Derivation of Stiffness and Flexibility

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Derivation of Stiffness and Flexibility

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AdvisorJeng-Tzong Chen

Undergraduate StudentCheng-Chan Hsieh

Keywords: Dual boundary integral equations, Stiffness, Flexibility, Rigid body mode, Singular value

decomposition, Laplace problem

Abstract

In this paper, the dual boundary integral formulation is used to determine the stiffness and flexibility for

rods and beams by using the direct and indirect methods. The stiffness and flexibility matrices derived by the

dual boundary integral equations (DBIEs) are compared well with those derived by the direct stiffness and

flexibility methods after considering the sign convention. Since any two boundary integral equations can be

chosen for the beam problem, six options by choosing two from the four equations in dual formulation can be

considered. It is found that only two options, either displacement-slope (single-layer and double-layer) or

displacement-moment (single-layer and triple-layer) formulations in the direct (indirect) method can yield the

stiffness matrix except the degenerate scale and a special fundamental solution. The rank deficiency is

examined for the influence matrices. Not only rigid body mode in physics but also spurious mode in numerical

implementation are found in the formulation by using SVD updating term and document, respectively.

Concept of stiffness and flexibility in textbook of Banerjee [7]. However, only

mechanics of material is well-known for conventional BEM instead of dual BEM was used

undergraduate students [1]. For graduate students, in the direct method. Besides, only single-layerand

they revisited the stiffness and flexibility matrices double-layer potentials were adopted instead of

in the finite element course [2]. Rigid body modes higher order layer potentials in the indirect method.

occur for free-free bodies in physics as well as Here, we will complete the possible alternatives to

spurious modes appear for degenerate scales in solve rod and beam problems.

numerical implementation [3]. Felippa et al. DBIEs were developed by Hong and Chen [8]

constructed the free-free flexibility matrices by for 2-D and 3-D elasticity problems. This

using the generalized stiffness inverse through the formulation can be employed to formulate the

concept of finite element method [4]. Besides, one-dimensional problem of rod and beam. Since

Dumont also studied the stiffness by using DBIEs provide more equations than the

generalized inverse matrices through variational conventional one, we may wonder the role of

boundary element formulation [5]. A note to additional equations in mathematical aspects.

construct the relationship of the stiffness matrice Regarding to the role of dual formulation in

between the finite element method (FEM) and computational mechanics, readers can consult with

boundary element method (BEM) was published the review article [9].

by Pozritidis in 2006 [6]. A unified formulation to In the recent years, SVD technique has been

derive the stiffness and flexibility is not trivial and applied to solve problems of continumn mechanics

is the main concern of the present paper. [10], fictitious-frequency problems [11], and

Applications of direct and indirect BEMs to spurious eigenvalues [12]. Based on these

1

successful experiences, SVD updating technique where t ( s ) = du ( s ) / ds , and the kernels are

will be employed to study the mathematical defined as

structure of the influence matrices derived by U ( x , s )

using dual formulation. T ( x, s ) = , (7)

In this report, rank deficiency for the n x

influence matrices is also our concern. The rigid U ( x , s )

body mode and spurious mode in the dual L ( x, s ) = , (8)

ns

formulation will be examined through SVD

U ( x , s )

technique. The relation between zero singular M ( x, s ) = . (9)

values of updating matrices (updating terms and nx ns

updating document) and nontrivial modes (rigid and degenerate kernels are shown in Table 1.

body mode and spurious mode) will be constructed.

Both the rod and beam structures are considered as Table 1 Degenerate kernels for rod problem.

illustrative examples. Kernels

U ( x, s ) T ( x, s ) L ( x, s ) M ( x, s )

Domain

2 Dual boundary integral 1 1 1

x>s ( x s) 0

formulation for rod problems 2 2 2

Let us consider the rod problem as shown in 1 1 1

Fig. 1. The governing equation for a rod is

x<s ( s x) 0

2 2 2

u (0) u ( L)

EAu (0) EAu ( L) and (6), we have

Fig. 1 Generalized displacement and force u (0) t (0)

[ A] u ( L ) = [ B ] t ( L ) , (10)

d 2 u ( x)

=0, xD, (1) where [ A] and [ B] can be found as shown in

dx 2

Table 2. Also, the ranks of influence matrices are

where u ( x) is the axial displacement of the rod, calculated.

D is the domain between of 0 < x < L . By

introducing one auxiliary system of the 2.1 The stiffness matrix of rods

fundamental solution, we have

We utilize the simple structure in Fig. 2 to

2U ( x, s )

= ( x s ) , < x < , (2) define the notations of generalized displacement

x 2 and generalized force to connect the FEM

where is Dirac-delta function, x is the field notations.

point, and s is the source point. For simplicity,

the fundamental solution is selected as

uL u0

1

U ( x, s ) = x s , (3)

2

pL p0

and can be expressed in terms of degenerate kernel

as shown in Table 1.By multiplying the auxiliary EAu ( L) = pL EAu (0) = p0

system in Eq. (3) with respect to the governing

equation and integrating by parts, we have the Fig. 2 Notations of generalized displacements

boundary integral equation as and generalized forces in a simple structure.

u ( s ) = [u ( x)U ( x, s ) u ( x)U ( x, s ) ]

x=L

x =0

. (4) For the degree of freedom of generalized

displacements (d. o. f.) and generalized forces, we

By differentiating with respect to the source point have

s , with to Eq. (4), the dual boundary integral u (0) 1 0 u0 u

equations as shown below = = Tru 0 , (11)

u ( L ) 0 1 u L u

u ( s ) = [T ( x, s )u ( x) U ( x, s )t ( x) ]

x=L

, (5) L

x =0

t (0) 1 0 t0 t

t ( s ) = [ M ( x, s )u ( x ) L( x, s )t ( x) ]

x=L = 1 = Trt 0 . (12)

, (6) t ( L) EA 0 1 tL t

x =0

L

2

By substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) into Eq.(10), 1 1

and the relation between generalized displacement 2

and generalized force is shown below [] = 2 (21)

1 1

u p

[ AT ] u0 = [ BT ] p0 , (13) 2 . 2

L L The [ A] matrix can be expressed as

where r

[ A]Tru = [ AT ] , [ A] = [ui ][ i ][vi ]

T

(14) . (22)

i =1

[ B ]Trt = [ BT ] . (15)

where [ i ] is the singular value, [ui ] and [ vi ]

The stiffness matrices are defined as

are the left and right unitary vectors, respectively.

t (0) u (0) The inverse of the [ A] matrix is

t ( L ) = [ K B ] u ( L ) , (16)

r

A1 = [ vi ][ i ] [ui ]

1 T

p0 u0

= [KF ] . (17) i =1

pL u L 1

It is found that Eq. (6) fail in constructing the 2 1

1 1

stiffness matrix, and the stiffness matrix can be = .

1 1 11 2 2 1 2

expressed as the same form of that derived by (23)

FEM as shown in Table 2. 2 21

1 1

2

2.2 The flexibility matrix of rods = 2

The flexibility matrix can not be obtained, 1 1

because the [ A] matrix is singular in Table 2. We 2 2

1 The flexibility matrices are defined as

utilize the SVD technique to calculate [ A] and

u (0) t (0)

try to get the flexibility matrix of the rod. By u ( L) = [ FB ] t ( L) , (24)

employing SVD technique, we have

u0 p0

[ A] = [ ][ ][ ] = [ FF ]

T

, (18) (25)

u

L pL .

where [ ] and [ ] are the right and left It is found that Eq. (6) fail in constructing the

unitary matrices, and [] is a diagonal matrix flexibility matrix, and the flexibility matrix can be

expressed as the same form of that derived by

composed of singular value. It is found that FEM as shown in Table 3.

1 1

[ ] = 2 2 , (19) 3 Dual boundary integral

1 1 formulation for beam problems

2 2

Based on the successful experience of

0 0

[] = , (20)

deriving the stiffness for a rod using BEM, we

0 1 extend the one-dimensional Laplace equation to

Table 2 Stiffness matrix for rod problems using dual BEM.

Eq. A B K B K F

1 1 1

2 0 2 L

2 1 1 1 EA 1 1

Rank ( A) = 1 Rank ( B) = 2 Rank ( K B ) = 1 Rank ( K F ) = 1

L 1 1 L 1 1

(6)

1 1 1

2

2 2 L 0

1 1

2 2 Rank ( B) = 1

(7) 0 0 NA NA

Rank ( A) = 0 1

1

0 0 2 2

3

x=L

biharmonic equation for a beam. Let us consider

u ( s ) = u ( x)

3U ( x, s)

u ( x)

2U ( x, s )

+ u ( x)

U ( x, s )

u ( x)U ( x, s)

x 2 x 2 x

. (31)

the Euler beam problems as shown Fig. 3 . x =0

m(0) m( L )

(0) 3.1 Direct method

( L)

By rewriting the displacement field, we have

x=L

u ( s ) = U ( x, s )u ( x) + ( x, s )u ( x) M ( x, s )u ( x) + V ( x, s )u ( x)

(32) x =0

v(0) u (0) u ( L ) v ( L) By differentiating the displacement, the slope,

Fig. 3 Generalized displacement and force d.o.f.

moment and shear force fields can be obtained

x= L

, (33) x =0

d 4 u ( x) u ( s) = U m ( x, s )u ( x) + m ( x, s )u ( x) M m ( x, s )u ( x) + Vm ( x, s)u ( x)

x=L

, (34)

=0. (26) x =0

dx 4 u ( s) = U v ( x, s )u ( x) + v ( x, s )u ( x) M v ( x, s)u ( x) + Vv ( x, s)u ( x)

(35)

x= L

.

x =0

where L is the length of the beam, u ( x ) is the where u ( s ) is the deflection, ( s ) is the slope,

lateral displacement, D is the domain between of

m( s ) is the moment and v( s ) is the shear force,

0 < x < L . By introducing one auxiliary system of

the fundamental solution respectively, and the relations of the sixteen

kernels are shown in Fig. 4. Degenerate kernels of

4U ( x, s )

= ( x s ) , < x < , (27) the sixteen kernels in a one-dimensional

x 4 biharmonic problem are shown in Table 4. Any

where is Dirac-delta function, x is field two boundary integral equations can be chosen, six

point, and s is the source point. For simplicity, options can be considered. We utilize the

the fundamental solution is selected as degenerate kernel expansion and substitute them

1 3

into the two boundary integral equations which are

U ( x, s ) = xs , (28) chosen. By approaching s to 0+ and L , we

12

and can be expressed in terms of degenerate kernel have the matrix form as follows

as u (0) u (0)

u (0)

1

( x s )3 , x > s [ A] = [ B ] u (0) , (36)

12 u ( L) u ( L)

U ( x, s ) = . (29)

u ( L) u ( L)

1

( s x) , x < s

3

12

By multiplying the auxiliary system in Eq. (28)

where [ A] and [ B] are obtained through six

with respect to the governing equation and formulation ( u , u m , u v , m , v ,

integrating by parts, we have the boundary integral m v ) as shown in Table 5.

equation as

L 4U ( x, s ) 4 u ( x) . 3.1.1 The stiffness matrix of the Euler beam

u ( s ) = u ( x ) U ( x, s ) dx (30)

0

x 4

x 4 We utilize a simple structure in the sign

The boundary integral equation is derived as convention to define the notations of generalized

Table 3 Flexibility matrix for rod problems using the dual BEM.

Eq. [ A] [B] [ FB ] [ FF ]

1 1 1

2 0 L

2 2 L 1 1

L 1 1

1 1

(6)

2

1 41 1 4 EA 1 1

2 2 L 0

Rank ( FB ) = 1 Rank ( FF ) = 1

Rank ( A) = 1 Rank ( B) = 2

1 1

2 2

0 0

(7) 1 1 NA NA

0 0

2 2

Rank ( A) = 0

Rank ( B) = 1

4

u (0) u (0)

x x x u (0)

U ( x, s ) ( x, s ) M ( x , s ) V ( x , s ) = [ K ] u (0) , (42)

u ( L) B

u ( L)

s

u ( L) u ( L)

U ( x, s ) ( x, s ) M ( x, s ) V ( x, s )

v0 u0

s

0 = [ K ] 0 .

m

(43)

U m ( x, s ) m ( x, s ) M m ( x, s ) Vm ( x, s ) vL F

u L

s

mL L

U v ( x, s ) v ( x, s ) M v ( x, s ) Vv ( x, s ) It is found that only two combinations of Eqs. (33),

Fig. 4 Differential operators for the sixteen (34) and Eqs. (33), (35) can construct the stiffness

kernels of the Euler beam. matrix, and the stiffness matrix can be expressed

as the same form of that derived by FEM as shown

Table 4 in Table 5.

Kernels

U ( x, s ) U ( x, s ) U m ( x, s ) U v ( x, s )

Domain 3.2 Indirect Method

( x s)

3

( x s)

2

xs 1 Instead of choosing two equations from the

x>s

12 4 2 2 dual formulation in the direct BEM, we can also

sx adopt two potentials from single, double, triple and

( x s)

2

( x s)

3

1

x<s guadrupole potentials as denoted by U - ,

12 4 2 2

U M , U V , M , V , and M V

formulations.

displacement and generalized force to connect the

FEM notations. For the degree of freedom of (1)Single and double layer approach ( U - )

generalized displacements and generalized forces, u ( s ) = U (0, s )0 + U ( L, s )L + (0, s ) 0 + ( L, s ) L . (44)

we have (2)Single and triple layer approach ( U M )

u (0) 1 0 0 0 u0 u0 u ( s ) = U (0, s )0 + U ( L, s )L + M (0, s ) 0 + M ( L, s ) L . (45)

u (0) 0 1 0

0 0 (3)Single and guadrupole layer approach ( U V )

= = T 0

u ( L) 0 0 1 0 uL

bu u (37)

L u ( s ) = U (0, s )0 + U ( L, s )L + V (0, s ) 0 + V ( L, s ) L . (46)

0

0 1 L

u ( L) 0 L , (4)Double and triple layer approach ( M )

u (0) 1 0 0 v0

0 v0 u ( s ) = (0, s )0 + ( L, s )L + M (0, s ) 0 + M ( L, s ) L . (47)

u (0) m0 m , (5)Double and guadrupole layer approach ( V )

= 1 0 1 0 0

=T 0

u ( L) EI 0 v bt v (38)

0 1 0

L L u ( s ) = (0, s )0 + ( L, s )L + V (0, s ) 0 + V ( L, s ) L . (48)

0

u ( L) 0 0 1 mL mL (6) Triple and guadrupole layer approach ( M V )

since u ( x ) is defined downward. u ( s ) = M (0, s )0 + M ( L, s )L + V (0, s ) 0 + V ( L, s ) L . (49)

By substituting Eqs. (37) and (38) into Eqs.(36), By approaching s to L and to 0+ , and The

and the relation between generalized displacement unknown fictitious densities ( , ) can be

and generalized force is shown below as obtained by

u0 v0 0 u (0) 0 u (0)

(0)

m

[ A] L = L = [ A] ,

1 (0)

[ AT ] 0 = [ BT ] 0 , (39) u ( L) u ( L)

(50)

uL vL

0

0

L ( L) L ( L)

L mL 0 v(0) 0 v (0)

m(0) m(0) .

1 L

where

[ B ] =

L [ B ][ A] =

0 v ( L)

(51)

[ A]Tbu = AT , (40) 0

v ( L)

L m( L) L m( L)

[ B ]Tbt = BT . (41) where [ A] and [ B] are obtained through six

The stiffness matrices are defined as formulation as shown in Table 6. It is found that

the stiffness matrix can be obtained by selecting

U and U M formulations.

5

4 Discussion of the rigid body If the rigid body term, c , and the linear,

mode and spurious mode quadratic and cubic terms, ax , bx 2 and dx 3 are

If the rigid body term, c , and the linear term, superimposed in the fundamental solution, we

ax , are superimposed in the fundamental solution, have U b ( x, s ) = U ( x, s ) + ax + bx 2 + dx3 + c . By

we have U r ( x, s ) = U ( x, s ) + ax + c . By substituting the auxiliary system U b ( x, s ) into

substituting the auxiliary system U ( x, s ) into Eq. Eqs. (31) for the u formulation, and setting

(4), and setting EA = 1, L = 1 , we have EI = 1, L = 1 , we have the

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 + a 2 a u (0) c a c 2 + 6d 2b 6d + 2b + 6d

2 u (0)

2 2

u (0)

= . (52) 1 + 6d 2b + 6d

1 1

1 + a 1 a u (1) 1 + c u (1) 2b 6d

a c 2 u (0)

2 2

2 2

2 =

0 1

0

1 u (1)

The [ B1 ] matrix for a rod is singular when 2 2 u (1)

1 1

0

(1 + 2a) = 4c . This results in the degenerate 2

0

2

1 1

(54)

scale problem. According to the Fredholm c a c a b d

12 4

+ a + 2b + 3d

u (0)

alternative theorem, the degenerate scale depends 1 +c 1

a c a b d a + 2b + 3d

12 u (0)

on the rigid body term. When a = 0 and

4

.

0 1

1 u (1)

c = 1/ 4 , [ B1 ] matrix is not invertible and

0

4 2 u (1)

1 1

results in a degenerate scale. By employing the 0 0

4 2

SVD technique with respect to the influence The [ B1 ] matrix for a beam is singular when

matrix, for [ A1 ] and [ B1 ] matrices. The spurious

(1 + 12d ) 24a = 48c . This results in the

mode [ ] satisfies degenerate scale problem. When a = 0 , b = 0 ,

AT c = 1/ 48 and d = 0 , [ B1 ] matrix is not

[ ] = 0 , (53)

BT invertible and results in a degenerate scale. By

employing the SVD technique with respect to the

where the spurious mode [ ] and the rigid body influence matrix in the u formulation, for

mode [ ] are shown in Table 7. [ A1 ] , [ A2 ] and [ B1 ] matrices.

Table 5 Stiffness matrix for the Euler beams by using the direct method.

Eqs. A B K B K F

1 1 L 1 1

u- 2 0 0 0

2 2 12 4L

12 6L 126L 12 6 L 12 6 L

Eqs. (40) and (41)

1 L

0 1 0

1 1

0 2 L2 2

2 3 12 1 6 L 4 L 6L EI 6 L 4 L 6 L 2 L

2 2

2 2 4L

L

1 1 1 1

3

L 12 6L 12 6 L L 12 6 L 12 6 L

3

0 0 2 2

0 0

2 2 4L 2L 6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2 6 L 2 L 6 L 4 L

2

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0

2 2 4 L 2 L2

Rank ( A) = 2 Rank ( B ) = 4 Rank ( K B ) = 2 Rank ( K F ) = 2

1 1

0 0

u-m 1

1 L 12 4L

2 0

2 2 1

12 6L 12 6 L 12 6 L 12 6 L

0

1

Eqs. (40) and (42)

1 L 3 12

0

1 6 L 4 L

2

6 L 2 L2 2 2

EI 6 L 4 L 6 L 2 L

0

1 4L

L

2 2 2 1 1 1 L 12

3

6L 12 6 L L 12 6 L 12 6 L

3

0 2

0 0 0 0 2 L3 2 L2 2L

3

6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2 6 L 2 L 6 L 4 L

2

0 0 0 0 1 1 1

2 0

2 L 2 L3 2 L3

Rank ( A) = 2 Rank ( B ) = 4 Rank ( K B ) = 2 Rank ( K F ) = 2

6

Table 6 Stiffness matrix for the Euler beam by using the indirect method.

Portential [ A] [ B] [ K ] = [ B ][ A]

1

L3 L2

U - 0

0 1 1

12 4 2 2 0 0

single and double layer

2

0 L L

0 L 1 1 12 6L 12 6 L

2 0 2 2 2

4

3 2 1 6 L 4 L

2

6 L 2 L2

L L 1 1

12 0 0 0 0

L 12

3

6L 12 6 L

4 2 2

L2 6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2

L L 0 1 1

0 0

4 2 2 2 2

Rank ( A) = 4 Rank ( B ) = 2 Rank ( K ) = 3

L3 L

U-M 0 0

12 2 1 1

2 2 0 0

single and triple layer

0

2

L 1 1

2 2

1 12 6L 12 6L

4 0 2 0 0

3

1 6 L 4 L

2

6L 2 L2

L L

12 0 0 1 1 0 0

L 12

3

6L 12 6L

2

2 2

L2 6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2

1 1 1 0

0 0 0

4 2 2 2

Rank ( A) = 4 Rank ( B ) = 2 Rank ( K ) = 3

According to Fredholm alternative theorem [11], SVD updating term and document technique. It is

the spurious mode [ ] satisfies found that rigid body mode and spurious mode are

imbedded in the right and left unitary vectors of

AT the influence matrices through SVD.

[ ] = 0 , (55)

BT

and the rigid body mode [ ] satisfies 6 References

[1] Gere, J. M., Mechanics of Materials, Thomson

A1 Learning, Inc., California (2002).

[ ] = 0 . (56) [2] , , , ,

A

2 (1992).

The spurious mode [ ] and the rigid body mode [3] Chen, J. T., W. C. Chen, S. R. Lin and I. L. Chen,

Rigid Body Mode and Spurious Mode in the Dual

[ ] are shown in Table 7. The mathematical Boundary Element Formulation for The Laplace

framework of [ A] and [ B ] is shown in Fig. 5. Problems, Computers and Structures, Vol. 81, pp.

1395-1404 (2003).

[4] Felippa, C. A., K. C. Park and M. R. Justino Filho,

The Construction of Free-Free Flexibility Matrices

5 Conclusions as Generalized Stiffness Inverses, Computers and

Dual boundary integral equations were Structures, Vol. 68, pp. 411-418 (1998).

employed to derive the stiffness and flexibility of [5] Dumont, Ney. A., Generalized Inverse Matrices

the rod and beam which match well with those of and Structural Analysis, Numerical Methods in

FEM. Not only the direct method but also the Continuum Mechanics (2003).

indirect method was used. It is found that [6] Pozrikidis, C., A Note on The Relation Between

u The Boundary- and Finite-Element Method with

displacement-slope ( ) and

Application to Laplaces Equation in Two

displacement-moment ( u m ) formulations in the Dimensions, Engineering Analysis with Boundary

direct method can construct the stiffness matrix. Elements, Vol. 30, pp. 143-147 (2006).

Similarly, the single-double layer approach [7] Banerjee, P. K. and R. Butterfield, Boundary

( U ) and single-triple layer approach ( U M ) Element Methods in Engineering Science,

work for the constructing of stiffness matrix in the McGraw-Hill, London (1981).

indirect method. For choosing a special [8] Hong, H.-K. and J. T. Chen, Derivation of Integral

Equations in Elasticity. Journal of Engineering

fundamental solution, the stiffness matrix can not

Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 114, pp. 1028-1044

be obtained for the degenerate scale. Rigid body (1988).

mode and spurious mode were studied by using the

7

Table 7 Spurious modes and the rigid body modes for a rod and a beam in BEM.

Rod Beam

0.632 0.316

1 1

Spurious mode

2 2

(generalized force)

1

0.632

= 2

1 0.632 = 0.632 0.316

0.316

2

0.316

u '(1) = 0.258

u '(0) = 0.258

u (1) = 0.516

0.774

Rigid body mode u(0) = 0.774 A 0.258

=

1 1 0.516

(generalized displacement) u (1) =

u (0) = 0.258

2 2

1 0

u '(1) = 0.577

A

= 2 A 0.577

1 =

0.577

2

0.577

u (1) = 0.577

u '(0) = 0.577

u(0) = 0

A1 = B1

spurious mode

-0.632 T

" " " 0 " " " -0.774

0 " " -0.632

" " " 0

" " "

A = -0.632 " " " " 0 " " 0.258 0.577 " " B = -0.632 " " " " " " " T

1 1

-0.316 " " " " " " " -0.516 0.577 " " -0.316 " " " " " " "

0.316

" " " " " " " 0.258 0.577 " "

[ A1 , B1 ]

0.316 " " " "

" " "

A1 SVD updating term

A1 = A2

A

2

rigid body mode

0 " " " -0.774 T

0 " "

A = " 0 " " 0.258 0.577 " "

2

" " " " -0.516 0.577 " "

" " " " 0.258 0.577 " "

Fig. 5 Mathematical SVD structures of the influence matrices using updating techniques

[9] Chen, J. T. and H.-K. Hong, Review of Dual [11] Chen, J. T., I. L. Chen and K. H. Chen, A Unified

Boundary Element Methods with Emphasis on Formulation For The Spurious and Fictitious

Hypersingular Integrals and Divergent Series, Frequencies in Acoustics Using The Singular Value

Applied Mechanics Reviews, ASME, Vol.52, No.1, Decomposition and Fredholm Alternative

pp.17-33. Theorem, J. Comp. Acoustics, (2006).(Acepted)

[10] Chen, J. T., C. F. Lee and S. Y. Lin, A New Point [12] Chen, J. T., L. W. Liu and H.-K. Hong, Spurious

of View For The Polar Decomposition Using and True Eigensolutions of Helmholtz BIEs and

Singular Value Decomposition, Int. J. Comp. BEMs for a Multiply-Connected Problem, Proc.

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(2002). 1891-1925 (2003).

8

9

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