Drill-Pipe Bending and Fatigue in Rotary Drilling

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Drill-Pipe Bending and Fatigue in Rotary Drilling

© All Rights Reserved

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9

~S_~_~_~ PetroleumEngineera

SPE 37353

Jiang Wu, SPE, Maurer Engineering Inc.

Thm papsr was prepared for presentation at the 1996 SPE Eastern Regional Maetmg held Fig, 1 shows the drill-pipe bendingldeflection development in a

October 23-25, 19% m Columbus, Ohm

build section as the axial compressive load increases. Under a

Tn!s papsr was selected for presentation by an SP E Program Committee followng rwaw of small axial compressive load, the maximum bending curvature

InrumaticulUx@&J

(n m tiract s~mhted by the author(s) Contents of the paper have not

been rev!ewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and em sublect to correction by tlm

is located at the midpoint of one joint of drill pipe, and there is

ti(s) The material, as prasented, does not necessarily raflect any posd!on of the Souety no drill-pipe tube contact to the wellbore wall (Fig. 1a). As the

of Petroleum Engmeem, Its officers, or members PapeI$ prssenkd at SPE meetings am

axial compressive load increases, the middle of the drill-pipe

subject to pubhcsllon revww by EdWmal Commttiees of tho SOCmty of Petroleum Engineers

Elsctromc rsproductlon, dwtnbutlon, or storage of any Parr of thfs paper for commerml tube starts to contact the wellbore wall (point contact, Fig. 1b).

purposss wthoul the wrlttan conssnt of the SCWety of Patroleum Engineers us prohlbltad

Further increase of axial compressive load increases the contact

Perm IssIon to reproduce m pnnl IS restnctea to an abstract of not mom than 200 words;

dlustrahons may not be cop!ed The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of length in the middle part of the drill-pipe (arc contact, Fig. It).

wham ard by whom the paw was prcmetied. Writs Librarian, SPE, P O Box 8!338?6, The maximum bending curvature moves to somewhere in the

Richardson, TX 750S3-3836 U S A fax 01-214-952-9435

uncontact portion afler the tube contact occurs.

Drill pipe under axial compressive load is considered in this

4bstract paper for rotating through the build section of the wellbore in

Drilling penetration rate can be increased when drilling a drilling a mediun-hhort-radius horizontal well, However, similar

horizontal well by rotating the drill string, which helps to equations for axial tensile load condition can be derived by the

overcome the drag and apply the bit weight. However, drill-pipe same approach.

fatigue may become a problem for rotating the drill string in the The tubular bending differential equation for the drill pipe in

build section of the wellbore, especially in drilling mediuml the build section of the wellbore and under axial compressive

short-radius horizontal wells, where the drill pipe experiences a load is (Fig. 2):

large bending.

This paper presents an analysis of drill-pipe bending and so wesine

~+k2y=Co+zx-Tx2 .. . . . . . . . . (1)

fatigue in rotary drilling horizontal wells. The wellbore curva- dr2

ture, axial compressive load, drill-pipe weight, and drill-pipe

tube contact to the wellbore wall are considered. New equations

where

are derived to improve the prediction of the maximum drill-pipe

bending stress and drill-pipe fatigue. The results show that drill- ~2=~

pipe tube contact to the wellbore wall, which happens under large EI

axial loads, may help reduce the maximum bending stress, and

therefore, benefit the fatigue control. The drill-pipe weight usually Based on the fact that the tool joints are stiffer than the drill-

increases the bending stress and needs to be considered to accu- pipe tube and follow the wellbore trajectory, the following

rately predict the fatigue damage. boundary conditions exist for drill-pipe bending:

ylx=o=o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(2)

Introduction

:Ix=o=o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(3)

dogleg wellbore section under axial tensile load.4 The recent

application of rotary drilling mediumkhort-radius horizontal

wells involves the situation where drill pipe rotates in the build

The general solution of the above differential equation under

section of the wellbore under axial compressive load. The drill

these boundary conditions is:

pipe is fsrst bent along the build section of the wellbore, and then

1....

the axial compressive load and drill-pipe weight push further

bending or deflection between the tool joints. The maximum y = +Cc(l - Coskr) + So(kx - Sinkx)-:(h)z

(4)

bending stress in the drill pipe could be much larger than that [

calculated by assuming the drill pipe bent with the wellbore

where:

curvature.

195

2 JIANGWU SPE 37353

Cc=co+ q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(5)

YIX=L= +Q(L)-DP)..................... (14)

w*sine

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6)

q k2El

:IX=L=LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (15)

so=~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . (7)

k.lu

c . (c+q)u-sJl -cos(kL))

c

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (16)

Theparameters of Coand So, andtherefore Ccand~ are so sin(kL)

far unknown. They areheavily affectedly whether or not the

drill-pipe tube contacts the wellbore wall. More continuous

:[LC-(D,-DJSWWLC[l -cos(kL)]

conditions have to beusedto solve for Ccand~, and finally ,qkL (17)

determine the drill-pipe bending stress distribution. so =

kLsin(kL) - 2(1 - cos(kL)) 2

For no drill-pipe tubecontact case, two continuous condi-

tions based on the symmetry of the drill-pipe bending have to be

The drill-pipe bending curvature distribution is then:

used:

dc= c

#lx=L=o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (9) into the uncontact portion of the drill pipe:

The parameters of Cc and so for this case are solved as: c

tan(kL) the location of x = Lm is:

So=cctan(kq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(11)

U* = + [cccos(kLm) + @rl(kLm)-q] , . . . . . . . . . (20)

For drill-pipe tube arc contact case, three continuous

conditions have to be used in this case since the length of arc

~=(c+g)y::,-;~)-q . . . . . . . . . . . . (12) contact is also needed to determine:

The maximum drill-pipe bending stress is located at the middle YIX=L, = ~-#D, -Dp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (21)

length of the drill pipe (x=L):

ub=~(c+q)+-q

[ sh(kL) 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (13)

9= Le=Lcc .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(22)

As the axial compressive Ioadincreases, the bending deflection

=c..............................(23)

~lL>x,Le

increases and the drill-pipe tube starts to contact the lower side

of the build section of the wellbore, frost asapoint contactat where LCis the measure of the arc contact boundary point.

the middle point of drill-pipe length, and then developed as an Trial and error approach is used to determine the arc contact

arc contact with a portion of drill-pipe tube. boundary point Lc by the following equation:

For drill-pipe tube point contact case, the following two

continuous conditions based on the wellbore confinement and the

c=cccos(kLc) +sosin(kLc) -q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (24)

symmetry of the bending are used:

where

196

SPE 37353 Drill-PipeBendingand Fatigue in RotaryDrillingof HorizontalWells 3

~ = (c+q)kLc-so

(1-cow.)) contacts the wellbore wall and the contact point (boundary)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . (25)

c

sin(kLc) location moves away from the middle of drill-pipe length. The

location of maximum bending curvature (stress) keeps moving

away from the middle of drill-pipe length. The location of

maximum bending curvature (stress) moves away from the middle

;[~:C-P,-DP)]S~(MC)-UCC[l-COS(M c ,1 @

s= of drill-pipe length after the drill-pipe tube contact is developed,

0

~(26)

kLcsin(kLc)-2(1 -cos(kLc)) 2 because the drill pipe cannot deflect any more at the contact point

which acts as a new supporting boundary, resulting in the further

deflection of drill pipe in the uncontact portion.

The parameters of CCand so for this case (eqs. 25 and 26) are

Fig. 5 shows two more bending curvature (stress) curves

solved when thearc contact boundary point Lc is determined

beside the maximum bending curvature for the case of Fig.3. The

by satistjfing eq. 24.

The drill-pipe bending curvature distribution is then: bending curvature (stsess) at the tool joints decreases and becomes

negative as the axial compressive load increases. The bending

~2y@

=C Cos(klj+sosin(kr)-q (Lc>x>o) . . . . . . (27) curvature (stress) at the contact point location is the maximum

bending curvature (stress) when the point contact first occurs,

h= c

and decreases in the point contact period, until the arc contact

is developed. After the arc contact is developed where the

d2y(x)

c (L>X>LC) . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (28) middle portion of drill pipe contacts the wellbore wall, the

c&2 bending curvature (stress) of the arc contact point remains the

same as the wellbore curvature ( 18 deg/100 fl).

The location of maximum drill-pipe bending stress is located Fig. 6 shows the bending curvature distributions in half of the

within the uncontact portion of the drill pipe, and is also drill-pipe length for different axial compressive load levels. The

determined by: other half of drill-pipe length will have the same distribution due

to the symmetry of the bending. It shows that for the calculated

L~=~WCtZ&) . . . . . . . .. _. . .._ ,.. .,. .. (29) situation: (I) the bending curvature decreases in the portion of

c

drill pipe near tool joints as the axial load increases, (2) the

bending curvature at the middle point of drill-pipe length ( 15-R

The corresponding maximum drill-pipe bending stress is: location) also decreases atler the tube contact is developed, and

(3) the maximum bending curvature moves from the middle point

of drill-pipe length ( 15-R location) into the uncontact portion after

O* = y[c!ccos(kLm) + s#rl(kLm)-q] . . . . . . . . . (30) the tobe contact is developed.

Fig, 7 shows the calculated total bending energy stored in the

&ill pipe according to the bending curvature along the drill pipe.

Fig. 3 shows the maximum bending curvature (stress) for 3 fi-

It shows that the total bending energy keeps increasing as the axial

inch drill pipe in an 18-degll 00-fl build section of the wellbore,

load increases, although the maximum bending curvature (stress)

as a function of the axial compressive load. It is predicted by

may decrease in the point contact period (see Fig. 3). For

using the above derived equations. The maximum bending

example, the total bending energy at 5,000Ibf axial compressive

curvature (stress) first increases as the axial compressive load

load is larger than that at 3,800 Ibf axial compressive load,

increases, and then decreases a little bit in the point contact

although the maximum bending curvature (stress) at 5,000 Ibf

period, and increases again with a lower rate in the arc contact

axial compressive load is smaller than that at 3,800 Ibf axial

period. It is also shown that the maximum bending curvature of

compressive load (see Fig. 3). This result helps to confirm and

the drill pipe is about21 deg/100 ft at zero axial load, larger than

validate the above bending analysis of drill pipe.

the wellbore curvature of 18 deg/100 tl. This is because of the

Fig. 8 is a comparison of the above derived solution of drill-

etlkct ofdrill-pipe weight on drill-pipe bending.

Fig. 4 shows the location of the maximum bending curvature pipe bending with a previous one5 for 3%-inch drill-pipe in a

4deg/100-tl build section of the wellbore. It shows that the above

(stress) and the location of the contact point (or the contact

new derived solution has the same curve feature as the previous

boundary for the arc contact condition) of Fig. 3. For an axial

one. However, the new derived solution moves Ieftward from the

compressive load less than 3,800 lbf, there is no drill-pipe tube

previous one. This is because the drill-pipe weight per unit length

contact to the wellbore wall, and the maximum bending curvature

is considered in deriving the new solution, while it was neglected

(stress) occurs at the middle of drill-pipe length ( 15 ft away from

by the previous solution. The drill-pipe weight contributes to the

the joints). The point contact is developed as the axial compres-

drill-pipe bending in the build section of the wellbore, resulting

sive load exceeds 3,800 Ibf. Although the location of the contact

in a larger maximum bending curvature in the no contact period,

point is always at the middle of the drill-pipe length ( 15 ft away

and causes an earlier occurrence of the drill-pipe tube contact to

fkom the joints) in the point contact period, the location of

the wellbore wall.

maximum bending curvature (stress) moves away into the

uncontact portion. For the axial compressive load beyond 18,000

Ibf, the arc contact is developed, where a portion of drill pipe

197

4 JIANG WU SPE 37353

When rotary drilling a horizontal well, the rotation of drill pipe 1. Drill-pipe bending analysis under axial compressive load

in the build section of the wellbore results in a cyclic or alterna- condition and in the build section of the wellbores is improved

tingbending stress in drill pipe. This cyclic or alternating bending by considering the pipe weight and the tube contact to the

stress can cause the fatigue damage to the drill pipe. Fi .9 shows wellbore wall.

$ 2. Drill-pipe fatigue damage prediction for rotary drilling

a typical drill-pipe S-N curve for Grade-E drill pipe . The S-N

curve defines the relationship between the cyclic bending stress medium/short-radius horizontal wells is improved by using the

and the rotating cycle before fatigue failure. When the cyclic or new drill-pipe bending solutions.

alternating bending stress is below the fatigue endurance limit, 3. The new drill-pipe bending solutions are easy to incorporate

no fatigue damage would occur and drill pipe can theoretically into a computer program, like the DPLIFE program, to quick] y

rotate infinitely. When the cyclic or alternating bending stress predict and monitor the permissible build rate, cumulative

exceeds the fatigue endurance limit, drill-pipe fatigue damage fatigue damage, and total rotating time before failure.

occurs and the drill pipe can only rotate a limited time before total 4. Maximum &]ll-pipe bending stress and fatigue damage can

fatigue failure. The higher the cyclic bending stress than the be reduced by operating under the drill-pipe point contact

fatigue endurance limit, the lower the cyclic or rotating number condition.

that the drill pipe can stand before the fatigue failure. The axial 5. A drill-pipe failure after drilling four short-radius horizontal

load (mean stress) and the drilling fluid may affect the S-N curve6 wells has been accurately predicted by the PC program DPLIFE,

but will not be discussed here. using the new drill-pipe bending solutions.

Using the above derived equations, the drill-pipe tube contact

status and maximum bending stress can be accurately calculated Acknowledgments

and used to predict the drill-pipe fatigue damage. These equations The author wishes to thank Maurer Engineering Inc. for

have been incorporated into a DEA-44 PC Windows computer

permission to publish this paper, and to thank the participant

program6 for easy use by field engineers. This computer program,

companies of the joint-industry project DEA-44 for sponsoring

DPLIFE, has predicted good correlations to Marathons field

this work.

experience on rotary drilling of short-radius horizontal wells,

where drill-pipe failure was encountered afler drilling four short-

Nomenclature

radius wells. Fig. 10 is an example output graph of the program

showing the cumulative fatigue damage of a 5500-ft drill string

c. wellbore build rate or dogleg severity,

for rotary drilling a medium-radius horizontal well (45-deg/l 00-tl rad.lin.

cc = parameter from pipe bending curvature

build rate). About 20%.of fatigue life of Grade-G 3%-in. drill pipe

at the tool joint, rad./in,

is consumed for rotary drilling the 1200-tl horizontal section

below the build section. The rotating speed and drilling penetra- co = pipe bending curvature at the tool joints,

tion rate are assumed to be 40 RMP and 40 fVhr. rad,fin.

Dj = drill pipe tool-joint outer diameter, in.

Before the drill-pipe contacts to the wellbore wall, the maxi-

drill-pipe tube outer diameter, in.

mum bending curvature (stress) increases as the axial compressive

load increases. In the point contact period, the maximum f?:

F=

Youngs modulus, psi

axial compressive load, Ibf

bending curvature (stress) decreases. The maximum bending

I= moment of inertia, in.4

curvature (stress) increases again in the arc contact period. The

lower bending curvature (stress) in the point contact period L= half-length of one joint of drill pipe, in,

means a longer rotating time can be achieved comparing with the LC = arc contact boundary location mea-

no contact period. Fig. 11 is an example of total rotating cycle sured from tool joints, in.

for 3%-in. drill pipe in an 18-deg/100-fl build section predicted Lm = maximum bending location measured

by DPLIFE program. Before the drill pipe contacts the wellbore from tool joints, in.

wall, the rotating time decreases quickly below 40,000,000 cycles q= parameter from drill pipe effective

as the axial compressive load increases to 3,800 lbf. The rotating weight, rad./in.

time is then increased to more than 90,000,000 cycles as the axial so = shear load at tool joints, Ibf

compressive load increases to 10,000 Ibf in the point contact so = parameter from shear load at tool joints,

period, The rotating time decreases again as the axial compressive rad./in.

load increases fi,srtberand develops the arc contact. we = drill pipe effective weight, lb/in.

The weight of drill-pipe also affects the drill-pipe bending e= wellbore inclination, degrees

stress and fatigue calculation. Fig. 12 shows the total rotating ~b = drill-pipe maximum bending stress, psi

cycles of drill pipe with and without the pipe weight being

considered. When the drill pipe is ignored, the drill-pipe contact References

to wellbore wallis delayed, and the predicted rotating cycle (time) 1. Lubinski, A.: Maximum PermissibleDogleg in Rotary

could become totally different from that with the pipe weight Borehole, Journal of Petroferm Technology,February

being considered. (1961).

198

SPE 37353 Drill-PipeBendingand Fatiguein RotaryDrillingof HorizontalWells

LInst. Francais du Petrole, March (1977).

3, Hansford, J.E., and Lubinski, A.: Effects of Drilling

Vessel Pitch or Roll in Kelly and Drill Pipe Fatigue,

Journal of Petroleum Technology, January (1964).

4. Hansford, J.E., and Lubinski, A.: Cumulative Fatigue

Damage of Drilling Pipe in Dog-Legs, Journal of

Pefroleum Tec/rno/ogy, March (1966).

5. Paslay, P.R and Cernocky, E. P.: Bending Stress

Magnification in Constant Curvature Dogleg with

Impact on Drill String and Casing,s SPE Paper 22547,

Sixty-Sixth Annual Technical Conference and

Exhibition of SPE, Dallas, Texas, October ( 1991).

6. Wu, J.: Drill-Pipe Fatigue in Rotary Drilling Horizon-

tal Wells, paper presented at the Energy Week Confer-

ence & Exhibition, Houston, Jan. 29Feb. 2 (1996).

Fig. 2Drill-pipe bending model under axial compressive

7. Schuh, F.J.: The Critical Buckling Force and Stresses load.

for Pipe in Inclined Curved Borehole, paper (SPE/

IADC 21942) presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling

Conference, Amsterdam, March 1I- 14 (199 I).

8 API RP 7G: Recommended Practicefor Drill Stern and

Design and Operating .Lirnifs, 14th Edition, August

3,S-llP (13.3 Itdft), 6 TJ, 2L = 30 tt DL=IS da@100fi

(1990).

aa

I

,+, :y-y

& t No cotict . . . . . Wellbore Cumtum

--

L+

\\

1, Mm LWIWHW ;

\, Mel cornpraaanm load, Ibf

>\\

-1

----I Fig. 3 Drill-pipe bending curveturektress vs. sxial load.

Wdtlcn \, : F,

Todjurd

3.6 0P [13.3Mt),STJ,2L20 t OL-lC da@100ft

~.rzol )

,.

.

. -.

.. . .

N -: . . . . . -+-

\,, ------- . ------ ------

...

\,

I

M COflmA . . . . . . Max. band@ Ietion

Cwtacl pm hr.atmn I

z o~

o lom2#323m)4cm3 xmJ -

(c) Aretube+ontact Aualcorrrpraaatw Ie9d Ibf

increases. Fig. 4-Drill-pipe stationary and first contact locations vs.

axial load.

199

6 JIANG WU SPE 37353

~:3. - ----- ;

20 p ?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I

: z

10A RAD

1--- I

Mu tii~ IOmibm a

10

--- -Todjdntbcdkm 8 ~ l.!3J-

- . .: Tub Unltsding

o i-- -.=.: ----- .c-anfApG4ntbuum

$

,0=

~

# l.oc- . ; - >

- ---- d Newsolution

\, ----6

.10+ No COIIWI

---

--- ._-!

--

lj mx2 +

. . . . . . PreviouS SoMon

I mm ~-----------------

2 -204

0.00 5m 10.03 1Sal 20.03

0 lccmzumxcalaxn -Slm

Dimentii axialbad, Fa*(L2)/(4El)

iwal Carlprssaiva Iced, M

Fig. S-Comparison of two solutions.

Fig. 6-Drill-pipe banding cunmturelstrsee VS. axial load.

25-

S - N Curve (steel drltlplpe, grade E)

80T

a2- -

/, ..

15

---- F=olbr

10

r-3,@o Ibr(m0mtdl

----- .P=lO.~lbf [pOintcOnl@

5 ---- r-m#om M(arGcati*

o 3 6 9 12 15 01: -~

L- ftwn tod-joht R tm Im lm 1000OO lwmw 1507 lm

l%voMions to failure

Fig. 6-Drill-pips banding curvature distributions,

370

25

20

CoNunted

15 - --

Drillstring

Life, %

10

5 .- .-

3C0

0

0 lCOJ2W030Xl W5W06MKI

o 3,s00 5,m 1O,ao 1s,020 a),cm

DrillstringMcawrsmmtl%om

S*, fl

Fig. 7Total stored bending energy VS. axial load. horizontal wall.

SPE 37353 Drill-Pipe Bending and Fatigue in Rotary Drilling of Horizontal Wells 7

1~ ~ -

Q +...- ; I

o Xm Iamlsomximalm 3xm

Mel aomfxeaaMsbal, M

Iw T-~-- I

I

ml

m+

434

m with pip~ht

-----.wiftKdpipawai@4

o Im- ~+- +-

0 lalm15m12am25moxm3

AM canpraa@va bad, Ibf

failure with and without pipe weight.

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