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Depth understanding of every chapter

Every question is important

Skipping of a small thing may lead to failure
Grasp as much as u can
Plan in an organised way
No need to appear any mock test during mid of preparation
Concentrate and stay focused whatever you are doing
No need to do multi tasking, or thinking many things in a time.
You brain is not prepared this way, your brain can accept one thing at a time

Project Constraint- SQSBRR

PM precast
Initation 13%
Planning 24%
Executing 30%
Monitoring & Controling 25%
Closing 8%
TOTAL 100%
PMP Certification
Preparation Schedule



1 Become a PMI member

2 Download PM Prepcast

3 Acquire PMBOK Guide

4 Complete Contact Hours

5 Apply for PMP certification/testing

6 Buy Rita Mulcahy's PMP Exam Prep 8th Ed.

7 PMP Testing Approval

8 Find Test Center and Schedule Exam

9 Get Study Questions for review


10 Join PMP user groups 2/21/2017 3/11/2017 X Using PMHub google groups the most. Also using, partly done

11 Daily Study 2/24/2017 4/25/2017 X Min 3-4 hr study per day

12 Read PMBOK Guide 2/24/2017 3/6/2017 X

13 Read PMP Exam Prep 5th Ed. 3/6/2017 4/5/2017 X

14 Review Study Questions 2/27/2017 4/18/2017 X

15 Review PM PrepCast 2/27/2017 4/18/2017 X

16 Practice Brain Dump technique 2/27/2017 4/18/2017 X

17 Take Mock Exams 3/19/2017 4/18/2017 X

18 Take PTO on Exam Day 4/19/2017 4/20/2017 X


19 PMP Certification Exam Test 4/20/2017 4/21/2017 4 hour, 200 question test - Take the day of
KA Process Group Process

Initiating Develop Project Charter

Develop Project
t Planning
Management Plan
i Direct and Manage
o Project Work

Monitoring and Monitor and Control
Controlling Project Work
e Monitoring and Perform Integrated
n Controlling Change Control

Closing Close Project or Phase

Planning Plan Scope Management

Planning Collect Requirements

e Planning Define Scope

e Planning Define Scope

a Planning Create WBS

Monitoring and
Validate Scope

Monitoring and
Control Scope

Plan Schedule

Planning Define Activities

Planning Sequence Activities

Estimate activities
T Planning

g Estimate activities
e durations
g Estimate activities
e durations

Planning Develop Schedule

Monitor & Controlling Control Schedule

Planning Plan Cost Management

o Planning Estimate Costs

n Planning Define Budget

Monitoring &
Control Costs
Monitoring &
Control Costs

u Plan Quality
a Management

M Perform Quality
a Assurance
e Monitoirng and
Control Quality
n Controlling

Planning Plan HR Management

n Executing Acquire Project Team
Executing Develop Project Team

Executing Manage Project Team

Executing Manage Project Team

u Plan Comunications
n Planning
n Manage
s Excecuting

g Monitoring &
e Control Comunications
Planning Plan Risk Management

Planning Identify Risks

k Perform Qualitative Risk
n Perform Quantitative
t Planning
n Perform Quantitative
t Planning

Planning Plan Risk Responses

Monitoring &
Control Risks

Plan Procurement

c Executing Conduct Procurements

a Monitoring and
Control Procurements
n Controlling

Closing Closing Procurements

Initiating identify Stakeholders

Plan Stakeholder
S Planning
d Manage Stakeholders
e Engagement

e Monitoring and Control Stakeholder
m controlling Engagement

Create the document that officially starts the


Create the document that guides planning,

execution and control of the project

Excecute work packages and creating the


Make sure deliverables and the way they are

been produced are in line with PM Plan

Assess the impact of changes on the project

Shutdown the project properly making sure

all the work is completed satisfactorily.

its about creating a scope management plan

that documents how the project
scope will be defined, validated, and

Understand what is needed to satisfy

stakeholders and create a document that
reflects that understanding

Understand and document the scope of the

project in detail
Understand and document the scope of the
project in detail

Represent the work and only the work that

will be performed on the project in the form
of a WBS

Ensure the product, service or result of the

project matches the documented scope

Make sure all scope change requests are

processed, while understanding and
managing their underlying causes

Guides activities in the remaining six

processes aimed at creating, monitoring and
controlling the project schedule

Decompose the work packages further into

activity detail

Arrange the activities and milestones in the

order they must be performed

It's the process of estimating the type and

quantities of material, human
resources, equipment, or supplies required to
perform each activity

Analyse each activity to estimate how long it

will take
Analyse each activity to estimate how long it
will take

Create the schedule

Monitor the schedule against the actual work

peformed to ensure things stay on target

Creates the plan to effectively manage and

control the project costs

Each scheduled activity is analyzed to

evaluate the activity time estimates and the
resource estimates to determine a cost
estimate (or the cost required to perform the

It takes the estimated project expenditures

and maps them back to dates on the
calendar. It creates the cost performance
baseline (budget)

It is primarily concerned with cost variance,

that being positive or negative
It is primarily concerned with cost variance,
that being positive or negative

The project team identifies what the quality

specs are for the project and how will be met

Its concerned about improving the activities

and processes undertaken to achieve quality

It inspects results to determine if they

conform to quality standards. It involves
product and project deliverables

It's the process of identifying and

documenting project roles, responsibilities,
required skills, reporting relationships, and
creating a staffing management plan

Staffing the project with team members to

complete project activities

Building a sense of team building and

improving its performance

actively managing the project team to ensure

that they perform according to the plan
actively managing the project team to ensure
that they perform according to the plan

The process of developing an appropriate

approach and plan for project
communications based on stakeholders
information needs and requirements, and
available organizational assets.

Its the execution of the communication

management Plan. This process also has to
be flexible to handle unplanned information

Its the process of monitoring and controlling

communications throughout the entire
project life cycle to ensure the information
needs of the project stakeholders are met

Create the Risk Management Plan. It forms

the foundations of the remaining risk

It evaluates the project to identify which risks

could impact the project and to understand
the nature of these risks

To determie which risks are the highest

priority on the project. It takes each risk from
the risk regsiter and works to analyze its
probability of ocurring.. It has to do with
ranking and scoring. Urgent Risks from
this process may go straight to plan risk

It assigns a numeric projected value to

quantify the risks that have been ranked by
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis. This value
is most common specified in terms of cost or
time. This processes is subsecuent of perform
Qualitative Risk Analysis
It assigns a numeric projected value to
quantify the risks that have been ranked by
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis. This value
is most common specified in terms of cost or
time. This processes is subsecuent of perform
Qualitative Risk Analysis

Plan Risk Responses is the process of

developing options and actions to enhance
opportunities and to reduce
threats to project objectives

It takes a look at all the planning we've done

in risk, and evaluate how all that is lining up
the reality It also deals with unplanned

Looking at the project and determining which

components or services will be "procured"
from an external source. In other words its
about deciding make vs buy.. If things are
external, it ensures the right contract is used

It carries out the plan, selects one or more

sellers and awards the procurement, usually
in the form of a contract

Buyer and seller get together to review the

work results to ensure that the results match
the contract. Its a process performed by both
(buyer and seller).. Both PM's work together
to explore the potential effects of any
Its where the contract is completed by the
buyer and seller. Ideally the contract is
terminated amicably with the seller
delivering all of the contracted items and the
buyer making all payments on time, but it
isn't always done that way. EG: the buyer
may consider a seller to be in default and
cancel the contract, or a buyer and seller
may mutually agree to terminate the contract
for any reason... Every contract must be
closed. Contracts left open are risk by seller
and buyer.

it creates the stakeholder register to list all of

the stakeholders and describe their
involvement on the project A stakeholder
may be anyone with an interest in the
project, and that interest may be positive or

it looks at how the team will relate to the

stakeholders and what stakeholder
involvement will be in all aspects of the

Stakeholders should be managed according

to their needs and how the project scope
addresses those needs...It uses
communication and the issue log to help
ensure that stakeholders are involved at the
right level and in the right way

It evaluates how the plan of engaging and

involving stakeholders lines up with the

Project SoW
Project Selection Methods
Business Case
Project Charter

16 Outputs from other processes

PM Plan

Approved Change Requests

PM Plan
Schedule & Cost Forecast
Validated Changes
PM Plan

Change Requests

PM Plan

Accepted Deliverables
PM Plan

Project Charter
Stakeholders register
Stakeholders Management Plan

Requiements Managemen Plan

Project Charter
Scope Management Plan
Requirements Documentation
Project Charter
Scope Management Plan
Project Scope Statement
Requirements Documentation

Scope Management Plan

PM Plan
Requirements Documentation

Requirements Traceability Matrix

Verified deliverables
PM Plan
Requirements Traceability Matrix

Requirements Documentation
PM Plan
Project Charter
Schedule Management Plan
Scope Baseline

Schedule Management Plan

Activity list
Activity Attributes
Milestone list
Project Scope Statement
Schedule Management Plan

Activity List
Resource Calendars
Activity Cost Estimates
Risk Register
Activity Attributes
Schedule Management Plan

Activity list
Activity Attributes
Activity Resource Requirements
Project Scope Statement
Resource Breakdown Structure
Risk Register
Resource Calendars
Schedule Management Plan
Activity list
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Resource Calendars
Activity duration estimates
Activity Resource Requirements
Risk Register
Project Scope Statement
Resource Breakdown Structure
Project Staf Assignments
Activity Attributes
PM Plan
Project schedule
Schedule Data

Project Calendar
PM Plan
Project Charter

Cost Management Plan

Human Resources Plan

Scope Baseline

Project Schedule

Risk Register

Cost Management Plan

Scope Baseline
Activity Cost Estimates
Project Schedule
Resource Calendars
Risk Register
PM Plan
Project Funding Requirements
PM Plan
Stakeholder register
Risk Register
Requirements Documentation

Quality Management Plan

Process Improvement Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality Control Measurements
Quality Metrics
Quality Checklists
PM Plan
Project Documents

Approved Change Requests

Activity Resource Requirements

PMP Plan

Human Resources Management Plan


Human Resources Management Plan

Project Staf Assignments
Resources Calendars

Human Resources Management Plan

Project Staf Assignments
Team performance assessments
Issue Log
Work Performance Reports
Project Management Plan
Stakeholders register

Comunication Management Plan

Work Performance Reports

Project Communications
Issue Log
Project Management Plan

Project Management Plan

Project Charter
Stakeholders register
Scope Baseline
Activity cost estimates
Activity duration estimates
Cost Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Quality Management Plan
HR management Plan
Stakeholders register
PM Documents
Procurement Documents
Risk Management Plan

Risk Management Plan

Scope Baseline
Risk Register

Cost and Schedule Plans

Risk Management Plan
Cost Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Risk Register

Risk Management Plan

Risk Register

Project Management Plan

Risk Register

Project Management Plan

Requirements Documentation
Risk Register
Stakeholder register
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Project Schedule
Activity Resource Requirements
Activity Cost Estimates
Procurement Management Plan
Seller Proposals
Project Documents
Procurement Statement of Work
Source Selection Criteria
Make or Buy Decisions
Procurement Documents

Project Management Plan

Approved Change Requests
Procurement Documents
PM Plan

Procurement Documents

Project Charter

Procurement Documents

Stakeholders register

PM Plan

Stakeholders Management Plan

Communications Management Plan


Change Log

Project Management Plan

Issue Log
Project Documents


Expert Knowledge

Facilitation Techniques
Expert Knowledge

Facilitation Techniques
Expert Knowledge

Expert Knowledge
Analytical Techniques
Expert Knowledge
Change control tools

Expert Knowledge

Analytical Techniques
Expert Judgement

Facilitation Workshops
Context Diagrams
Document Analysis
Group Decision-Making Techniques
Group Creativity Techniques
Questionaries and Surveys
Expert knowdlege
Product Analysis
Alternatives Generation
Facilitation Workshops



Group Decision-Making Techniques

Variance Analysis

Expert Knowledge

Analytical Thecniques
Rolling Wave Planning
Expert Knowledge
Precedence Diagramming Method
Graphical Evaluation & Review Technique
Dependency Determination

Leads and Lags

Expert Knowledge
pM Software
Pusblished Estimating Data
Alternative anlaysis

Bottom-Up estimating

Analogous Estimating
Three-Point Estimating
One Point Estimating
Expert Knowledge
Parametric Estimating
Heuristic Estimating
Group Decision Making Tachniques

Reserve Analysis
Schedule Network Analysis
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Critical Chain Method
Resource Optimization Techniques
Modeling techniques
Leads and Lags

Schedule Compresion

Performance reviews
Resource Optimization Techniques
Modeling techniques
Project Management Software
Leads and Lags
Scheduling tool
Schedule Compresion
Expert Knowledge
Analytical Techniques
Analogous Estimating
Expert Knowledge
Parametric Estimating

Bottom-Up Estimating

Three-Point Estimates
Reserve Analysis
Cost of Quality
Resource Cost Rate
Group Decision Making Techniques
Vendor Bid Analysis
Cost Aggregation
Reserve Analysis
Funding Limit Reconciliation
Expert Knowledge

Earn Value Management

Reserve Analysis
Project Management Software
Peformance Review
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cost of Quality
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Statistical Sampling
Design of Experiments
Force Field Analysis
Quality Management and Control Tools
Quality Audits
Process Analysis
Statistical Sampling
Approved change request review
Seven Basic Quality Tools

Organization Charts and Position Descriptions

Organizational Theory
Expert Knowledge
Virtual Teams
Halo Efect
Types of Teams (esta es nota)
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
Interpersonal skills
Team-Building Activities
Ground Rules
Recognition and Rewards (Thories of Motivation)
Personnel Assessment Tools

Observation and Conversation

Project Performance Appraisals
Conflict Management
Interpersonal skills

Communication Requirements Analysis

Communication Channels
Communication Technology
Communication Models

Communication Methods

Communication Technology
Communication models
communication methods
information management systems
Performance Reporting
information management systems
Expert Knowledge

Anaylitical Techniques
Expert judgment
Checklist Analysis
Diagramming techniques
SWOT Analysis
Assumption Analysis
Documentation Reviews
Expert judgment
Information Gathering Techniqes

Risk Probability and Impact Assessment

Probability and Impact Matrix
Risk Data Quality Assessment
Risk Categorization
Risk Urgency Assessment
Expert judgment
Data Gathering and Representation Techniques
Quantitative Risk analysis and modeling techniques
Expected Monetary Value Analysis
Tornado Diagrams
Modeling and simulation

Expert judgment

Strategies for Negative Risk or Threats

Strategies for Positive Risks or Opportunities
Contingent Resonse Srategies
Expert judgment

Risk re-assessment
Risk Audits
Variance and Trend Analysis
Reserve Analysis
Technical performance measurements

Make or Buy Analysis

Market Research
Expert Judgement

Bidder Conference
Proposal Evalaution Techniques
Independend Estimates
Expert Judgement
Analytical Techniques
Screening System
Procurement Negotiations

Contract Change Control System

Inspection and Audits
Procurement Performance Review
Performance Reporting
Payment Systems
Claims Administration
Records Management Systems
Procurement Audits

Audit Seller's Cost Submittals

Procurement Negotiations

Records Management Systems

Stakeholders analysis

Expert Judgment
Analytical techniques
Management Skills

Interpersonal Skills and Communication Methods

Stakeholders Engagement Matrix

Information Management Systems

Expert Judgment

Project Charter

Project Management Plan

Change Requests
Implemented approved changes
PM Plan updates
Project Documents
Change Requests
PM Plan updates
Project Document Updates
Approved Change Requests
PM Plan updates

Change Log

Final Product, Service or Result Transition

OPA updates
Scope Managment Plan

Requirements Management Plan

Requirements Documentation
Requirements Traceability Matrix

Project Scope Statement

PM Documents updates

Scope Baseline baselines are the original plan plus all ad

WBS Control Account
WBS Dictionary

Accepted Deliverables
WPI Validate scope .. Buscas aceptacion form

Ojo, validate scope no es un proces

lo visitas constantemente para valid
Projec Documents Updates de vista del cliente. Otro punto, val
tambin aceptacin final del cliente
scope buscamos aceptacin de c/u d
Change Requests Control quality Revisas que el entrega
Change Requests
PM Plan Updates
Project Document Updates

OPA updates

Schedule Management Plan

Activity list Work packages are deliverables-based,

Activity Attributes
Milestone list

Project Schedule Network Diagrams

PM Docs

Activity Resource Requirements activities are estimated for resource req

Resource Breakdown Structure

Project Documents Updates

Activity Duration Estimates

Project Documents Updates

Project Documents Updates

Schedule Baseline
Project Schedule
Schedule Data
Project Calendars
PM Plan updates
Project Documents Updates

Schedule Forecasts
Change Requests

OPA Updates
Project Documents Updates
PM Plan updates

Cost Management Plan

Activity Cost Estimates

Basis of Estimates
PM Documents

Cost Baseline
Project Funding Requirements

Work Performance Information

Cost Forecasts
Change Requests
PM Plan updates
Project Document Updats
Quality Management Plan
Process Improvement Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality Checklists
PM Documents

Change Requests
PM Plan Udpates
Quality Improvement
Quality Control Measurements
Validated changes
Verified deliverables
Change Requests
PM Plan Udpates
Project Documents Udtaes

Human Resources Management Plan

Project Staff Assignments

Resource Calendars
Human Resources Management Plan udpates

Team performance assessments

EEF updates

Change Requests
PM Plan
Project Documents

Communications Management Plan

Project Communications

PM Plan Updates
Project Documents Updates

Change Requests
PM Plan Updates

Project Documents Updates

Risk Management Plan

Risk Register

Project Document Updates


Project Document Updates

Project Document Updates

Project Document Updates

Change Requests
PM Plan Updates

Change Requests
Project Document Updates
PM Plan Updates

Procurement Management Plan

Procurement Statement of work
Procurement Documents
Source Selection Criteria
Make or Buy Decisions
Project Documents Updates

Change Request
Selected Sellers
Resource Calendars
Change Requests
Project Management Plan Updates
Project Documents Updates

OPA updates
Change Requests
PM plan updates
Project Doc. Updates
Closed Procurements

OPA Updates

Stakeholders register

Stakeholders Management Plan

Project Document Updates

Issue Log

Change Request
Pm Plan updates

Project Management Documents

Change Request
Project Documents updates
Pm Plan updates
e the original plan plus all additional changes

pe .. Buscas aceptacion formal de los entregables con cliente

te scope no es un proceso que solamente lo haces una vez al final del proyecto,
onstantemente para validar que el proyecto va estando en linea con el punto
l cliente. Otro punto, validate scope vs close project = en Close Project buscas
ceptacin final del cliente pero de TODO el proyecto como tal. Aqui en validate
amos aceptacin de c/u de los entregables
ity Revisas que el entregable cumpla con las especificaicones de calidad

ges are deliverables-based, while activites are focused on the work needed to execute the WP

e estimated for resource requirements, not WP

ecute the WP
Foundation Terms

Work Authorization System

Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management




Quality Management
Human Resources Managememnt

Team building activities Tuckman's theory of team development: Tuckman's Ladder





Maslows hirearchy of needs

McGregror's Theory X and Theory


Contingency theory

Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene

McClelland's Three Need

Theory(acquired needs theory)

Expectancy Theory

Methods of Conflict Ma

Collaborations/Problem Solve
(also refered to confrontation)





information Seeker
Information Givers
Gate Keepers



Recognition Seekers
Devil's advocates

Sources of Conflict

Communications Managememt

Communications Channels
Channels = n x (n-1) / 2
4 x (4-1) / 2 = 6
5 x (5-1) / 2 = 10

Official Channels of

Messages can be conveyedWays of communicating

in verbal and nonverbal(efective communication)
ways. Below are some terms related to d
ways of communicating

Active listening

Efective listening



Communication blockers

Informal Written

Formal Written

Informal Verbal

Formal Verbal

Communication Methods

Risk Management



Risk averse


Decision Tree - Expected monetary value


Expected Monetary Value

Contigency Reserve

Procurement Management

Contract Types
Fixed Price Contracts (esta es
una categora de alto nivel, abajo
se describen los tipos de
contratos fijos)

Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP)

Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF)

Fixed Price Award Fee (FPAF)

Fixed Price Economic Price
adjustment (FP-EPA) or Fixed
Price with prospective price

Purchase Order (tambien es un

contrato fijo)

Cost Reimbursable Contracts

(used when the scope of
work is uncertain, there is a
high risk on the effort or the
total costs are unknown, so
the buyer has most of the
risk). This category of contract
involves payments (cost
reimbursements) to the seller for
all legitimate actual costs
incurred for completed work,
plus a fee representing seller
risk). This category of contract
involves payments (cost
reimbursements) to the seller for
all legitimate actual costs
incurred for completed work,
plus a fee representing seller

Time and Materials Contracts

Type of Contract

Fixed Price

Cost plus fixed fee

Cost plus Incentive Fee

Time and Materials

Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

4 values





Aspirational Items
Mandatory Items
all of the PLANS of the KE are the proactive aspect of the Project

The work authorization system is actually part of the project

management system. 'The work authorization system is the system
used to ensure that work gets performed at the right time and in the
right sequence. It is the PM system for authorizing the start of work
packages or activities. A work authorization system is place to make
sure work is only started when a formal authorization is given (y as
evitar que el plomero y el electrico se translapen al mismo tiempo)

Scope Creep
Gold Platting

Schedule Model


Total Float, Slack, Slip

Free Float

Project Float




Three Point Estimate (esto es el ttulo o nombre, las formulas son las
de abajo)
Beta Distribution
Triangular Distribution (simple average)
Estndar deviation

Life-Cycle Costing

Value Engineering (AKI Value analysis)

Order of magnitud

Conceptual Estimate
Preliminary Estimate
Budget Estimate

Definitive Estimate

Control Estimate

Fixed Cost

Variable cost
Direct cost

Indirect cost

Sunk cost
Cost Risk


PV (or BCWS)

EV (or BCWP)










Continous Improvement

Statistical Independence
Mutually Exclusive

Standard Deviation


Six Sigma


Attribute Sampling
Variable Sampling

Special Causes

Common Causes

Control Limits

Marginal Analysis


activities Tuckman's theory of team development: Tuckman's Ladder

first step, team members understand the project and their roles.
Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase

the team begins to do the work, but there is typically a good bit of
conflict and difficulty
its where the behaviour normalizes and members begin to work as a
team. The team learns to trust each other. The PM shows more
its where the team is working at an efficient level that exceed what
individuals could accomplish alone. They are interdependent and
work through issues smoothly and efectively. The role of the PM is
more overseeing and delegating

Its where the project is closed and the team is released. Individuals
tend to fear change, this stage can be difficult on everyone

Theories of Motivation or What do people want?

Human needs are grouped into 5 basic categories. The theory states
that the need from the bottom must be satisfied before the upper
needs will surface. Needs (from Top to Bottom):

two ways of classifying people. Theory X- the team members are

only interested in their own selfish goals. Managers have to be more
in supervision and forcing to achieve results. EG: Assemply Line
in supervision and forcing to achieve results. EG: Assemply Line

In stressfull times a task oriented leader will be more effective, and in calm times, a relationship-o

The presence of certain factors does not make some satisfied, but
their abscence will make someone unsatisfied (similar to maslow's
theory of hirearchy of needs)-. Hygene factors must be present but
they don't motivate , motivation factors motivate, but they will not
work without the hygiene factors in place

Also called achievement theory.. Employees are motivated upon

three primary needs

people will behave based on what they expect as a result of their behavior. In other words, people

Methods of Conflict Management (Management Skill)

of the problem and resolves it from the root cause The final steps of problem solving include: im
collaboratinng, teams or individuals work together with other individuals or teams to come t
from difering perspectives; requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that typically leads
solutionwhatever power is necessary to get the door open. Worst way to resolve a problem.Its onl
expense of others; ofering only win-lose solutions, usually enforced through a power position to re
The PM plays down the problem and turns attention to what is going well. It doesn't provide a solut
agreement rather than areas of diference

PM is hoping the problem to go away. Conflicts are never resolved.. Its avoiding the problem postpo
better prepared or to be resolved by others.

Both parties give up something. This is a lose-lose situation since no party gets everything. Search
parties in order to temporarily or partially resolve the conflict.

Constructive Team Roles

Someone who actively initiates ideas and arctivities on a project. Its proactive and productive
People seeking more knowledge and understanding related to the project
Someone who shares information with the team.. It needs good communication and good informat
They mantain a positive and realistic attitude. They focus on what can be accomplished, not what
Someone who works to make certain that everyone's understanding of the project is the same. Co
They enhance the context of the project and details surrounding it
They take details and restate them. They keep things simple enough for everyone to understand
They enfcourage the entire team to participate.. Also they make desicions whether the project sho

Destructive team roles

Someone hostile and opposed to the project. He is no productive

Someone who blocks access to info and interrupts the communication.
They don't participate. He just sit quietly.. They don't buy into the project.
They look who
Someone at the projectteam
disrupts to see whats in it for
participation andthem. He is interested
communication in his own
by presenting selfish goals
opinions forcefully an
of the team. They are opinion crushers
Someone who will automatically take a contrary view. He frustrates communication. Discouraging

50% of project conflicts come from 3 sources: HR, Priorities and Schedules. Conflict comes often be
In order: Schedules, Project priorities, resources, technical conflict and admin procedures


Communications Channels
Where n is the number of people on the project
4 people create 6 communication channels
5 people create 10 communications channels

Which communications channels are official. EG: Who can officially

communicate with the customer or key subcontractors

edWays of communicating
in verbal and nonverbal(efective communication)
ways. Below are some terms related to different

Requires that the receiver takes active steps to ensure that the
sender was understood
It refers to the verbal and nonverbal cues a speaker must monitor to
see whether the listener fully comprehends the message. Nodding
requires the listener's full thought and attention. It means to monitor
and smiling are examples of positive feedback, while nodding and
nonverbal and pysical communication and to provide feedback
blank stare indicate the message has to be re-coded for better
indicating whether the message has been clearly understood
communication. Asking questions or repeating the speakers words
are also ways to give feedback.. When repearting what the sender
says, he has feedback
Body language such as facial expressions, posture, hand motions,
etc. Most communications are non-verbal. It carries a significant
portion of the message sent. It represents a major part of all

Its vocal but not verbal. Tone of Voice, volume or pitch. A high pitch
squal does not employ words, but it does communicate

Its anything that interfiers with the senders encoding the message or
the receiver decoding. It can include anything that disrups the
communications channel. EG: email app is down, Noisy surroundings,
Distances, improper encoding of messages, Making negative
statements, Hostility, language, culture

Communication Types
Email messages, memorandums, post its, notas

Contracts, legal notices, project documents (charter), important

project communications, llamadas de atencion en forma de reportes
formales al personal, request for the customer to increase scope not
covered in a contract, major project status

Meetings, discussions, phone calls, conversations

Speeches, mass communications, presentations

Communication Methods
A meeting where people can ask questions
a bulk email blast
a website where a video presentation or white paper can be

Risk is related to an uncertain event

Project risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a

positive or negative efect on one or
more project objectives such as scope, schedule, cost, and quality.

A risk may afect the project for good or for bad. Although risk
usually has negative connotations, it may well have an upside.
Positive and negative risks are commonly referred to as opportunities
and threats
Lack of knowledge about an event that reduces confidence in
conclusions drown from the data. Cost, time, QA can be uncertain.
Investigation of uncertanities help identify risk
Someone who doesn't want to take risks
When an unknown risk has occured it requires the development of a

ed monetary value
Risk Cost x The Probability + Initial cost

EMV = P x I
You use EMV and add all the negative risks and substract all positive
risk. That gives the total round amount of reserve

Contract Types
There is generally a single fee, although payment terms may be
specified so that the cost is not necessarlily a lump sum payable at
the end.. Its very popular when the scope is thoroughly
defined and completly known. Price is fixed, with no
provisions for cost or performance overruns. The risk is
shifted to the seller. Sellers under fixed-price
contracts are legally obligated to complete such contracts, with
possible financial damages if they do not. Fixed-price contracts may
also incorporate financial incentives for
achieving or exceeding selected project objectives, such as schedule
delivery dates, cost and technical performance, or anything that can
be quantified and subsequently measured

The most commonly used contract type is the FFP. It is favored by

most buying organizations because the price for goods is set at the
outset and not subject to change unless the scope of work changes.
Any cost increase due to adverse performance is the responsibility of
the seller, who is obligated to complete the efort. Under the FFP
contract, the buyer should precisely specify the product or services
to be procured, and any changes to the procurement specification
can increase the costs to the buyer.

Price is fixed, with an incentive fee for meeting a target specified in

the contract (such as finishing the work ahead of schedule, or
cheaper). This fixed-price arrangement gives the buyer and seller
some flexibility in that it allows for deviation from performance, with
financial incentives tied to achieving agreed upon metrics.

A type of Incentive Contract. The buyer pays a fixed price plus an

award amount (bonus) based on performance. Similar to FPIF, except
the total amount is determined in advanced and apportioned based
on performance. The award paid sometimes might be judged
Its popular where fluctuations in the exchange rate or interest rate
may impact the project. An economic stipulation may be based on
the interest rate, the consumer price index, cost of living
adjustments, currency exchage rates, etc. This contract type is used
whenever the sellers performance period spans a considerable
period of years, as is desired with many long-term relationships. It is
a fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for pre
defined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed
conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases (or
decreases) for specific commodities. The EPA clause needs to relate
to some reliable financial index, which is used to precisely adjust the
final price. The FP-EPA contract is intended to protect both buyer and
seller from external conditions beyond their control.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) - The seller passes the cost back to the
buyer and receives an additional fixed fee upon completition of the
project. Thetype of Fixed
buyer paysPrice Contracts.
the seller Its unilateral
the actual (signed
costs plus by one
a negotiated
fee thatIts
is used
fixed for simple
before thecommodity
work begins.procurements. Purchase orders
The seller is reimbursed for
all contracts
allowable costs when they are accepted
for performing (eg:work,
the contract equipment is shipped
and receives a
by the seller)
fixed-fee payment calculated as a percentage of the initial estimated
project costs. The fee does not vary with actual costs; thus the seller
does not have an incentive to increase or inflate costs. This type of
contract limits the fees of projects with limited scope definition. A fee
is paid only for completed work and does not change due to seller
performance. Fee amounts do not change unless the project scope

Cost Contract - The seller receives no fee (profit). Appropiate for non
profit organizations

Cust Plus Fee (CPF) or Cost Plus Percentage of Costs (CPPC) it

requires the buyer to pay for all costs plus a percentage of costs as a
fee. The seller profit is based on a percentage of everything billed to
the buyer. This requires the buyer to monitor carefully the invoices
Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) - The buyer pays all costs and a base fee
plus an award amount (bonus) based on performance, similar to
CPIF, except the incentive is a potential reward, rather tnan a
potential reward or penalty. The award amount is determined in
advance. The award is sometimes judged subjectively. The seller is
reimbursed for all legitimate
Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)costs, but the
-The seller majority
passes the of theback
cost fee is
to the
earned only based on the satisfaction of certain broad subjective
buyer and gets an incentive fee for meeting a target (usually tied
back to keeping criteria
cost defined and incorporated
low or meeting objectivesinto thecontract).
in the contract. The
determination of fee is based solely on the subjective determination
seller gests a percentage of the savings or shares costs overrruns. In
of seller
CPIF performance
contracts, by the
if the final buyer,
costs and or
are less is generally not the
greater than subject to
estimated costs, then both the buyer and seller share costs from the
departures based upon a prenegotiated cost-sharing formula, for
The seller an
example, charges
80/20 for time
split plus the target
over/under cost ofcosts
any materials
based on needed to
the actual
complete the work. The
performance of the seller. seller pays per-hour or per-item basis. Used
when the level of efort cannot be defined, it can be created quickly
because the statement of work is not very detailed. The total cost of
the work is not known. These contracts have terms and conditions
specifically to negotiate quickly and begin work sooner. These
contracts are best suited for small dollar amounts and short amount
of time. There is a profit for the seller in every hour or unit billed, the
seller has no incentive to control costs, this means a great deal of
oversight from the buyer. It often involves an incomplete scope
Who Bears the Risk



Buyer and Seller


Point of Total Assumption

ofessional Conduct


Take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the actions
we take or fail to take, and the consequences of that result

show a high regard for ourselves, others, culture and the rescources
entrusted to us. An environment of respect engenders trust,
confidence, and performance excellence by fostering mutual
cooperationan environment where diverse perspectives and views
are encouraged and valued.

Make decisions and act impartially and objectively. Our conduct must
be free from competing self interest, prejudice and favoritism.

understand the truth and act in a truthful manner

Firm and must be followed
Baseline - The final approved version of certain pieces of the PM plan

refers to uncontrolled changes or continuous growth in a projects scope. This can occur
when the scope of a project is not properly defined, documented, or controlled. It is
generally considered harmful. Typically, the scope increase consists of either new products
or new features of already approved product designs, without corresponding increases in
resources, schedule, or budget. As a result, the project team risks drifting away from its
original purpose and scope into unplanned additions. As the scope of a project grows,
more tasks must be completed within the budget and schedule originally designed for a
smaller set of tasks. Accordingly, scope creep can result in a project team overrunning its
original budget and schedule. If budget, resources, and schedule are increased along with
the scope, the change is usually considered an acceptable addition to the project, and the
term scope creep is not used.

Scope creep can be a result of:

poor change control
lack of proper initial identification of what is required to bring about the project
weak project manager or executive sponsor
poor communication between parties

Scope creep is a risk in most projects. uncontrolled changes lead to scope creep
Gold plating means adding features that are not included in the product's scope. The
impact of the unauthorized addition of the feature can be or bad. It's correct that gold-
plating is done by the project team with an intention to enhance the quality of the
product, but whether the product quality actually enhances or gets reduced by this gold-
plating will never be determined before the product gets to the customer. Remember
quality is a measure of the extent to which a product conforms to the customer's
requirements, and since you are incorporating the unauthorized change or enhancement,
whether this change or enhancement will be acceptable to the customer is subject to
his/her inspection. Goldplating is something which is done without any "changes" to the
The schedule model consists of all the data that it is used to calculate de schedule, such
as, activities, dependencies, leads and lags, etc. The schedule is the output of the
schedule model
Colchn -- Extra time or cost added to an estimate. should avoid because is not realistic.
Team members arbitraty determine how much pad they want. Avoid The PM has the the
ability to reliable calculate what additional time and cost (reserves) are needed without
Amout of time activity can be delayed without afecting the project finish date. If activity is
on the CP then it has 0 float..
how long an activity can be delayed without afecting the ES of the next one
Amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project
completition date required by a customer or management, or the date previously comitted
by the PM
Que es lo mas temprano que una actividad puede empezar.. No hay formula es calcular el
tiempo transcurrido y el ES es el comienzo de la actividad (tambien conocido como
forward pass)

Que es lo mas temprano que puede acabar una actividad

Que tan tarde puede empezar una actividad sin afectar las fechas finales. Also known as
backward passing
Que tan tarde puede terminar sin afectar las fechas finales
Cuanto tiempo dura una actividad


Pessimistic, Optimistic, Realistic (P y O son variables de riesgo)

Pessimistic + 4(Realistic) + Optimistic / 6
Pessimistic + Realistic + Optimistic / 3
Pessimistic - Optimistic / 6

It looks at the TCO from puchase or creation, through operations and finally to disposal.
E.G: generic computer servers (cheap) will be more expensive to mantain in the long run.
EG: produce a product with a reduced level of quality and save 9K; but when the the
product goes live the fees for maintance are 20K. So lifecycle costing is looking at the
whole life of the product, not just the project costs

Finding less costly way to do the same work. E.g. outsourcing. Getting more out the
project in every possible way.. The key is that the scope of work is not reduced. It answers
the questions "How can we decrease the project costs while mantaining the same scope?".

estimating is a wide range -50% to 100%.. It is done during project initiating, when very
little is known about the project
estimating is range -30% to 50%
estimating is range -20% to 30%
Made during project planning. Range is -10 to 25%

As the project progresses the estime will be more refined. estimating is -15% to 20%
estimating is narrow -10% to +15%

They stay the same through the life of the project. EG: a piece of heavy equipment. A
fixed cost is a non-recurring cost that will not change as the project progresses
Costs that vary. EG: Labor hours, fuel
Billed directly to the project. EG: Materials used or training. Team Travel
These are shared among other projects. EG: Fringe Benefits, Managers salary (his salary is
overhead), taxas, janitorial services
Costs that are unrecoverable
Risk that project cost could go higher than planned

Budgeted at Completition..

Planned Value (also known as Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled)

Earn Value (also kown as Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)

Actual Cost (also known as Actual Cost of Work Performed)

Schedule Variance

Cost performance Index

Cumulative CPI

Schedule Performance Index

Estimate at Completition
Estimate to Completition

Variance at Completition

To-Complete Performance Index

The degree of which a set of characteristics fulfills requirements

Everyone in the company is responsible for quality. It looks at the underlying processes
that creates products or results
Also known as kaizen
Zero inventory or near zero
Two outcomes are not dependant upon each other. The probability of an event ocurring
does not affect the probability of another event occuring. EG The probability of rollin g a 6
on a dice is statistically independent of rolling 5 in the next roll. Statistical independence
refers to two events not being linked
One choice excludes the other. EG: Painting a house yellow or white are exclusively
events. Flipping a coin cannot result in both head and tails. Two events cannot happen at
the same time. By definition, two events that are mutually exclusive cannot happen on
the same trial.
Statistical calculation to measure how a set of data is organized. It is used to set control
limits to determine if a process is in control.

Sigma is another name for Standard Deviation and indicates how much variance from the
mean has been established as permissible in a process. It is represented by 3 or 6 sigma.
EG: at 6 sigma 1.5 out of 1 million doors will have defects. At 3 sigma approx 2500 doors
out of 1.5 million will have defects. the more sixmas the more strict the Quality is

Achieve high levels of QA by controlling the processes and reducing defects

1 = 68.27%
2 = 95.45%
3 = 99.73%
6 = 99.99985%
Keeping defects from ocurring out of the process
Catching errors (keeping errors out of the hands of the customer)
Either a work result conforms to quality or not.. Pass or fail
Measures how well something conforms to quality. (Degree of conformance)

Unusual and preventable. EG: Assembly Errors

Normal.. EG: Defects due to bad raw materials
Limits your project has set of product acceptances. Range of acceptable results
Are set at three standard deviations above and below the mean. As long as the results fall
within the control limits, the process is in control. The limits represent the quality
specifications of the cuestomer

The point where benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the
incremental cost to achieve that quality

Getting to know. Team members arrive. All is wonderful, happy, committed, things are great
We get to know each other very well. Individual caracteristics surface and conflict may
arise (siempre llega tarde, habla enojado, etc)
working out the diferences. We fix it by conflict resolution

Our team is functional, knows how to work each others. This is were we are efective

People leave so we need to get the rest of the team to the perforfming stage

Self Actualization (living and working at full potential)

Esteem (importance, recognition, contribution)

Acceptance (part of the team)

Security (fear, job protection, safety)

Physiological (food, sleep, clothing)

Theory Y- it assumes people are naturally motivated to do good work. Managers perform
very little motiviation and the team is trusted. EG: Telecomuning org.
very little motiviation and the team is trusted. EG: Telecomuning org.

ve, and in calm times, a relationship-oriented leader will work

Hygiene factors: Paycheck, personal life, security, status, good relationships, working
conditions (chairs, desks, etc)

Motivational factors: achievement, recognition, growth, advancement

Achievement - team members with high need of achievement (nAch) have a need to stand
out. They like recognition. They prefer to work alone. High risk porjects are not appealing
since their effort may be damaged by the risk of the project. Also low risk projects don't
appeal since effort will not be recognized. They need projects that are challenging but
Power - Team members with the need of power (nPow) generally desire social power or
personal power. social power is better because they get along with other members. These
guys are leaders and want to manage others

Affiliation - Team members want to belong to a team (nAff). They work best when
cooperating with others.
their behavior. In other words, people will work in relation to the expected reward of the work

nagement (Management Skill)

al steps of problem solving include: implement a decision, review it and confirm the decision solved
h other individuals or teams to come to a solution. Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights
nd open dialogue that typically leads to consensus and commitment. This leads to a win-win
orst way to resolve a problem.Its only a temporary solution. Pushing ones viewpoint at the
nforced through a power position to resolve an emergency.
is going well. It doesn't provide a solution, just tries to diminsh the problem. Emphasizing areas of

olved.. Its avoiding the problem postponing the issue to be

since no party gets everything. Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all

tive Team Roles

ject. Its proactive and productive
o the project
ood communication and good information flow
what can be accomplished, not what is imposible. They contribute to team morale
tanding of the project is the same. Common goals
ding it
e enough for everyone to understand
ake desicions whether the project should move on and is still achieveing the business need

ive team roles

o the project.
erested in his own
n by presenting selfish goals
opinions forcefully and without considering others. He will talk more than the rest

strates communication. Discouraging people from participating

and Schedules. Conflict comes often between the PM and Functional Managers
nflict and admin procedures

The PM is part of the Communication Channels

nication Types
used frequently on the project to convey info and communicate

Used infrequently, but essential for prominent documents that go into the project record.
The project plan is a formal written document (project charter, etc). This allows your words
to be documented and they will get to everyone in the same form. When there are
complex problems, you want everyone to receive the same info
Used to communicate information quickly and efficently

Used for public relations, special events, company-wide announcements, sales

Listening techniques. Listening actively (acknowledging, clarifying, and confirming understanding

removal of barriers that adversely afect comprehension.
its best suited for small work, lasting a short period of time. The seller doesnt have an
incentive to get the work done quickly
Since the price is fixed, cost overruns may not be passed to the buyer and must remain on
the seller

Since all cost must be reimbursed to the seller, the buyer bears the risk of cost overruns
The buyer bears most of the risk here, but the incentive fee for the seller motivates that
seller to keep costs down

The buyer pays the seller for all time and materials the seller applies to the project. The
buyer bears the most risk of cost overruns

The subcontractor assumes responsability for all aditional costs after a cap. Its important
because it helps identify the cost point in the contract where the seller has the most
motivation to bring things to completition. Costs above PTA are assummed to be due to
mismanagement or the seller not estimating correctly. Sellers will monitor their work
against PTA to make sure they are still receiving profit

it focuses primarily on laws, regulations, policies and ethics. The right thing to do is to
follow the law or a corporate policy

We negotiate in good faith and do not abuse others. The respect we extend to others
includes interpersonal respect and the respect of others' property, including intellectual
property. We do not exercise the power of our expertise or position to influence the
decisions or actions of others in order
to benefit personally at their expense

avoid conflict of interest and we never discriminate against others.

We do not engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others, including but
not limited to, making misleading or false statements, stating half-truths, providing
information out of context or withholding information that, if known, would render our
statements as misleading or incomplete. Tell the truth and nothing but the truth
Work Performance Data


desviaciones del alcance (en otras palabras)


LS= Es+FLoat
How much was originally planned for the project to

How much work should've been completed at this

point in time based on the plan

How much work was actually completed (as work is

being completed, value is added to the project)

The money spent during a given period. It is the

total cost incurred in accomplishing the work that
the EV measured

How much actual costs(EV and AC) differ from

planned costs.
How much the schedule differs from the plan.
Expressed in dollars

How much we are getting for every dollar

Its all of the periodic earn value calculations added

together (EV) divided by all of the actual costs
added together (AC)

How fast the project is progressing

Amount we expect the project to cost, based on
where we are relative to cost and schedule
How much more we expect to spend from this point
forward based on what we've done so far.

Difference between what we originally budgeted

and what we expect to spend. As of today, how
much over or under budget do we expect to be at
the end of the project
The performance which must be achieved on all
remaining work in order to meet either financial or
schedule goals
u use control chart to determine the probable
special cause

Control limits 3 standard deviation

are great
dont motivate, but their abscence will make someone unsatisfied


first for the exam

win-lose resolution. Worst for the exam

not usually the best choice

Second for the exam

Formal written allows your words to be documented, and they will get to everyone in the same form
problems, you want everyone to recieve the same info. People from diferent cultures/countries you
writter to have everyone on the same page

ng understanding) and
in T&M I controll wheter the work is acceptable, I
have full controll but I also have the full risk,
becouse if the estimates are wrong, if the team
doesnt have the skill Im still paying by hour

The fix prices we eliminate all the risk, they have to

deliver time, cost, quality at that fixed price. I can't
see into their black blox, I can't understand their
their delivery, I can't do early quality assessment,
because the vendor will say: Wow back of, you don't
need to see what Im doing. In 5 months you have
your development done
Usas este cuando el Scope an no est totalmente
definido, cuando no est claro ni completo

PM aspire to not getting in over their heads, taking

ownership of their actions (including mistakes), and
doing what they say they will do

Valuing other people, cultures and opinions.

"Politically Correct". We conduct ourselves in a
professional manner, even when it is not
treat everyone equally, with no discrimination,
nepotism or favoritism. Make decisions transparent
and open. Impartiality

create an environment where it is encouraged that

people tell the truth. The PM always seeks the truth
in all dealings
details about project performanceWork performance data includes information about the completi
deliverables and other relevant details about project performance

Project Management Information System. An information system consisting of the tools and techni
integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all
from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems. EG: (e.g., an
such as a scheduling software tool, a configuration management system, an information collection
system, or web interfaces to other online automated systems)
Contingency Reserve

Management Reserve
N/A EG: 20miles of sidewalk x
$15K equates a BAC of $300K

Planned % Complete x BAC

Actual % Complete x BAC

Sum of the cost for the given period





AC + Bottom-up ETC
Calculates actual costs to date plus a new estimate for the
remaining work. Used when the original estimate was
flawed. Original estimating assumptions no longer valid

BAC CPI // Nugets lo tiene BAC / CPI

Used if no variances from the BAC have occured or you will
continue at the same rate of spending (as calculated in
your cumulative CPI or based on the trends that led to the
current CPI

AC + (BAC - EV)
Used when current variances are considered atypical of
the future. It is essentialy AC pus the remaining value of
work to perform. Its used when the current variance are
thought to be atypical of the future. Current Variances are
atypical similar variances will not occur in the future

AC + (BAC - EV) / (CPI x SPI)

Calculates actual costs to date plus the remaining work
modified by performance. Used when current variances
are atypical for the future and when project schedule
constraints will influence the completition of the remaining
efort. FOr example, it maight be used when the
cummulative CPI is less than 1 and a firm completition
date must be achieved.


Control chart. Las lineas punteadas pequeas son warning
someone unsatisfied
mented, and they will get to everyone in the same form. Comlex
same info. People from diferent cultures/countries you want formal
nce data includes information about the completion status of
ect performance

mation system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather,

management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project
th manual and automated systems. EG: (e.g., an automated tool suite,
n management system, an information collection and distribution
ed systems)
they account for "knowns". Identified in Risk Management.
They become part of the cost baseline. The PM has
control of these reserves and can approve the use. En
Quantitative Risk Analysis es donde se crean las reservas.
Por ejemplo, si se requiere un 75% de certeza de exito,
entonces la organizacin necesita una bolsa de reservas de X
dolares). Este analisis de la cantidad de $$ se hace aqui en
riesgos cuantitativos

they account for "unknowns". Items not identified in Risk

Management. These are estimated (eg: 5% of the project
cost) and then these reserves area added to the cost
baseline to get the project budget. Management approval is
needed to use these reserves. You may analyse the
appropiateness of using management reserves to cover the
cost of opportunities (positive risks)

Forms of Power
PMs are often tasked with the responsability of the project without formal authority form the org. It
forms of power to influence and manage the team

Reward Power

Expert Power



Punishment /Penalty
Liability = Responsabilidad

Limitation of Liabilities: Daos que puedes causar al buyer.

EG: En caso de que el proveedor se equivoc tumb el punto
de venta de McDonalds, Cunto dinero pierde McDonals en
esas 3 horas que estuvo abajo el dinero. Los proveedores
deben tener un seguro (commercial liability) para cubrir esos
daos (limitation of liability)
Direct and Manage Project Work also requires re
implementation of approved changes:
Corrective actionAn intentional activity that
project management plan;
Preventive actionAn intentional activity that
aligned with the project management plan; and
Defect repairAn intentional activity to modif
Forms of Power
roject without formal
Ability authority
to give rewardsform
andthe org. Its key"Ithat the PM understands the
understand that you want to participate in the
acceptance testing of this project. Because of Pay raise, time off,
your performance, I will assign you as part of the etc

People will listen to

Its when a Subject Manager Expert is involved It
the SME. He has
has to be earned. This project manager has been
significant power to
very succesful on other projects. Lets give her a
influence behaviour
chance!".. Ojo, Expert power needs to be gained
and control

AKA formal power. Its the power that the manager

has because of his position. This type of power It would indicate a
comes from being formally in charge of the projectizied structure
project. He has the backing of the org EG: " You
need to listen to me because I'm in charge"

its based on respect or the personality of the

If the PM is very
manager. Its the power of charisma and fame,
close to the CEO, his
people liking you. EG: The most liked and
power will probabily
respected project manager in the organization
be higher because of
says, "I think we should change the content of our
that alliance
project charter"
AKA coercive power or penalty, this type of
incluence is the ability to push an employee if a
goal is not met. "If this does not get done on time,
"if this module does
I will remove you from the group going to Hawaii
not pass Quality
for the customer meeting"
Control you are going
to be fired"
anage Project Work also requires review of the impact of all project changes and the
ion of approved changes:
actionAn intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with

agement plan;
actionAn intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work

the project management plan; and/or

airAn intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component.
best for the exam
best for the exam

power dirived by my position in the company

power dirived by my position in the company

least for the exam/generally incorrect one. Power derived by my position in the company
tion in the company
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. The
projects indicates that
is the a project of
application has a definite beginning
knowledge, and
skills, tools, andend
techniques to project ac
project requirements
Program management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a progra
meet the allocation,
resource program requirements
and that the and to obtain benefits
management and control
of the portfolio not available
is consistent by managing
with and aligned topro
Portfolio management aligns with organizational strategies by selecting
the work, and providing the needed resources
Program management
and implements plans harmonizes its projects
to achieve a specific and program
scope components
that is driven and controls
by the objectives interdepe
of the progra
subjected to and, ultimately, to organizational strategies
A provides
project an strategicoffice
management framework
(PMO) that
is aguides Portfolio,structure
management programthat
project management to
the project
processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques
Management by Objective is a systematic and organized approach that allows management t
Creation of a cogent lessons learned documentation is an important part of the closure proce
Rolling wave planning is the process of planning for a project in waves (phases) as the project pro
Rolling Wave Planning We can see more clearly what is in close proximity, but looking further
advance with a fair amount of clarity. Rolling Wave Planning is a multi-step, intermittent process
highlighted for the rest of the project.

Progressive Elaboration is what happens in rolling wave planning process. Progressive Elabora
provide that missing, more elaborated detail for the work packages as they now appear on the h

Geographical locations
Duration estimating databases and other reference data
Productivity metrics
Communication channels,
Scheduling tool to be used in developing the schedule model.
Market Conditions
Exchange Rates
Published seller price list


Working or operating conditions of the project or its

deliverables that may afect project quality

Cultural perceptions that may influence expectations about quality

Existing human resources,
Geographical dispersion of team members,
Personnel administration policies,
Risk Attitudes, Thresholds and Tolerances that describe
the risk the org is willing to withstand
Published checklists
Risk attitudes
Industry studies of similar projects by risk specialists

Risk databases that may be available from industry or proprietary sources

Industry studies of similar projects by risk specialists
Suppliers, including past performance or reputation;
Stakeholder risk tolerances, for example allowable cost overrun percentage;

Existing information on human resources including availability, competency

levels, prior experience,
interest in working on the project and their cost rate

Colocation or multiple locations.

Personnel administration policies such as those that afect outsourcing
Organizational structure

Project records - Project records can include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and othe
should, to the extent possible and appropriate, be maintained in an organized manner. Project te
notebook or register, which could be physical or electronic.

Project Documents - Documentation resulting from the project's activities, for example, project m
calendars, risk registers, change management documentation, planned risk response actions, an

As a part of project closure activity, the first thing a project manager should do is review all prior
work is completed and the project has met its objectives. Then u seek customer approval

Product scope: The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result. Proje
deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Completion of proj
Project Scope Statement and its associated Work Breakdown Structure (WBS ) , WBS dictionary a
measured against product features or requirements.

The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product

you should have created a project estimate based on realistic work package estimates that do no
can look to cut quality, decrease risk, cut scope, or use cheaper resources (and at the same time
OPA: It is important to first read and understand your organizational policies on doing business in
The performance measurement baseline is made up of the scope, time, and cost baseline
The control limits are set based on the company's quality standard and indicate the acceptable r
The upper and lower control limits are above and below the mean, but are within the specificatio
Quality attributes are the measurements that determine if the product is acceptable. They are ba
A data point that requires you to determine the cause of the problem is a special cause.
Specification limits are how the customer measures quality. The control limits are more constrain
Your quality specifications should exceed your customer's need. Otherwise you probably would n

It is the role of the sponsor to define the initial project and protect it from changes.
The resource histogram shows the number of resources used in each time period. In its pure form
sources of conflict: 1) schedules, 2) project priorities, 3) resources, and 4) technical opinions.
The first thing to do is to detemine whether the required training would benefit the organization
project-specific training for team members would come from the project budget.
recommended corrective or preventive actions can come from the team or stakeholders in additi
A corner office is a "perk" whereas health benefits are a fringe benefit.
Projects often need their own reward systems to afect performance. Project managers should cre
It is the sponsor's role to prevent unnecessary changes and to set priorities among projects.
It is not wise for a project manager to suggest a compromise when the issue is a technical one.

The status report is too detailed for a quick look. The forecast report only looks into the future. Th
Probabilistic analysis of the project occurs in Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, and risk triggers

The only other factor to help determine risk reserves that would come after risk response strateg
Determining the risk rating of the project is done during Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis (high,

A workaround is a response to a previously unidentified risk. Management reserves are set aside
reserve is designed to cover specific risk events previously identified and measured in the risk m
The sentence "such payments are EXPECTED in the other country" does not mean such paymen
Terms and conditions should reflect the findings of a risk analysis. This means the project manag
The requirement to provide PMP-certified project managers is a screening system. A system to m
The normal response to a force majeure is to give an extension of time
The procurement manager generally has the authority to approve change orders
The requirements traceability matrix and stakeholder register are project documents, not parts o

RPN To calculate the Risk Priority number (RPN) for the risks, probability, impact, and timeframe
impact, and timeframe. The timeframe allows the project to readily assess prioritization. Prioritizi
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide eforts to install and make per
Kaizen. A popular Japanese technique which advocates continuous small improvements
TQM means organized Kaizen activities involving everyone in a company managers and worker
A project sponsor is the one who designates the project manager in the project charter and also a
PTA solo aplica para Fixed Prices Contracts.. Cuando hable de CR tienes que calcular el price que
A communication constraint is usually derived from specific legislation or regulation, organization
Secondary risks are those which are caused by the treatment or response to the risk, whereas re
A secondary risk can be defined as a risk created by the response to another risk. In other words
The PM might use the WBS to prevent scope creep
It is important for the project manager to involve his project team to work out solutions to critica
A Process Capability Baseline (PCB) specifies what results to expect when processes are followed
design of experiments is a statistical approach to determine the incfluence of variables on results
In the event of project termination, the project manager should do scope validation to determine
The project manager should only consider documented change requests.
in a marix org resources are obtained from a pool controlled and monitored by a functional mana
A schedule compression technique is useful not only during project planning to see if the desired
Withdrawal happens when someone gives up and walks away from the problem, usually because
a defect is any deliverable that does not meet its requirements. (including documents! Like PMPl
The project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project mana
be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager. The entire project team i

The project manager should try to manage information, so that only appropriate and relevant informa
In some cultures where offering gifts is a custom, rejecting or returning the gifts may be considered ru
Opportunity cost is the cost of passing up the next best option. The opportunity cost of choosing proje
The project manager need not be a technical expert qualified to determine the accuracy of technical s
Net Present Value (NPV) = (Present value of all cash inflows) - (Present value of all cash outflows)
time is already taken into account in NPV calculations. (higher the better no impoarta el tiempo)
The receiver is responsible for making sure that the information is received in its entirety and underst
Theory X: This assumes that the workers are inherently lazy and require supervision.

Theory Y: The average worker finds physical and mental effort on the job satisfying and likes his work
A Sponsor is the person or group who provides resources and support for the project and is accounta
Customers do not always provide financial resources for the project.
compromising= some degree of satisfaction
a value-adding change - The fourth reason for changing the scope of your project is a value-ad
unique product, service, or result. The temporary
ls, and
tools, andend
techniques to project activities to meet the
kills, tools, and techniques to a program in order to
lio not available
is consistent by managing
with and aligned toprojects individually
by selecting the right programs or projects, prioritizing

m components
driven and controls
by the objectives interdependencies
of the in order
program or portfolio it is to realize specified benefits

tructure andstandardizes
project management to deliver organizational
the project-related governance strategy
logies, tools, and techniques
approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from
an important part of the closure process and it should not be bypassed. Although lessons learned are a must,
ct in waves (phases) as the project progresses and things become more clearer.
n close proximity, but looking further ahead our vision becomes less clear. Depending upon the project - its l
is a multi-step, intermittent process like waves - because we cannot provide the details very far out in our p

planning process. Progressive Elaboration means that over time we elaborate the work packages in greater d
ackages as they now appear on the horizon.

Project calendars,
Lessons learned.
Historical duration information,
scheduling methodology
Financial Control Procedures
hedule model. Financial DB's
Existing policies regarding Cost Estimating and budgeting
Cost budgeting tools
Existing formal and informal cost budgeting-related polici
The performing organizations quality policy,
as endorsed by senior management, sets the organization
on implementing its quality
management approach;

Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team

tions about quality Risk categories
Risk definitios
Authority levels for decision making
Risk statement formats or templates
Process measurement database used to collect and make
processes and products;
Issue and defect management database(s) containing his
information, issue and defect resolution, and action item

Hiring procedures
Bonus Structures
Corporate Apparel

Configuration management knowledge base containing th

stry or proprietary sources organization standards, policies, procedures, and any pro
Existing formal and informal schedule control-related poli
Schedule control tools
ble cost overrun percentage; Monitoring and reporting methods to be used

ng availability, competency

Issue and defect reporting procedures and communicatio
Security Requirements
that afect outsourcing Allowed communication media
Specific technologies available

e, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing the project. This information
ed in an organized manner. Project team members can also maintain records in a project

ect's activities, for example, project management plan, scope, cost, schedule and project
on, planned risk response actions, and risk impact.

manager should do is review all prior information from the previous phase closure to ensure all
hen u seek customer approval

ze a product, service, or result. Project scope: The work that needs to be accomplished to
es and functions. Completion of project scope is measured against Project Management Plan ,
n Structure (WBS ) , WBS dictionary and scope baseline. Completion of product scope is

ncluding project and product

ic work package estimates that do not include padding Then, if costs must be decreased, you
aper resources (and at the same time closely monitor the impact of changes on the project

izational policies on doing business in a foreign land. Many organizations also have in house departments th
scope, time, and cost baseline
andard and indicate the acceptable range.
mean, but are within the specification limits
he product is acceptable. They are based on the characteristics of the product for which they were designed
e problem is a special cause.
The control limits are more constraining than the specification limits. Control limits are how you measure yo
eed. Otherwise you probably would not do the work.

protect it from changes.

d in each time period. In its pure form, a bar chart shows only activity and calendar date
ources, and 4) technical opinions.
ining would benefit the organization in the future. If so, the cost may be covered by the performing organiza
m the project budget.
om the team or stakeholders in addition to the project manager.
ge benefit.
ormance. Project managers should create such a system for each project.
to set priorities among projects.
se when the issue is a technical one.

st report only looks into the future. The progress report summarizes project status, and would be the most he
tative Risk Analysis, and risk triggers are identified in Plan Risk Responses

ould come after risk response strategies is the analysis of secondary risks.
rform Qualitative Risk Analysis (high, medium, low; los rates estn en la matriz de probabilidades

. Management reserves are set aside for such risks.

identified and measured in the risk management process.
ountry" does not mean such payment is legal. Meaning it is still a bribery. Hence, among the given choices, o
alysis. This means the project manager has been assigned and has completed the risk management process
is a screening system. A system to minimize personal prejudice is a weighting system.
ion of time
pprove change orders
er are project documents, not parts of the project management plan. Most project documents are created by

s, probability, impact, and timeframe are used. The formula for risk is Probability * Impact * Timeframe (P*I*T
readily assess prioritization. Prioritizing the risks relative to one another assists the team in deciding how to
n-wide eforts to install and make permanent a climate in which an organization continuously improves its ab
ntinuous small improvements involving everyone from top management to the lowest level in the organiz
n a company managers and workers in a totally systemic and integrated efort toward improving perform
nager in the project charter and also authorizes a project manager to use project resources for the project. Th
e CR tienes que calcular el price que le pagas al seller pero sin usar el PTA por eso ustas el 20% del 80/20
legislation or regulation, organizational policies, or a project constraint which limits the project's options dur
nt or response to the risk, whereas residual risk is the risk which remains even after you have treated or resp
ponse to another risk. In other words, the secondary risk is a consequence of dealing with the original risk.

team to work out solutions to critical project issues; however, he should use this approach judiciously becau
o expect when processes are followed. By using PCB a project can predict at a gross level, the efort required
the incfluence of variables on results,e tc etc.. El mensaje aqu es la palabra statistical
ould do scope validation to determine the extent of completion of the project
nge requests.
and monitored by a functional manager
project planning to see if the desired completion date can be met, but also during integrated change control
ay from the problem, usually because they're frustrated or disgusted. If you see a team member doing this, i
nts. (including documents! Like PMPlan)
and is responsible for the project management and leadership activities such as initiating, planning, executing, m
ect manager. The entire project team is not responsible for Initiating, Controlling and Closing, although they will b

only appropriate and relevant information reaches the appropriate stakeholders.

eturning the gifts may be considered rude and inappropriate behavior. Appreciation of cultural differences is the w
The opportunity cost of choosing project A (over project B, which is the next best option) is equal to NPV of the n
o determine the accuracy of technical specifications.
- (Present value of all cash outflows)
r the better no impoarta el tiempo)
n is received in its entirety and understood correctly.
nd require supervision.

on the job satisfying and likes his work.

support for the project and is accountable for enabling success....Customers are the persons or organizations wh

he scope of your project is a value-adding change. Value-adding changes are caused by factors that cannot b
possible results from available resources
s learned are a must, the minimum expectation is that customer accept the product.

pon the project - its length and complexity - we may be able to plan as much as a few weeks or even a few m
very far out in our planning. A detailed, well-defined WBS is created for that period of clarity, and only miles

packages in greater detail. Progressive Elaboration refers to the fact that as the weeks and months pass we h

mating and budgeting

dgeting-related policies
y policy,
sets the organizations intended direction

sues within the team and within the performing organization.

d to collect and make available measurement data on

ase(s) containing historical issue and defect status, control
ion, and action item results.

ge base containing the versions and baselines of all official

cedures, and any project documents.
e control-related policies, procedures, and guidelines

es and communication policies.

ouse departments that provide cultural training and language support

they were designed.

how you measure your process quality.

performing organization. Funding for

would be the most helpful for a quick review.


g the given choices, only B is the best answer.

management process before the contract is drafted. Contracts are risk mitigation tools!

ments are created by the project manager for his or her use during the project, and do not require outside ap

ct * Timeframe (P*I*T). These three elements determine each risk's Risk Priority Number (RPN) by multiplyin
m in deciding how to allocate resources for mitigation, especially when there are a large number of identified
uously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers
st level in the organization
rd improving performance at every level.
ces for the project. Therefore, he is the one who needs to provide clarity to the team about the project mana
tas el 20% del 80/20 y se lo multiplicas por que van a compartir los ahorros .20 para el seller..
project's options during communication management (teams working in diferent geographical locations). H
have treated or responded to the risk.
th the original risk.

ach judiciously because it can be an inefficient use of time. Furthermore, in many situations, meetings actual
l, the efort required at various stages, defect densities, overall quality, and productivity. Most of the organiz
rated change control to look at the schedule impact of changes to time, cost, scope, and risk.
member doing this, it's a warning sign that something's wrong.

lanning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing the various project phases. This group can also be referre
g, although they will be involved in these processes to varying degrees. Only the project management team (whic

al differences is the way to win the trust of people from divergent cultures.
equal to NPV of the next best available option (in case of various options)

ns or organizations who will approve and manage the project`s product or service, or result.

factors that cannot be considered when the original scope is defined, but if implemented into the project sc
a few weeks or even a few months in
od of clarity, and only milestones are

weeks and months pass we have planned to

nd do not require outside approval for changes.

Number (RPN) by multiplying attribute ratings for probability,

a large number of identified risks.

am about the project manager in case there is confusion.

ara el seller..
t geographical locations). However, (the availability of a key person) is an uncertain event or risk in the proje

situations, meetings actually delay the decision making process due to internal conflicts.
uctivity. Most of the organizations set up organization level baselines called process capability baselines. If b
pe, and risk.

his group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team. For smaller projects, the project man
ect management team (which is a subset of the project team) is responsible for these activities.

emented into the project scope, will improve the project or make it more cost efective. In a software game d
ain event or risk in the project which needs to be addressed through risk management

ss capability baselines. If baselines are regularly established, trends in the process capability can easily be o
ller projects, the project management responsibilities can
e activities.

ctive. In a software game development project, a value-adding change could be new technology that enable
ss capability can easily be obtaineda key reason for having a PCB.
new technology that enables players to play against other competitors online. This situation would require a
s situation would require a change request due to a value-adding change.
Initaton Planning
1.1 Devlop Project 1.2 Devlop project management
charter plan

Scope 2.1 Devlop scope management plan

2.2 Collect requirements

2.3 Define scope
2.4 Creat WBS
Time 3.1 Plan schedule management
3.2 Define activities
3.3 Sequance activities

3.4 Determine activity resources

3.5 Determine Activity duration

3.6 Prepare schedule
Cost 4.1 Plan cost management
4.2 Estimate cost
4.3 Determine budget

Quality 5.1 Plan quality management

HR 6.1 Plan HR management

7.1 Plan communication

Risk 8.1 Plan risk management
8.2 Identify Risk
8.3 Perform qualitative analysis
8.4 Perform quantitive analysis
8.5 Response to risk

Procurement 9.1 Plan procurement

10.1 Identify
Stakeholder 10.2 Plan stakeholder management
Execution Monitoring & Controling
1.3 Direct & manage the
1.4 Monitor and control the project work
project work

1.5 Perform integrated change control

2.5 Control scope

2.6 Validate Scope

3.7 Control Schedule

4.4 Control cost

5.2 Perform quality assurance

5.3 Control quality
6.2 Accquire project
6.3 Devlop project team
6.4 Manage project team

7.2 manage communication 7.3 Control communication

8.6 Control risk

9.2 Conduct procurement 9.3 Control procurement

10.3 Manage stakeholder

10.4 Control stakeholder engament

1.6 Close the project

9.4 Close procurement


Proect Management

Program Management

Portofolio Management



Functional Organisation

Projectized Organisation
Matrix Organisation
Project Expediator
Project Co-ordinator

Project Lifecycle
A project is a temporary endaover which creat a unquie prroduct, service, result.
Ii. It has definate start & end date
ii. The end is reached when the end result has been achieved or the prject is terminated
iv. Project work is diferent from the operational work

It is the application of knowledge, skill, T&T to project activities to meet the project requirement. T
performed by intigrating of the 47 PM process, which are logically grouped in to five caatogories
ii. Managing of projects reqquired the following steps-
a. Identifying the requirement b. Managing stakeholder c. Balancing project constraint

i. It is the application of knowledge, skill, T&T to project activities to meet the program requiremen
ii. A program is a group of related projects, sub program and program activities managed in a cord
way to obtain benefits
Portofolio refers to project, program, subproject and operation mnaged as a group to achive startge
ii. Portofolio may not be interdependent. Eg. Various division of a company or organisation

A PMO is a specifc type of body, or department within the organisation. The promary role of PMO a
i. It provides polics, methodology, tool & templetes for mamaging the projects- Supportative
ii. It Provides support and training in the organisation, how to manage the projects- Controling
iii. It provides project manager for ongoing projects in the organisation- Directive
Other role of PMO are,
i. Managing interdependenices between the project
ii. Selecting, deploying and managing the shared resources
iii.Terminating the project
iv. Organisazing the lesson learned

An indivisual, or group or organisation who may positevely or negeteviely afaected by a decessio

outcome of a project
A project team, project manager, PMO office, customer. A project sponcer is the one who provide re
and go ahed signal to carryout the work
The key responsibility of the project manager is to manager the stakeholder in the following way
a) Indetify internal & External stakeholdeer
b) Determine their requirement
c) Communicating with stakeholder

This organisation is grouped by with area of specialization within diferent function areas like mark
engineering & Accounting etc. Each employe report to the functional manager

The organisations resources monstly work on projects and they report to project manager
This is a blen of functional and projectized organisation
He cant personaly make or enforce any decission
However project co-ordinator have some authority to make some decission
A project life cycle is a series of phases starting from intitation to closure. Phases are generally seq
and their name and numbers are determined by the management.
The life cycle provide the basic framework for managing the phases