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# Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion

## Mini Investigation: Predicting Forces, ii. Fg = (0.50 kg)(9.8 m/s)

page 113 = 4.7 N
Answers may vary. Sample answers: The force of gravity is 4.7 N.
A. I predicted the reading in question 3 would be D. To find the force of gravity on an object,
the sum of the readings from questions 1 and 2, multiply the mass of the object, in kilograms,
and that the reading in question 4 would be half the by 9.8 m/s2.
reading from question 2. My predictions were
accurate. Tutorial 1 Practice, page 119
To make the results more accurate, the experiment 1. (a) System diagrams may vary. Students should
should be performed in a vacuum. The object draw a book on a flat surface.
should be suspended above a table by the same
distance for both the spring sensor and my arm.
Ideally, my arm should be held up by a sling or
other device so that the force I use to hold up the
spring will be pretty much the same each time I
suspend the object.
B. Forces such as gravity act upon all objects in
the same way. Each force exerted on an object
should have an equal but opposite force exerted on
an object. For example, if I use 1 N of force to
hold up an object, then there should be 1 N of
(b) System diagrams may vary. Students should
gravitational force pulling the object down.
draw a basketball in mid-air.

## Section 3.1 Types of Forces

Mini Investigation: Measuring the
Force of Gravity, page 116
A.
(c) System diagrams may vary. Students should
draw a large trunk being pushed directly east along
a floor.

## B. The slope of the line of best fit is 0.98. The

slope represents the rate of change of gravity on
objects of different masses. The heavier the objects
are, the stronger the force of gravity is.
C. i. Fg = (0.30 kg)(9.8 m/s)
= 2.9 N
The force of gravity is 2.9 N.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.1-1
2. The normal force is exerted by the surface of the
ramp that is in contact with the sliding block. So,
the arrow representing FN should be perpendicular
to the base of the block and going up to the right.

2.

## Tutorial 2 Practice, page 120

1. (a) Choose east as positive. So, west is negative.
Fnet = !5.5 N + ( ! 3.4 N) + 4.2 N
= !4.7 N
The net force on the object is 4.7 N [W].

## Choose up as positive. So, down is negative.

(b) Choose up as positive. So, down is negative. Fnet = +1200 N + ( ! 1100 N)
Fnet = +92 N + ( ! 35 N) + (!24 N)
= +100 N
= +33 N The net force on the beam is 100 N [up].
The net force on the object is 33 N [up]. 3.

## (c) Choose up and east as positive. So, down and

west are negative. Define east and west forces as
being along the x-axis. So, up and down forces are
along the y-axis. Choose up and east as positive. So, down and west
(F )
net x
= +35 N + ( ! 12 N) are negative. Define east and west forces as being
= +23 N along the x-axis. So, up and down forces are along
The net force on the x-axis is 23 N. the y-axis.
(F ) net x
= +6.5 N + ( ! 4.5 N)
(F )
net y
= +15 N + ( ! 15 N) = +2.0 N
=0N The net force on the x-axis is 2.0 N.
The net force on the y-axis is 0 N.
Therefore, the net force on the object is 23 N [E]. (F ) net y
= +7.5 N + ( ! 7.5 N)
=0N
The net force on the y-axis is 0 N.
Therefore, the net force on the book is 2.0 N [E].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.1-2
Section 3.1 Questions, page 122 (c) System diagrams may vary. Students should
1. (a) The applied force is in the north direction. draw a football in mid-air.
(b) The applied force is in the south direction.
2. (a) The force of gravity causes the ball to fall
toward the ground.
(b) The force of gravity pulls the person down
toward the elevator floor. The tension in the rope
of the elevator pulls the elevator up with a force
greater than the force of gravity. (d) System diagrams may vary. Students should
(c) The driver applies a force on the brakes. The draw a puck being pushed along an ice surface by
brakes cause the car to slow down. The road exerts a hockey stick.
a force of friction on the wheels to stop the car.
3. If the force sensor is not set to zero before
performing an investigation (when there is no
force acting), the readings for the force changes
will not be accurate. For example, when the net
force is zero, the sensor will show a non-zero
Force Direction
force of gravity downward
normal force perpendicular from 6. Answers may vary. Students posters could use
surface of contact charts or concept maps and should include at least
applied force same direction as push two system diagrams and the corresponding FBDs.
or pull Posters can focus on one common everyday force
friction opposite to motion or all five (applied force, tension, normal force,
tension pulls object toward friction, and gravity), with an example of each. For
rope or string example, holding a book shows the two vertical
5. (a) System diagrams may vary. Students should forces. Two children pushing and pulling a wagon
draw a stationary car. (Figure 4 on page 115) shows how all five forces
act on the same object.
!
7. (a) Given: m = 2.0 kg; g = 9.8 m/s2 [down]
!
Required: Fg
! !
Analysis: Fg = mg
Solution:
! !
Fg = mg
= 2.0 kg ! 9.8 m/s 2 [down]
!
Fg = 20 N [down]
(b) System diagrams may vary. Students should Statement: The force of gravity acting on the
draw a fish hanging from a line. object is 2.0 10 N [down].
!
(b) Given: m = 62 kg; g = 9.8 m/s2 [down]
!
Required: Fg
! !
Analysis: Fg = mg
Solution:
! !
Fg = mg
= 62 kg ! 9.8 m/s 2 [down]
!
Fg = 6.1 ! 102 N [down]

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.1-3
Statement: The force of gravity acting on the of wood and use the elastic band to connect the
person is 6.1 102 N [down]. block of wood to the balloon. Use the magnet to
8. Answers may vary. Sample answer: attract the paperclip and draw the wood to the end
The statement is not valid. A normal force is a of the hall.
perpendicular force exerted by a surface on an System diagrams may vary. Students should draw
object in contact with the surface. This force the system they described above.
always points away from the surface. However, an
applied force may be exerted by an object or a
person in all directions, and the force can point
toward the surface that the object or person
applying the force is in contact with. For example,
when you use your hand to push on a box, the
applied force points toward the box surface that is
in contact with your hand, and the force may not
be perpendicular to the box surface.
9. When you pull the cart with the string, the 13. The forces acting on the spider are the tension
tension in the string applies a force that moves the forces in the spider web strands and the force of
cart forward. Since a string is not rigid, when you gravity. Answers may vary. Sample answer:
push the cart away with a string, it will sag and
have no effect on the motion of the cart. As the
FBD of the moving cart shows, the applied force,
FT, has to come from a pulled string but not a
pushed string.
System diagrams may vary. Students should draw
a cart with a string pulling it directly right.

## 14. (a) Answers may vary. Sample answer:

Since muscles are made of small fibres, they are
not rigid. Like ropes and strings, they can only pull
on an object, not push on an object. Therefore,
muscles can only cause tension forces.
(b) Bones are rigid. Like other hard objects, they
can push or pull on another object that they are in
contact with, whereas muscles cannot push on an
object with which they are in contact.
10. Contact forces, such as the normal force and 15. (a) Choose up as positive. So, down is
the applied force, require an object to be in contact negative.
with another object. Forces that do not require Fnet = +56 N + ( ! 35 N)
contact, such as the force of gravity and the Fnet = +21 N
electromagnetic force, are action-at-a-distance
The net force on the object is 21 N [up].
forces. If only action-at-a-distance forces are
(b) Choose right as positive. So, left is negative.
acting on an object, then the FBD can only show
Fnet = +12.3 N + 14.4 N + ( ! 32.7 N)
the action-at-a-distance forces.
11. A system diagram tells you all the objects that Fnet = !6.0 N
are involved in a situation. It helps you determine The net force on the object is 6.0 N [left].
which objects push or pull on other objects. A (c) Choose up and east as positive. So, down and
FBD shows all the forces acting on an object. It west are negative. Define east and west forces as
helps you determine the net force acting on the being along the x-axis. So, up and down forces are
object. along the y-axis.
Inflate the balloon. Tape the paperclip to the block

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.1-4
(F )
net y
= +45 N + ( ! 45 N)

(F )
net y
=0N
The net force on the y-axis is 0 N.
(F )
net x
= !21 N + 21 N
(F )
net x
=0N
The net force on the x-axis is 0 N.
Therefore, the net force on the object is 0 N.
16. (a) The four fundamental forces from weakest
to strongest are the gravitational force, the weak
nuclear force, the electromagnetic force, and the
strong nuclear force.
(b) Gravity differs from the other three
fundamental forces in that is has the farthest reach
but is weakest in actual magnitude. Its effect is
insignificant on objects with small masses. This
force only attracts objects.
(c) Friction and tension are not fundamental forces
because they arise out of other forces.
Friction is not a fundamental force because it
originates from the electromagnetic forces and
exchange force between atoms. Tension is the
result of gravity and electrostatic forces between
molecules.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.1-5
!
Section 3.2: Newtons First Law Analysis: Fnet = 0 N. Choose up and right as
of Motion positive. So, down and left are negative. Define
Tutorial 1 Practice, page 126 right and left forces as being along the x-axis. So,
1. When a bus or train suddenly accelerates up and down forces are along the y-axis.
forward from rest, there is no force applied to your Solution:
body. According to Newtons first law, your body The net force on the x-axis is 0 N.
will continue to remain at rest. Relative to the (F )
net x
= F1 + (!1250 N) + (!1400 N)
motion of the bus or train, your body might be 0 = F1 ! 2650 N
thrown backward. If you are not holding onto F1 = +2650 N
something in the bus or subway train, you might !
hit something or fall, and get injured. F1 = 2650 N [right]
2. When the frictionless tablecloth is pulled on
quickly, no friction or other forces are applied to The net force on the y-axis is 0 N.
the bottom of the plates. According to Newtons (F )
net y
= +13 000 N + Fg
first law, the plates will remain at rest on top of the
0 = +13 000 N + Fg
table.
3. When the driver pushes on the brakes, the Fg = !13 000 N
wheels of the car experience no external force !
Fg = 13 000 N [down]
from the frictionless black ice surface. As a result,
the car will continue to move at a constant velocity ! !
according to Newtons first law of motion. Statement: F1 is 2650 N [right] and Fg is
4. According to Newtons first law, an applied 13 000 N [down].
external force can move the snow that is at rest off (b) The answers will not change because the
the shovel. To do this, you can hammer the shovel change in the velocity of the car does not change
on the ground to shake off the snow. the net forces along the y-axis and along the x-axis,
5. (a) Given: three forces of 13 000 N [up], which are still zero.
1250 N [left], and 1400 N [left]
! !
Required: F1 ; Fg

## Mini Investigation: Testing Newtons First Law, page 127

1. Predictions may vary. Sample answers given.
Prediction/
Situation Sketch of situation explanation Observation Explanation
A. A coin is on The coin will flip up The coin flips The coin resting on the
top of a playing into the air, travel in up into the air card responds to the
card on the left an arc, and land on and travels in an force of the card moving
fist. Hit the card. the ground. arc before upward and pushing the
landing on the coin with it.
ground.
B. A moving The ball will move The ball moves A force by the ballistics
ballistics cart straight up in the air, straight up in cart results in the ball
fires a ball by slow down, and then the air, slows, moving upward.
exerting a force fall to the ground. and then falls to
straight up. the ground.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.2-1
Prediction/
Situation Sketch of situation explanation Observation Explanation
C. A moving The skateboard will The skateboard The object continues to
skateboard with bounce back at the bounces back at move forward even
an object on top same time the object the same time though the skateboard
hits a wall. continues to move the object bounces back because
forward. continues to the object is not
move forward. subjected to the same
force imposed on the
skateboard by the wall.
D. A thread The object will not The object does The object continues to
supports an move. not move. remain stationary when
object. Another there is no net force to
thread is cause it to change.
underneath. Pull
slowly on the
E. A thread The object will The object The object begins
supports an move. moves. moving when there is a
object. Another net force to cause its
thread is position to change. Even
underneath. Pull if the quick pulling
quickly on the action does not cause the
object will tend to
vibrate as a result of the
quick motion.

Section 3.2 Questions, page 129 (b) To keep the car moving at a constant velocity,
1. Answers may vary. Sample answer: the net force on the car in the direction of motion
The use of equipment such as air tables, where must be zero. The large applied force by the engine
little friction is present, can help demonstrate of the car has to be cancelled by the friction of the
Galileos thought experiments. With frictionless road surface to maintain a constant velocity.
surfaces available, the result of Galileos thought Slippery ice surface gives almost no friction so it is
experiment, Figure 2 (a), should show that a ball hard to get the car moving on ice.
rolling down an incline, onto a horizontal surface, (c) When the car suddenly accelerates forward, the
and up another incline could roll up to the same object on the ledge of the car between the rear
height as its starting position. windshield and the rear seat will be bounced back
2. The inertia of an object depends on the mass of toward the rear windshield due to inertia. Sharp
the object. An object with more mass has more and heavy objects may crack the windshield.
inertia, whereas an object with less mass has less (d) During liftoff when the spacecraft accelerates
inertia. Therefore, the truck, with the greatest upward by a large force, the astronauts will
mass, has the most inertia and the feather, with the experience a downward push due to inertia. If they
least mass, has the least inertia. stay in a vertical position, this force will compress
3. The three skaters are either at rest or moving at them from head to toe. It is easier on the body
constant velocity. According to Newtons first law, when the astronauts are placed horizontally in the
the net force on each skater is zero. capsule.
4. (a) When the pickup truck accelerates forward, 5. (a) No, only seat belts significantly improve
your body will be pushed quickly backward due to safety when the car suddenly slows down. In this
inertia. If you are sitting in the back of the truck, situation, your body will be pushed quickly
you may collide with the truck cab and get injured. forward due to inertia. If there is no seat belt, you
could slam into the steering wheel or hit the
Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.2-2
windshield with your head. Since you are moving provides a frictional force on the chalk, slowing it
forward, you do not use the headrest. down. The water keeps the chalk from breaking
(b) No, only headrests significantly improve safety into pieces.
when the car suddenly speeds up. In this situation, 12. Answers may vary. Sample answer:
your body will accelerate forward because the seat (a) When the bus moves at a constant velocity,
exerts a force on it. If there is no headrest, your there is no force acting on the apple or the bus.
head will snap backward due to inertia, possibly When the apple is thrown upward, the vertical
resulting in a neck injury. Since you are moving velocity of the apple is changed but not its
forward and your head is moving backward, and horizontal velocity. According to Newtons first
the seatbelt is not holding your head, you do not law, both the apple and the bus will continue at the
use the seatbelt. same velocity as your hand and the bus. So, the
6. When the car suddenly speeds up or slows apple will land back in your hand.
down, the cup and the coffee that are at rest (b) When the bus slows down, the bus is travelling
continue to stay at rest according to Newtons first slower than the apple, which continues to move
law. This means they will move in the opposite forward at constant velocity. The apple will land
direction as the acceleration of the car. A lid farther in front of you.
prevents the coffee from splashing out of the cup 13. (a) Given: two forces of 32 N [down] and
and the cup holder prevents the cup from falling. 17 N [right]
! !
7. Answers may vary. Sample answer: Required: F1 ; F2
The tension in the string is a force pulling the puck !
Analysis: Fnet = 0. Choose up and right as
toward the spike. If the string is suddenly cut,
according to Newtons first law, the puck will positive. So, down and left are negative. Define
resist this change of motion by moving out of the right and left forces as being along the x-axis. So,
circular path in a direction away from the spike. up and down forces are along the y-axis.
8. For an object resting on a horizontal surface, the Solution:
net force on the object is zero. The forces acting on The net force on the x-axis is 0 N.
the object are the normal force and the force (F )
net x
= F1 + 17 N
gravity. Therefore, the normal force must be equal 0 = F1 + 17 N
in magnitude to the force of gravity so that they
can cancel each other to give a net force of zero on F1 = !17 N
!
the object. F1 = 17 N [left]
9. Answers may vary. Sample answer: The net force on the y-axis is 0 N.
As the car turns, according to Newtons first law,
you body continues to go straight. As a result, you
will lean toward the door.
(F )
net y
= F2 + (!32 N)

## 10. Answers may vary. Sample answer: 0 = F2 ! 32 N

Since an icy highway is slippery with almost no F2 = +32 N
friction, a fast-moving car will not slow down even !
F2 = 32 N [up]
when you push on the brakes because there is no ! !
force acting on the wheels that will stop the Statement: F1 is 17 N [left] and F2 is 32 N [up].
motion. When you go around a curve on an icy (b) Given: three forces of 54 N [up], 60 N [right],
highway at a fast speed, according to Newtons and 86 N [left]
first law, the car tends to remain in its high-speed ! !
Required: F1 ; F2
straight motion. As a result, it will fly off the !
curve, causing a skid. So, you should always slow Analysis: Fnet = 0. Choose up and right as
down when driving around a curve on an icy road. positive. So, down and left are negative. Define
11. (a) When the ring is suddenly pulled right and left forces as being along the x-axis. So,
horizontally, the chalk will remain in its rest up and down forces are along the y-axis.
motion under gravity. So, it will fall straight down Solution:
into the container. The net force on the x-axis is 0 N.
(b) As the chalk falls to the bottom of the container
due to gravity and hits it, it will be bounced back
upward and break. The water in the container

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.2-3
(F )
net x
= F1 + 60 N + (!86 N)
0 = F1 ! 26 N
F1 = +26 N
!
F1 = 26 N [right]
The net force on the y-axis is 0 N.

(F )
net y
= +54 N + F2
0 = +54 N + F2
F2 = !54 N
!
F2 = 54 N [down]
! !
Statement: F1 is 26 N [right] and F2 is
54 N [down].
(a) Use the edge of a thin ruler to apply a very
quick horizontal force to the quarter at the bottom.
In doing this, the stack of quarters above will
remain pulled on by gravity and move straight
down onto the top of the desk, still as a stack. This
procedure will allow you to take the stack apart
one quarter at a time.
(b) This works because of Newtons first law,
which states that an object remains in its motion if
there is no force acting on it. So the stack of
quarters will not be affected by the force from the
ruler, but they will continue to be affected by
gravity.
15. Answers may vary. Students pamphlets should
show proper headrest use and use Newtons first
law of motion to show how it prevents injury
during a car crash. Pamphlets should include
statistics with references and could include
diagrams such as Figure 6 on page 125.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.2-4
! !
Section 3.3: Newtons Second Fnet = ma
Law of Motion Fnet = (58 kg)(+1.33 m/s 2 )
Tutorial 1
!
Practice, page 133 !
= +77 N
1. Given: Fnet = 126 N [S]; m = 70 kg Fnet = 77 N [E]
!
Required: a Statement: The net force acting on the cyclist and
! !
Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose north as positive. So, bicycle is 77 N [E].
!
south is negative. 4. (a) Given: m = 1420 kg; v1 = 64.8 km/h [W];
! !
Solution:
! v2 = 0 m/s; d = 729 m [W]
! !
Fnet = ma
! Required: Fnet
! F ! !
a = net Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose east as positive. First
m
!126 N convert the value of v1 to SI units. Then calculate
a= ! ! ! !
70 kg the acceleration using v2 2 = v12 + 2 a!d .
= !1.8 m/s 2 Solution:
!
a = 1.8 m/s 2 [S] v1 = !64.8 km/h
Statement: The acceleration of the sprinter is " km % " 1 h % " 1 min % " 1000 m %
1.8 m/s2 [S]. = \$ !64.8 '\$ '\$ '\$ '
! ! # h & # 60 min & # 60 s & # 1 km &
2. Given: a = 1.20 m/s2 [forward]; Fnet = 1560 N
v1 = !18.0 m/s
[forward]
Required: m
! ! Since v2 = 0 m/s,
Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose forward as positive.
0 = v12 + 2a!d
Solution:
! ! v12 = "2a!d
Fnet = ma
!
F v12
m = !net a=
a "2!d
+1560 N ("18.0 m/s)2
= =
+1.20 m/s 2 "2("729 m)
m = 1300 kg a = +0.2222 m/s 2 (one extra digit carried)
Statement: The mass of the car is 1300 kg.
! ! Calculate the net force.
3. Given: v1 = 6.0 m/s [E]; v2 = 14.0 m/s [E]; ! !
t = 6.0 s; m = 58 kg Fnet = ma
!
Required: Fnet Fnet = (1420 kg)(+0.2222 m/s 2 )
Analysis: Choose east as positive. First calculate Fnet = +316 N
! ! !
! v !v Fnet = 316 N [E]
the acceleration using a = 2 1 . Then calculate
"t Statement: The net force acting on the car is
! !
the net force using Fnet = ma . 316 N [E].
Solution: (b) The normal force and gravity will cancel when
the car is on horizontal ground. When the car
v2 ! v1
a= slows down, the net force acting on the car is the
"t force of friction. Therefore, the force of friction is
+14.0 m/s ! (+6.0 m/s) 316 N [E].
=
6.0 s 5. (a) Given: m = 8.0 kg; three forces of 24 N
a = +1.33 m/s 2 (one extra digit carried) [left], 31 N [left], and 19 N [right]
! !
Required: Fnet ; a
!
Calculate the net force. Analysis: Find Fnet by adding all horizontal
forces. Choose right as positive. So, left is
Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-1
negative. Calculate the acceleration using backward is negative. Calculate the acceleration
! ! ! !
Fnet = ma . using Fnet = ma .
Solution: Solution:
! ! ! !
Fnet = !24 N + ( ! 31 N) + 19 N Fnet = F1 + F2 + Ff
= !36 N Fnet = +310 N + 354 N + ( ! 40 N)
!
Fnet = 36 N [left] = +624 N
!
Calculate the acceleration. Fnet = 624 N [forward]
! !
Fnet = ma Calculate the acceleration.
! ! !
! F Fnet = ma
a = net !
m ! F
!36 N a = net
a= m
8.0 kg +624 N
a=
= !4.5 m/s 2 390 kg
!
a = 4.5 m/s 2 [left] = +1.6 m/s 2
Statement: The net force applied to the object is !
a = 1.6 m/s 2 [forward]
36 N [left] and its acceleration is 4.5 m/s2 [left]. Statement: The acceleration of the bobsled is
(b) Given: m = 125 kg; three vertical forces of 1.6 m/s2 [forward].
1200 N [up], 1100 N [up], and 1300 N [down];
two horizontal forces of 600 N [right] and 600 N Tutorial 2 Practice, page 135
[left] !
! ! 1. (a) Given: m1 = 1.20 kg; m2 = 0.60 kg; Ff = 0 N
Required: Fnet ; a !
Required: a
Analysis: The left and right forces cancel each Analysis: Draw a FBD of each object.
!
other. Find Fnet by adding all vertical forces. For the cart, the normal force and gravity cancel
Choose up as positive. So, down is negative. each other.
! !
Calculate the acceleration using Fnet = ma . So, (Fnet )cart = FT = m1a .
Solution: m1a = FT (Equation 1)
Fnet = +1200 N + 1100 N + ( ! 1300 N)
= +1000 N For the hanging object,
!
Fnet = 1000 N [up] (F )
net object
= Fg ! FT = m2 a .
2

m2 a = m2 g ! FT (Equation 2)
Calculate
!
the acceleration.
!
Fnet = ma The cart will accelerate to the right. Choose right
!
! F as positive. So, left is negative. Solve the two
a = net equations for a.
m
+1000 N Solution:
a=
125 kg
= +8 m/s 2
!
a = 8 m/s 2 [up]
Statement: The net force applied to the object is
1000 N [up] and its acceleration is 8 m/s2 [up].
! !
6. Given: F1 = 310 N [forward]; F2 = 354 N
!
[forward]; Ff = 40 N [backward]; m = 390 kg
!
Required: a
!
Analysis: Find Fnet by adding all forward and
backward forces. Choose forward as positive. So, Add the equations to solve for a.
Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-2
m1a + m2 a = FT + m2 g ! FT m1 a = FT (Equation 1)
m1a + m2 a = m2 g
( m1 + m2 )a = m2 g For the hanging object,
(1.20 kg + 0.60 kg)a = (0.60 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) (Fnet )object = Fg ! FT = m 2 a .
2

## a = 3.3 m/s 2 m 2 a = m 2 g ! FT (Equation 2)

The acceleration of the cart is 3.3 m/s2 [right].
(b) Given: m1 = 1.20 kg; m2 = 0.60 kg; The cart will accelerate to the right. Choose right
!
Ff = 0.50 N [left] as positive. So, left is negative. Solve the two
Required: a
! equations for a.
Analysis: Draw a FBD of each object.
For the cart, the normal force and gravity cancel Solution:
each other.
So, (Fnet )cart = FT ! FN = m1a .
m1a = FT ! FN (Equation 1)

## For the hanging object,

(F )
net object
= Fg ! FT = m2 a .
2

m2 a = m2 g ! FT (Equation 2)

## The cart will accelerate to the right. Choose right

as positive. So, left is negative. Solve the two
equations for a. Add the equations to solve for a.
Solution: m1a + m2 a = FT + m2 g ! FT
m1a + m2 a = m2 g
( m1 + m2 )a = m2 g
( 2.0 kg + 0.40 kg)a = (0.40 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )
a = 1.6 m/s 2
The acceleration of the cart is 1.6 m/s2 [right].
(b) If the mass of the object on top of the cart
increases, the acceleration of the cart decreases.
Using the equation for the acceleration of the cart,
m2 g
a= , the value a decreases when the
( m1 + m2 )
value m1 increases.
Add the equations to solve for a. (c) If an object is taken from the top of the cart and
m1a + m2 a = FT ! FN + m2 g ! FT
tied to the hanging object, the acceleration of the
m1a + m2 a = m2 g ! FN cart increases. Using the equation for the
( m1 + m2 )a = m2 g ! FN m2 g
acceleration of the cart, a = , the value a
(1.20 kg + 0.60 kg)a = (0.60 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) ! 0.50 N ( m1 + m2 )
a = 3.0 m/s 2 increases when the value m1 decreases and the
The acceleration of the cart is 3.0 m/s2 [right]. value m2 increases.
!
2. (a) Given: m1 = 2.0 kg; m2 = 0.40 kg; Ff = 0 N
! Section 3.3 Questions, page 136
Required: a !
1. (a) Given: m = 72 kg; a = 1.6 m/s2 [forward]
Analysis: Draw a FBD of each object. !
For the cart, the normal force and gravity cancel Required: Fnet
! !
each other. Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose forward as positive.
So, (Fnet )cart = FT = m1a . Solution:

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-3
! !
Fnet = ma Statement: The acceleration of the hockey puck is
150 m/s2 [forward].
Fnet = (72 kg)(+1.6 m/s ) 2
!
3. (a) Given: a = 1.2 m/s2 [backward];
= +120 N !
! Fnet = 1400 N [backward]
Fnet = 120 N [forward]
Required: m
Statement: The net force on the rugby player is ! !
Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose forward as positive.
120 N [forward].
! Solution:
(b) Given: m = 2.3 kg; a = 12 m/s2 [up] ! !
! Fnet = ma
Required: Fnet
! ! Fnet
Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose up as positive. m =
a
Solution: !1400 N
! ! =
Fnet = ma !1.2 m/s 2
Fnet = (2.3 kg)(+12 m/s 2 ) m = 1200 kg
= +28 N Statement: The mass of the car is 1200 kg.
! !
Fnet = 28 N [up] (b) Given: Fnet = 33 N [forward];
! 2
Statement: The net force on the model rocket is a = 6.0 m/s [forward]
28 N [up]. Required: m
! ! !
2. (a) Given: Fnet = 2.4 104 N [E]; m = 5.0 kg Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose forward as positive.
!
Required: a Solution:
!
! ! !
Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose east as positive. So, Fnet = ma
west is negative. Fnet
m =
Solution: a
! !
Fnet = ma +33 N
! =
! F +6.0 m/s 2
a = net m = 5.5 kg
m
+2.4 ! 104 N Statement: The mass of the shot put is 5.5 kg.
a= !
5.0 kg 4. Given: m = 54 kg; v1 = 0 m/s;
!
= +4800 m/s 2 v2 = 12 m/s [downhill]; t = 5.0 s
! !
a = 4800 m/s 2 [E] Required: Fnet
Statement: The acceleration of the shell is ! !
Analysis: Fnet = ma ; First calculate the
4800 m/s2 [E]. ! !
!
(b) Given: m = 160 g; Fnet = 24 N [forward] ! v2 ! v1
!
acceleration using a = . Choose uphill as
Required: a "t
! ! positive. So, downhill is negative.
Analysis: Fnet = ma ; First convert the value m to
Solution:
SI units. Choose forward as positive. Since v1 = 0 m/s,
Solution: v2
m = 160 = 0.16 kg a=
!t
! ! "12 m/s
Fnet = ma =
! 5.0 s
! F
a = net = "2.4 m/s 2
m !
a = 2.4 m/s 2 [downhill]
+24 N
a=
0.16 kg
= +150 m/s 2
!
a = 150 m/s 2 [forward]

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-4
! !
Calculate the net force. Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose up as positive.
! !
Fnet = ma Solution:
! !
Fnet = (54 kg)(!2.4 m/s 2 ) Fnet = ma
!
= !130 N ! F
! a = net
Fnet = 130 N [downhill] m
Statement: The net force acting on the skier is +150 N
a=
130 N [downhill]. 58 kg
! !
5. Given: v1 = 0 m/s; Fnet = 1.2 N [forward]; = +2.6 m/s 2
! ! !
d = 6.6 m [forward]; v2 = 3.2 m/s [forward] a = 2.6 m/s 2 [up]
Required: m Statement: The acceleration of the person is
! ! ! ! ! ! 2.6 m/s2 [up].
Analysis: Fnet = ma ; v2 2 = v12 + 2 a!d . Choose
7. Given: Fnet = 36 N [forward];
forward as positive. First calculate the acceleration a1 = 6.0 m/s2 [forward]; a1+2 = 2.0 m/s2 [forward]
! ! ! !
using v2 2 = v12 + 2 a!d . Required: a2
! !
Solution: Analysis: Fnet = ma . Choose forward as positive.
Since v1 = 0 m/s, Solution:
v2 2 = 2a!d For mass m1,
! !
v2 Fnet = m1 a1
a= 2
2!d Fnet
m1 =
(+3.2 m/s)2 a1
=
2(+6.6 m) 36 N
=
a = +0.776 m/s (one extra digit carried)
2
6.0 m/s 2
m1 = 6.0 kg
Calculate
!
the mass.
!
Fnet = ma For masses m1 and m2 together,
F Fnet = (m1 + m2 )a1+2
m = net
a Fnet
+1.2 N m1 + m2 =
= a1+2
+0.776 m/s 2
Fnet
m = 1.5 kg m2 = ! m1
a1+2
Statement: The mass of the cart is 1.5 kg.
! 36 N
6. (a) Given: m = 58 kg; Fa = 720 N [up] = ! 6.0 kg
2.0 m/s 2
Required: m
m2 = 12 kg
Analysis: Add all the vertical forces. Use
! ! !
Fnet = Fa + Fg . Choose up as positive.
For mass m2,
Solution: ! !
! ! ! Fnet = m2 a2
Fnet = Fa + Fg !
! ! ! ! F
Fnet = Fa + mg a2 = net
m2
Fnet = +720 N + (58 kg)( ! 9.8 m/s 2 ) 36 N
a2 =
= +150 N 12 kg
!
Fnet = 150 N [up] a2 = 3.0 m/s 2
Statement: The net force acting on the person is Statement: Mass m2 will experience an
150 N [up].
! acceleration of 3.0 m/s2.
(b) Given: m = 58 kg; Fnet = 150 N [up]
!
Required: a

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-5
8. (a) Choose up and east as positive. So, down (b) Solve the equations for a.
and west is negative. ( m1 + m2 )a = m2 g
m2 g
a=
m1 + m2
From the equation, when the value m2 increases,
the value (m1 + m2) stays the same, and the value a
increases. As more chain moves over the edge of
the table, the acceleration of the chain increases.
10. (a) Given: m = 80 kg; three horizontal forces
of 170 N [left], 170 N [left], and 150 N [right]
Required: a
! Analysis: The normal force and gravity cancel
(b) Given: m = 1300 kg; a = 1.6 m/s2 [E]; !
! each other since the crate is on the floor. Find Fnet
Ff = 3800 N [W]
! by adding all horizontal forces. Choose right as
Required: Fa positive. So, left is negative. Calculate the
! !
Analysis: The normal force and gravity cancel acceleration using Fnet = ma .
each other since the car is on horizontal ground. To
! Solution:
find Fa , add all the horizontal forces. Use
! ! ! ! ! Fnet = !170 N + ( ! 170 N) + 150 N
Fnet = ma and Fnet = Fa + Ff . = !190 N
Solution: !
! ! ! Fnet = 190 N [left]
Fnet = Fa + Ff
! ! !
Fa = Fnet ! Ff Calculate the acceleration.
! !
Fa = ma ! Ff Fnet = ma
!
= (1300 kg)( + 1.6 m/s 2 ) ! (!3800 N) ! F
a = net
= +5900 N m
!
Fa = 5900 N [E] !190 N
a=
80 kg
Statement: The applied force acting on the car is
5900 N [E]. = !2.4 m/s 2
!
9. Assume that no friction acts on the chain on top a = 2.4 m/s 2 [left]
of the table. Statement: The acceleration of the crate is
m1 = mass of chain on top of table 2.4 m/s2 [left].
m2 = mass of chain hanging over the edge (b) If a fourth student jumps on top of the crate,
The tension, FT, in the chain is the same for both the mass, m, of the crate increases but the net force
! ! !
m1 and m2. Fnet on the crate is the same. Using Fnet = ma , as
(a) For the chain on top of the table, the normal
force and gravity cancel each other. the value m increases, the value a decreases. So,
the magnitude of the acceleration of the crate
Fnet = FT = m1 a (Equation 1)
decreases.
!
11. Given: m = 30 kg; vi = 0 m/s; d = 22 m;
For the hanging chain,
Fnet = Fg ! FT = m2 a (Equation 2) mmax = 12 kg
Required: t
Analysis: Use the equation FT = ms g to find the
m1a + m2 a = FT + m2 g ! FT maximum tension of the string when it holds up a
( m1 + m2 )a = m2 g
12 kg mass. Assume no friction on the ice. The
normal force and gravity cancel each other since
The chain will accelerate to the right down the the object is on the ice. The net force acting on the
table. The force of gravity acting on the hanging pulled object is the tension in the string.
chain, m2g, causes the acceleration. Use FT = ma to calculate the acceleration and use

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-6
1 1
!d = v i !t + a!t 2 to calculate the minimum !d = vi !t + a!t 2
2 2
possible time. 1
!d = a!t 2
Solution: 2
FT = ms g 2!d
!t 2 =
= (12 kg)(9.8 m/s) a
FT = 117.6 N 2!d
!t =
a
Calculate the acceleration. 2(22 m )
=
FT = ma 3.92 m/s 2
FT !t = 3.4 s
a =
m Statement: The minimum possible time to
117.6 N complete the task is 3.4 s.
=
30 kg
a = 3.92 m/s 2

## Calculate the minimum possible time.

Since vi = 0 m/s,
12. (a)
Mass (kg) Friction (N) [W] Applied force (N) [E] Net force (N) [E] Acceleration (m/s2) [E]
4.0 9.0 9.0 0.0 0.0
4.0 9.0 13.0 4.0 1.0
4.0 9.0 17.4 8.4 2.1
4.0 9.0 23.0 14.0 3.5

(b) (c)

## The y-intercept represents the friction. When the rise

slope =
applied force equals the friction, the net force on run
the object is zero and its acceleration will also be 1.4 N [E]
zero. =
3.5 m/s 2 [E]
slope = 4.0 kg
Fnet
For the same graph, slope = = m . So, the slope
a
represents the mass of the object, which is 4.0 kg.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.3-7
Section 3.4: Newtons Third Law (f) When the fan on a fan cart (without a sail) is
directed to the right and then turned on, the force
of Motion of the air on the fan blades causes a force of the
Tutorial 1 Practice, page 138 blades on the air. The cart moves to the left.
1. (a) The pressure generated by the burning rocket (g) When the fan on a fan cart (with a sail) is
fuel provides an action force that causes the directed toward the sail and then turned on, the
expanding hot gases to accelerate from the bottom force of the air on the fan blades and sail causes a
of the rocket. According to Newtons third law, the force of the blades on the air and a force of the sail
expanding hot gases exert a reaction force that on the air. The cart does not move.
pushes up on the rocket. When this reaction force
is greater than the force of gravity that is pulling Tutorial 2 Practice, page 140
the rocket down, the rocket can accelerate out of 1. (a) The reaction force is the book pushing with
Earths atmosphere. 5.2 N backward on you.
(b) The engine at the back of the motorboat exerts (b) The reaction force is the water exerting a force
an action force on the water in the direction of of 450 N [E] on the boat.
west. According to Newtons third law, the water (c) The reaction force is the boards exerting a force
exerts an equal but opposite force on the of 180 N [toward the hockey player]
motorboat, causing the motorboat to accelerate 2. (a) Draw a FBD for each person. Choose right
east in the water. as positive. So, left is negative.
(c) Football player 1 exerts an action force toward
football player 2. According to Newtons third
law, player 2 exerts an equal but opposite force
toward player 1. The players will hold together,
stopping player 2 from gaining ground toward the
goal.

## Mini Investigation: Demonstrating the

Third Law, page 138
(a) When I sit in a chair and push my arms against
a wall, the force of my arm muscles on the wall
causes an equal force of the wall against my arms. For each person, the normal force and the force of
I move away from the wall in the chair. gravity cancel each other. This means the applied
(b) When I sit in a chair not touching a wall, the force is equal to the net force.
force of my arm muscles on my shoulders causes
an equal force of my shoulders against my arms. I For Maaham,
! !
do not move in the chair. Fa = Fnet
! !
(c) When I stand on a bathroom scale and push Fa = m1 a1
down on the desk beside me, the force of my arms
Fa = (54 kg)(!1.2 m/s 2 )
on the table causes a force of the table against my
arms (or hands). I weigh less than when I do not = !65 N
!
have a table for support. Fa = 65 N [left]
(d) When I stand on a bathroom scale and push The force that Nobel exerts on Maaham is
down on my head with my hands, the force of my 65 N [left].
arms on my head causes a force of my head against (b) For Nobel,
my arms (or hands). I weigh the same as when I do
Fnet = Fa
not push down on my head.
(e) When I use a spring-loaded ballistics cart to m2 a2 = +65 N
fire a ball horizontally, the force of the spring on (62 kg)a2 = +65 N
the ball causes a force on the ball that is pushing a2 = +1.0 m/s 2
back on the spring. The spring pushes the ball !
when released. a2 = 1.0 m/s 2 [right]
Nobels acceleration is 1.0 m/s2 [right].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.4-1
3. Answers may vary. Sample answer: (c) As a helicopter hovers, its rotors cause a
The statement is not valid when the action and downward flow of air. According to Newtons
reaction forces are not acting on the same object. If third law, the air exerts an equal upward push back
they act on the same object, the net force will be on the helicopter, allowing it to hover in a
zero and nothing will accelerate. When the horse stationary position.
pulls forward on the cart, the cart pulls backward 3. Answers may vary. Sample answers:
on the horse. According to Newtons third law, the (a) As the astronaut pulls on the tether, according
horse will cause a reaction force of the same to Newtons third law, there is a reaction force in
magnitude on the cart in the opposite direction, the opposite direction that draws her closer toward
making the cart accelerate forward. The action and the space station.
reaction forces do not cancel because they do not (b) If the astronaut pulls forward on her space suit,
act on the same object. In addition, the mass of the according to Newtons third law, the space suit
horse would be much greater than the mass of the will cause a reaction force that pulls her backward
cart, or vice versa. away from the space station so she cannot push
4. (a) When the student pushes on the wall with a herself back to the station.
force of 87 N [S], the wall exerts an equal but (c) The astronaut could push the tool backward.
opposite force of 87 N [N] on the student who is According to Newtons third law, the tool will
on the skateboard. cause an equal forward push on her toward the
Choose north as positive. So, south is negative. For space station.
the student on the skateboard, the net force is equal 4. Answers may vary. Sample answer:
to the reaction force exerted by the wall. As a cannon forces a cannon ball out of the
Fnet = Fa cannon, the cannon applies an action force on the
ma = +87 N cannon ball. According to Newtons third law, the
cannon ball will cause a reaction force that pushes
(58 kg)a = +87 N
the cannon backward. The ropes are necessary to
a = +1.5 m/s 2 prevent the cannon from hitting other parts of the
!
a = 1.5 m/s 2 [N] ship when it is pushed backward.
The acceleration of the student is 1.5 m/s2 [N]. 5. Answers may vary. Sample answers:
Fnet (a) As the fan blows to the right, it pushes the air
(b) From the equation, a = , for a large value to the right. According to Newtons third law,
m
there is a reaction force from the air that pushes the
of m, the value for a will be very small. The wall
fan and the cart back to the left. When the sail is in
does not seem to move because it is massive and
place, the air pushes to the right on the sail.
anchored to the ground. The force that the student
According to Newtons third law, there is a
pushes on the wall is not strong enough to have
reaction force from the sail that pushes the air back
any noticeable effect on the motion of the wall.
to the left. The force pushing the fan to the left is
balanced by the force from the air pushing toward
Section 3.4 Questions, page 141 the sail. As a result, the cart cannot accelerate.
1. (a) The reaction force is the road exerting a (b) If the sail is removed, as the fan blows to the
force of 240 N [forward] on the tire. right, it pushes the air to the right. According to
(b) The reaction force is the desk pushing with a Newtons third law, there is a reaction force from
force of 25 N [S] on you. the air that pushes the fan and the cart back to the
2. Answers may vary. Sample answers: left. The fan cart can then accelerate because there
(a) The water expelled by the squid exerts an is an external force that pushes it to the left.
action force backward on the water. According to
Newtons third law, the water exerts an equal but
opposite force forward on the squid, causing the
squid to move through the water.
(b) When you walk on a wagon, the bottoms of
your feet exert a horizontal backward action force
on the wagon. According to Newtons third law,
the reaction force is caused by friction when the
wagon pushes you to accelerate forward. You may
fall off the wagon.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.4-2
6. (a) For skater 2,
Fnet = Fa
m2 a2 = +64 N
(56 kg)a2 = +64 N
a2 = +1.1 m/s 2
!
a2 = 1.1 m/s 2 [E]
The acceleration of skater 2 is 1.1 m/s2 [E].
(b) Since the net force acting on each skater is in a
different direction and the two skaters have
different masses, the skaters move in opposite
directions with different accelerations.
(b) The toy car applies an action force that shoots 8. Answers may vary. Sample answer:
the plastic ball horizontally out the back, causing If you punch a hole into the carton, according to
the ball to accelerate backward. According to Newtons third law, the inward force will cause a
Newtons third law, the ball causes a reaction force reaction force exerted by the water flowing out of
on the toy car, making it accelerate forward. the container. If you punch two holes in the carton
For the toy car, the normal force and the force of at the opposite corners, you will see two jets of
gravity cancel each other. Since there is no water coming out. The suspended carton will start
friction, the applied force is equal to the net force. to turn because as water shoots out the holes, the
Choose east as positive. water also pushes back on the carton with equal
Convert 200 g to 0.2 kg. force. A turbine is formed as the energy of the
Fa = Fnet moving liquid is converted into rotational energy.
Fa = m1 a1 9. (a) The female astronaut applies an action force
of 16 N [left] on the male astronaut, causing him to
= (0.2 kg)(+1.2 m/s 2 ) accelerate to the left. According to Newtons third
= +0.24 N law, the male astronaut causes a reaction force on
!
Fa = 0.24 N [E] the female astronaut, making her accelerate in the
The reaction force on the toy car is 0.24 N [E]. opposite direction, to the right. For each astronaut,
The action force on the plastic ball is 0.24 N [W]. the applied force is equal to the net force.
7. (a) Skater 2 applies an action force that pushes Choose right as positive. So, left is negative.
skater 1 west, causing skater 1 to accelerate For the male astronaut,
backward. According to Newtons third law, skater Fnet = Fa
1 causes a reaction force on skater 2, making m1 a1 = !16 N
skater 2 accelerate forward. For each skater, the (82 kg)a1 = !16 N
normal force and the force of gravity cancel each
other. This means the applied force is equal to the a1 = !0.20 m/s 2
!
net force. a1 = 0.20 m/s 2 [left]
Choose east as positive. So, west is negative. The acceleration of the male astronaut is
For skater 1, 0.20 m/s2 [left].
Fnet = Fa
m1 a1 = !64 N For the female astronaut,
(78 kg)a1 = !64 N Fnet = Fa

## a1 = !0.82 m/s 2 m2 a2 = +16 N

! (64 kg)a2 = +16 N
a1 = 0.82 m/s 2 [W]
The acceleration of skater 1 is 0.82 m/s2 [W]. a2 = +0.25 m/s 2
!
a2 = 0.25 m/s 2 [right]
The acceleration of the female astronaut is
0.25 m/s2 [right].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.4-3
(b) In this situation, the action force on the female
astronaut becomes the reaction force and the
reaction force on the male astronaut becomes the
action force. So, the answers to part (a) will not
change.
(c) The magnitudes of the accelerations will
double since each astronaut experiences an action
as well as a reaction force of the same magnitude.
So the acceleration of the male astronaut will be
0.40 m/s2 [left] and the acceleration of the female
astronaut will be 0.50 m/s2 [right].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.4-4
Section 3.5: Using Newtons Tutorial 2 Practice, page 146
1. (a) Cart 1 and cart 2 are stuck together so they
Laws must move with the same acceleration.
Tutorial 1 Practice, page 144 mT = m1 + m2
1. (a) Since the objects are not moving, the net
= 1.2 kg + 1.8 kg
force on each object is zero.
To calculate the tension FTA in rope A, you can = 3.0 kg
treat the two objects as one single object and
ignore the tension FTB in rope B since FTB is an Assume no friction on the carts.
internal force in this case. From the FBD of both boxes, the normal force and
! !
FTA = (mA + mB ) g gravity cancel each other. Choose east as positive.
! ! ! So, west is negative.
FTA = mA g + mB g

For rope B:
! !
FTB = mB g
So, rope A has the greater tension.
(b) Let m1 be the smallest mass, m2 the middle
mass, and m3 the largest mass. The three masses
are moving with the same acceleration a.
The only force acting on m3 is the tension FTB in
rope B.
FTB = m3 a Fnet = mT a
!18.9 N = mT a
Consider the net force acting on mass m2.
! ! ! !18.9 N = (3.0 kg)a
FTA ! FTB = m2 a
! ! ! !18.9 N
FTA = m2 a + FTB a=
3.0 kg
So, rope A has the greater tension. = !6.3 m/s 2
2. (a) The total mass mT of the locomotive is !
a = 6.3 m/s 2 [W]
mT = 6.4 ! 105 kg + 5.0 ! 105 kg
The acceleration of each cart is 6.3 m/s2 [W].
mT = 1.14 ! 106 kg (b) To calculate F1 on 2, draw the FBD for cart 2.
Choose east as positive. So, west is negative.
Choose east as positive. So, west is negative.
! !
Fnet = mT a
Fnet = (1.14 ! 106 kg)("0.12 m/s 2 )
= "1.4 ! 105 N
!
Fnet = 1.4 ! 105 N [W]
The net force on the entire train is 1.4 105 N [W].
(b) The magnitude of the tension between the
locomotive and the train car equals the magnitude
of the net force on the train car. ! !
The mass mC of the train car is 5.0 105 kg. F1 on 2 = Fnet
! !
Fnet = mC a F1 on 2 = m2 a
= (5.0 ! 105 kg)(0.12 m/s 2 ) F1 on 2 = (1.8 kg)( ! 6.3 m/s 2 )
Fnet = 6.0 ! 104 N = !11 N
!
The magnitude of the tension between the F1 on 2 = 11 N [W]
locomotive and the train car is 6.0 104 N. The force that cart 1 exerts on cart 2 is 11 N [W].
(c) If cart 2 were pushed with an equal but
opposite force instead of cart 1, the net force on

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.5-1
the two carts would be 18.9 N [E]. The Analysis: First calculate the acceleration of the car
acceleration of each cart would be 6.3 m/s2 [E]. ! ! ! 1!
using Fnet = ma . Use !d2 = v!t + a!t 2 to
! 2
To calculate F1 on 2 , draw the FBD for cart 2. calculate the distance travelled. Choose forward as
Choose east as positive. So, west is negative. positive. So, backward is negative.
Solution:
Fnet = ma
!2400 N = (1200 kg)a
!2400 N
a=
1200 kg
a = !2.0 m/s 2

1
!d2 = v!t + a!t 2
2
! ! !
Fa + F1 on 2 = Fnet 1
! ! ! = (+26.4 m/s)(2.0 s) + ("2.0 m/s 2 )(2.0 s)2
F1 on 2 = Fnet ! Fa 2
!d2 = +48.8 m (one extra digit carried)
F1 on 2 = m2 a ! (+18.9 N)
Total distance travelled: 13.2 m + 48.8 m = 62 m
= (1.8 kg)( + 6.3 m/s 2 ) ! 18.9 N Statement: The total distance travelled by the car
= !7.6 N in 2.5 s is 62 m.
!
F1 on 2 = 7.6 N [W]
The force that cart 1 exerts on cart 2 would be Section 3.5 Questions, page 147
7.6 N [W]. 1. (a) Draw a FBD of the rope.
2. At first, the car moves at constant velocity for
0.50 s before the driver starts to slow down.
!
Given: v = 95 km/h [forward]; t = 0.50 s
Required: d1 The magnitude of the tension equals the magnitude
Analysis: Convert the velocity to SI units. Then of the applied force.
!
use the equation !d1 = v!t to determine the FT = Fa
distance travelled. Choose forward as positive. So, FT = 65 N
backward is negative. The tension in the rope is 65 N.
Solution: (b) Use the same FBD of the rope in part (a).
v = +95 km/h
The tension in the rope is 65 N.
! km \$ ! 1 h \$ ! 1 min \$ ! 1000 m \$ (c) Since there is no external force acting on the
= # +95 &# &# &# &
" h % " 60 min % " 60 s % " 1 km % 12 kg object, the magnitude of the tension equals
v = +26.4 m/s the magnitude of the applied force, which is 65 N.
! 2. (a) Given: m1 = 72 kg; a = 2.0 m/s2 [forward];
v = 26.4 m/s [forward] (one extra digit carried) !
Ff = 120 N [backward]
!d1 = v!t Required: FT
= (+26.4 m/s)(0.5 s) Analysis: Draw a FBD for the sled. Find FT by
!d1 = +13.2 m (one extra digit carried) adding all horizontal forces. Choose forward as
Then, the car brakes with a net force of 2400 N positive. So, backward is negative.
[backward] for 2.0 s.
!
Given: m = 1200 kg; Fnet = 2400 N [backward];
!
t = 2.0 s; v = 26.4 m/s [forward]
Required: d2

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.5-2
Solution: the time it takes the two skaters to meet. Choose
forward as positive. So, backward is negative.
Solution:

Fnet = FT + Ff
m1 a = FT + (!120 N)
(72 kg)( + 2.0 m/s 2 ) = FT ! 120 N Fnet = FT
FT = +260 N ma = +35 N
Statement: The tension in the rope is 260 N. (70 kg)a = +35 N
(b) Given: m2 = 450 kg; a = 2.0 m/s2 [forward];
! ! a = +0.50 m/s 2
FT = 260 N [backward]; Fa = 540 N [backward] !
! a = 0.50 m/s 2 [forward]
Required: F2 on 1
Analysis: Draw a FBD for the snowmobile. Find At the starting position, v = 0 m/s.
!
F2 on 1 by adding all horizontal forces. Choose 1
!d = v!t + a!t 2
forward as positive. So, backward is negative. 2
Solution: 1
!d = a!t 2
2
2!d
!t 2 =
a
2!d
!t =
a
2(15 m )
=
0.50 m/s 2
!t = 7.7 s
Statement: It takes 7.7 s for the skaters to meet.
! ! ! !
Fnet = F2 on 1 + Fa + FT 4. (a) Given: m2 = 820 kg;
!
m2 a = F2 on 1 + (!540 N) + (!260 N) Ff = 650 N [backward];
!
(450 kg)( + 2.0 m/s 2 ) = F2 on 1 ! 540 N ! 260 N Fnet = 0 N (at constant velocity)
!
F2 on 1 = +1700 N Required: F1 on 2
!
F2 on 1 = 1700 N [forward] Analysis: Draw a FBD of the trailer with mass m2.
!
Statement: The force exerted by the snowmobile Find F1 on 2 by adding all horizontal forces. Choose
on the sled is 1700 N [forward]. forward as positive. So, backward is negative.
3. Given: m = 70 kg; d = 15 m;
!
FT (rope on person) = 35 N [forward]
Required: t
Analysis: Draw a FBD for the skater reeling in the
rope. First, find the acceleration of the person
! ! ! 1!
using Fnet = ma . Use !d = v!t + a!t 2 to calculate
2

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.5-3
5. Draw a FBD of the person climbing up the rope.
Choose up as positive. So, down is negative.

Solution:
! !
F1 on 2 + Ff = 0
! ! Calculate the magnitude of the maximum tension
F1 on 2 = ! Ff
in the rope.
F1 on 2 = !(!650 N) ! !
FT = mr g
F1 on 2 = +650 N
! FT = (120 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )
F1 on 2 = 650 N [forward]
FT = 1176 N (two extra digits carried)
Statement: The force that the car exerts on the
trailer is 650 N [forward].
From the FBD, the tension on the person is
(b) Since the trailer is moving at constant velocity,
! upward. Calculate the acceleration of the person.
the net force Fnet on the trailer is 0 N. Fnet = FT + Fg
The forces acting on the trailer are the same as in
ma = +1176 N + mg
part (a). Therefore, the force that the car exerts on
the trailer is 650 N [forward]. (85 kg)a = +1176 N + (85 kg)( ! 9.8 m/s 2 )
(c) Use the same FBD in part (a). a = +4.04 m/s 2
For the trailer accelerating at 1.5 m/s2 [forward], !
! ! a = 4.04 m/s 2 [up]
!
Fnet = m2 a . Find F1 on 2 by adding all horizontal
forces. Choose forward as positive. So, backward 1
Use !d = v!t + a!t 2 to calculate the time to
is negative. 2
F1 on 2 + Ff = Fnet climb the entire length of the rope.
F1 on 2 + (!650 N) = m2 a At the starting position, v = 0 m/s.
1
F1 on 2 ! 650 N = (820 kg)( + 1.5 m/s 2 ) !d = v!t + a!t 2
2
F1 on 2 = +1900 N 1
! !d = a!t 2
F1 on 2 = 1900 N [forward] 2
The force that the car exerts on the trailer is 2!d
!t 2 =
1900 N [forward]. a
(d) Use the same FBD in part (a). 2!d
For the trailer accelerating at 1.2 m/s2 [backward], !t =
a
Fnet = m 2 a . Find F1 on 2 by adding all horizontal
2(12.0 m )
forces. Choose forward as positive. So, backward =
4.04 m/s 2
is negative.
!t = 2.4 s
F1 on 2 + Ff = Fnet
The minimum time required to climb the entire
F1 on 2 + (!650 N) = m2 a length of the rope is 2.4 s.
!
F1 on 2 ! 650 N = (820 kg)(!1.2 m/s 2 ) 6. Let FT1 = tension between force sensors 1 and 2,
F1 on 2 = !330 N !
! FT2 = tension between force sensors 3 and 4, and
F1 on 2 = 330 N [backwards] !
FT3 = tension between force sensors 5 and 6.
The force that the car exerts on the trailer is
330 N [backward].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.5-4
(a) Consider forces on cart 1 with mass 2.2 kg. Fnet = Fa + FT3
Choose forward as positive. So, backward is mT a = Fa + (!9.8 N)
negative.
Fnet = FT1 (6.5 kg)(+1.5 m/s 2 ) = Fa + (!9.8 N)

m1 a = +3.3 N Fa = +20 N
!
(2.2 kg)a = +3.3 N Fa = 20 N [forward]

## a = +1.5 m/s 2 The force applied to force sensor 6 is 20 N

! [forward].
a = 1.5 m/s 2 [forward]
7. The only force acting on car 2 is the tension FT2
The acceleration of all the carts is between car 1 and car 2.
1.5 m/s2 [forward]. FT2 = m2 a
! !
(b) Use FT1 to calculate FT2 . Consider forces on
cart 2 with mass 2.5 kg. Choose forward as FT1 is the tension between car 1 and the
positive. So, backward is negative. locomotive. Consider the net force acting on car 1.
Fnet = FT1 + FT2 FT1 ! FT2 = m1a
m2 a = !3.3 N + FT2 FT1 = m1a + FT2
(2.5 kg)(+1.5 m/s 2 ) = !3.3 N + FT2
So, FT1 is always greater than FT2.
FT2 = +7.1 N
! Given: m1 = 5.0 105 kg; m2 = 3.6 105 kg;
FT2 = 7.1 N [forward]
m = 6.4 105 kg; FT1 = 2.0 105 N
!
! ! Required: a
Use FT2 to calculate FT3 . Analysis: Since car 1 and car 2 are locked
Consider forces on cart 3 with mass 1.8 kg. together, they can be treated as one single object.
Fnet = FT2 + FT3 Draw a FBD of this object. Use the equation
! !
Fnet = mT a to find the maximum acceleration.
m3 a = !7.1 N + FT3
Choose forward as positive. So, backward is
(1.8 kg)(+1.5 m/s 2 ) = !7.1 N + FT3
negative.
FT3 = +9.8 N
!
FT3 = 9.8 N [forward]

## The reading on force sensor 1 is the same as the

reading on force sensor 2, which is 3.3 N.
The reading on force sensor 2 is given as 3.3 N.
The reading on force sensor 3 is 7.1 N.
The reading on force sensor 4 is the same as the
reading on force sensor 3, which is 7.1 N.
The reading on force sensor 5 is 9.8 N.
The reading on force sensor 6 is the same as the Solution: The total mass mT of the two cars is:
reading on force sensor 5, which is 9.8 N. m T = 5.0 ! 10 5 kg + 3.6 ! 10 5 kg
(c) The total mass mT of the carts is: = 8.6 ! 10 6 kg
mT = 2.2 kg + 2.5 kg + 1.8 kg Fnet = FT1
mT = 6.5 kg mT a = +2.0 ! 105 N
(8.6 ! 105 kg)a = +2.0 ! 105 N
Consider forces on force sensor 6. Choose forward
a = +0.23 m/s 2
as positive. So, backward is negative. !
a = 0.23 m/s 2 [forward]
Statement: The maximum acceleration of the train
that does not break the locking mechanism is
0.23 m/s2 [forward].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.5-5
8. (a) Given: m = 68 kg; Fnet = 92 N; t1 = 8.2 s For part (a), at the starting position, v = 0 m/s.
! 1
Required: v1 !d1 = a !t 2
Analysis: First find the acceleration using the 2 1 1
! ! 1
! ! ! v1 ! vi ! = (+1.35 m/s 2 )(8.2 s)2
equation Fnet = ma . Use a = to calculate v1 . 2
"t
!d1 = +45.4 m (one extra digit carried)
Choose forward as positive. So, backward is
negative.
Solution: For part (b), at the starting position,
Fnet = m1 a1 v = 11 m/s [forward].
1
(68 kg)a1 = +92 N !d2 = v!t2 + a !t 2
2 2 2
a1 = +1.35 m/s 2 (one extra digit carried) " m% 1" m %
Since vi = 0, = \$ +11 ' (3.5 s ) + \$ (0.324 ' (3.5 s )
2

# s& 2# s2 &
!
! v
a1 = 1 !d2 = +36.5 m (one extra digit carried)
!t1
v1 = a1 !t1
!d = !d1 + !d2
= (+1.35 m/s 2 )(8.2 s) = 45.4 m + 36.5 m
= +11 m/s = 81.9 m
!
v1 = 11 m/s [forward] !d = 82 m
Statement: The speed of the skier is 11 m/s. Statement: The total distance travelled by the
!
(b) Given: m = 68 kg; v1 = 11 m/s [forward]; skier before coming to rest is 82 m.
!
t2 = 3.5 s; Fnet = 22 N [backward]
!
Required: v2
Analysis: First find the acceleration using the
! !
! ! ! v2 ! v1 !
equation Fnet = ma . Use a = to calculate v2 .
"t
Choose forward as positive. So, backward is
negative.
Solution:
Fnet = m2 a 2
(68 kg)a 2 = !22 N
a 2 = !0.324 m/s 2 (one extra digit carried)
v2 ! v1
a2 =
"t2
v2 ! v1 = a2 "t2
# m&
v2 ! (+11 m/s) = % !0.324 2 ( (3.5 s)
\$ s '
v2 = +10 m/s
!
v2 = 10 m/s [forward]
Statement: The speed of the skier is 10 m/s.
1
(c) Use !d = v!t + a!t 2 to calculate the distance
2
travelled. Choose forward as positive. So,
backward is negative.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.5-6
Section 3.6: Physics Journal
Section 3.6 Questions, page 149
1. The statement means that the work of physicists
is often based on the contributions and
accomplishments of physicists in the past. For
example, Einsteins work on relativity followed a
path very similar to that of Newtons laws.
Einsteins special theory of relativity was an
extension of Newtons first law and Einsteins
theory of general relativity was an extension of
Newtons second and third laws. Hawkings work
on topics such as black holes and the nature of
gravity deals mainly with extending the concepts
explored by Newton and Einstein.
2. Newtons laws of motion explain the forces
acting on a persons body during a car collision,
inside a car making a sharp turn in the road, or
during driving on icy highways. These
explanations led to the requirements of safety
equipment such as headrests, seat belts, and air
bags to be installed in the cars we drive today.
3. Both Newton and Einstein put forward a theory
of mechanics and a theory of gravity. Einstein was
able to base his theory on the mathematical theory
constructed by Riemann, while Newton developed
his own mathematical machinery. Therefore, it is
more appropriate to place Newton ahead of
Einstein as the greatest figure in mathematical
physics.
4. Topics could include Newtons law of universal
gravitation or a derivation of Keplers laws of
planetary motion. Students reports should include
a description of the topic and a brief explanation of
its significance and applications.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.6-1
Chapter 3 Investigations The graph shows that for a constant mass, as the
acceleration of an object increases, then the net
Investigation 3.3.1: Investigating
force increases, that is, the acceleration and net
Newtons Second Law, page 151 force are directionally proportional.
Analyze and Evaluate The slope of the graph represents the total mass of
(a) The relationships being tested are net force the object.
versus acceleration, acceleration versus total mass, mass = slope
and acceleration versus the inverse of total mass.
! ! !F
(b) Fnet = mtotal a =
! !a
! Fnet 1960 N " 980 N
a= =
mtotal 1.40 # 103 m/s 2 " 7.00 # 102 m/s 2
Trial 1: Trial 2: 980 N
=
! 980.0 N ! 1960.0 N 7.00 # 102 m/s 2
a1 = a2 =
1.40 kg 1.40 kg mass = 1.4 kg
! ! The total mass of the object is 1.4 kg.
a1 = 7.00 ! 102 m/s 2 a2 = 1.40 ! 103 m/s 2
(e)
Trial 3: Trial 4:
! 2940.0 N ! 2940.0 N
a3 = a4 =
1.40 kg 2.40 kg
! !
a3 = 2.10 ! 103 m/s 2 a4 = 1.23 ! 103 m/s 2

Trial 5:
! 2940.0 N
a5 =
3.40 kg
!
a5 = 8.64 ! 102 m/s 2
(c) The ratio of the net force to the total mass The graph indicates that as the total mass of an
represents the acceleration of the cart. This makes object increases, its acceleration decreases, that is,
sense since the net force acting on an object is the the total mass of an object and its acceleration are
product of the objects mass and its acceleration. inversely proportional.
The ratio of the net force to the total mass as (f)
obtained by the motion sensor are
Step 4: 701.00 m/s2
Step 5: 1402.00 m/s2
Step 6: 2103.00 m/s2
Step 8: 1226.02 m/s2
Step 9: 865.21 m/s2
(d)

## The graph indicates that as the inverse of the total

mass of an object increases, its acceleration
increases, that is, the inverse of the total mass and
acceleration are directionally proportional.
The slope of the graph represents the net force on
the cart.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.I-1
(g) If the total mass of a cart is constant, then as
the net force on the cart increases so does its
acceleration.
If the net force on the cart is constant, then as the
total mass of the cart increases, its acceleration
decreases.
My hypothesis was based on the information in the
student textbook. My hypothesis was accurate.
(i) Some possible sources of error in this
investigation are the masses of the objects loaded
onto the cart are not exact, the surface the cart rolls
across is a source of friction, and the pulley does
not move freely. To reduce or avoid the errors, you
could measure the mass of the objects before
starting the investigation, you could clean the
surface the cart rolls over each time you carry out a
step in the investigation, and you could make sure
the pulley rope is new or not stuck in the pulley
wheel.

## Apply and Extend

(j) Friction will cause the cart to slow down at
some point. When graphing acceleration versus
mass, there will be a very small section with a
slope of zero near the origin of the graph. This
small region represents an acceleration of zero.
(k) A graph of net force versus acceleration must
pass through the origin when the total mass is
constant because when the net force acting on an
object is zero, the acceleration of that object is
zero, that is, it will be stationary.
(l) A graph of the acceleration versus the
reciprocal of the total mass of an object must pass
through the origin when the net force acting on the
object is constant because when the acceleration is
zero then the net force must equal zero.
(m) The greater the total mass of the airplane, the
greater the force needed to accelerate the airplane.
This would mean more fuel required to fly the
airplane. Commercial airlines are limiting the
number of pieces and the mass of luggage to cut
down on fuel costs.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3.I-2
Chapter 3 Review, Understanding
22.
pages 154159
Knowledge
1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (d)
4. (d)
5. (d)
6. (c)
7. (b)
8. (c)
2
9. False. One newton is equal to 1 kgm/s .
23. The frictional force acting to the left is
10. False. A normal force is a perpendicular force
missing. It is equal in magnitude to the applied
acting on an object that is exerted by the surface
force acting to the right.
with which it is in contact.
11. True
12. True
13. False. To determine the net force, you do need
to consider the direction of each force acting on an
object.
14. False. An object with less mass has less inertia.
An object with more mass has more inertia.
15. True
16. True
17. False. Newtons third law states that for every
action force there is a simultaneous reaction force 24. The FBD is incomplete. The normal force
of equal magnitude in the opposite direction. exerted by the surface of the ramp on the block is
18. (a) (iii) missing. This force acts perpendicular to the ramp.
(b) (v)
(c) (ii)
(d) (i)
(e) (iv)
2
19. The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s .
An object that has a lot of inertia has a much
stronger resistance to changes in motion. If it is at
rest, then it will require more force to start moving
it. If it is in motion, then it will require more force 25. (a)
to change that motion. Similarly, an object with
less inertia has less resistance to changes in
motion.
Newtons third law states that for any force that
acts on an object, whether a push or a pull, in
contact or at a distance, that object will exert a
force of equivalent strength in the opposite
direction. For example, if a water bottle sits on a
desk, the water bottle exerts a downward force on
the desk and the desk exerts an equivalent upward
force on the water bottle.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-2
(b) 28.

## 29. Answers may vary. Sample answer:

(c) Answers may vary. Sample answer: Newtons first law implies that since the object is
The only difference between the FBDs in parts (a) at rest, the net force on the object must be zero. So,
and (b) is the label for the force the student puts on the normal force pushing upward on the book must
the box (a push versus a tension force). The be equal to the force of gravity pulling downward.
direction of each arrow depends on the direction Otherwise, the book would move either upward or
you choose to start drawing a FBD. If you choose downward.
right for the direction of the pulling force in (a) 30. Choose right as positive. So, left is negative.
!
and you choose right for the direction of the Since the rope is stationary, Fnet = 0.
pushing force in (b), you will end up with the same ! !
force diagram for the two different situations. Given: Fnet = 0; FR1 = 84 N [right];
! !
26. Choose force northward as positive. So, force FR2 = 86 N [right]; FL1 = 83 N [left]
southward is negative. !
! Required: the second childs force of pull, FL2
Given: Fnorthward = 37 850 N [northward]; ! ! ! ! !
! Analysis: Fnet = FR1 + FR2 + FL1 + FL2
Fsouthward = 850 N [southward] ! ! ! ! !
! Fnet = FR1 + FR2 + FL1 + FL2
Required: Fnet
Fnet = FR1 + FR2 + FL1 + FL2
Analysis: F! = F! !
+ Fsouthward
net northward 0 = +84 N + 86 N + (!83 N) + Fl2
Solution: FL2 = !87 N
! ! ! !
Fnet = Fnorthward + Fsouthward FL2 = 87 N
Fnet = +37 850 N + (!850 N)
Statement: The second child on the left is pulling
Fnet = +37 000 N with a force of 87 N [left].
Statement: The net horizontal force on the plane 31. If the box does not move, the net force on the
is 37 000 N [northward]. box is zero. So, the magnitude of the frictional
27. Choose east as positive. So, west is negative. force exerted by the ground on the box is 20 N.
!
Given: Fdownward1 = 35 000 N [westward]; 32. (a) According to Newtons second law, the
! acceleration of an object is directly proportional to
Fdownward2 = 1200 N [westward] the net force and inversely proportional to the mass
!
Required: Fnet of the object. If the same force acts on two cars
! ! ! with different masses, the car with less mass will
Analysis: Fnet = Fdownward1 + Fdownward2
have a greater acceleration.
Solution: (b) Since the mass of the box is decreasing and the
! ! !
Fnet = Fdownward + Fdownward person continues to pull with a constant force, the
= !35 000 N + ( ! 1200 N) acceleration of the cart will increase.
! 2
Fnet = !36 200 N 33. (a) Given: m = 69 kg; a = 2.1 m/s [forward]
!
! Required: Fnet
Fnet = 36 200 N [westward]
Analysis:
!
According to Newtons second law,
Statement: The net horizontal force on the plane !
Fnet = ma
is 36 200 N [westward].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-3
Solution:
!
Solution:
!
Fnet = ma The net force on the box acts in the opposite
= (69 kg)(2.1 m/s 2 ) [forward]
direction of the frictional force.
! Fnet = ma
Fnet = 140 N [forward]
Fnet
Statement: The net force is 140 N [forward]. a=
(b) Since the basketball is falling due to gravity, m
! ! 2 40 N
a = g = 9.8 m/s [down]. =
! 2 10 kg
Given: m = 620 g = 0.62 kg; g = 9.8 m/s [down]
!
Required: Fnet a = 4 m/s 2

Analysis: According to Newtons second law, Statement: The box slows down with an
! 2
! ! acceleration of 4 m/s [opposite direction of
Fnet = ma = mg
motion].
Solution:
! 36. Given: m! = 175 g = 0.175 kg; a = 1.5 m/s2
!
Fnet = mg Required: Ff
= (0.62 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) [down] Analysis: According to Newtons second law,
! ! !
Fnet = 6.1 N [down] Ff = ma
Statement: The net force is 6.1
!
N [down]. Solution:
34. (a) Given: m = 260 kg; Fnet = 468 N [N] The frictional force on the puck acts in the
! opposite direction of the pucks motion.
Required: a ! !
Analysis: According to Newtons second law, Ff = ma
! !
Fnet = ma Ff = (0.175 kg)(1.5 m/s 2 )
Solution:
! Ff = 0.26 N
!
Fnet = ma Statement: The frictional force acting on the puck
!
! F is 0.26 N [opposite direction of motion].
a = net
m 37. Given: Fnet = 800 000 N;
! 2
468 N [N] a = 8.0 m/s [forward]
= Required: m
260 kg ! !
!
a = 1.8 m/s 2 [N]
Analysis: For the airplane, Fnet = ma .
Statement: The net acceleration of the boat is Solution:
! !
2
1.8 m/s [N]. Fnet = ma
! !
(b) Given: m = 70.0 kg; Fnet = 236 N [up] F
! m = !net
Required: a a
Analysis: According to Newtons second law, 800 000 N
! ! =
Fnet = ma 8 m/s 2
Solution: m = 100 000 kg
! !
Fnet = ma Statement: The
!
mass of the plane is 100 000 kg.
!
! F 38. Given: Fnet = 1.80 103 N [S];
a = net m = 145 g = 0.145 kg
m !
236 N [up] Required: a !
= !
70.0 kg Analysis: For the baseball, Fnet = ma .
! Solution:
a = 3.37 m/s 2 [up] ! !
Statement: The net acceleration of the skydiver is Fnet = ma
2 !
3.37 m/s [up]. ! F
a = net
35. Given: m = 10 kg; Fnet = 40 N m
Required: a 1.80 ! 103 N [S]
=
Analysis: According to Newtons second law, 0.145 kg
Fnet = ma !
a = 1.24 ! 104 m/s 2 [S]

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-4
! ! ! ! !
Statement: The acceleration of the ball is m1 a + m2 a =
FT + m2 g ! FT
4 2 ! ! !
1.24 10 m/s [S]. m1 a + m2 a =
m2 g
39. (a) Given: m1 = 2.3 kg; m2 = 1.7 kg; ! ! !
2 m1 a =
m2 g ! m2 a
g = 9.8 m/s ! ! !
! m1 a =
m2 ( g ! a)
Required: a ! ! !
Analysis: For the cart, Fnet = FT . ma
! ! m2 = ! 1 !
m1 a = FT (Equation 1) g!a
! ! ! (1.8 kg)(2.5 m/s 2 )
For the hanging object, Fnet = Fg ! FT . =
! ! ! 9.8 m/s 2 ! 2.5 m/s 2
m2 a = m2 g ! FT (Equation 2)
m2 = 0.62 kg
Solution: Add the equations to solve for a.
! ! ! ! ! Solution: The mass of the attached object is
m1 a + m2 a = FT + m2 g ! FT
! ! 0.62 kg.
(m1 + m2 ) a = m2 g (b) Given: m1 = 1.8 kg; g = 9.8 m/s ;
2
! 2
! m2 g a = 2.5 m/s ; Ff = 0.6 N
a=
m1 + m2 Required: m2 , mass of the attached object
! ! !
(1.7 kg )(9.8 m/s 2 ) Analysis: For the cart, Fnet = FT ! Ff .
a= ! ! !
2.3 kg + 1.7 kg m1 a = FT ! Ff (Equation 1)
! ! !
a = 4.2 m/s 2 For the hanging object, Fnet = Fg ! FT .
! ! !
Statement: The acceleration of the cart is m2 a = m2 g ! FT (Equation 2)
4.2 m/s2 [right]. Solution: Add the equations to solve for m2.
(b) Given: m1 = 2.3 kg; m2 = 1.7 kg; ! ! ! ! ! !
2 m1 a + m2 a =
FT ! Ff + m2 g ! FT
g = 9.8 m/s ; Ff = 0.6 N ! ! ! !
! m1 a + m2 a =
m2 g ! Ff
Required: a ! ! ! !
! ! !
Analysis: For the cart, Fnet = FT ! Ff . m1 a + Ff =m2 g ! m2 a
! ! ! ! ! ! !
m1 a = FT ! Ff (Equation 1) m1 a + Ff =m2 ( g ! a)
! ! ! ! !
For the hanging object, Fnet = Fg ! FT . m1 a + Ff
m2 =
! ! ! g!a
m2 a = m2 g ! FT (Equation 2)
! (1.8 kg)(2.5 m/s 2 ) + 0.4 N
Solution: Add the equations to solve for a . =
! ! ! ! ! ! 9.8 m/s 2 ! 2.5 m/s 2
m1 a + m2 a = FT ! Ff + m2 g ! FT
! ! ! m2 = 0.67 kg
(m1 + m2 ) a = m2 g ! Ff
! ! Statement: The mass of the attached object is
! m g ! Ff 0.67 kg.
a= 2
m1 + m2 41. (a) The boat exerts a downward force on the
(1.7 kg )(9.8 m/s 2 ) ! 0.6 N water. The water exerts an equal reaction force that
a= pushes upward on the boat.
2.3 kg + 1.7 kg
(b) The dolphin exerts a downward force on the
a = 4.0 m/s 2 water. The water exerts an equal reaction force that
Statement: The acceleration of the cart is pushes upward on the dolphin.
4.0 m/s2 [right]. (c) As the student jumps off the raft to the right,
2
40. (a) Given: m1 = 1.8 kg; g = 9.8 m/s ; the students feet exert an action force pushing the
2
a = 2.5 m/s raft to the left. The raft exerts a reaction force
Required: m2 , mass of the attached object pushing the student to the right.
! !
Analysis: For the cart, Fnet = FT . 42. As a cannon forces a cannon ball out of the
! ! cannon, the cannon applies an action force on the
m1 a = FT (Equation 1)
! ! ! cannon ball. According to Newtons third law, the
For the hanging object, Fnet = Fg ! FT . cannon ball will cause a reaction force that pushes
! ! ! the cannon backward.
m2 a = m2 g ! FT (Equation 2)
Solution: Add the equations to solve for m2.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-5
43. (a) Given: m = 58 kg; Fnet = 89 N Solution:
! ! !
!
Required: a Fnet = FT + Fg
Analysis: For the student on the skateboard, ! !
! ! 0 = FT + mg
Fnet = ma . ! !
! ! FT = !mg
Fnet = ma
! FT = !(3.0 kg)(!9.8 m/s 2 )
! F
a = net FT = +29 N
m
89 N Statement: The tension in the string is 29 N.
a= (b) Choose up as positive. So, down is negative.
58 kg 2 2
Given: m = 3.0
!
kg; g = 9.8 m/s ; a = +1.2 m/s
a = 1.5 m/s 2
Required: FT
Statement: The acceleration of the student is ! !
2
1.5 m/s away from the wall. Analysis: In this situation, Fnet = ma .
! ! !
(b) The wall does not seem to move because it is Fnet = FT + Fg
massive and anchored to the ground. Since ! ! !
! ma = FT + mg
! F ! ! !
a = net , the force that the student pushes on the FT = ma ! mg
m
wall is not strong enough to have any noticeable FT = (3.0 kg)(+1.2 m/s 2 ) ! (3.0 kg)(!9.8 m/s 2 )
effect on the motion of the wall. FT = +33 N
44. (a) Given: Fa = 75 N; Ff = 4.0 N Statement: The tension in the string is 33 N.
!
Required: a ! (c) Choose up as positive. So, down is negative.
! ! 2 !
Analysis: For the girl on her skates, Fnet = ma . Given: m = 3.0 kg; g = 9.8 m/s ; a = 1.4 m/s
2
!
Solution: Required: FT
! ! !
F = ma !
! net ! Analysis: In this situation, Fnet = ma .
!
Fa ! Ff = ma Solution:
! ! ! ! !
! Fa ! Ff Fnet = FT + Fg
a= ! ! !
m ma = FT + mg
75 N ! 4.0 N ! ! !
a= FT = ma ! mg
62 kg
FT = (3.0 kg)(!1.4 m/s 2 ) ! (3.0 kg)(!9.8 m/s 2 )
a = 1.1 m/s 2
Statement: The acceleration of the girl is 1.1 m/s
2 FT = !25 N
away from the rail. Statement: The tension in the string is 25 N.
(b) The rail does not appear to move because it is
anchored to! the ground and a part of a large mass. Analysis and Application
! F 46. Answers may vary. Sample answer:
Since a = net , the force that the girl pushes on the The other forces acting on the flag are the forces
m
rail is so small compared to the mass of the rail from the rope or attachments to the pole that hold
that the acceleration of the rail is not noticeable. the flag in place. These forces would be acting
45. (a) The forces on the object are the tension westward. Gravity is also acting on the flag.
pulling it upward and the gravity pulling it
downward. Add all the vertical forces. Choose up
as positive. So, down is! negative. Since the
elevator is stationary, Fnet = 0.
2
Given: Fnet =! 0 N; m = 3.0 kg, g = 9.8 m/s
Required: FT
! ! !
Analysis: Fnet = FT + Fg 47. (a) Given: m = 71.5 kg; g = 9.8 m/s
2
!
Required: Fnet
! !
Analysis: Fnet = mg

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-6
Solution:
!
Solution:
!
! !
Fnet = mg Fnet = mg
!
Fnet = (71.5 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) F
m = !net
Fnet = 700 N g
Statement: The force of gravity acting on the 7.6 N
=
skydiver is 700 N when he jumps. 9.8 m/s 2
2
(b) Given: m! = 71.5 kg; g = 9.8 m/s m = 0.78 kg
Required: Fnet Statement: The mass of the water is 0.78 kg.
! !
Analysis: Fnet = mg 51. Given: v = 35 m/s; !t = 0.50 s; m = 0.25 kg;
2
a = 70 m/s
Solution:
! Required: F
! ! net
Fnet = mg !
Analysis: Fnet = ma . First find the acceleration of
Fnet = (71.5 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) !
! !v
Fnet = 700 N the T-shirt launcher using a = ! .
!t
Statement: The force of gravity acting on the Solution:
skydiver is 700 N when he lands. ! !
! !v
a= !
48. Since the girl is not moving, Fnet = 0. Add all !t
the vertical forces. Choose up as positive. So, 35 m/s
a=
down is negative.
!
0.50 s
2
Given: Fnet = 0; m = 45.0 kg, g = 9.8 m/s a = 70 m/s 2
Required: F !N ! ! ! !
Analysis: net = FN + Fg
F Fnet = ma
Solution: Fnet = (0.25 kg)(70 m/s 2 )
! ! !
Fnet = FN + Fg Fnet = 18 N
! !
0 = FN + mg Statement: The launcher exerts a force of 18 N on
! !
FN = !mg the shirts.
52. Given: vi = 6.0 m/s; vf = 15 m/s; !t = 3.0 s
FN = !(45.0 kg)(!9.8 m/s 2 )
Required: F ! net
FN = +440 N !
Analysis: Fnet = ma . First find the acceleration of
Statement: The magnitude of the force the bench !
! !v
pushes against the girl is 440 N. the runner using a = .
!t
49. The force on a free-falling object is gravity.
2 Solution:
Given: Fnet = 1100 N; g = 9.8 m/s ! !
Required: m ! vf ! vi
! ! a=
Analysis: Fnet = mg "t
15 m/s ! 6.0 m/s
Solution: a=
! ! 3.0 s
Fnet = mg
! a = 3.0 m/s 2
F
m = !net
g ! !
Fnet = ma
1100 N
m= Fnet = (72 kg)(3.0 m/s 2 )
9.8 m/s 2
m = 110 kg Fnet = 220 N
Statement: The mass of the boulder is 110 kg. Statement: The net force acting on the runner is
50. The force on the water is the force of gravity. 220 N.
Given: Fnet = 7.6 N; g = 9.8 m/s
2 53.
!
(a) Given: m1 = 30.0 kg; m2 = 10.0 kg;
Required: m Ff = 240 N [backward];
! ! !
Analysis: Fnet = mg Fa = 3.0 102 N [forward]

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-7
! ! !
Required: !a ! ! Fnet = Ff
! !
Analysis: Fnet = Fa + Ff . Treat the two boxes as a (m1 + m2 ) a2 = Ff
!
single object with mass 40.0 kg and a total force of ! Ff
friction of 240 N. Choose forward as positive. So, a2 =
m1 + m2
backward is negative.
Solution: !240 N
! ! ! a2 =
Fnet = Fa + Ff 30 kg + 10 kg
! ! ! a2 = !6.0 m/s 2
(m1 + m2 ) a = Fa + Ff
! !
! Fa + Ff
a= As the boxes are slowing down:
m1 + m2 ! 2
vi = 7.5 m/s [backward]; a = 6.0 m/s [backward];
+3.0 ! 102 N + ("240 N)
a= vf = 0 m/s
30 kg + 10 kg ! !
0 = vi 2 + 2 a2 !d2
a = +1.5 m/s 2 ! !
! vi 2 = "2 a2 !d2
a = 1.5 m/s 2 [forward] !
v2
Statement: The acceleration of the boxes is !d2 = i !
2
1.5 m/s [forward]. "2 a2
(b) If there is no applied force, the only horizontal ("7.5 m/s)2
=
force acting on the boxes is the force of friction, "2("6.0 m/s 2 )
which acts in the opposite direction of their motion
!d2 = 4.6875 m (three extra digits carried)
and causes them to slow down.
! 2
(c) Given: a1 = 1.5 m/s [forward]; !t = 5.0 s
!d = !d1 + !d2
Required: !d
Analysis: First calculate the distance when the = 18.75 m + 4.6875 m
! 1! = 23.4675 m
boxes are accelerating using !d1 = a1 !t 2 . Then !d = 23 m
2
calculate the velocity before the boxes slow down Statement: The total distance travelled is 23 m.
! ! 54. Choose right as positive. So, left is negative.
using vi = a1 !t . Then calculate the acceleration of
Given: FR1 = +55 N; FR2 = +65 N; FL1 = 58 N;
the boxes when the applied force is removed using FL2 = 70 N
! !
Fnet = Ff . Then find the distance travelled when the !
Required: !a ! ! ! ! !
! ! ! ! !
boxes are slowing down using vf 2 = vi 2 + 2 a2 !d2 . Analysis: Fnet = FR1 + FR2 + FL1 + FL2 ; Fnet = ma
Finally, add the two distances. Solution:
! ! ! ! !
Solution: Fnet = FR1 + FR2 + FL1 + FL2
1 Fnet = +55 N + 65 N + (!58 N) + +(!70 N)
!d1 = a !t 2
2 1
Fnet = !8 N
1" m%
= \$ +1.5 ' (5.0 s )
2
The net force on the students is 8 N to the left.
2# s &
2
! !
!d1 = 18.75 m (two extra digits carried) Fnet = ma
!
! F
! ! a = net
vi = a1 !t m
vi = (+1.5 m/s 2 )(5.0 s ) !8 N
a=
60 kg + 62 kg + 59 kg + 64 kg
vi = +7.5 m/s
a = !0.03 m/s 2
Statement: The students are accelerating
2
0.03 m/s [left].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-8
55. (a) Given: Fa = +10 N; Fb = +30 N; (F )
net vertical
= Fa + Fd
Fc = +25 N;
Fd = 10 N; Fe = 22 N = +13 N + (!26 N)
! !
Required: ( Fnet )horizontal ; ( Fnet )vertical !
= !13 N

## Analysis: ( Fnet )horizontal = Fb + Fc + Fe ;

( )
Fnet vertical
= 13 N [down]
Statement: The net horizontal force is 0 N and the
(F )
net vertical
= Fa + Fd . Choose right and up as net vertical force is 13 N [down].
!
positive. So, left and down are negative. (b) Given: From part (a), Fnet = 13 N [down];
Solution: ! 2
a = 5.5 m/s [down]
( )
Fnet horizontal
= Fb + Fc + Fe
Required: m
= +30 N + 25 N + (!22 N) ! !
Analysis: Fnet = ma
= +33 N
!
(F )
net horizontal
= 33 N [right] Solution:
! !
Fnet = ma
!
(F )
net vertical
= Fa + Fd F
m = !net
a
= +10 N + (!10 N)
13 N [down]
(F )
net vertical
=0N =
5.5 m/s 2 [down]
Statement: The net horizontal force is 33 N [right] m = 2.4 kg
and the net vertical force is 0 N.
! Statement: The mass of the box is 2.4 kg.
(b) Given: From part (a), Fnet = 33 N [right];
57. (a) Choose right and up as positive. So, left
m = 85 kg and down are negative.
!
Required:
!
a Given: m = 12 kg, a = 1.5 m/s2 ; Fa = +13 N;
!
Fnet = ma Fb = +82 N; Fd = 26 N; Fe = 31 N
!
! F Required: Fc
a = net ! !
m Analysis: Fnet = ma ; Fnet = Fb + Fc + Fe
33 N [right] Solution:
= ! !
85 kg Fnet = ma
!
a = 0.39 m/s 2 [right] = (12 kg)(1.5 m/s 2 [right])
2 !
The acceleration of the box is 0.39 m/s [right]. Fnet = 18 N [right]
56. (a) Choose right and up as positive. So, left
Fnet = Fb + Fc + Fe
and down are negative.
Given: Fa = +13 N; Fb = +12 N; Fc = +19 N; +18 N = +82 N + Fc + (!112 N)
Fd = 26 N; Fe = 31 N Fc = +48 N
! !
Required: ( Fnet )horizontal ; ( Fnet )vertical The magnitude of Fc is 48 N.
Analysis: ( Fnet )horizontal = Fb + Fc + Fe ; (b)
!
If the box is moving to the left,
Fnet = 18 N [left].
(F )
net vertical
= Fa + Fd
Given: Fnet = 18 N; Fb = +82 N; Fe = 31 N
Solution: Required: Fc
(F )
net horizontal
= Fb + Fc + Fe Analysis: Fnet = Fb + Fc + Fe
= +12 N + 19 N + (!31 N) Solution:
( )
Fnet horizontal
=0N Fnet = Fb + Fc + Fe
!18 N = +82 N + Fc + (!112 N)
Fc = +12 N
Statement: The magnitude of Fc is 12 N.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-9
58. (a) Given: m = 100 kg; !v = 45 km/h; 59. (a) To find the acceleration due to gravity on
!t = 2.5 s the Moon, divide the gravitational constant by 6.
Required: Fdog 9.8 m/s 2
= 1.6 m/s 2
Analysis: First, convert the velocity to SI units. 6
!v The acceleration due to gravity on the Moon is
Then calculate the acceleration using a = . 2
!t 1.6 m/s .
Calculate
!
the average applied force using (b) To find the weight of a person on the Moon,
!
Fnet = ma . Then determine the average applied multiply the mass by the unrounded value in
force per dog. part (a).
9.8 m/s 2
Solution: 72 kg ! = 120 N
!v = 45 km/h 6
" km % " 1 h % " 1 min % " 1000 m %
A 72 kg person would weigh 120 N on the Moon.
= \$ 45 '\$ '\$ '\$ ' (c) The mass of an object on the Moon is its
# h & # 60 min & # 60 s & # 1 km &
weight divided by the gravitational constant.
!v = 12.5 m/s 700 N
The mass of the object is .
9.8 m/s 2
!v The force on this object on the Moon is its mass
a=
!t multiply by acceleration due to gravity on the
12.5 m/s Moon. Use the unrounded value in part (a).
=
2.5 s 700 N 9.8 m/s 2
! = 120 N
a = 5.0 m/s 2 9.8 m/s 2 6
The force on this object on the Moon is 120 N.
! !
Fnet = ma 60. (a) As the girl jumps off the raft to the right,
the girls feet exert an action force pushing the raft
Fnet = (100 kg)(5.0 m/s 2 )
to the left. The raft exerts a reaction force pushing
Fnet = 500 N the girl to the right.
(b) Given: mg = 55 kg; mr = 120 kg; Fnet = 100 N
! !
500 N Required: ag ; ar
Fdog = !
4 !
Analysis: Fnet = ma
Fdog = 125 N
Solution:
Statement: The average force applied by each dog For the girl,
is 125 N. ! !
Fnet = mg ag
(b) The frictional force equals the total force !
applied by the dogs. ! F
ag = net
Given: Fdog = 150 N; Fnet = 500 N mg
Required: Ff ! 100 N [right]
Analysis: Fnet = Fa ! Ff ag =
55 kg
Solution: !
ag = 1.8 m/s 2 [right]
Fa = 4 ! 150 N
= 600 N
For the raft,
! !
Fnet = mr ar
During the pulling motion, !
! F
Fnet = Fa ! Ff ar = net
mr
500 N = 600 N ! Ff
100 N [left]
Ff = 100 N =
120 kg
Statement: The frictional force acting on the sled !
ar = 0.83 m/s 2 [left]
is 100 N [opposite direction of motion]
Statement: The acceleration of the girl is
2
1.8 m/s [right]. The acceleration of the raft is
2
0.83 m/s [left].

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-10
61. (a) The action force is the force exerted by the 63. (a) Given: mstudent A = 58 kg; Fnet = 80.0 N
boy pushing on the girl. The reaction force is a Required: a!
!
force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction Analysis: Fnet = mstudent A a
by the girl pushing back on the boy. Solution:
(b) Given: mb = 62 kg; mg = 59 kg; Fnet = 74 N ! !
! ! Fnet = mstudent A a
Required: ab ; ag !
! ! ! Fnet
Analysis: Fnet = ma a=
mstudent A
Solution: 80.0 N
For the boy, a=
! 58 kg
! F
ab = net a = 1.4 m/s 2
mb
Statement: The acceleration of student A is
74 N [right] 1.4 m/s .
2
=
62 kg (b) If student B accelerates faster than student A,
!
ab = 1.2 m/s 2 [right] the total mass on student Bs skateboard would be
less than 58 kg. So, the mass of the block would be
For the girl, between 0 kg and 3 kg. Similarly, if student B
! accelerates slower than student A, the total mass
! F
ag = net on student Bs skateboard would be greater than
mg
58 kg. So, the mass of the block would be greater
74 N [left] than 3 kg.
=
59 kg (c) Student B and the block accelerate as one
! single object, so their mass is m.
ag = 1.3 m/s 2 [left] 2
Given: a = 1.25 m/s ; Fnet = 80.0 N;
Statement: The acceleration of the boy is mstudent B = 55 kg
2
1.2 m/s [right]. The acceleration of the girl is
2
1.3 m/s [left]. Required: mblock
! !
62. (a) The force on each skater is of equal Analysis: Fnet = ma
magnitude. Since Fnet = ma and skater B has a Solution:
! !
slower acceleration, skater B has more mass. Fnet = ma
(b) The action force is the force of skater A !
F
pushing on skater B. The reaction force is the force m = !net
of skater B pushing back on skater A. The a
magnitudes of both forces are equal. 80.0 N
=
2 1.25 m/s 2
Given: m = 75 kg; a = 1.2 m/s
Required: F m = 64 kg
! net !
Analysis: net = ma
F
Solution: mblock = m ! mstudent B
! !
Fnet = ma = 64 kg ! 55 kg
Fnet = (75 kg)(1.2 m/s ) 2
mblock = 9 kg
Fnet = 90 N Statement: The mass of the block is 9 kg.
Statement: The magnitude of the force is 90 N. 64. (a) Choose right as positive. So, left is
(c) F = ma negative. !
net Given: m1 = 82 kg; m2 = 64 kg; Fnet = 16 N [left]
Fnet !
m= Required: !a
a !
Analysis: Fnet = ma
90 N
=
0.8 m/s 2
m = 110 kg
The mass of skater B is 110 kg.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-11
! !
Solution: Analysis: Fnet = ma
For
!
the male astronaut, Solution:
! !
Fnet = m1 a1 !
! Fnet = ma
! F
a1 = net Fnet = (5.3 ! 105 kg)(0.12 m/s 2 )
m1
Fnet = 6.4 ! 104 N
!16 N
a1 = Statement: The magnitude of the tension between
82 kg
the locomotive and the train car is 6.4 104 N.
= !0.20 m/s 2
! 66. (a) Given: m1 = 18 kg; m2 = 12 kg;
a1 = 0.20 m/s 2 [left] g = 9.8 m/s
2

Required: F ;F
! TA TB ! ! !
For
!
the female astronaut, Analysis: TA (m1 + m2 ) g ; FTB = m2 g
F =
!
Fnet = m2 a2 Solution:
!
! F For string A,
a2 = net ! !
m2 FTA = (m1 + m2 ) g
+16 N FTA = (18 kg + 12 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )
a2 =
64 kg FTA = 290 N
= +0.25 m/s 2

!
a2 = 0.25 m/s 2 [right] For string B,
! !
Statement: The acceleration of the male astronaut FTB = m2 g
is 0.20 m/s2 [left]. The acceleration of the female FTB = (12 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )
astronaut is 0.25 m/s2 [right]. FTB = 120 N
(b) The answers to part (a) will not change if the
male astronaut pushes on the female astronaut Statement: The tension in string A is 290 N.
The tension in string B is 120 N.
instead. In this situation, the action force on the 2
female astronaut becomes the reaction force and (b) Given: m1 = 18 kg; m2 = 12 kg; g = 9.8 m/s ;
the reaction force on the male astronaut becomes Fpull = 45 N
Required: FTA; FTB
the action force. ! ! ! ! !
65. (a) Given: m1 = 6.4 105 kg; Analysis: FTA = (m1 + m2 ) g + Fpull ; FTB = m2 g
m2 = 5.3 105 kg; a = 0.12 m/s2 Solution:
Required: Fnet For
!
string A, !
! ! !
Analysis: Fnet = ma FTA = (m1 + m2 ) g + Fpull
Solution: FTA = (18 kg + 12 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) + 45 N
total mass of the train, m = m1 + m2 FTA = 340 N
m = m1 + m2
= 6.4 105 kg + 5.3 105 kg For string B,
m = 1.17 106 kg (one extra digit carried) ! !
FTB = m2 g
! ! FTB = (12 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )
Fnet = ma
FTB = 120 N
Fnet = (1.17 ! 106 kg)(0.12 m/s 2 )
Statement: The tension in string A is 340 N.
Fnet = 1.4 ! 105 N The tension in string B is 120 N.
2
Statement: The net force on the entire train is (c) Given: m1 = 18 kg; m2 = 12 kg; g = 9.8 m/s ;
1.4 105 N. Fpull = 45 N
(b) The magnitude of the tension between the Required: F ;F
! TA TB ! ! ! !
locomotive and the train car equals the magnitude Analysis: FTA = (m1 + m2 ) g + Fpull ; FTB = m2 g
of the net force on the train car.
Given: a = 0.12 m/s2; m = 5.3 105 kg
Required: Fnet

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-12
Solution: Consider
! !
the!forces on block m3.
For string A, Fnet = FTB + FTC
! ! !
FTA = (m1 + m2 ) g + Fpull m3 a = !6.93 N + FTC
FTA = (18 kg + 12 kg)(9.8 m/s ) + 45 N
2
FTC = m3 a + 6.93 N
FTA = 340 N FTC = (3.4 kg)(+1.1 m/s 2 ) + 6.93 N
= +10.67 N
For
!
string B,! FTC = +11 N
!
FTB = m2 g + Fpull
Statement: The tension in string A is 4.4 N.
FTB = (12 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) + 45 N The tension in string B is 6.9 N. The tension in
FTB = 160 N string C is 11 N.
Statement: The tension in string A is 340 N. 68. Choose right as positive. So, left is negative.
The tension in string B is 160 N. Given: m1 = 4.3 kg; m2 = 5.5 kg; m3 = 3.1 kg;
2
(d) In part (b), the pull on m1 does not affect the a = +1.1 m/s ; Fnet = +15 N
!
tension in string B, so the tension in string B stays Required: !a ; FTA ;F ;F
! TB! TC! !
as 120 N. In part (c), the pull on m2 affects both Analysis: FTA = Fnet ; Fnet = FTA + FTB ;
! ! !
strings. So, the tension in string B also increases. Fnet = FTB + FTC
(e) If you keep increasing the downward force on Solution:
m2, string A will likely break first because the Consider the net force acting on the blocks.
tension in string A is always greater than the ! !
Fnet = (m1 + m2 + m3 ) a
tension in string B. !
67. Choose right as positive. So, left is negative. ! Fnet
a=
Consider the forces on block m1. m1 + m2 + m3
2
Given: m1 = 4.0 kg; m2 = 2.3 kg; a = +1.1 m/s ; +15 N
Fpull = 45 N a=
4.3 kg + 5.5 kg + 3.1 kg
Required: F ;F
! TA !TB ! ! ! +15 N
Analysis: FTA = Fnet ; Fnet = FTA + FTB ; =
! ! ! 12.9 kg
Fnet = FTB + FTC = +1.16 m/s 2 (one extra digit carried)
Solution: a = +1.2 m/s 2
Consider
! !
the forces on block m1.
Fnet = FTA Consider the forces on block m1.
! ! ! !
FTA = m1 a Fnet = FTA
! !
FTA = (4.0 kg)( + 1.1 m/s 2 ) FTA = m1 a
FTA = +4.4 N = (4.3 kg)( + 1.16 m/s 2 )
= +4.99 N (one extra digit carried)
Consider the forces on block m2. FTA = +5.0 N
! ! !
Fnet = FTA + FTB
m2 a = !4.4 N + FTB Consider the forces on block m2.
! ! !
FTB = m2 a + 4.4 N Fnet = FTA + FTB
= (2.3 kg)(+1.1 m/s 2 ) + 4.4 N m2 a = !4.99 N + FTB
FTB = +6.93 N (one extra digit carried) FTB = m2 a + 4.99 N
= (5.5 kg)(+1.16 m/s 2 ) + 4.99 N
= +11.4 N (one extra digit carried)
FTB = +11 N

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-13
Consider the forces on block m3. For string B,
! ! ! ! !
Fnet = FTB + FTC FTB = 2 FTA
m3 a = !11.4 N + FTC = 2(8.6 N)
FTC = m3 a + 11.4 N = 17 N (one extra digit carried)
= (3.1 kg)(+1.16 m/s ) + 11.4 N
2 FTB = 20 N
FTC = +15 N
For string C,
Statement: The acceleration of the blocks is ! ! !
2
1.2 m/s [right]. The tension in string A is 5.0 N. Fnet = FTB + FTC
The tension in string B is 11 N. m3 a = !17 N + FTC
The tension in string C is 15 N. FTC = m3 a + 17 N
69. Choose right as positive. So, left is negative.
= (8 kg)(+0.86 m/s 2 ) + 17 N
Given: m1 = 10 kg; m3 = 8 kg; Fnet = +24 N
Required: m ; F ! ; FTB ;F = 23.9 N
! 2 TA ! TC! !
Analysis: FTA = Fnet ; Fnet = FTA + FTB ; FTC = 24 N
! ! !
Fnet = FTB + FTC Statement: The mass of the second block is 10 kg.
The tension in string A is 9 N. The tension in
Solution:
string B is 20 N. The tension in string C is 24 N.
For block m1,
! ! 70. (a) Choose forward as positive. So, backward
Fnet = FTA is negative. Since the sleds are tied together, treat
! !
m1 a = FTA them as one single object. Consider forces acting
on this object to find the total frictional force.
For block m2, FTB = 2FTA, FTA acts to the left. Given: m1 = 60.0 kg; m2 = 55.0 kg;
! ! ! 2
a = +1.02 m/s ; Fa = +230 N; Ffront = 58.8 N
Fnet = ! FTA + FTB
! ! ! Required: Ff
m2 a = ! FTA + 2 FTA ! ! !
! ! Analysis: Fnet = Fa + Ff
m2 a = FTA
Solution:
! ! !
So, m1 = m2 = 10 kg. Fnet = Fa + Ff
(m1 + m2 )a = +230 N + Ff
Consider
!
the net force acting on the blocks.
! Ff = (m1 + m2 )a ! 230 N
Fnet = (m1 + m2 + m3 ) a
!
! Fnet = (60.0 kg + 55.0 kg)(+1.02 m/s 2 ) ! 230 N
a= Ff = !112.7 N (two extra digits carried)
m1 + m2 + m3
+24 N
a= The force of friction for the back sled is now the
10 kg + 10 kg + 8 kg
positive direction.
+24 N
= Fback = Ff ! Ffront
28 kg
= 112.7 N ! 58.8 N
a = +0.86 m/s 2 (one extra digit carried)
= 53.9 N (one extra digit carried)
Fback = 54 N
For string A,
! ! Statement: The frictional force on the back sled is
FTA = m1 a
54 N.
FTA = (10 kg)(0.86 m/s 2 ) (b) Given: m1 = 60.0 kg; Fa = +230 N;
2
= 8.6 N a = +1.02 m/s ; Fa = +230 N; Ff = 58 N
FTA =9N Required: FT
! ! ! !
Analysis: Fnet = Fa + FT + Ff

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-14
Solution: ! !
0 = v 2 + 2 a!d2
Consider forces acting on the front sled, ! !
! ! ! ! v 2 = "2 a!d2
Fnet = Fa + FT + Ff !
v2
m1 a = +230 N + FT + (!58.8 N) !d2 = !
"2 a
FT = m1 a ! 230 N + 58.8 N ("3.06 m/s)2
=
= (60.0 kg)(+1.02 m/s 2 ) ! 230 N + 58.8 N "2("9.8 m/s 2 )
FT = !110 N !d2 = 4.777 m (one extra digit carried)
Statement: The tension in the rope connecting the
sleds is 110 N. !d = !d1 + !d2
(c) Given: m1 = 60.0 kg; m2 = 55.0 kg;
2 = 4.59 m + 4.777 m
a = +1.02 m/s ; !t = 3.0 s; Ff = 112.7 N
Required: FT = 9.367 m (one extra digit carried)
1! ! ! ! ! !d = 9.37 m
Analysis: !d1 = a!t 2 ; v = a!t ; Fnet = Ff Statement: The total distance travelled is 9.37 m.
2
Solution:
Calculate the distance when the sleds are Evaluation
accelerating. 71. Answers may vary. Sample answer:
1! 2
The mass of the Sun is about 1000 times the
!d1 = a!t combined mass of all the planets, which means it
2
has much more inertia. Even if all the planets were
1
= (1.02 m/s 2 )(3.0 s)2 aligned and did not have any forces in opposite
2 directions due to their positions, this would still
!d1 = 4.59 m (one extra digit carried) have very little effect on the position of the Sun.
72. (a) Yes, objects on Earth are attracted by the
Calculate
! !
the velocity before the sleds slow down. Moon. For example, the gravitational attraction
v = a!t between the Moon and Earth causes the tides.
" m% (b) Nothing on Earth flies off to the Moon because
v = \$ 1.02 2 ' (3.0 s )
# s & the force of gravity from Earth is much greater
than the pull from the Moon.
v = 3.06 m/s
73. (a) If an action force and a reaction force act on
the same object, the net force will be zero and
Calculate the acceleration a1 of the sleds when the nothing will accelerate. When the fan blows to the
applied force is removed. right, there is a force on the cart in one direction
! !
Fnet = Ff and there is a force on the cart in the opposite
! !
(m1 + m2 ) a1 = Ff direction resulting from the air hitting the sail.
! According to Newtons third law, the active fan
! Ff
a1 = will cause a reaction force of the same magnitude
m1 + m2 on the sail but in the opposite direction. The
!112.7 N action and reaction forces act on the same object,
a= the sail. As a result the cart will not accelerate.
60.0 kg + 55.0 kg
(b) If the sail is removed, as the fan blows to the
a = !0.98 m/s 2
right, it pushes the air to the right. According to
! ! ! Newtons third law, there is a reaction force on the
Use the equation vf 2 = vi 2 + 2 a!d to find the air by the fan. The blowing air exerts an equal
distance travelled when the sleds slow down, given force but opposite in direction to the blowing fan.
vi = 3.06 m/s; a = 0.98 m/s2; vf = 0 m/s. The fan cart can then accelerate because there is an
external force that pushes it in the opposite
direction or to the left.
74. (a) It is possible for the two blocks to remain in
place if there is frictional force in the pulleys that
could stop the motion.
(b) Since the blocks are stationary, the frictional

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-15
force in the pulleys must be greater than or equal
to the difference of the weights. If the friction were
greater than the difference in weights and one of
the blocks were tapped downward, the motion
would slow down and stop. If the friction were
exactly equal to the difference in weights, the
tapped block would keep moving downward.

## Reflect on Your Learning

The statement is not valid when the action and
reaction forces are not acting on the same object. If
they act on the same object, the net force will be
zero and nothing will accelerate. For example,
when a ballistic cart pushes backward on a ball, the
ball accelerates backward. According to Newtons
third law, the ball will cause a reaction force of the
same magnitude on the cart in the opposite
direction, making the cart accelerate forward. The
action and reaction forces do not cancel because
they do not act on the same object.

Research
Students reports should describe the
characteristics of the strong force and how close
protons need to be for this interaction to occur.
Reports should give estimates, if possible, of the
relative strength of this force compared to the
electromagnetic force and gravity. There should
also be a discussion on how in heavier elements
the number of protons is so large that the
electromagnetic repulsion is stronger than the
strong force, which leads to nuclear fission.
Students presentations should mention the
experiments and theories of 16th- and early 17th-
century scientists, such as Galileos falling bodies
experiment, Keplers planetary motion theories,
and Dscartes coordinate system. Presentations
could include how these views conflicted with
popular beliefs of the time.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-16
Chapter 3 Self-Quiz, page 153
1. (b)
2. (c)
3. (d)
4. (c)
5. (c)
6. (b)
7. (b)
8. (b)
9. True
10. False. The reaction force is the force resisting
the motion or attempted motion of an object.
11. False. A system diagram is a simple sketch of
all the objects involved in a situation.
12. False. Contact forces require objects to be in
contact and cannot act at a distance.
13. True
14. True
15. False. An object cannot change its motion even
if the net force acting on it is zero.
16. True
17. False. Newtons third law states that for every
action force, there is a simultaneous reaction force
of equal magnitude acting in the opposite
direction.

Copyright 2011 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 3: Newtons Laws of Motion 3-1