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Kinetics of a Reaction

Dates of Lab: 12-2-16 and 12-6-16

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this experiment is to observe the oxidation of iodide ions by bromate ions in the

presence of acid, and thereby discern the total rate law and activation energy for the reaction.

PRE-LAB QUESTONS:

1. a)

Trial 1: 0.040 M/ 270 sec = 1.48 x 10-4 M/s

Trial 2: 0.080 M/ 138 sec = 5.80 x 10-4 M/s

Trial 3: 0.040 M/ 142 sec = 2.82 x 10-4 M/s

b) The concentration of iodide ions doubled between trial 1 and trial 2, and the reaction rate

quadrupled between trial 1 and 2, therefore the reaction order for iodine is 2, because when 2x =

4, x = 2.

c) Trials 1 and 3 should be compared to determine the order of reaction with respect to persulfate

ions. The reaction order for per sulfate is 1; when 2x = 2, x = 1.

d) Rate = k [I-]2 [S2O82-]1


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The rate law could have been predicted using the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation

because the coefficients in front of I- and S2O82- in their reaction match their exponents in the rate

law.

2. 0.0282 M/s = k [0.0125 M]2 [0.0250 M]1

k = 7.212 x 103 M-1 s-1

Rate = 7.212 x 103 M-1 s-1 [NO]2 [O2]1

3.

Temperature (K) 1 / T (K-1) ln K

298 K 3.36 x 10-3 -10.205

308 K 3.25 x 10-3 -8.948

318 K 3.14 x 10-3 -7.601

328 K 3.05 x 10-3 -6.571


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Slope = 1.03 / 9 x 10-5 = 1.144 x 104 -E2 / R

ln K = -E2 / RT + ln A

-10.205 = E2 / (8.314 J/ (mol x K) x 298 K) + ln (3.7 x 10-5 s-1)

-2.53 x 104 = -E2 + -10.205

Activation Energy = -E2 = -2.53 x 104

PROCEDURE:

1. Take the mass of a beaker before and after delivering five drops of distilled or deionized

water into it from a micro tip Beral-type pipet.

2. Add an additional 5 drops of water to the beaker and again record its mass; Repeat this step

twice then repeat steps 1 and 2 for 2 more trials.

3. Obtain 6 micro tip pipets, label them with their appropriate solutions, and fill each pipet with

its solution.

4. In a clean, 12 well reaction strip, fill number one well with the appropriate number of drops

of the first of the first five reagents listed in Experiment #1, and repeat this step for the next

two wells.

5. For the next 3 wells, repeat step 5 for the reagent amounts listed for Experiment #2, wells

7,8, and 9 for the amounts listed in Experiment #3, and wells 10,11, and 12 for the amounts

listed in Experiment #4.

6. In well 1, add two drops of KBrO3, use a timer to find the time required for the first tint of a

blue color to appear, then repeat tis step for wells 2 and 3.
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7. Take the temperature of a reaction solution, then record the temperature for each reaction in

Data Table 2.

8. Repeat step 6 for wells 4,5, and 6, then 7,8, and 9, then 10,11, and 12, in order.

9. Rinse and dry the well strips with warm water and a cotton swab, then repeat the entire well

process for the reagent combination in Table 1 for experiments #5, #6, and #7.

10. Using the amounts listed in Table 1 Experiment #1, fill the first 6 wells with the appropriate

number of drops for the first five listed reagents, then place the reaction strip in a shallow

warm water bath of about 40 C.

11. Place the Beral pipet labeled KBrO3, after filling it halfway with a 0.040 M KBrO3 solution,

in the warm water bath for at least 5 minutes.

12. Measure and record the temperature of the water bath, then take the pipet out of the water

bath and dry the outside of it.

13. Add two drops of KBrO3 to the first well of the reaction strip, still in the water bath, then

with a timer record the time in seconds when the first blue color appears.

14. Immediately after starting the timer, place the pipet back in the warm water bath, then repeat

step 13 for the reaction solutions of wells 2 and 3.

15. Remove the pipet and reaction strip from the warm water bath, cool the water bath with ice

cubes, then place the reaction strip and pipet into the now cold water bath.

16. Measure and record the new temperature of the water bath, then repeat step 13 for wells 4, 5,

and 6.
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MEASUREMENTS TO BE TAKEN:

- Mass of empty beaker

- Mass of beaker plus 5 drops of water

- Mass of beaker plus 10 drops of water

- Mass of beaker plus 15 drops of water

- Time in seconds required for first tint of blue color to appear in 3 trials of 7 experiments

- Temperature in C of one of the reaction solutions

- Temperate of water bath for 3 experiments

- Time when first blue appears of wells in water bath

MATERIALS:

5 mL of 0.1 M Copper (II) nitrate solution, Cassette tape case


Cu(NO3)2

5 mL of 0.10 M Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl Cotton swabs

5 mL of 0.010 M potassium iodide solution, KI Label tape

5 mL of 0.040 M Potassium bromate solution, Marking pen


KBrO3

5 mL of 0.0010 M Sodium thiosulfate solution, 12-well reaction strip


Na2S2O3

5 mL of 2% starch solution 0C - 100C Thermometer

Distilled or deionized water Timer

0.001-g or 0.0001-g precision balance Toothpicks

10 mL or 50 mL beaker Trough for hot and cold water baths

7 beryl-type pipets with micro tips


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DATA:

Data Table 1: Find the Volume of One Drop of Solution

Trial 1: Mass of empty beaker 34.670 g

Mass of beaker plus 5 drops of 34.815 g


water

Mass of first 5 drops of water 0.145 g

Average mass of one drop of 0.029 g


water

Trial 2: Mass of beaker plus 10 drops of 34.987 g


water

Mass of second 5 drops of water 0.172 g

Average mass of one drop of 0.0344 g


water

Trial 3: Mass of beaker plus 15 drops of 35.226 g


water

Mass of third 5 drops of water 0.239 g

Average mass of one drop of 0.0478 g


water

Data Table 2: Determine the Reaction Rate and Calculate the Rate Law

Experiment # Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Temp. C

1 558 s 557 s 503 s 539.3 s 21.9 C

2 428 s 118 s 86 s 210.7 s 21.7 C

3 163 s 55 s 142 s 120 s 21.3 C

4 151 s 375 s 197 s 241 s 21.2 C

5 82 s 111 s 94 s 95.7 s 21.9 C

6 97 s 85 s 104 s 95.3 s 21.8 C

7 105 s 62 s 47 s 71.3 s 21.6 C


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Data Table 3: Determine the Activation Energy

Approx. Measured Measured Measured Trial 1 Trial 2 Average


Temp. C Temp. C Temp. K Temp.-1 K-1 seconds seconds Time in s

0 1.70 C 274.7 K 0.00364 K 612 s 590 s 601 s

20 22.5 C 295.5 K 0.00338 K 289 s 308 s 298.5 s

40 42.8 C 315.8 K 0.00317 K 154 s 148 s 151 s

RESULTS:

After observing the oxidation of iodide ions by bromate ions in the presence of acid, I found the

total rate law for the reaction to be Rate = k [I-]1 [BrO3-]1 [H+]2. To determine this rate law, I had

to calculate the rate order for each reactant in the reaction. Furthermore, I found the reaction

rates for experiments 1 through 7 to range from 2.59x10-7 to 3.43x10-8. I also calculated the

initial concentrations, in moles per liter, for [I-], [BrO3-], and [H+] for experiments 1 through 7.

Additionally, I found the rate constant, k, along with its units for each of the seven reactions.

Finally, I graphed the natural log of the rate constant versus 1 divided by the temperature in

Kelvin, and used the slope of this graph to determine the reactions activation energy, which I

calculated to be 24.8 kJ/mol.

CALCULATIONS:

Part 1: Calculate the Volume of One Drop of Solution

Volume of one drop = (mass of 1 drop (g) / 1.00 g/mL) x (1 L / 1000mL)

Volume of one drop = (0.03707 g / 1.00 g/mL) x (1 L / 1000 mL) = 3.707 x 10-5 L
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Part 2A: Calculate the Rate

(3.707 x 10-5 * 0.0010 mol Na2S2O3 * 1 mol S2O32-) / (1.00 L * 1 mol Na2S2O3) =

3.707 x 10-8 mol S2O32- ions

(3.707 x 10-8 mol S2O32- * 1 mol I2 * 1 mol BrO3-) / (2 mol S2O32- * 3 mol I2) =

6.178 x 10-9 mol BrO3- reacted

-[BrO3-] = (6.178 x 10-9 mol / (3.707 x 10-5 L * 12 drops)) = -[BrO3-] = 1.85 x 10-5 M

Reaction Rate, M/s

Experiment 1 3.43 x 10-8

Experiment 2 8.78 x 10-8

Experiment 3 1.54 x 10-7

Experiment 4 7.68 x 10-8

Experiment 5 1.93 x 10-7

Experiment 6 1.94 x 10-7

Experiment 7 2.59 x 10-7

Example Calculation for Experiment 1 for reaction rate:

Rate = (1.85 x 10-5 M / 539.3 s) = 3.43 x 10-8 M/s

Part 2B: Calculate Initial Concentrations

Example Calculation for Experiment 1 [I-] for Initial Concentrations

[I-] = (2 drops * 0.010 M KI) / (12 drops solution) = 0.0017 M = 1.7 x 10-3 M
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Initial Concentrations, Moles / Liter

[I-] [BrO3-] [H+]

Experiment 1 1.7 x 10-3 6.7 x 10-3 1.7 x 10-2

Experiment 2 3.4 x 10-3 6.7 x 10-3 1.7 x 10-2

Experiment 3 5.0 x 10-3 6.7 x 10-3 1.7 x 10-2

Experiment 4 1.7 x 10-3 1.3 x 10-2 1.7 x 10-2

Experiment 5 1.7 x 10-3 2.0 x 10-2 1.7 x 10-2

Experiment 6 1.7 x 10-3 6.7 x 10-3 3.3 x 10-2

Experiment 7 1.7 x 10-3 6.7 x 10-3 5.0 x 10-2

Part 2C: Calculate the Order of Each Reactant

Experiment 1: Rate1 = k [1.7 x 10-3]x [6.7 x 10-3]y [1.7 x 10-2]z

Experiment 2: Rate2 = k [3.4 x 10-3]x [6.7 x 10-3]y [1.7 x 10-2]z

Example calculation for Rate Order of exponent x:

Rate1 / Rate2 = (3.43 x 10-8 M/s / 8.78 x 10-8 M/s) = [1.7 x 10-3]x / [3.4 x 10-3]x

0.391 = 0.50x

log (0.391) = x log (0.50)

x = 1.35

Comparison of Experiment 3 (x = 1.39) with Experiment 1 props that x = 1

Rate Exponent Rate Order of Exponent

x 1

y 1

z 2
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Experimentally determined Rate Law: Rate = k [I-]1 [BrO3-]1 [H+]2

Part 2D: Find the Rate Constant

Example Calculation for Experiment 1 for the Rate Constant (k)

Rate = k [I-]1 [BrO3-]1 [H+]2

k = (Rate) / ([I-]1 [BrO3-]1 [H+]2)

k-1 = (3.43 x 10-8 M/s) / (1.7 x 10-3 M)1 (6.7 x 10-3 M)1 (1.7 x 10-2 M)2 = 10.4 M-3 s-1

Exp. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Value of k 10.4 13.3 15.9 12.0 19.6 15.6 9.1


(M-3 s-1)

Average value of k: 13.7 M-3 s-1

Part 3: Calculate the Activation Energy, Ea

Measured Measured Average Time, Rate of Rate ln k


Temp. K Temp-1 K-1 seconds Reaction, M/s Constant, k
(M-3 s-1)

274.7 3.64 x 10-3 601 3.08 x 10-8 9.4 2.2

295.5 3.38 x 10-3 298.5 6.20 x 10-8 18.8 2.9

315.8 3.17 x 10-3 151 1.23 x 10-7 37.4 3.6

Example Calculation for Rate of Reaction for 274.7 K:

Rate = (- [BrO3-] / time) = (1.85 x 10-5 M / 601 sec) = 3.08 x 10-8 M/s

Example Calculation for Rate Constant for 274.7 K:

k0C = (3.08 x 10-8 M/s) / ((1.7 x 10-3 M)1 (6.7 x 10-3)1 (1.7 x 10-2)2) = 9.4 M-3 s-1
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Graph of the natural log of k versus 1 divided by temperature in Kelvin:

Slope = (3.6 - 2.2) / ((3.17 x 10-3) - (3.64 x 10-3)) = -2979 K

Slope = -Ea / R

Ea = (-slope * R) = -(-2979 K * 8.314 J/mol*K)

Ea = 24.8 kJ / mol

ANALYSIS:

The purpose of this lab was to use data calculated from the oxidation of iodide ions by bromate

ions in the presence of acid to calculate each aspect of the reactions rate law, and graph the

natural log of k versus 1 divided by the temperature of the reaction in Kelvin to determine the
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reactions activation energy. We therefore did the lab both to gain practice with the intricate

calculations that are required to calculate all aspects of a rate law, as well as to observe and

understand the real-world applications of kinetics problems. I learned a variety of skills and

pieces of information from this lab, but, most notably, I learned how to use data such as the

temperature at which a reaction occurred or the volume of one drop of solution to calculate

values such as a reactions activation energy or reaction rate. Furthermore, though the lab, I

gained a new understanding of what reaction rates truly signify by observing reactions in wells

that could take up to 6 minutes to finally show signs of reacting, such as gaining a blue tint. This

experiment works to teach students the mechanisms and applications of kinetics because it

allows them to manipulate reactions and collect data from them on their own, providing them

with a connection between the reactions they are witnessing and the calculations they are

performing. One specific source of error in our experiment came in the third part of the

laboratory procedure. When we immersed the reaction strips containing the six solutions in the

42.8C water, small bubbles collected around the sides of the strips, which inhibited our view of

the solutions, causing us to report slightly higher than accurate times for the reaction in data table

3. To get better results, my partners and I could change our procedure by staying more organized

and efficient though the repetitive steps, and carrying out the third part of the reaction before the

second, as the second part was easier and could be finished faster than the third. This lab is worth

repeating because now I understand the role each aspect of the lab plays in determining the

reactions rate law and activation energy.


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POST-LAB QUESTIONS:

1. The reaction rate changes as the concentration of of the reactants change because if a

solution has a higher concentration, and therefore more particles of solute, it will react at a

different rate than it would with less particles of solute. This is because each particle of a

solution is involved in the reaction, which greatly affects the speed at which a reaction takes

place.

2. There are three separate aspects of the rate law to be determined: the reaction rate, the rate

constant, and the rate orders. The reaction rate is found by dividing the molarity of the

reactions reactants by the time in seconds it took them to begin reacting. The rate constant is

calculated by multiplying the initial concentrations of the reactions reactants with each other

with their respective rate orders. The rate orders of the reactants are found by taking the

natural log of one reaction rate divided by another and the natural log of the rates respective

initial concentrations divided by each other.

3. Reaction rate changes as temperature changes because particles move at different speeds at

different temperatures. Since temperature alters the speed of particles, it also alters the speed

of entire reactions.

4. To determine the activation energy of a reaction, you graph the natural log of k versus 1

divided by temperature of the reaction in Kelvin. You then multiply the slope of this line by

the constant 8.314 J/mol*K to find the activation energy of the reaction.

5. The reaction rate is the speech at which a reaction occurs while the specific rate constant is

the constant value, which is specific to only a particular reaction, that makes the math for the

reaction rate accurate.


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6. A reaction catalyst acts both to speed up a reaction, therefore increasing the reaction rate, and

to decrease the minimum energy a reaction needs to reach before it can proceed, its

activation energy. When a catalyst is added to a reaction, the activation energy of that

reaction decreases because the reaction requires a lower energy than it would without the

catalyst to carry out.

7. My data collected from calculations over rate order and activation energy was consistent,

however the specific values of my calculated rate orders were very roughly approximated to

be the whole number rate orders I reported. The calculated orders were closer, for example,

to half integers than to full integers, such as 1.5 as a half integer versus 1 as a full integer.

The check of the rate orders did, however, give the same integers that I reported.

Furthermore, the points on my graph of ln k versus 1/T in K were extremely close to a

straight line.

8. ln (k1 /k2 ) = (-Ea /(RT2 )) (-Ea/(RT1 )) is the two point form of the Arrhenius equation. In

this equation, k is the rate constant, Ea is the activation energy, T is the temperature of the

reaction, and R is the constant 8.314 J/mol*K.

9. Our data could be improved by carrying out more trials, which would increase the accuracy

and precision of our data, as well as give us more practice at carrying out the procedure.

Furthermore, we could have used more accurate timing device than our phone timers to

measure the time it took for reactions to proceed. This would make the time in seconds of

reactions more accurate, which would in turn make the reaction rates of the reactions more

accurate.