currents are of very low magnitude, espe- as a result of severe faults which might call
The relaying time required of the negative- cially when terminal impedances are taken upon the negative-sequence relay to operate
sequence relay is consequently shortest. into account. will be so small as to have negligible effect
The paper shows that relaying times of 4 The rotor heating due to negative-se- on the relay operation.
seconds for generators with step-up trans- quence current in the generator for fre-
formers and 2 seconds for generators with- quency deviations of 10 per cent will be REFERENCES
out step-up transformers are satisfactory for essentially the same as for normal system 1. See reference 1 of the paper.
practically all cases. More accurate calcu- frequency. The criterion of permissible 2. ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
lations which would include generator negative-sequence current is therefore the REFERENCE BOOK. Westinghouse Electric Cor-
phase-angle differences, resulting in lower same. More important are such problems poration (East Pittsburgh, Pa.), fourth edition,
1950, chapter 2.
values of negative-sequence currents, are as vibrations in steam turbines which can
therefore not warranted. be encountered at other than normal fre- 3. DETERMINATION OF INDUCTIVE AND CAPACI-
TIVE UNBALANCE FOR UNTRANSPOSED TRANSMIS-
Severe line-to-line faults can cause system quency. SION LINES, R. F. Lawrence, D. J. Povejsil. AIEE
instability. The authors are cognizant of For an input negative-sequence current Transactions, volume 71, part III, 1952, pages 547-
this possibility, but the problem was ex- an open-circuit output voltage is produced, 56.
cluded from the calculations for the reason or if a current relay is connected across the 4. See reference 3 of the paper.

Protection of Generators Against are neglected. The most important of


these are the effects of a generator voltage
regulator and of the system to which the
Unbalanced Currents generator is connected. Both of these in-
fluence the magnitude of the unbalanced
fault currents and must be considered in
determining the thermal condition of the
J. E. BARKLE W. E. GLASSBURN machine during faults.
MEMBER AIEE ASSOCIATE MEMBER AIEE
There is no question of the ability of
the machine to withstand a 10-second 3-
PROTECTIVE relay equipment as the system relaying and the possibility of phase short circuit at the terminals, either
applied for the protection of genera- additional generator protective relaying. with or without a voltage regulator; and
tors is concerned with faults within the A revision in paragraph 3.130 covering of course, the connected system has no
generator, and differential relaying is the short-circuit requirements in the Stand- effect on the generator currents for this
most common form of such protection. ard on Rotating Electric Machinery1 has type of fault. However, unbalanced
Generators, however, can be subjected to been proposed. The previous standard faults cause circulation of negative-
other undesirable and possibly dangerous has stipulated that any synchronous sequence current in the machine stator
conditions for which proper protection generator "shall be capable of withstand- windings and a consequent possibility of
should be provided. Some of these ing, without injury, the stresses of a 10- thermal damage to the machine rotor.
conditions such as loss of excitation and second, 3-phase short circuit at its termi-
loss of the prime mover have been recog- nals when operating at rated kva, power Generator Short-Circuit Currents
nized, and suitable protective relaying factor, and 5 per cent overvoltage, or any
schemes have been developed. Recent other 10-second short circuit provided the When a generator is subjected to un-
studies of the effects on generators of un- machine phase currents under the fault balanced short-circuit currents, a nega-
balanced phase currents during system condition are limited by means of suitable
faults have developed into a revision of reactance or resistance to a value which Paper 53-52, recommended by the AIEE Relays
Committee and approved by the AIEE Committee
the specification of short-circuit require- does not exceed the maximum phase on Technical Operations for presentation at the
ments of generators. The new specifica- current obtained from the 3-phase fault." AIEE Winter General Meeting, New York, N. Y.,
Manuscript submitted
January 19-23, 1953.
tion is a realistic approach, taking account This statement is simple and can be October 22, 1952; made available for printing
of the rotor surface heating caused by interpreted easily; but it is not realistic December 10, 1952.
negative-sequence currents in the genera- with respect to unbalanced fault condi- J. E. BARKLE and W. E. GLASSBURN are with the
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts-
tor armature; and it focuses attention on tions because several important factors burgh, Pa.

282 Barkle, Glassburn Protection of Generators Against Unbalanced Currents APRIL 1 953