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Object
The object of this experiment was to determine the deflections in the horizontaland vertical directions under
loading of a semicircular beam and a davit by means of experiment and compare the experimental values of
deflection to calculated, theoretical values.
.
Theory
Castiglianos theorem can be employed to determine the deflection incurred by aforce of loading in a
curved beam. Castiglianos theorem states that the component in agiven direction of the deflection caused by an
external force on an elastic body isequivalent to the partial derivative of the work of deformation with respect to
thecomponent of the force in the given direction. The work of deformation in this case is amoment induced by
a loading force on the beam. The general expression of Castiglianostheorem is as follows:
=
o

s
M/EI * dM/dW * ds

1/EI *
o

S
M * dM/dW *
ds

(Equation 1)
where
M is the moment induced by the force of loading, E is the elastic modulus of thebeam material,
I is the moment of inertia of the beam, dM/dW is the change in momentwith respect to the force of loading and
ds is the finite quantity of the beam over whichintegration is to take place. Because the modulus E and the
moment of inertia I are constants, they are factored out of the integral.The work of deformation, or the moment,
can be expressed as the product of theloading force, P the radius from the center of curvature of the beam R and
the sine of theangle of curvature. The moment can be expressed by the following equation:
M = PRsin (Equation 2) The integrating factor
ds of the general Castigliano equation can be expressed as follows:
ds = R d (Equation 3)
The partial derivative of the work of deformation with respect to the component of theforce is expressed as a
function of the radius of the beam and angle of the deflected beam.For the vertical deflection, the partial derivative
is written as:
(dM/dW)
V
= Rsin
(Equation 4)
and for the horizontal deflection of a curved beam, the partial derivative is written as:
(dM/dW)
H
= R(1
cos)

(Equation 5)
Figure 1:

Diagram of the semicircular beam of the testing apparatus featuring forcesand finite quantities. The light gray
member of the diagram is the semicircular beambefore loading and the dark gray member is the beam after the
load is applied.
To calculate the vertical deflection of a semicircular beam, substitute Equations 2,3 and 4 into the general
expression of Castiglianos theorem (Equation 1). The
integration is bounded by zero and bec
ause the beam is a semicircle. This process willyield the following equation:
V =
1/EI *
o

PRsin * Rsin * R d

PR
3
/EI
o

sin
2

(Equation 6)

The loading force


P
, the radius
R
, the elastic modulus
E
and the moment of inertia I, areall constants and can be factored out of the integral. Integrating with respect to
thetayields the following equation for the vertical deflection of semicircular beam:
V = [PR
3
] / [2EI]

(Equation 7)
To calculate the horizontal deflection of a semicircular beam, a dummy variable
H
must me employed as seen in Figure 1.
H
represents a fictitious loading force in thehorizontal direction. Inserting the dummy variable allows for the
integration in thehorizontal direction. Substituting Equations 2, 3 and 5 into the general expression of Castiglianos
theorem yields the following expression:
H =
1/EI *
o

[PRsin + HR(1
-
cos)][R(1
-
cos)]
R
d

(Equation 8)

Factoring out the constants


P
and
R
, and letting
H
equal zero, Equation 7 becomes:
H =
1/EI *
o

PR
3
[sin
-
sincos)] d

PR
3
/EI
o

[sin
-
sincos)]
d
(Equation 9)

Integrating Equation 9 with respect to theta yields the equation for the horizontaldeflection of a curved beam.
H = 2PR
3
/EI

(Equation 10)

Figure 2:
Diagram of the davit of the testing apparatus featuring forces and finite quantities. The light gray member of the
diagram is the davit before loading and the dark gray member is the davit after the load is applied.
The calculations for the vertical and horizontal deflection of the davit differslightly from those of the semicircular
beam.The davit consists of a quarter circle curvedbeam and a straight leg that connects to the base as seen in Figure
2. This means that thecalculations of deflection must be broken into two parts: one integral for the curvedsection of
the beam and another for the straight leg of the beam. The integration of thecurved section of the davit is bound by
zero and /2 because it is a quarter -circle and theintegration of the leg is bound by zero at the base of the
beam and the length L of the straight segment of the beam.To calculate the vertical deflection caused by a force of
loading for a davit, thegeneral equation of Castiglianos theorem is modified to account for the straight segmentof
the beam. Substitute Equations 2, 3 and 4 into the general Castigliano equation andappend an integral that
expresses the moment endured by the straight segmen