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JURISDICTION

SYLLABUS

I. Definitions and concepts

A. Overview Definitions and Concepts

1. Jurisdiction distinguished from exercise of jurisdiction


Case: Antonino vs. Register of Deeds of Makati City, G.R. No. 185663, June 2012

Case: Spouses Abrenica vs. Law Firm of Abrenica, et al., G.R. No. 180572, June
18,2012

Case: Spouses Manila vs. Spouses Manzo, G.R. No. 163602, September 7,2011

Case: Navida, et al. vs. Dizon, Jr., et al. and allied cases, G.R. Nos. 125078, et al.,
May 30,2011

Case: Biaco vs. Philippine Countryside Rural Bank, G.R. No. 161417. February 8,
2007

Case: Velayo-Fong vs. Velayo, G.R. No. 155488. December 6, 2006

Case analysis/critique (to be submitted):

Is there a violation on established jurisprudence with respect to jurisdiction?

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Judge Mangotara, etc., et al., G.R. Nos.
170375, et al., July 7,2010 (MAIN decision)

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Judge Mangotara, etc., et al., G.R. Nos.
170375, et al., July 7,2010 (Resolution)

2. Error/s of jurisdiction and error/s of judgment contradistinguished


and in relation to issue/s of law and issue/s of fact

CASE: Dipad vs. Olivan, 677 SCRA 469 [2012]

CASE: UCPB vs. Lumbo, G.R. 162757, December 11,2013

CASE: Ligot vs. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 176944, March 6,2013

CASE: Sabili vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 193261, April 24,2012

CASE: AGG Trucking vs. Yuag, G.R. No. 195033, October 12,2011

CASE: People of the Philippines vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 173396, September
22,2010

CASE: Metropolitan Bank & Trust Company vs. Veridiano II, G.R. 118251, June
29,2001

CASE: People of the Philippines vs. Asis, G.R. No. 173089, August 25,2010

CASE: People of the Philippines vs. Tria-Tirona, G.R. No. 130106, July 15,2005

CASE: Lee vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 159288, October 19,2004

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CASE: Tan y Chua vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. 148194, April 12,2002

3. Jurisdiction conferred by law not by the parties nor by their


agreement or consent
CASE: Heirs of Santiago Nisperas vs. Nisperas-Ducusin, 702 SCRA 721 (2013)

CASE: Cojuangco, Jr. vs. Republic of the Philippines, 686 SCRA 472 [2013]

CASE: Baguio Market Vendors Multi-purpose Cooperative (BAMARVEMPO) vs.


Cabato-Cortes, 613 SCRA 733 (2007)

4. How jurisdiction is determined


CASE: Bases Conversion Development Authority vs. Provincial Agrarian Reform
Officer of Pampanga, 675 SCRA 7 (2013)

CASE: Republic of the Philippines vs. Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila, 685
SCRA 216 (2013)

CASE: Bank of the Philippines Islands vs. Hong, 666 SCRA 71 (2013)

CASE: Heirs of Candido Del Rosario vs. Del Rosario, 674 SCRA 180 (2013)

CASE: Bank of Commerce vs. Planters Development Bank, G.R. Nos. 154470-
71& & 154589-90, September 24,2012, 681 SCRA 521

B. Allocation of jurisdiction
CASE: Gomez-Castillo vs. COMELEC, 621 SCRA 499 (2007)

CASE: DBM Procurement Service vs. Kolonwell Trading, 524 SCRA 591(2007)

CASE: COMELEC vs. Aguirre, 532 SCRA 545 (2007)

CASE: Sevilleno vs. COMELEC, 533 SCRA 385 (2007)

CASE: Cosco Philippine Shipping, Inc. vs. Kemper Insurance Company, 670
SCRA 343 (2012)

CASE: Go vs. Distinction Properties Development and Construction, Inc., 671


SCRA 461 (2012)

CASE: In re: Letters of Atty. Estelito P. Mendoza Re: G.R. No. 178083 Flight
Attendants and Stewards Association of the Philippines (FASAP) vs.
Philippine Airlines, Inc. (PAL), et al., 668 SCRA 11 (2012)

1. When act is done without jurisdiction effect/s


CASE: People of the Philippines vs. Sandiganbayan (Fourth Division), 665 SCRA
89 (2012)

CASE: Taglay vs. Daray, 678 SCRA 640 (2013)

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C. TYPES/CLASSES of jurisdiction

1. Original concurrent jurisdiction vis--vis original exclusive


jurisdiction
Case: Vivas vs. Monetary Board of the BSP, G.R. No. 191424, August 7,2013
(strict observance of hierarchy of courts)

Case: Pacific Asia Finance Ltd. (PAFIN) vs. Yanizagawa, 669 SCRA 270 [2012]

Case: Civil Service Commission vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. 178162, October
9,2012

Case: Llamas vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 149588, September 29,2009

Case: Lastimoso vs. Asayo, G.R. No. 154243, March 6,2007

Case: Garcia vs. Sandiganbayan, et al., G.R. No. June 22,2005

Case: Alejandro vs. Office of the Ombudsman Fact-Finding and Intelligence


Bureau, G.R. No. 173121, April 3,2013

2. Appellate jurisdiction vs. original jurisdiction

a) Definitions
CASE: Maslag vs. Monzon, 698 SCRA 584 [2013]

CASE: Maglalang vs. PAGCOR, G.R. No. 190566, December 11,2013

3. General jurisdiction vis--vis special or limited jurisdiction

Case: Yoshizaki vs. Joy Training Center of Aurora, Inc., G.R. 174978, July 31,2013

Case: Philippine Overseas Telecommunications Corp. vs. Africa, G.R. Nos.


184622, 184712-14, 186066 & 186590, July 3,2013

Case: Aguirre II vs. FQB+7, Inc., G.R. No. 170770, January 9,2013

Case: Okol vs. Slimmers World International, G.R. No. 160146, December
11,2009

Case: WT Construction, Inc. vs. Caete, G.R. No. 157287, February 12,2008

Case: Tamano vs. Ortiz, G.R. No. 126603, June 29,1998

4. Concurrent jurisdiction
Case: Pat-og, Sr. vs. Civil Service Commission, 697 SCRA 567 [2013]

D. Court of law and court of equity distinguished

Case: Ting Ho, Jr., et al. vs. Teng Gui, G.R. No. 130115, July 16,2008

Case: In re: Petition for Separation of Property; Muller vs. Muller, G.R. No.
149615, August 29,2006

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Case: Philippine Carpet Manufacturing Corp. vs. Tagyamon, G.R. No. 191475,
December 11,2013

E. Court of Justice and Quasi-judicial bodies distinguished


Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Asuncion, G.R. No. 108208, March 11,1994

Case: Pichay, Jr. vs. Office of the Deputy Executive Secretary for Legal Affairs-
IAD, G.R. No. 196425, July 24,2012

Case: Biraogo vs. The Philippine Truth Commission of 2010, G.R. No. 192935 &
193036, December 7,2010

Case: Simon, Jr. vs. Commission on Human Rights, G.R. No. 100150, January
5,1994

Case: Cario vs. Commission on Human Rights, G.R. No. 96681, December
12,1991

F. Essence of adjudicatory powers


CASE: Heirs of Spouses Crispulo Ferrer and Engracia Puhawan vs. Court of
Appeals, 623 SCRA 637

1. Adherence to jurisdiction: exception


CASE: Vda. De Ballesteros vs. Rural Bank of Canaman, Inc., 636 SCRA 119
(2007)

G. Jurisdiction contradistinguished from venue

Case: Dolot vs. Paje, etc., et al., G.R. No. 199199, August 27,2013; 703 SCRA
650 (2013)

Case: Ang vs. Spouses Ang, G.R. No. 186993, August 22,2012

Case: Taglay vs. Daray, G.R. No. 164258, August 22,2012

Case: Spouses Mendiola vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 159746, July 18,2012

Case: Civil Service Commission vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 173121, April
3,2013

Compare with:

Case: Civil Service Commission vs. Alfonso, G.R. No. 179452, June 11,2009, 589
SCRA 88;

Case: Civil Service Commission vs. Sojos, G.R. No. 168766,May 22,2008, 554
SCRA 160

Case: Associated Labor Union vs. Ramolete, L-23537, March 31,1965

Case: De la Cruz vs. Moir, 36 Phil. 213

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1. Venue and jurisdiction in criminal actions

Case: Sto. Tomas, et al. vs. Salac, et al., G.R. Nos. 152642, 152710, et al.,
November 13,2012

CASE: Evangelista vs. People, 620 SCRA 134 (2010)

CASE: Bonifacio vs. RTC-Makati City, Br. 149, 620 SCRA 268 (2010)

CASE: Union Bank of the Philippines vs. People, 667 SCRA 113 (2013)

H. Jurisdiction as determined by the presence of essential elements

1. Jurisdiction over the person or JURISDICTION IN PERSONAM

a) Civil actions

(1) Jurisdiction over the plaintiff/petitioner


CASE: Macasaet vs. Co, Jr., 697 SCRA 187 (2013)

(a) Complaint/petition NOT filed by


plaintiff/petitioner personally or without
authority deemed as if NOT filed

CASE: Palmiano-Salvador vs. Angeles, 679 SCRA 561 [2012]

b) Jurisdiction over the defendant/respondent

Case: Optima Realty Corp. vs. Hertz Phil. Exclusive Cars, Inc., G.R. No. 183035,
January 9,2013

Case: Elice Agro-Industrial Corp. vs. Young, G.R. No. 174077, November 21,2012

Case: Afadal vs. Carlos, G.R. No. 173379, December 1,2010

Case: Rapid City Realty and Development Corp. vs. Spouses Villa, G.R. No.
184197, February 11.2010

Case: Philippine National Bank vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 82971, Sept.
15,1989

Case: Europa vs. Hunters Garments Mfg., Inc., G.R. No. 72827, July 18,1989

Case: Sharuf vs. Bubla, G.R. No. L-17029, Sept. 30,1964

Case: Aban vs. Enage, G.R. No. L-30666, Feb. 25,1983

c) How jurisdiction over a defendant outside of the Philippines


is acquired

CASE: Macasaet vs. Co, Jr., 697 SCRA 187 (2013)

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(1) Jurisdiction over defendant acquired by summons
and filing of responsive pleading NOT by mere
knowledge or information acquired by defendant or
respondent of the case
CASE: Ellice Agro-Industrial Corporation vs. Young, 686 SCRA 51 [2013]

CASE: Crisologo vs. Omelio, 682 SCRA 154 (2012)

(a) Defendants active participation in the case


may be deemed as a waiver by estoppel
CASE: Maxicare PCIB Cigna Healthcare (now Maxicare Healthcare Corporation)
vs. Contreras, 689 SCRA 763 [2013]

CASE: Heirs of Jose Fernando vs. De Belen, 700 SCRA 556 [2013]

2. Jurisdiction over the subject matter JURISDICTION IN REM

CASE: Department of Agrarian Reform vs. Paramount Holdings Equities, Inc., 698
SCRA 324 (2013)

CASE: Valcurza vs. Tamparong, 705 SCRA 128 (2013)

Case: Applied Food Ingredients Co., Inc. vs. Commissioner of Internal Revenue,
G.R. No. 184266, November 11,2013

Case: Province of Aklan vs. Jody King Construction and Development Corp., G.R.
No. 197592 & 202623, November 27,2013
Case: Boston Equity Resources, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 173946, June
19,2013
Case: Padlan vs. Spouses Dinglasan, G.R. No. 180321, March 20,2013, 694
SCRA 91 (2013) (application of the exception established in Sibonghanoy
vs. Tijam, 131 Phil. 556 (1968)

Case: People of the Philippines vs. Estrebella, 164 SCRA 114

Case: Llorea vs. Leonidas, 159 SCRA 332 (1988)


Case: Republic Planters Bank vs. Molina, 166 SCRA 39 (1988)
Case: Associated Labor Union (ALU-TUCP) vs. Borromeo, 166 SCRA 99 (1988)

a) Jurisdiction neither affected nor altered by any theory or


defence of the defendant
Case: Medical Plaza Makati Condominium Corp. vs. Cullen, G.R. No. 181416,
November 11,2013

3. Jurisdictional amount
CASE: Maslag vs. Monzon, 698 SCRA 584 [2013]

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a) When value of subject matter involved in the action
determinative as to which court has jurisdiction

(1) Rule 141 (Legal Fees) Sections 4, 7, 8, 21(a),


and 21(i)

(2) Rules governing small claims

(3) Metropolitan Trial Court

(a) Section 33, Batas Pambansa 129 (as


amended by R.A. No. 7691; see also Adm. Circ.
No. 09-04 and SC Circular no. 21-99)

(b) Section 34, Batas Pambansa 129 (as


amended by R.A. No. 7691)

(4) Regional Trial Court

(a) Section 19(2)/(3)/(4)/(8)

b) Power of Regional Trial Court as a reviewing court


CASE: V.C. Ponce Company, Inc. vs. Municipality of Paraaque, 685 SCRA 117
[2012]

I. Doctrines affecting jurisdiction and the exercise of jurisdiction

1. Doctrine of primary jurisdiction and doctrine of exhaustion of


administrative remedies
Case: Busuego vs. Office of the Ombudsman (Mindanao), 707 SCRA 298 (2013)

Case: Smart Communications, Inc. vs. Aldecoa, G.R. No. 166330, September
11,2013

Case: San Miguel Properties, Inc. vs. Perez, G.R. 166836, September 4,2013

Case: Addition Hills Mandaluyong Civic & Social Organization, Inc. vs. Megaworld
Properties & Holdings, Inc., G.R. No. 175039, April 18,2012

Case: Saavedra vs. Securities and Exchange Commission, 159 SCRA 57 (1988)

Case: Blue Bar Coconut Phils. vs. Tantuico, 163 SCRA 716 (1988)

a) Exception
Case: Province of Aklan vs. Jody King Construction and Development
Corporation, G.R. Nos. 197592 & 202623, November 27,2013, 707 SCRA
298 (2013)

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2. Doctrine of continuing jurisdiction
Case: Garcia vs. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 198554, July 30,2012

3. Doctrine of hierarchy of courts; application


CASE: Kulayan vs. Tan, 675 SCRA 482 (2013)

a) Exceptions; relaxation of the rule


CASE: United Claimants of NEA (UNICAN) vs. National Electrification
Administration (NEA), 665 SCRA 483 (2013)

CASE: Tuna Processing, Inc. vs. Kingford, Inc., 667 SCRA 287 (2013)

CASE: Capalla vs. Commission on Elections, 673 SCRA 1 (2013)

J. Types of action determinative of jurisdiction

1. Accion reinvindicatoria and accion publiciana distinguished


Case: Spouses Aldover, et als. vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 167174. September
23, 2013

Case: Ganila, et als. vs. Court of Appeals, et al., G.R. No. 150755. June 28, 2005

Case: Jose vs. Alfuerto, et als., G.R. No. 169380. November 26, 2012

Case: Vda. De Viray vs. Spouses Usi, G.R. No. 192486. November 21, 2012

Case: Monasterio-Pe, et al. vs. Tong, etc., G.R. No. 151369. March 23, 2011

2. Action in rem, quasi in rem and action in personam distinguished


Case: Macasaet vs. Co, Jr., G.R. No. 156759. June 5, 2013

Case: NM Rothschild & Sons (Australia) Ltd. vs. Lepanto Consolidated Mining
Company, G.R. No. 175799, November 28, 2011

Case: Lucas vs. Lucas, G.R. No. 190710. June 6, 2011

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Mercadera, G.R. No. 186027. December 8,
2010

Spouses Torres vs. Medina, et al., G.R. No. 166730. March 10, 2010

Case: Acosta, et als. vs. Salazar, et al., G.R. No. 161034. June 30, 2009

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Glasgow Credit and Collection Services, Inc.,
G.R. No. 170281, January 18,2008
Case: Manotok Realty, Inc., et al. vs. CLT Development Corp., G.R. No. 123346.
December 14, 2007

Case: Biaco vs. Philippine Countryside Rural Bank, G.R. No. 161417. February 8,
2007

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Case: Velayo-Fong vs. Velayo, G.R. No. 155488. December 6, 2006

K. Class suit
Case: Legaspi Towers 300, et als. vs. Muer, G.R. No. 170783. June 18, 2012

Case: Juana Complex I Homeowners Association, Inc., et als. vs. Fil-Estate Land,
Inc., et als., G.R. No. 152272. March 5, 2012

Case: Banda, et als. vs. Ermita, et al., G.R. No. 166620. April 20, 2010

Case: Public Interest Center, Inc., et als. vs. Roxas, et al., G.R. No. 125509.
January 31, 2007

II. The Judiciary

A. Source of authority

1. 1987 Constitution

a) Section 1, Article VIII (Judicial Department)

2. Statutory history on the organization of the judiciary/judicial


system in the Philippines

a) Act No. 136 (1901) Act providing for the organization of


courts in the Philippine Islands including the Supreme Court

b) Administrative Code of 1916 and 1917

c) Republic Act No. 296 (Judiciary Law of 1948 as


amended by RA Nos. 2613, 3828 and 6031)

d) Batas Pambansa Bilang 129, as amended

B. Organization of Courts

1. Supreme Court

a) Composition and organization Section 4(1), Article


VIII, 1987 Constitution

(1) Composition - Internal Rules of the Supreme


Court, Rule 2, Sec. 8
The composition of each Division shall be based on seniority. The Chief
Justice may, however, consider factors other than seniority in Division
assignments. The appointment of a new Member of the Court shall necessitate the
reorganization of Divisions at the call of the Chief Justice.

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(2) Effect of reorganization of a division of the
Supreme Court - Internal Rules of the Supreme Court,
Rule 2, Sec. 9
"Effect of reorganization of Division on assigned cases. In the
reorganization of Membership of Divisions, cases already assigned to a Member-
in-Charge shall be transferred to the Division to which the Member-in-Charge
moves, subject to the rule on the resolution of motions for reconsideration under
Section 7 of this Rule. The Member-in-Charge is the Member given the
responsibility of overseeing the progress and disposition of a case assigned by
raffle."

b) Qualification, appointment, tenure of office, and


removal from office

(1) Qualifications, appointment and tenure

(a) Section 7(1), Article VIII 1987 Constitution

(b) Section 9, Article VIII, 1987 Constitution


(i) Section 8, Article VIII, 1987
Constitution

(c) Section 11, Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

c) Removal from office - Section 2, Article XI, 1987


Constitution

(1) Removal ONLY through impeachment and not


by any other action or process
Case: Cuenco vs. Fernan, A.C. No. 3135, February 17,1988

d) Vacancy in the office of the Chief Justice - Section 4(1),


Article VIII, 1987 Constitution
Case: De Castro vs. Judicial and Bar Council, G.R. Nos. 191002, etc., March
17,2010

e) Decisions promulgated by the Supreme Court shall


form part of the legal system
Case: Calderon vs. Carale, etc., et al., G.R. No. 91636, April 23,1992

f) Decisions of the Supreme Court even if decided by one


of its division remains a decision of the court as a whole
Legal precept - THERE IS ONLY ONE SUPREME COURT FROM WHOSE DECISION ALL
OTHER COURTS SHOULD TAKE THEIR BEARINGS .

Case: Luspo vs. People of the Philippines, 739 SCRA 133 (2014)

Case: United States v. Lim Siongco, 41 Phil 94 (1920)

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Case: Diaz vs. Republic, G.R. No. 181502, February 2,2010

Case: Commission on Higher Education v. Dasig, G.R. No. 172776, 17 December


2008, 574 SCRA 227

Case: Albert v. Court of First Instance of Manila, No. L-26364, 29 May 1968, 23
SCRA 948, 961

Case: Vir-Jen Shipping and Marine Services, Inc. vs. NLRC, et al., G.R. No. L-
58011 and L-58012, November 18,1993

Case: Apo Fruits Plantation v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 164195, April 30, 2008

Case: Keppel Cebu Shipyard, Inc. vs. Pioneer Insurance and Surety Corp., G.R.
Nos. 180880-1808896-97, September 18,2012

Case: J.G. Summit Holdings vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124293, January
31,2005

Case: In re: Letters of Atty. Estelito Mendoza, A.M. No. 11-10-1-SC March 13,2012

But see:

Case: In re: Petition for Clarification as to the Validity and Forceful Effect of
Two Final and Executory but Conflicting Decisions of the Honorable
Supreme Court, G.R. No. 123870, September 24,2002

g) Supreme Court as a constitutional court


Case: Conchada vs. Director of Prisons, G.R. No. 10292, March 31,1915; 31 Phil.
94 Supreme Court has expressly ruled as to its being a constitutional
court

Case: Tolentino vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. L-34150, October 16,1971

Case: Ocampo vs. Cabagis, 15 Phil. 626 (1910) judicial self-restraint

Case: Delbros Hotel Corp. vs. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 72566, April
12,1988

Case: De la Llana vs. Alba, G.R. No. 57883, March 12,1982

Case: In re: Aquino vs. Enrile, Jr., G.R. No. L-35546, September 17,1974

Case: Fuentes vs. Director of Prisons, G.R. 22449, July 28,1924; 46 Phil. 22

(1) When doctrine of political question not applied or


applicable
Case: IDEALS, Inc. vs. PSALM Corp., G.R. No. 192088, October 9,2012

Case: Mamba vs. Lara, G.R. No. 165109, December 14,2009

(2) When mootness can be disregarded


CASE: Neri vs. Sandiganbayan (Fifth Division), 703 SCRA 350 [2013]

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CASE: Deutsche Bank AG vs. Court of Appeals, 667 SCRA 82 [2012]

CASE: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, Inc.


vs. Greenpeace Southeast Asia (Philippines), G.R. Nos. 209271, 209276,
209301 & 209430, December 8,2015

h) How the Supreme Court determine cases that shall be


tried en banc or by a division

(1) Cases cognizable by the Court en banc


Section 4(2), 1987 Constitution

(2) Cases cognizable by the Court through one of


its Division Section 4(3)

i) Internal Rules of Procedure of the Supreme Court


governing the raffle of cases either to en banc or division

(1) Internal Rules of the Supreme Court, Rule 7,


Sec. 2
"Two Raffle Committees one for the en banc and the other for Division cases,
each to be composed of a Chairperson and two members shall be designated
by the Chief Justice from among the Members of the Court on the basis of
seniority."

(2) Internal Rules of the Supreme Court, Rule 6,


Section 6
"A court attorney in the Docket Division shall preliminarily classify the petitions and
appeals filed as en banc or as Division Cases in accordance with law." (Internal
Rules of the Supreme Court, Rule 6, Sec. 6)

(3) Internal Rules of the Supreme Court, Rule 6,


Section 4
"The initiatory pleadings duly docketed by the Judicial Records Office shall be
classified into en banc and Division cases for purposes of the raffle. The Clerk of
Court shall forthwith make a report on the classified cases to the Chief Justice."
(Id., Sec. 4)

j) Decision of the Supreme Court not reviewable by any


other body even by the other coequal branches
Case: In re: Joaquin Boromeo, A.M. No. 93-7-696-0, February 21,1995

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2. Jurisdiction/authority of the Supreme Court over
administrative matters or cases within the judiciary

a) Section 5(6), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

b) Change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage


of justice - Section 5(4), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

3. Jurisdiction/administrative authority over courts and personnel

a) Section 5(3), 1987 Constitution; Section 17, 18, BP Blg


129 as amended

Case: Re: Alleged Corruption in the Court of Appeals, Cagayan De Oro City, A.M.
No. 07-6-14-CA, January 18,2011

Case: Re: Request of Assistant Court Administrators, A.M. Nos. 03-10-05-SC &
03-11-25-SC, July 20,2006

4. Rule-making power Section 5(5), Article VIII, 1987


Constitution; Section 24, BP Blg 129 as amended

Case: GSIS vs. Cancino-Erum, A.M. No. RTJ-09-2182, September 5,2012

Case: Benguet Corporation vs. DENR, G.R. No. 163101, February 13,2008

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Gingoyon, G.R. No. 166429, December
19,2005

Case: Tan vs. Bausch & Lomb Inc., G.R. No. 148420, December 15,2005

Case: Garcia, et al. vs. De Vera, A.C. No. 6025, December 11,2003

C. Supreme Court sitting as Presidential Electoral Tribunal Section 4,


paragraph 7, Article VII, 1987 Constitution

Case: Macalintal vs. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 191618, November
23,2010 (Decision)

Case: Macalintal vs. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 191618, June 7,2011
(Resolution)

Case: Poe-Llmanzares vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. Nos. 221697 &


221698-700, March 8,2016

Case: Legarda vs. De Castro, PET Case No. 003, January 18,2008 see also
decision promulgated on March 31,2005

Case: Poe vs. Macapagal-Arroyo, PET Case No. 002, March 29,2005

Case: Tecson vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. Nos. 161434, 161634 & 161824,
March 4,2004

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D. Limitation: when exercise of authority borders on judicial legislation

Case: People of the Philippines vs. Panfilo Lacson, G.R. No. 149453, April 1,2003

Case: Philacor Credit corp. vs. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R. No.
169899, February 6,2013

Case: Fetalino vs. COMELEC, G.R. No. 191890, December 4,2012

E. ORIGINAL jurisdiction over certain cases

1. Cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and


consuls, and over petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo
warranto and habeas corpus - Section 1, Article VIII, 1987
Constitution
Case: Liang vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 125865, March 26,2001

a) CONCURRENT jurisdiction with lower courts over


petitions for certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto
and habeas corpus

(1) Application of the doctrine of hierarchy of courts

(a) General rule

CASE: Latorre vs. Latorre, 617 SCRA 88 (2010)

CASE: Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) vs.


Thunderbird Pilipinas Hotels and Resorts, Inc. 720 SCRA 178 (2014)

(b) Relaxation of the rule grounds/basis

Case: Gerochi, et al. vs. Department of Energy, et al., G.R. No. 159796, July
17,2007

Case: Liga ng mga Barangay National vs. City Mayor of Manila, G.R. No. 154599,
January 21,2004

Case: Dy vs. Bibat-Palamos, G.R. No. 196200, September 11,2013

Case: Aquino III vs. Commission on Elections, 617 SCRA 623 (2010)

Case: Chamber of Real Estate and Builders Associations, Inc. (CREBA) vs.
Secretary of Agrarian Reform, 621 SCRA 295 (2010)

Case: Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) vs. Fontana


Development Corporation, 622 SCRA 461 (2010)

Case: Dio vs. Subic Bay Marine Exploratorium, Inc., 726 SCRA 244

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Sunvar Realty Development Corporation,


700 SCRA 320

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(i) Concurrence of jurisdiction of
the courts especially with that of
the Supreme Court will not
necessarily result in the exclusion
of the latter in favor of the other
courts
Case: Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap, Inc. vs. Robredo, 730 SCRA 322
(2010)

b) Cases involving the constitutionality or validity of any


treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential
decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or
regulation is in question - Section 2(a), Article VIII, 1987
Constitution

Case: Bayan Muna vs. Romulo, G.R. No. 159618, February 1,2011

Case: People of the Philippines vs. Mercado, et al., G.R. No. 116239, November
29,2000

(a) Extradition

Case: Government of the United States vs. Purganan, G.R. No. 148571,
December 17,2002 (Resolution)

Case: Government of the United States vs. Purganan, G.R. No. 148571,
September 24,2002 (Decision)

c) Cases involving the legality of any tax, impost,


assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation
thereto - Section 2(b), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

Case: Atlas Consolidated Mining and Development Corp. vs. Commissioner of


Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 159471, January 26,2011

Case: Smart Communications, Inc. vs. City of Davao, G.R. No. 155491, July
21,2009

Case: Fort Bonifacio Development Corporation vs. Commissioner of Internal


Revenue, G.R. No. 158885, April 2,2009

Case: Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs. Philippine Global Communications,


Inc., G.R. No. 144696,August 16,2006

d) Cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in


issue - Section 2(c), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

e) Penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher -


Section 2(d), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

Case: People of the Philippines vs. Mercado, et al., G.R. No. 116239, November
29,2000

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Case: People of the Philippines vs. Espejon, G.R. No. 134767, February 22,2002

Case: People of the Philippines vs. Mercado, G.R. No. 116239, November
29,2000

Case: Echegaray vs. Secretary of Justice, et al., G.R. No. 132601, October
12,1998

f) Cases in which only an error or question of law is


involved - Section 2(e), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

(1) Certiorari as a special civil action


contradistinguished from certiorari as a mode of
appeal
Case: Angalan vs. Delante, A.C. No. 7181, February 6,2009

(2) When question/issue of law, when


question/issue of fact
Case: Del Prado vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 186030, March 21,2012

Case: Santos vs. Committee on Claims Settlement, etc., et al., G.R. No. 158071,
April 2,2009

Case: Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila vs. Ramos, G.R. No. 179181,
November 18,2013

Case: Abella y Perpetua vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 198400, October
7,2013

Case: Plameras vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 187268, September
4,2013

Case: Corales vs. Republic of the Philippines, G.R. No. 186613, August 27,2013

Case: Bases Conversion Development Authority vs. Reyes, G.R. 194247, June
19,2013

Cases: Asian Terminals, Inc. vs. Simon Enterprises, G.R. 177116, February
27,2013

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Jaralve, etc., et al., G.R. No. 175177,
October 24,2012

Case: Vda. Del Prado vs. People of the Philippines, G.R. No. 186030, March
21,2012

Case: F.F. Cruz & Co., Inc. vs. HR Construction Corp., G.R. No. 187521, March
14,2012

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Sagun, G.R. No. 187567, February 15,2012

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Mangotara, G.R. No. 170375, July 7,2010

Page | 16
2. Court of Appeals
a. Composition, qualifications, appointment, tenure of office and
removal from office of members - Chapter I, Section 9, Batas
Pambansa Blg. 129
i. Seniority of rank among members of the Court of Appeals

Case: Re: Seniority Among the Recent Appointments to the Position of Associate
Justice in the Court of Appeals, A.M. No. 10-2-22-SC, September 28,2010

ii. Organization of the Court


1. When the Court of Appeals act en banc
iii. When the Court of Appeals act through a division

Case: Gonzales vs. Tolentino, 611 SCRA 179 (2010)

Case: Nio vs. Pizarro, 613 SCRA 302 (2010)

1. Who presides over sessions of a division


2. Quorum
b. Jurisdiction exercised by the Court of Appeals over certain cases
i. Authority to issue writs of mandamus, prohibition, certiorari,
habeas corpus and quo warranto, auxiliary writs or processes
whether or not in aid of its appellate jurisdiction

Case: National Water Resources Board (NWRB) vs. A.L. Ang Network, Inc., 618
SCRA 22 (2010)

ii. Authority to pass upon issues concerning evidence in order to


resolve factual issues as and when the need arises in
certiorari proceedings under Rules 65

Case: Wesleyan University-Philippines vs. Reyes, 731 SCRA 516 (2014)

Case: Mercado vs. AMA Computer College-Paraaque City, 618 SCRA 218 (2010)

Case: Central Mindanao University vs. The Executive Secretary, 631 SCRA 30
(2010)

iii. May also review assignment or errors not expressly raised on


appeal

Case: Holy Trinity Realty and Development Corporation vs. Dela Cruz, 739 SCRA
229 (2014)

iv. Failure to observe hierarchy of courts by appealing directly to


the Supreme Court

Case: Alonso vs. Cebu Country Club, Inc. 618 SCRA 619 (2010)

v. Annulment of judgments rendered by a Regional Trial Court

Case: Ingles vs. Estrada, 695 SCRA 285 (2013)

Page | 17
vi. Cases decided by the National Labor Commission

Case: Univac Development, Inc. vs. Soriano, 699 SCRA 88 (2013)

vii. Resolutions by the Department of Justice

Case: Gaditano vs. San Miguel Corporation, 702 SCRA 191 (2013)

Case: Hasegawa vs. Giron, 703 SCRA 549 (2013)

viii. Jurisdiction over orders, directives and decisions of the Office


of the Ombudsman

Case: Duyon vs. Former Special Fourth Division of the Court of Appeals, 742
SCRA 416 (2014)

ix. Cases involving concurrent jurisdiction with the Regional Trial


Court

Case: Baez, Jr. vs. Concepcion, 679 SCRA 237 (2014)

Case: People of the Philippines vs. Dela Torre-Yadao, 685 SCRA 264 (2014)

x. Jurisdiction over resolutions by the Bureau of Immigration

Case: Guy vs. Ignacio, 622 SCRA 678 (2010)

xi. Jurisdiction over Sharia Courts

Case: Tomawis vs. Balindong, 614 SCRA 354 (2010)

3. Regional Trial Courts


a. Creation and Organization Sections 13-14, BP Blg 129 as
amended
b. Qualifications, appointment, tenure of office, and removal from office

Section 7(2) & (3), Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

Section 15, Batas Pambansa Blg. 129 as amended

i. Assignment of Regional Trial Judges

Section 17, Batas Pambansa Blg. 129 as amended

ii. Authority to define territory appurtenant to each branch

Section 6, Article VIII, 1987 Constitution

Section 18, Batas Pambansa Blg. 129 as amended

iii. Delegation of additional powers or functions


iv. Jurisdiction
1. Civil cases Section 19, BP Blg 129 as amended
2. Criminal cases Section 20, BP Blg 129 as amended

Page | 18
3. Original jurisdiction in other cases Section 21, BP Blg
129 as amended
4. Appellate Jurisdiction Section 22, BP Blg 129 as
amended
5. Special jurisdiction over special cases section 23, BP
Blg 129 as amended Administrative circulars of the
Supreme Court
a. (Supreme Court) Administrative Order No. 51-96
Re: Special courts for kidnapping, robbery,
dangerous drugs, carnapping and other heinous
crimes under Republic Act No. 7659
b. Republic Act No. 8369 Family Courts Act of
1997, and amending section 15 of Batas
Pambansa Blg. 129
c. Republic Act No. 6657 Comprehensive
Agrarian Reform Law (CARP)

Case: Land Bank of the Philippines vs. Eusebio, Jr. 728 SCRA 447 [2014]

(i) When agrarian case falls within


exclusive and primary jurisdiction
of Department of Agraian Reform
Adjudication Board (DARAB)
Case: Land Bank of the Philippines vs. Peralta, 723 SCRA 528 [2014]

Case: Jose vs. Novida, 728 SCRA 552 [2014]

Case: Automat Realty and Development Corporation vs. Dela Cruz, Sr., 737
SCRA 395 [2014]

d. Republic Act no. 8799 - Intra-corporate


controversies

Case: Securities and Exchange Commission vs. Court of Appeals, 739 SCRA 99
[2014]

Case: Aguirre II vs. FQB+7, Inc., 688 SCRA 242 [2013]

6. Acting as a probate court

Case: Aranas vs. Mercado, 713 SCRA 194 [2014]

7. Special rules of procedures applicable in certain cases


Section 24, BP Blg 129 as amended
8. Doctrine of residual jurisdiction

Case: Angeles vs. Court of Appeals, 735 SCRA 82 (2014)

Case: Villareal vs. People of the Philippines, 743 SCRA 351 (2014)

4. Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial
Courts

Page | 19
a. Creation and organization Section 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, BP Blg 129
as amended
b. Qualifications, appointment, tenure of office and removal from office
Section 26, BP Blg 129 as amended
c. Jurisdiction
i. Civil cases Section 33, BP Blg 129 as amended
ii. Criminal cases Section 32, BP Blg 129 as amended
iii. Delegated jurisdiction Section 34, BP Blg 129 as amended
iv. Special jurisdiction Section 35, BP Blg 129 as amended
v. Preliminary investigation Section 37, BP Blg 129 as
amended
d. Judgments and processes Section 38, BP Blg 129 as amended

5. Sandiganbayan
a. Creation

i. Presidential Decree No. 1486 as revised by Presidential


Decree No. 1606
Case: People of the Philippines vs. Go, 719 SCRA 704 (2014)

b. Powers and Functions


c. Division of the Court
i. Quorum
ii. Rules of Procedure

6. Court of Tax Appeals


a. Creation and Appointment
i. Jurisdiction over certain types of tax cases
ii. Power to promulgate its own rules

Case: Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs. United Salvage and Towage (Phils.),
Inc., 729 SCRA 113 (2014)

iii. Power to administer oaths, issue subpoena, punish for


contempt
iv. Violation of penal law
b. Instances where CTA exercises exclusive appellate jurisdiction

Case: Smart Communications, Inc. vs. Municipality of Malvar, Batangas, 716


SCRA 677 (2014)

Case: Silicon Philippines, Inc. vs. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 717 SCRA
30 (2014)

Case: Miramar Fish Company, Inc. vs. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 724
SCRA 611 (2014)

i. Authority of CTA to issue or grant writs of certiorari

Page | 20
Case: The City of Amanila vs. Brecia-Cuerdo, 715 SCRA 182 (2014)

Case: City of Lapu-Lapu vs. Philippine Economic Zone Authority, 742 SCRA 524
(2014)

7. Sharia Courts
a. Authority - Republic Act No. 9054

Case: Villagracia vs. Fifth (5th) Sharia District Court, 723 SCRA [2014]

III. Quasi-courts of Justice

A. Constitutional Commissions

1. Civil Service Commission

a) Powers and Functions


Case: Ejera vs. Merto, 714 SCRA 397 [2014]

Case: Barcelona vs. Lim, 724 SCRA 433 [2014]

2. Commission on Elections

a) Powers and Functions

b) COMELEC rulings or decisions reviewable by the


Supreme Court
Case: Sahali vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 201796, January
15,2013

Case: Cagas vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 194139, January


24,2012

Case: Cayetano vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 193846, April


12,2011

c) Automated election cases


Case: Maliksi vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 203302, April 11,2013

3. Commission on Audit

a) Powers and Functions


Case: Funa vs. Manila Economic and Cultural Office, 715 SCRA 247 [2014]

Case: Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) vs.


Commission on Audit, 718 SCRA 402 [2014]

Page | 21
Case: Espinas vs. Commission on Audit, 720 SCRA 302 [2014]

b) Land Registration Authority


(1) Purpose
1. Powers and Functions
c) Social Security Commission
(1) Objective
(2) Powers and Functions
d) Civil Aeronautics Board
(1) Objective
(2) Powers and Functions
e) Intellectual Property Office
(1) Objectives
(2) Powers and Functions
f) National Electrification Administration
(1) Objective
(2) Powers and Functions
g) Energy Regulatory Board
(1) Objectives
(2) Powers and Functions
h) National Telecommunications Commission
b. Powers and Functions

Page | 22
i) Department of Agrarian Reform
(1) Republic Act No. 6657, as amended
(a) Program Implementation
(b) Powers and Functions
(c) Jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agrarian
Reform
(d) Jurisdiction of the Department of Agrarian
Reform Adjudication Board (DARAB) under
the 2009 DARAB Rules of Procedure
(i) Remedies in DARAB cases
(ii) Exclusive jurisdiction in agrarian
dispute

(a) Meaning of agrarian dispute


j) Government Service Insurance System
(1) Objective
(2) Powers and Function
k) Employees Compensation Commission
(1) Objective
(a) Powers and Functions
l) Insurance Commission
(a) Powers and Functions
m) Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (formerly
Philippine Atomic Energy Commission)
(a) Powers and Functions
n) Board of Investments
(1) Powers and Functions
(a) Appeals from the order or judgment of the
Board
o) Construction Industry Arbitration Commission
(1) Jurisdiction
(2) Powers and Functions
p) Voluntary Arbitrators authorized by law
(1) Grievance machinery and voluntary arbitration
(a) Jurisdiction

Page | 23
(b) Appeal from judgment or order of the
voluntary arbitrator

q) Judicial review of CBAA Decisions

r) Securities and Exchange Commission

(1) Powers and functions

(2) Transfer of jurisdiction of certain types of cases


to the Regional Trial Court

s) Office of the President

(1) Organization

(2) Powers of the President

(a) Exception to the appeal powers of the


Office of the President
Case: Phillips Seafoods (Philippines) Corp. vs. Board of Investments, G.R. No.
175787, February 4,2009

IV. Other quasi-judicial agencies

A. Office of the Ombudsman

1. Power and authority to conduct preliminary investigation


Case: Busuego vs. Office of the Ombudsman, G.R. No. 196842, October 9,2013

Page | 24
a) Jurisdiction over administrative disciplinary cases

b) Administrative complaints

(1) Exceptions

(2) Officials subject to disciplinary complaint by


the Ombudsman

(a) Exceptions

(3) Decisions of the Ombudsman appealable to


the Court of Appeals

B. National Labor Relations Commission

a) Jurisdiction

b) Powers and functions

c) Decisions of NLRC subject of special civil action under


Rule 65 (Petition for Certiorari)

C. Bureau of Immigration

1. Matters subject to the adjudicatory powers of the Immigration


Board

D. Senate Electoral Tribunal

E. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal

1. Cases falling within the jurisdiction of HRET


Case: Reyes vs. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 207264, October 22,2013

F. Military courts martial

1. Courts-martial also a court of law and justice


Case: Marcos vs. Chief of Staff, 89 Phil. 246 (1951)

Case: Ruffy vs. Chief of Staff, 75 Phil. 875 (1946)

a) Jurisdiction of courts martial over military personnel


Case: People of the Philippines vs. Cawiling, et al., G.R. No. 117970, July 28,1998

Case: People of the Philippines vs. De la Cruz, et al., G.R. No. 111568, March
2,1995

Page | 25
b) Authority of civilian courts over courts martial
Case: People of the Philippines vs. Repiroga, G.R. No. 138451, May 17,2001

Case: Republic of the Philippines vs. Judge Asuncion, etc., et al., G.R. 108208,
March 11,1994

Case: Abadia vs. Enrile, et al., G.R. No. 105597, September 23,1994

Case: Arula vs. Espino, G.R. No. L-28949, June 23,1969

c) When courts martial retains jurisdiction over offenses


committed by military personnel
Case: People of the Philippines vs. Dulos, G.R. No. 107328, September 26,1994

Case: Abadilla, et al. vs. Ramos, et al., G.R. No. 79173, December 1,1987

(1) When courts-martial deemed exceed its


jurisdiction
Case: Santiago vs. Alikpala, G.R. No. L-25133, September 28,1968

Case: Ognir vs. Director of Prisons, G.R. No. L-1870, February 27,194 8

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