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Abstract: In the proposed paper, the author examines the energy aspects related to the injection process
technology for the automotive components. Theoretical considerations have been validated by
experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injection moulding machines
- hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements are takenhave been taken with professional equipment
separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion.
For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time,
product mass, surplus mass and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a
professional energy audit with accurate identification of the losses. Based on technological diagram for
each production cycle, at the end of the paper some measures to reduce the energy losses were proposed

Introducere.Indicatori de performanta energetica. Introduction Energetic Performance Indicators

The energetic efficiency and its unefficiency in most of the technological processes can not
cannot directly be measured, but expressed using a specific performance indicator. Its value should be
compared with the reference value, for example, the value obtained using the worldwide best
The energetic performance indicator, used especially while analyzing the energy transformation
process, is the energetic efficiency. This indicator is considered to be a specific, quantitative one, which
can be suitably used for energy transformation, but is not addecvate addequate for final consumption
The phisical physical performance indicator, which characterizes best the energetic efficiency of a
final consumption process, is the actual energy consumption. The specific energetic consumption
indicator eliminates the influence of the activity volume changes, respectively the production structure.

Dooing the energetic equivalence of different consumed energy forms, a physical energy
performance indicator, like the equivalent primary energy consumption (absolute or specific), can be
computed with the relation (1.1):

Cse = (EREP + b*EEDU )/VA (1.)

EREP reprezinta energia fluxului sau fluxurilor de energie primar, - this represents the energy of
the primary energy flow or flows
b>1 - coeficientul de echivalare a energiilor direct utilizabile n energie primar. - coefficient
of equivalence of energies used as primary energy
EEDU - reprezint energia fluxurilor de energie direct utilizabil. This represents the energy of the
flows of direct energy use
VA - volumul activitii, volume of the activity
Consumul specific cumulat de energie primar, cunoscut i sub denumirea de energie nglobat,
intensitate energetica sau de coninut de energie al unui produs, caracterizeaz gradul de valorificare a
resurselor energetice pentru un ntreg lan tehnologic sau pentru un ciclu complect de fabricaie.
Pentru o comparatie unitara, in lucrarea de fata, se fac investigatii experimentale in scopul
determinarii consumului specific de energie aferent operatiei de turnare injectare.
Cumulative specific consumption of primary energy, known as embodied energy, energy intensity or
energy content of a product, characterize leverage energy resources for an entire technological chain or
manufacturing cycle completely.
For a comparison unit, in the present work, there are experimental investigations in order to determine the
specific energy consumption for the casting -injection operation

2. Injection moulding process technology

Regardless of the type of equipment, the injection moulding (IM) is a manufacturing process for
producing components whose volume is well limited through edges and surfaces by injecting material
into a mould. Injection moulding can be performed with diferent materials, including metals, glasses,
elastomers, and most commonly polymers. Material is fed under high pressure into a heated barrel and
forced into a mould cavity, resulting parts with exact dimensions. The IM machine consumes energy from
grid and reproduces the seted high value parameters of strength-pressure-temperature. The This
unconventional manufacturing process described by the chart below, consists of three technological steps
1. Lamination: run in dedicated unit
2. Compression: the raw material will be compressed by closed nozzle regime
3. Expansion / injection: after mixing, open the nozzle and the material expands and fills cavities.
This manufacturing technology is implemented in practice with IM systems that can be hydraulic and

Fig.1. Technological diagramm (pressure-

position) for one production cycle

The most stressed components of any IM facility are two massive pressure plates, one which is
mobile and aone fixed one.The investigated variants in the paper, are differentiated primarily by
the design of the clamping unit.

The clamping unit in E-motion version (Figure 2) contains in addition to the fixed part (chassis,
frame) the movable part consisting of mobile plate (a); linear guide for mobile plate (b); leverage
elbow with 5 points (c) and the electric servodrive (d).
The clamping unit in H-motion version (Figure 3) contains the mobile halfplate (a); linear guide
for mobile plate (b); positioning cylinder movable plate (c) and power cylinder (d).
Fig.2. Electrical clamping unit Fig.3. Hydraulic clamping unit
The new hydraulic variant (H-M) is characterized by central pump with electrohydraulic
control EH.classical. This EH control procedure is advantageous in comparison with PQ control
(hidraulic variable capacity point) because the adjustment is made direct to the source (pump)
without generating under- or overpressure and does not require a flow valve for speed control.

3. Consideratii tehnico-energetice asupra celor doua variante de masini Technical-energetic

considerations on the two machines variants

The starting dates in order to develop an energy investigation are presented in the table below:
Tab. 1. Mechanical parameters for the moulding injection process
Type Rated Cycle time Total weight Product weigt Rest weight Material
power [kW] [sec.] [gram] [gram] [gram] type
Electrical 109 38.2 35.8 30.9 4.9 ABS
Hydraulic 95 28.3 26.7 23.7 3.0 ABS
By connecting measurement devices in the power circuit (Fig. 4) they must not influence the measured
value nor
the operatring point of the consumer.
In 1case the analyzer indications are proportional to the effective values of voltage, current , and the
P p dt U10 I1 cos 10 U 20 I 2 cos 20 U 30 I 3 cos 30
cosineTof the phase angle
between them, regardless of load characteristics, according to the relationship:


where U10, I1, 10 and so on are the voltages, currents on each lines respectively the gaps between them.
Fig. 4 Measurement set-up for the electrical parameters of moulding injection machine

Fig.5. Electrical power as time function by the E-Motion machine

Fig.5. electrical power as time function by the H-Motion machine

The injection molding machine in E-motion version (109kW total installed power) has the
following energy relevant components: 41kW servo drive, 15kW cylinder heating system, 18kW
mold heating system, 5kW robot arm drive and other related outlets.
The injection molding machine in H-motion version (95kW total installed power) has in
terms of energy the following relevant components: 30kW pump motor; 15kW cooling filtering
engine, 15kW cylinder heating system, 18kW mold heating system, 5 kW ventilation system and
other peripherical outlets.
After analyzing of figure 5. and 6 we conclude that for the EM option the electrical power
achive max.26,89 kW range and the manufacturing cycle totaling 38.2 sec., different from HM
variante where absorbed power is max.49.81 kW and cycle time 28.3 sec.
Both machines are good balancing, with symetricaly phase currents and powers on L1,
L2 and L3 lines in accordance to the measurements snapshots below:

Fig.7.Measurements snapshot by EM machine Fig.8.Measurements snapshot by HM machine

4. Conclusions and energy efficiency measures

Of course not all the absorbed energy is transformed into useful work, but some is
converted into heat (both hydraulic oil and cooling fluid temperature increasing) and noise. It is
known that oil temperature is a relevant indicator for the energy efficiency of the entire system.
After listing the values of measurements (Tab.2.) made on the same type of material and
aproximatively the same sample, relevant energy statistics can result.

Tab.2. Measurement sequence between 591...601 sec. From left to right Average power for line R, S, T
and total average power H-Motion Machine, Pmed.
In order to obtain suggestive comparisons about the machine performances, the analyzed
energy data were averaged to 10 minutes or summed up the manufacturing cycle.
In this way there resulted the concentrated energy data from tab.3:

Tab.3. Absolute and specific energy consuption

No. Type Pmax.[kW] Pmed [kW] E/10 min. [kWs] E/cycle [kWs]
2. electrical 26.89 4.51 2779.46 176.96
1. hydraulic 49.81 21.53 12040.60 567.98

The modern hydraulic version of the IM machine consists of a constant pump actuator, instead
of asynchronous motor in permanent operation and adjustable pump. Thus, energy efficiency is
argumented by two criteria:
- there are no control valves for speed and pressure in the decentralized drives
- no injection (operation without load) leads to drive stopping (zero consumed energy)

The moulding injection machine in EM electric variant offers compared with hydraulic variant
shorter deadtimes, so faster production cycles due primarly by to electrical drives, which is
capable to operate in the parallel mode.
By selective control and switching of different drives, the energy consumption will be lower.
In addition, the electric version is recommended by a lower acoustic pollution (also reduced
dissipated energy on this form). Noise emissions are about 67 DBA / cycle compared to 73 DBA
/ hydraulic machine cycle.
E-motion variante provides higher power gradient (high speed worm gear) and a more stable
power variation (maintaining constant speed of screw gear respectively constant material
pressure on the entire length of the cylinder movement).
The EM model is basically a "without oil" manufacturing system, so it does not depends
to on achievinge the specified viscosity respectively temperature of transmission medium for the
hydraulic system force.In this way the EM machine gets faster into the optimal operating point,
and the regime is more stable even during the significant parameters changes in the
environment. Consequently, it is more productive.

Starting from experimental analysis, the most important energy optimization methods are
shown in the table below:
Tab. 4. Relevant energy saving methods
No. Energy saving methods Observations
1e. The MI machine selection in Electric version is more economical by
dependance on the production series at least 50%.
2e. Local or PCC (point of common This is possible by stepwise connecting
coupling) power factor correction of the variable capacitor stage.
3e. Changing the drive motors from Savings up to 3% for example by the
standard to premium or EEF1 range asynchronous motor with P = 30 kW
4e. Phase symetrying / balancing Checking line impedance and redistribute
between the consumer groups some single-phase consumers.
5e. Technical and organizational measures compliance with maintenance program
recommended by the manufacturer.
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Gheorghe Creu1 International Journal of Modern Manufacturing Technologies
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