Web 2.

0
Ed Yourdon
email: ed@yourdon.com Website: www.yourdon.com Blog: www.yourdonreport.com

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Publication Details, and General Disclaimer
This “Web 2.0” GoogleDocs presentation is an open-content collaborative document. Anyone with an Internet connection and World Wide Web browser may view and/or alter its content -- for better or worse -- within the constraints of Google’s access mechanisms for such documents. Please be advised that nothing in this document has necessarily been reviewed by Ed Yourdon ("Ed"); the theories and business practices expressed by the “Web 2.0” document are not necessarily his. This isn't to say you won't find valuable and accurate information herein; however, Ed cannot summarily guarantee the validity of this “Web 2.0” document. The content of any given page may recently have been changed, dumbed-down, or other wise edited by someone whose opinion does not correspond to Ed’s original “Web 2.0” material (or any subsequent drafts). Neither Ed, nor any of the contributors, collaborators, nor anyone else connected with this “Web 2.0” document, can in any way whatsoever be held responsible for the appearance of any inaccurate information, or for your use of the information contained in or linked from this document. You are being granted a limited license to copy anything from this document; it does not create or imply any contractual or extracontractual liability on the part of Ed, nor any of the contributors, collaborators, or viewers of this material. There is no agreement or understanding bet ween you and Ed regarding your use or modification of this information beyond the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL); neither is Ed responsible should someone change, edit, modify, or remove any information that you may post on this “Web 2.0” document. Any of the trademarks, ser vice marks, collective marks, design rights, personality rights, or similar rights that are mentioned, used, or cited in this “Web 2.0” document are the property of their respective owners. Their use here does not imply that you may use them for any purpose other than for the same or similar informational use -- as recognized under the GFDL licensing scheme. Unless other wise stated, Ed and this “Web 2.0” document are neither endorsed by nor affiliated with any of the holders of any such rights; as such, Ed cannot grant any rights to use any other wise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporated property is at your own risk.
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Topics
1. Introduction 2. Themes 3. History 4. Technology 5. Products, vendors 6. Business Issues 7. Cultural issues 8. Trends 9. Conclusions 10.References
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1. Introduction
Definitions: what is Web 2.0? Web 2.0: profound business, technological, and social changes Danger of over-hyping Lessons to learn from Web 1.0, to plan for Web 2.0

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Definitions
My definition O’Reilly definitions YouTube: “the machine is (us)ing us”
viewed 3.4 million times as of 9/18/2007 See John Battelle’s inter view with the author

Pew Report definition 24-minute video documentary definition Shortcomings of definitions Differences bet ween Web 1.0 and 2.0(more) Main business Web 2.0 tools (more)
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My definition
Web 2.0 is the combination of:
tools and technologies business strategies (like blogging, external wikis, customer participation) and social trends

which drive the individual creation and sharing of content on the Internet
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O’Reilly definitions
Compact definition Long definition Hierarchy of Web 2.0-ness

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Main Web 2.0 tools
Blogs Wikis Podcasts RSS Collaborative content tagging Social net working (see IBM’s activities in this area!) Mashups
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Intro: Business Changes
Empowering employees • Let them blog - internally & externally • Let them collaborate with wikis Encouraging external collaboration with wikis Long Tail phenomenon Product vs. Ser vice (MS Office vs. Google Docs; Web-based calendars, etc.) Publishing
(back to main “Intro” page)
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Business change: publishing
Craigslist vs. classified ads Blogs vs. newspapers Book mashups Communal authorship: JESA wiki Communal product reviews (Amazon) Communal advertisement/commercials
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Intro: Tech Changes
Perpetual beta Ajax, Ruby on Rails, and more... Web as the platform API’s facilitating mashups

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Tech: web as platform
Google Apps Virtual Ubiquity 30 Boxes (calendar) SmartSheet: project management and more every day...

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Intro: social changes
The public: wired (73%), but not Web 2.0 (8%) Blogs Trust in Wikipedia Emphasis on communities “People power” Political commentary
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Social change: blogs
Latest count: 71 million blogs, 120K new blogs every day Pew sur vey of bloggers Microblogging: Twitter (at least 100,000 members)

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Social change: trust in Wikipedia
Campaigns Wikia Essjay controversy Wikipedia article on UVA massacre WikiScanner (more on Wikis, Wikipedia later)

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Social change: emphasis on communities
MySpaceNation Joe Ford’s congressional campaign The Mom Net work Steve Ballmer’s comments on communities note to collaborators: please add additional relevant examples
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Social change: “people power”
Time magazine’s 2006 “person of the year”: you Farecast.com Farecast review

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Social change: political commentary
TechPresident blog 2008: the Web 2.0 election? Web 2.0 impact on 2006 elections Obama “1984” mashup
• •
3.9 million downloads, creator resigns YouTube inter view with video creator

Hilary Clinton on Second Life George Bush “Sunday, Bloody Sunday” mashup Saturday Nite Live’s spoof of George Bush on global warming
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Intro: danger of over-hyping
“Old ideas are completely obsolete!” “This will revolutionize the world!” “Our Web 2.0 startup will make us rich!”

The sobering reality of the 80-20 rule

VC’s desperate to invest in the next Google Startup companies with “vision,” but no revenue model
• •
New business reality: low startup costs, VC’s not as important as before New exit strategy: no IPO, but get acquired by Google

Web 2.0 Bullshit Generator Reality: people adapt to new things more slowly than innovators realize
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Learn Lessons from Web 1.0 to plan for Web 2.0
Business Plan Archive’s “Top Ten Lessons from the Dot-Com Meltdown” “The real learning happens at the intersection of an industry and a generation” Expect major shakeouts Anticipate new competitors Don’t forget business fundamentals Beware over-hyping Five lessons from Financial Times
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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2. Basic themes of Web 2.0
Web 1.0 vs. Web 2.0 Reputation economy Architecture of creation vs consumption Recurring themes Related concepts
Mashups Long Tail Wikis
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Web 1.0 vs. Web 2.0
Summary of differences Web 1.0: mostly static Web pages Centralized/corporate publishers of content Single-site content
Some “portals” But generally no API’s or mashups

Inadequate technology
Slow bandwidth No Ajax, full-page refresh
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Reputation economy
User reviews (e.g., Amazon) Naymz’s “reputation community”

Ed’s Naymz inter view

Tag clouds StumbleUpon

TechCrunch review of StumbleUpon

Google’s New Orleans Controversy Wikipedia: covert alterations -> WikiScanner
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Tag Clouds
Definition Flickr tag cloud Technorati tag cloud Del.icio.us tag cloud TagCloud.com Selecting RSS feeds by tag Critical article
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Architecture of creation vs. consumption
• • • • • •
Dreams of fame & riches Desire to “connect” Passion for subject matter Ego Reputation Too much time on their hands (an ongoing trend!)

PC + laser printer made everyone a “publisher” Now it’s blogs and wikis (state of the blogosphere) Reasons for “personal publishing”

Next step: “democratizing” innovation (aka “usercentered innovation”)
(back to “basic themes of Web 2.0”)
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Recurring themes for Web 2.0
Themes from my Aug 2006 visit to Web 2.0 vendors in Silicon Valley (blog posting) Enterprise 2.0 Building Blocks: SLATES Empower individual customers, employees, citizens
(back to “basic themes of Web 2.0”)

Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Mashups
Definition: blending content from > one source Examples Web sites
Tech Beat: Blogs on Mashups Programmable Web: list of mashups Wiki for Web Ser vices and Open API’s

Business model for mashups Tools
Yahoo Pipes Google’s MyMaps Note to collaborators: please add more examples of tools for creating mashups
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Mashup Examples
Google Maps + CraigsList Housing Maps for Italy YouTube.com Podbop mapsexoffenders.com Earth Sandwich Middle East news + blogs
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Long Tail
Basic concept History Chris Anderson’s PopTech 2006 PPT slides Examples Advice & Recommendations
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Long Tail Concepts
Selling more and more to fewer and fewer Pareto’s Principle (80-20) less relevant today Relationship to Web 2.0
• • •
Shift from the monopoly of the “big hits” favors tiny publishers and creators of Web content Encourages “niche” producers to collaborate with “ aggregators” like Amazon, iTunes, NetFlix, etc. Sometimes a niche product can become an unexpected “blockbuster” through viral marketing, word of mouth

video: “Day of the Long Tail”
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Long Tail History
Scarcity favors the 80-20 rule
• • • •
Production Inventory Shelf-space Distribution

Bits on the Internet changes the rules
• • • • •
Production Inventory Shelf-space Distribution Search engines: without Google, there would be no Long Tail! 31
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Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

Long Tail Examples
Amazon (98% of 100,000)

Tim O’Reilly’s critique of Amazon long-tail stats

iTunes (100% of 5 million) NetFlix (95% of 55,000 movies) Lego Soft ware development
JotSpot Powerpoint presentation Part 2 of Powerpoint presentation General info on JotSpot (recently acquired by Google)

Website design Death of blockbuster drugs
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Long Tail Advice
Two imperatives
• •
Make everything available Help me find it

Nine rules
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Move inventory way in -- or way out Let customers do the work One distribution method doesn’t fit all One product doesn’t fit all One price doesn’t fit all Share information Think “ and” not “or” (Coke) Trust the market to do your job Understand the power of the free 33
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Wikis
Concepts History Examples Tools Benefits Risks Implications
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Wiki concepts
Rapid iteration of documents, designs, reports, etc. Widespread collaboration -- either inside or outside an organizational boundary Relationship to Web 2.0? Relationship to Open Source development?
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Wiki History
Ward Cunningham’s work Pattern language work, using Hypercard WikiWikiWeb, 1995

Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Examples
List of largest wikis Wikipedia (more) Proctor & Gamble “Connect & Develop” (more) European pharma “dark blog” case study Eli Lilly “Innocentive” initiative (more) Social Text Source Forge (open source) iStock Photo (more) My JESA “structured analysis” wiki Semi-private university wikis This Web 2.0 Google Docs presentation!
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Wikipedia
Har vard Business School case study 2-millionth English-language article published on 09/12/2007 WikiScanner

Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Proctor & Gamble
8,000 researchers 600 partners productivity up 60% 35% of innovations from outside R&D costs dropped from 4.8% of sales, down to 3.4% of sales
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Eli Lilly Innocentive
30 companies involved 90,000(!) scientists Rewards up to $100,000

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iStock Photo
Sells photos for $1-5, much cheaper than traditional commercial sources Pays royalties to amateur photographers Licensed 10 million images in 2006 Purchased by Getty Images for $50 million But may be rendered irrelevant by (free) Flickr ...

My Flickr page, for whatever it’s worth...

... or Photobucket
• • •
acquired by Fox Media in July, 2007 has 35 million visitors/month has 3.636 billion images as of 09/24/2007 41
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Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

Wiki Tools
Twiki (free) MediaWiki pbWiki JotSpot (recently acquired by Google)
• •
Ed’s report on JotSpot JotSpot 2.0

Wikipatterns
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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New workforce: “crowdsourcing” (“people power”) Some are happy with modest, part-time income
• • • • • • • •
Google Answers: $2.50 payments

Wiki Benefits

Hobbyists often happy to work for free
Time magazine article: “Getting Rich on Those Who Work for Free” Flickr, and other sources of artistic/IP contributions “raw” resources: grid computing, SETI-at-home Yahoo Answers: 10 million free answers

Access “loyal” resources
Retirees Alumni Customers

Generate new ideas, products more quickly
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Wiki Risks
Security Privacy Censorship issues IP ownership Control Anarchy Credibility of information
• • •
The Essjay Controversy David Weinberger’s assessment of Wikipedia credibility Wikipedia competitor: Citizendium 44
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Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

Wiki implications
Consider inhouse wiki as a learning experience Visit/learn about other successful wiki initiatives Consider limited “external” collaboration wiki as a pilot project Remember: tools are just enablers; cultural issues are more important
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Web 2.0 History
Pre-History
• • • • • • • • •
Initial rejection of Web 2.0 concepts Amazon “long tail” in 1995 eBay “long tail” in 1995 WikiWikiWeb in 1995 Yahoo (various Web 2.0 concepts) in 1996 Google advertising (long tail), 2000 Wikipedia in 2001 iTunes (long tail) in 2001 Early book with “Web 2.0” title, 2002

Development of enabling technologies Social/cultural influences
• •
Clue Train Manifesto User-generated content

First Web 2.0 conference in 2004 “Buzz” began in 2005
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Web 2.0 Technology
Ajax Ruby on Rails API’s Tools/IDE’s Other enabling technology Design guidelines, best practices
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Technology - Ajax
Basic concept Architectural guidelines Examples Ajaxifying legacy apps Ajax-related web sites

Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Ajax - basic concept
Asynchronous Javascript & XML Standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS Dynamic display and interaction using DOM Data interchan ge using XML and XSLR Ansynchronous data retrieval using XML HttpRequest or XMLHTTP (from Microsoft) Javascript binding everything together

Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Ajax: architectural guidelines
Small ser ver-side events, no full-page refresh Asynchronous activity: users continue working after invoking a request “onAnything”: any user event can cause an asynchronous event

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Ajax: examples
Flickr Meebo Nowsy - an Ajax home page Timeline - Ajax widget for visualizing time-based events Microsoft releases beta AJAX note to collaborators: please add more important Ajax examples, as appropriate
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Ajaxifying legacy apps
“Ajax spurs rebirth for desktop apps,” by Martin LaMonica, ZDNet News, Dec 1, 2005 Writely -- now Google Docs Google spreadsheets -- now Google Docs Many other companies are now doing this, though it’s not always easy to provide a cost-benefit justification
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Ajax Web sites
Ajax matters Ajaxian Ajax magazine Sites using Ajax

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Technology - Ruby on Rails
Basic concepts Examples Websites Tools, etc.

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Ruby on Rails: basic concepts
Open-source web application framework written in Ruby Closely follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture originally developed for Smalltalk Strives for simplicity and allowing real-world applications to be developed in less code (and thus less effort/time) than other frameworks -- and with a minimum of configuration Ruby programming language allows for extensive metaprogramming, which Rails makes great use of Rails architecture strongly favors database use, and an RDBMS system is recommended for data storage
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Ruby on Rails: examples
Twitter (this isn’t the main Twitter website) Companies A-M Companies N-Z

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Ruby on Rails: Websites
RubyOnRails.org Wiki site SourceForge AjaxOnRails

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Ruby on Rails: Tools, etc.
Integration with Visual Studio note to collaborators: need more examples of RubyOnRails tools

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Technology - API’s
Google
• • • • •
Google Maps API Google AJAX search API

Yahoo
Yahoo search API Google AJAX search API

AOL
AIM API’s

Dapper’s API ser vice note to collaborators: need more examples of API’s for Web 2.0 development

what about Amazon, iTunes, eBay, etc.? 59
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Technology: tools/IDE’s
Primary objective: fast and flexible development, not reuse Aptana note to collaborators: need more examples of general tools and IDE’s for Web 2.0 development

Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Technology - other enabling technologies
XML Web ser vices: net work as platform

(see “Microsoft declares end of PC era”)

Django: a high-level Python Web framework RSS Adobe Flex
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Technology - Design guidelines, best practices
Agile development

Scott Rosenberg’s dissent: 5-year Web 2.0 design cycle

Client-ser ver issues UI issues Problems with non-integrated Web 2.0 apps
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Products/Vendors
Aspects of Web 2.0 usage Big vendors Top 25 UK vendors Top Italian Web apps Web apps around the world Social Net working Ser vices Other startups, small vendors
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Aspects of Web 2.0 usage
Use of Web 2.0 technologies One perspective: blogs, wikis, podcasts, RSS, social net works, content tags Providing Web 2.0 products/ser vices People power Use of mashups Use of Long Tail concept Emerging theme: let users (customers) take their data with them when/if they leave
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Big Vendors
Google Yahoo Microsoft IBM Apple Cisco
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Google
The Economist: “Who’s Afraid of Google?” Google’s Master Plan (just kidding!) My visit to Google Mashups: Google’s MyMaps Long Tail: statistics on advertising People Power: Google Pages Google Apps Google Powerpoint Google Notebook (in 17 languages!) New stuff: Google3D
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Yahoo
Relationship with JotSpot Yahoo buys Zimbra Yahoo Pipes

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Microsoft
Net work as Platform: Windows Live Blogging tool: Windows Live Writer

Computer world review

Support for Ajax Mashups
• •
Strategy MapCruncher

Long Tail -- XBox Live Arcade
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IBM
Summary of Web 2.0 initiatives Mashup strategy Support for Ruby on Rails Support for Ajax Lotus Notes V8 IBM acquires Web conferencing ser vice provider
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Apple
Long Tail: iTunes People Power: iWeb Mashups: rumor of iPhoto-GoogleMap mashup (which Flickr already has!) Use of Web 2.0 technologies: Ajax (e.g., Apple’s .Mac web-mail) Innovative UI: iPhone, iPod Touch
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Cisco

Cisco Buys Five Across Cisco Buys Webex

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Products/vendors: Social Net working Ser vices
YouTube: 100 million videos/day
• •
John Dvorak’s analysis of YouTube success factors Acquired by Google on Oct 9, 2006

MySpace, FaceBook, etc. SecondLife Statistic: 300 social net working startups in last t wo years Statistic: 100,000 Ning “micro” social net works (see Ning) Top 20 social net works, ranked Now used heavily by middle-aged audiences
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Other startups, small vendors
Digg (more) 37 Signals’ HighRise CRM Zoho CRM Scoble’s review of SmartSheet Naymz NetSuite’s Ajax-based interactive dashboards Web 2.0 company name generator (amusing)
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Digg
Inter view with Digg’s Kevin Rose Ed’s report on Digg Digg Swarm Digg Stack Digg BigSpy

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Business Issues
Basic issues Reactions and trends in large companies Web 2.0 in government Recommended strategies for “traditional” companies Strategies for startup companies
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Business: basic issues
Strategic
• • •
Use Web 2.0 (including related concepts like Long Tail) to find new products, ser vices, markets Use Web 2.0 to increase revenue, dramatically reduce costs Use Web 2.0 to empower individual customers, employees -- and outsiders like retirees, alumni, and others

Tactical
• • • •
Encourage collaboration with wikis Encourage communication with blogs Improve UI of web-based products and ser vices with AJAX, etc. Use new tools like Ruby on Rails to build Web 2.0 products, ser vices more quickly 76
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Technology adoption cycle “CIO” prediction for 2007: “IT reluctantly embraces Web 2.0” Expect conser vative reaction from CIO’s Two views of Web 2.0 use in business for 2007 “IT Can’t Stop Web 2.0” Knowledge Worker 2.0 Sun’s endorsement of CEO blogging High-level blogging at Intel “Dark blogs” Microsoft has 3,000 external blogs, 10,000 internal blogs

Reactions and trends in large companies

note to collaborators: do you know of any articles or blog postings to confirm this statistic? I’ve only heard it verbally, from a Microsoft presenter, at a Web 2.0 conference in 2006

WebWorkerDaily: acknowledging lifestyle of distributed workers IBM comments on collaboration and business-oriented social net works CEO reaction to social media Social net working as a business tool Ed’s notes on corporate blogging here, and here; sample corporate blogging policies here and here Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) 77
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Web 2.0 in government
One basic strategy: shift control and resources for ser vices, information, and expression of ideas/opinions to citizens Travel delays, parking information Saving democracy with Web 2.0 Hastily Formed Net works (HFN’s) US Federal Government Web 2.0 Nor wegian Government Web 2.0 Tim O’Reilly on government’s use of Web 2.0 Section 508 compliance issues U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency’s use of Web 2.0 A-Space IBM on governmental blogging Poll: is the government ready for Web 2.0?
Published under the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Recommended strategies for traditional companies
Developing an enterprise Web 2.0 strategy A Microsoft perspective on business opportunities for Web 2.0 SWOT analysis Pilot projects Skunk works Acquisitions Heed advice for avoiding dot-bomb 2.0 Business model for mashups
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Recommended strategies: SWOT analysis
Opportunities
• • • • • • • • •
New products, ser vices New markets, new customers (Long Tail) Greater customer loyalty Greater employee loyalty Faster time, lower cost for R&D, product development

Threats
New competitors whose existence you don’t even know about More effective competition from competitors who are enjoying the benefits oppportunities summarized above Loss of reputation (e.g., from customer blogs) Risk of malware 80
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Strategies for startups
Scobleizer’s advice Brad Feld’s advice about VC economics for Web 2.0 companies

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Cultural Issues
People power Generational trends Open, sharable content/interface
• •
Hook into Google, Yahoo, Amazon, etc. Look for ways to “open up” your own company’s intellectual/information assets

“Out ward bound” collaboration: retirees, alumni, hobbyists Long Tail impact
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Perpetual beta environment

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Cultural Issues: people power
Customers Employees Marketplace Citizens

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People power: customers
Let them help design new products Let them help suggest ads/marketing
• •
kayak.com user ads Chevy Tahoe user commercial

Let them provide feedback/commentary on products/ser vices Let them help other customers with problems/support Sometimes they know more than the developer/manufacturer
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People power: employees
Let them blog behind the firewall, if not openly and publicly Remember: Microsoft has 3,000 external blogs and 10,000 internal blogs Example: CEO of Sun Microsystems blogs Example: UN policy - permission required for writing books, but not posting blogs! Non-technical example at Google: new products bubble up from the bottom of organization
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People power: marketplace
Viral marketing Viral dissemination of good news and bad news
• •
AOL cancellation example Comcast customer ser vice visit

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People power: citizens
Decreased dependence on “ authoritative” source of news/content Political commentary
• • •
“Daily Show” commentary on Viacom-Google billion dollar lawsuit Philippine activists using YouTube to spread word about political protest issues Mashup of George Bush and U2’s “Sunday, Bloody Sunday”

Products/ser vices get adapted in unexpected ways

New York Times: CraigsList used by prostitutes 87
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Cultural Issues: Generational trends
Demographics of bloggers Rise of the “silver surfers” Senior management is t wo generations older than today’s Web 2.0-sav vy population What Web 2.0 will mean for the next generation of the workforce
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Cultural issues: Long Tail Impact
Stop focusing entirely on “big hits” Look for ways to create/nourish a “long tail” of products/ser vices Often represents a huge cultural change for the business people (e.g., R&D, product planning, marketing, etc.) whose job always assumed emphasizing the big hits and ignoring almost everything else
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Cultural issues: perpetual beta concept
“Good enough” culture Weekly releases of new downloadable updates/enhancements -- versus annual releases of new products

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Trends
Caveat: predicting the future is hard And there is resistance to “paradigm shifts” Basic point: today’s R&D is next decade’s “mainstream” Gartner’s view of Web 2.0 trends Kevin Kelly’s view of “next web” Web 3.0 Technical trends Business trends Social/cultural trends
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Trends: predicting the future is hard!
Fubini’s Law People least likely to anticipate how new technology will be applied Examples of inaccurate predictions

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Trends: today’s R&D is tomorrow’s “mainstream
Some of it is secret Some of it is ignored, dismissed, rejected, or laughed at And some is being used by “pre-early adopters”

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Web 3.0
New York Times article on Web 3.0 “What to Expect from Web 3.0” Mass Market becomes Long Tail List of cool Web 3.0 apps Tim Berners-Lee: Web 3.0 = “semantic Web” Semantic Web = end of Google? Freebase: Wikipedia + Open Directory
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Trends: technical
Moore’s Law New user interface (UI) paradigms Death of the PC?
• •
Would a typical teenager prefer a new smart-phone, or a new PC? Rise of the thin-client device

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Trends, technical: Moore’s Law

10 years = 6.67 doublings = 101.6x improvement over today’s technology Per vasive (ubiquitous) computing: today’s $100 computer becomes $1 Similar advances in speed, storage, bandwidth, footprint Computers exceed human intelligence? Embedded computing
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Trends, technical: ubiquitous computing
Everyware: the dawning age of ubiquitous computing The $100 laptop
• •
OLPC site “Buy a Laptop for a Child, Get Another Laptop Free”

IEEE special issue on per vasive computing
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Trends, technical: embedded computing
RFID Everything has an IP address Ambient devices The bionic woman/man?

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Trends: business
Web 2.0 will put some Web 1.0 companies out of business Death of Microsoft? Appearance of next Google? Decreased relevance of venture capitalists? Boundary bet ween customers and companies blurs
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Trends: social/cultural
Impact of a new generation of tech-sav vy users Next 5 billion Internet users Boundary bet ween government and citizens blur Revenge by gadget Blurring of (some) political boundaries
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Net work Nations MySpace is now 11th largest country in the world

Impact on education Blurring of “real life” and “virtual life”
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Video: “Shift Happens”

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Trends: a new generation of tech-sav vy users

“What Does Generation Y Want?” Growing Up Digital: the rise of the Net generation “Google, a Girl, and the Coming Apocalypse”
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Trends: impact on education
Banning Wikipedia for research papers Should children learn to operate in society/schools without Google? Columbia Center for New Media Teaching & Learning Crowdsourcing Readings and Resources Top Web Tools for Students Student contributions to wikis
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Conclusions
Assume Web 2.0 is “real,” even if over-hyped
• • • • • • • • • • •
Infoworld Oct 2006 assessment: “Bubble 2.0?”

Your objectives should be:
Ajaxify Wikify Long-tail-ify Open up API’s for mashups Enable your people (customers, employees, citizens

Assess your company’s response to new waves of technology
Crossing the Chasm Is your company an innovator, early adopter, mainstream, or laggard? Separate technical response from business response!

Consider a pilot project
Guidelines for pilots: not too big, not too small; fast results; important, but not missioncritical; well-measured; used partly as a training opportunity Consider letting users drive it 103
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References
Conferences Books Websites and blogs Articles

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References - conferences
Web 2.0 Summit 2007 Web 2.0 Expo (USA) Web 2.0 Expo Berlin Web 2.0 Expo Tokyo Le Web 3/Paris Future of Web Apps/London Asia Web 2.0 conference/Singapore Other related Web 2.0 conferences PopTech (Camden, Maine) European “Next Web” 2007 (Amsterdam) AJAX World 2007 Ajaxian conferences Wikimania 2008 (venue not chosen as of 09/25/2007) Enterprise 2.0/Boston note to collaborators: please update these conferences with 2008 dates! note to collaborators: please add new conferences where relevant!
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References - Books
Specific Web 2.0 books
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Web 2.0: The Future of the Internet and Technology Economy Building Scalable Web Sites

Ajax books
Pragmatic Ajax: A Web 2.0 Primer Head Rush Ajax Ajax in Action

Ruby on Rails books
Ruby on Rails: up and running Agile Web Development with Rails: A pragmatic guide

Misc books
Everything is Miscellaneous: the power of the new disorder Wikinomics: how mass collaboration changes everything The Wealth of Nations: how social production transforms markets and freedoms The Clue Train Manifesto The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business, and transformed our culture Wiki Web Collaboration The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less and less of more and more

note to collaborators: please add important new Web 2.0 books, as appropriate...

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References - blogs & websites
my blog: The Yourdon Report O’Reilly’s: “What is Web 2.0” O’Reilly Radar blog Google Maps Mania StartupNews.com eHub - Web 2.0 startups News about startups: TechCrunch Chris Anderson’s “The Long Tail” blog Steve Borsch’s “Connecting the Dots” blog Howard Rheingold’s “Smart Mobs” blog Official Google blog Web 2.0 slides - 1,400 sites Ian Delaney’s “Twopointtouch” blog David Weinberger’s “JOHO the Blog” Stowe Boyd’s “/Message” blog Luis Suarez’s elsua: the Knowledge Management blog note to collaborators: please add important new Web 2.0 blogs, as appropriate
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References - articles
“Someone to Watch Over Me (on a Google Map),” by Theodora Stites, New York Times, Jul 9, 2006 “Small is Beautiful for Web 2.0 Startups,” by Martin LaMonia, CNET News, Feb 6, 2006 “Soft ware Out There,” by John Markoff, New York TImes, Apr 5, 2006 “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” by Jeff Howe, Wired, June 2006 “Digital Publishing Scrambles the Rules,” by Motoki Rich, New York Times, Jun 5, 2006 “Scan This Book!”, by Kevin Kelly, May 14, 2006 “The New Wisdom of the Web,” by Steven Levy and Brad Stone, Newsweek, April 3, 2006 “Microsoft Offers Range of Programs That Run Off Web, Not Hard Disk,” by Walter Mossberg, Wall Street Journal, Dec 15, 2005 “Corporate Americas Wakes Up To Web 2.0,” by Martin LaMonica, ZDNet News, Jun 26, 2006 “Are CIO’s Ignoring Web 2.0 Technologies?”, by Allen Alter, CIO Insight, May 10, 2006 “Web 2.0: The New Internet ‘Boom’ Doesn’t Live Up To Its Name,” by Paul Boutin, Slate, March 29, 2006 “AJAX Spurs Web Rebirth for Desktop Apps,” by Martin LaMonica, ZDNet News, Dec 1, 2005 “Ajax: Smoother Surfing Without Microsoft,” by Daren Briscoe, Newsweek, January 30, 2006 “New Web-Based Technology Draws Applications, Investors,” by Mylene Mangalindan and Rebecca Buckman, Wall Street Journal, Nov 3, 2005 “Growing Wikipedia Revises Its ‘Anyone Can Edit’ Policy,” by Katie Hafner, New York Times, Jun 17, 2006 “Homo Conexus,” by James Fallows, Technology Review, Jul-Aug 2006 “The Internet Knows What You’ll Do Next,” by David Leonhardt, New York Times, Jul 5, 2006 “Does Every Company Need A Web 2.0 Strategy?” by Dion Hinchcliffe, ZDNet, Aug 9, 2006 “Creating Business Value With Web 2.0,” Cutter IT Journal special issue, October 2006 note to collaborators: please add important new Web 2.0 articles, as appropriate.

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