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# Derivation of stiffness and flexibility for rods and

## Department of Harbor and River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University

Keywords: Dual boundary integral equations, Stiffness, Flexibility, Rigid body mode, Singular value
decomposition, Laplace problem

Abstract

In this paper, the dual boundary integral formulation is used to determine the stiffness and flexibility for
rods and beams by using the direct and indirect methods. The stiffness and flexibility matrices derived by the
dual boundary integral equations (DBIEs) are compared well with those derived by the direct stiffness and
flexibility methods after considering the sign convention. Since any two boundary integral equations can be
chosen for the beam problem, six options by choosing two from the four equations in dual formulation can be
considered. It is found that only two options, either displacement-slope (single-layer and double-layer) or
displacement-moment (single-layer and triple-layer) formulations in the direct (indirect) method can yield the
stiffness matrix except the degenerate scale and a special fundamental solution. The rank deficiency is
examined for the influence matrices. Not only rigid body mode in physics but also spurious mode in numerical
implementation are found in the formulation by using SVD updating term and document, respectively.

## 1 Introduction solve rod and beam problems were reported in the

Concept of stiffness and flexibility in textbook of Banerjee . However, only
mechanics of material is well-known for conventional BEM instead of dual BEM was used
undergraduate students . For graduate students, in the direct method. Besides, only single-layerand
they revisited the stiffness and flexibility matrices double-layer potentials were adopted instead of
in the finite element course . Rigid body modes higher order layer potentials in the indirect method.
occur for free-free bodies in physics as well as Here, we will complete the possible alternatives to
spurious modes appear for degenerate scales in solve rod and beam problems.
numerical implementation . Felippa et al. DBIEs were developed by Hong and Chen 
constructed the free-free flexibility matrices by for 2-D and 3-D elasticity problems. This
using the generalized stiffness inverse through the formulation can be employed to formulate the
concept of finite element method . Besides, one-dimensional problem of rod and beam. Since
Dumont also studied the stiffness by using DBIEs provide more equations than the
generalized inverse matrices through variational conventional one, we may wonder the role of
boundary element formulation . A note to additional equations in mathematical aspects.
construct the relationship of the stiffness matrice Regarding to the role of dual formulation in
between the finite element method (FEM) and computational mechanics, readers can consult with
boundary element method (BEM) was published the review article .
by Pozritidis in 2006 . A unified formulation to In the recent years, SVD technique has been
derive the stiffness and flexibility is not trivial and applied to solve problems of continumn mechanics
is the main concern of the present paper. , fictitious-frequency problems , and
Applications of direct and indirect BEMs to spurious eigenvalues . Based on these

1
successful experiences, SVD updating technique where t ( s ) = du ( s ) / ds , and the kernels are
will be employed to study the mathematical defined as
structure of the influence matrices derived by U ( x , s )
using dual formulation. T ( x, s ) = , (7)
In this report, rank deficiency for the n x
influence matrices is also our concern. The rigid U ( x , s )
body mode and spurious mode in the dual L ( x, s ) = , (8)
ns
formulation will be examined through SVD
U ( x , s )
technique. The relation between zero singular M ( x, s ) = . (9)
values of updating matrices (updating terms and nx ns
updating document) and nontrivial modes (rigid and degenerate kernels are shown in Table 1.
body mode and spurious mode) will be constructed.
Both the rod and beam structures are considered as Table 1 Degenerate kernels for rod problem.
illustrative examples. Kernels
U ( x, s ) T ( x, s ) L ( x, s ) M ( x, s )
Domain
2 Dual boundary integral 1 1 1
x>s ( x s) 0
formulation for rod problems 2 2 2
Let us consider the rod problem as shown in 1 1 1
Fig. 1. The governing equation for a rod is
x<s ( s x) 0
2 2 2
u (0) u ( L)

## By approaching s to 0 + and L into Eqs. (5)

EAu (0) EAu ( L) and (6), we have
Fig. 1 Generalized displacement and force u (0) t (0)
[ A] u ( L ) = [ B ] t ( L ) , (10)

d 2 u ( x)
=0, xD, (1) where [ A] and [ B] can be found as shown in
dx 2
Table 2. Also, the ranks of influence matrices are
where u ( x) is the axial displacement of the rod, calculated.
D is the domain between of 0 < x < L . By
introducing one auxiliary system of the 2.1 The stiffness matrix of rods
fundamental solution, we have
We utilize the simple structure in Fig. 2 to
2U ( x, s )
= ( x s ) , < x < , (2) define the notations of generalized displacement
x 2 and generalized force to connect the FEM
where is Dirac-delta function, x is the field notations.
point, and s is the source point. For simplicity,
the fundamental solution is selected as
uL u0
1
U ( x, s ) = x s , (3)
2
pL p0
and can be expressed in terms of degenerate kernel
as shown in Table 1.By multiplying the auxiliary EAu ( L) = pL EAu (0) = p0
system in Eq. (3) with respect to the governing
equation and integrating by parts, we have the Fig. 2 Notations of generalized displacements
boundary integral equation as and generalized forces in a simple structure.

u ( s ) = [u ( x)U ( x, s ) u ( x)U ( x, s ) ]
x=L
x =0
. (4) For the degree of freedom of generalized
displacements (d. o. f.) and generalized forces, we
By differentiating with respect to the source point have
s , with to Eq. (4), the dual boundary integral u (0) 1 0 u0 u
equations as shown below = = Tru 0 , (11)
u ( L ) 0 1 u L u
u ( s ) = [T ( x, s )u ( x) U ( x, s )t ( x) ]
x=L
, (5) L
x =0
t (0) 1 0 t0 t
t ( s ) = [ M ( x, s )u ( x ) L( x, s )t ( x) ]
x=L = 1 = Trt 0 . (12)
, (6) t ( L) EA 0 1 tL t
x =0
L

2
By substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) into Eq.(10), 1 1
and the relation between generalized displacement 2
and generalized force is shown below [] = 2 (21)
1 1
u p
[ AT ] u0 = [ BT ] p0 , (13) 2 . 2
L L The [ A] matrix can be expressed as
where r
[ A]Tru = [ AT ] , [ A] = [ui ][ i ][vi ]
T
(14) . (22)
i =1
[ B ]Trt = [ BT ] . (15)
where [ i ] is the singular value, [ui ] and [ vi ]
The stiffness matrices are defined as
are the left and right unitary vectors, respectively.
t (0) u (0) The inverse of the [ A] matrix is
t ( L ) = [ K B ] u ( L ) , (16)
r
A1 = [ vi ][ i ] [ui ]
1 T
p0 u0
= [KF ] . (17) i =1

pL u L 1
It is found that Eq. (6) fail in constructing the 2 1
1 1
stiffness matrix, and the stiffness matrix can be = .
1 1 11 2 2 1 2
expressed as the same form of that derived by (23)
FEM as shown in Table 2. 2 21
1 1
2
2.2 The flexibility matrix of rods = 2
The flexibility matrix can not be obtained, 1 1
because the [ A] matrix is singular in Table 2. We 2 2
1 The flexibility matrices are defined as
utilize the SVD technique to calculate [ A] and
u (0) t (0)
try to get the flexibility matrix of the rod. By u ( L) = [ FB ] t ( L) , (24)
employing SVD technique, we have
u0 p0
[ A] = [ ][ ][ ] = [ FF ]
T
, (18) (25)
u
L pL .
where [ ] and [ ] are the right and left It is found that Eq. (6) fail in constructing the
unitary matrices, and [] is a diagonal matrix flexibility matrix, and the flexibility matrix can be
expressed as the same form of that derived by
composed of singular value. It is found that FEM as shown in Table 3.
1 1

[ ] = 2 2 , (19) 3 Dual boundary integral
1 1 formulation for beam problems
2 2
Based on the successful experience of
0 0
[] = , (20)
deriving the stiffness for a rod using BEM, we
0 1 extend the one-dimensional Laplace equation to
Table 2 Stiffness matrix for rod problems using dual BEM.
Eq. A B K B K F

1 1 1
2 0 2 L
2 1 1 1 EA 1 1
Rank ( A) = 1 Rank ( B) = 2 Rank ( K B ) = 1 Rank ( K F ) = 1
L 1 1 L 1 1
(6)
1 1 1
2
2 2 L 0

1 1

2 2 Rank ( B) = 1
(7) 0 0 NA NA
Rank ( A) = 0 1

1

0 0 2 2

3
x=L
biharmonic equation for a beam. Let us consider
u ( s ) = u ( x)
3U ( x, s)
u ( x)
2U ( x, s )
+ u ( x)
U ( x, s )
u ( x)U ( x, s)
x 2 x 2 x
. (31)
the Euler beam problems as shown Fig. 3 . x =0

m(0) m( L )
(0) 3.1 Direct method
( L)
By rewriting the displacement field, we have
x=L
u ( s ) = U ( x, s )u ( x) + ( x, s )u ( x) M ( x, s )u ( x) + V ( x, s )u ( x)
(32) x =0
v(0) u (0) u ( L ) v ( L) By differentiating the displacement, the slope,
Fig. 3 Generalized displacement and force d.o.f.
moment and shear force fields can be obtained
x= L

## The governing equation for the Euler beam is u ( s) = U ( x, s )u ( x) + ( x, s )u ( x) M ( x, s)u ( x) + V ( x, s)u ( x)

, (33) x =0

d 4 u ( x) u ( s) = U m ( x, s )u ( x) + m ( x, s )u ( x) M m ( x, s )u ( x) + Vm ( x, s)u ( x)
x=L
, (34)
=0. (26) x =0

dx 4 u ( s) = U v ( x, s )u ( x) + v ( x, s )u ( x) M v ( x, s)u ( x) + Vv ( x, s)u ( x)
(35)
x= L
.
x =0

where L is the length of the beam, u ( x ) is the where u ( s ) is the deflection, ( s ) is the slope,
lateral displacement, D is the domain between of
m( s ) is the moment and v( s ) is the shear force,
0 < x < L . By introducing one auxiliary system of
the fundamental solution respectively, and the relations of the sixteen
kernels are shown in Fig. 4. Degenerate kernels of
4U ( x, s )
= ( x s ) , < x < , (27) the sixteen kernels in a one-dimensional
x 4 biharmonic problem are shown in Table 4. Any
where is Dirac-delta function, x is field two boundary integral equations can be chosen, six
point, and s is the source point. For simplicity, options can be considered. We utilize the
the fundamental solution is selected as degenerate kernel expansion and substitute them
1 3
into the two boundary integral equations which are
U ( x, s ) = xs , (28) chosen. By approaching s to 0+ and L , we
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and can be expressed in terms of degenerate kernel have the matrix form as follows
as u (0) u (0)
u (0)

1
( x s )3 , x > s [ A] = [ B ] u (0) , (36)

12 u ( L) u ( L)
U ( x, s ) = . (29)

u ( L) u ( L)
1
( s x) , x < s
3

12

By multiplying the auxiliary system in Eq. (28)
where [ A] and [ B] are obtained through six
with respect to the governing equation and formulation ( u , u m , u v , m , v ,
integrating by parts, we have the boundary integral m v ) as shown in Table 5.
equation as
L 4U ( x, s ) 4 u ( x) . 3.1.1 The stiffness matrix of the Euler beam
u ( s ) = u ( x ) U ( x, s ) dx (30)
0
x 4
x 4 We utilize a simple structure in the sign
The boundary integral equation is derived as convention to define the notations of generalized

Table 3 Flexibility matrix for rod problems using the dual BEM.

Eq. [ A] [B] [ FB ] [ FF ]
1 1 1
2 0 L
2 2 L 1 1
L 1 1
1 1
(6)
2
1 41 1 4 EA 1 1
2 2 L 0

Rank ( FB ) = 1 Rank ( FF ) = 1
Rank ( A) = 1 Rank ( B) = 2
1 1

2 2
0 0
(7) 1 1 NA NA
0 0
2 2
Rank ( A) = 0
Rank ( B) = 1

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u (0) u (0)
x x x u (0)
U ( x, s ) ( x, s ) M ( x , s ) V ( x , s ) = [ K ] u (0) , (42)
u ( L) B
u ( L)

s
u ( L) u ( L)
U ( x, s ) ( x, s ) M ( x, s ) V ( x, s )
v0 u0

s
0 = [ K ] 0 .
m
(43)
U m ( x, s ) m ( x, s ) M m ( x, s ) Vm ( x, s ) vL F
u L

s
mL L
U v ( x, s ) v ( x, s ) M v ( x, s ) Vv ( x, s ) It is found that only two combinations of Eqs. (33),
Fig. 4 Differential operators for the sixteen (34) and Eqs. (33), (35) can construct the stiffness
kernels of the Euler beam. matrix, and the stiffness matrix can be expressed
as the same form of that derived by FEM as shown
Table 4 in Table 5.
Kernels
U ( x, s ) U ( x, s ) U m ( x, s ) U v ( x, s )
Domain 3.2 Indirect Method
( x s)
3
( x s)
2
xs 1 Instead of choosing two equations from the
x>s
12 4 2 2 dual formulation in the direct BEM, we can also
sx adopt two potentials from single, double, triple and
( x s)
2
( x s)
3
1
x<s guadrupole potentials as denoted by U - ,
12 4 2 2
U M , U V , M , V , and M V
formulations.
displacement and generalized force to connect the
FEM notations. For the degree of freedom of (1)Single and double layer approach ( U - )
generalized displacements and generalized forces, u ( s ) = U (0, s )0 + U ( L, s )L + (0, s ) 0 + ( L, s ) L . (44)
we have (2)Single and triple layer approach ( U M )
u (0) 1 0 0 0 u0 u0 u ( s ) = U (0, s )0 + U ( L, s )L + M (0, s ) 0 + M ( L, s ) L . (45)

u (0) 0 1 0
0 0 (3)Single and guadrupole layer approach ( U V )
= = T 0
u ( L) 0 0 1 0 uL
bu u (37)
L u ( s ) = U (0, s )0 + U ( L, s )L + V (0, s ) 0 + V ( L, s ) L . (46)
0
0 1 L
u ( L) 0 L , (4)Double and triple layer approach ( M )
u (0) 1 0 0 v0
0 v0 u ( s ) = (0, s )0 + ( L, s )L + M (0, s ) 0 + M ( L, s ) L . (47)

u (0) m0 m , (5)Double and guadrupole layer approach ( V )
= 1 0 1 0 0
=T 0
u ( L) EI 0 v bt v (38)
0 1 0
L L u ( s ) = (0, s )0 + ( L, s )L + V (0, s ) 0 + V ( L, s ) L . (48)
0
u ( L) 0 0 1 mL mL (6) Triple and guadrupole layer approach ( M V )
since u ( x ) is defined downward. u ( s ) = M (0, s )0 + M ( L, s )L + V (0, s ) 0 + V ( L, s ) L . (49)
By substituting Eqs. (37) and (38) into Eqs.(36), By approaching s to L and to 0+ , and The
and the relation between generalized displacement unknown fictitious densities ( , ) can be
and generalized force is shown below as obtained by
u0 v0 0 u (0) 0 u (0)
(0)
m
[ A] L = L = [ A] ,
1 (0)
[ AT ] 0 = [ BT ] 0 , (39) u ( L) u ( L)
(50)
uL vL
0

0

L ( L) L ( L)
L mL 0 v(0) 0 v (0)
m(0) m(0) .
1 L
where
[ B ] =
L [ B ][ A] =
0 v ( L)
(51)
[ A]Tbu = AT , (40) 0

v ( L)

L m( L) L m( L)
[ B ]Tbt = BT . (41) where [ A] and [ B] are obtained through six
The stiffness matrices are defined as formulation as shown in Table 6. It is found that
the stiffness matrix can be obtained by selecting
U and U M formulations.

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4 Discussion of the rigid body If the rigid body term, c , and the linear,
mode and spurious mode quadratic and cubic terms, ax , bx 2 and dx 3 are
If the rigid body term, c , and the linear term, superimposed in the fundamental solution, we
ax , are superimposed in the fundamental solution, have U b ( x, s ) = U ( x, s ) + ax + bx 2 + dx3 + c . By
we have U r ( x, s ) = U ( x, s ) + ax + c . By substituting the auxiliary system U b ( x, s ) into
substituting the auxiliary system U ( x, s ) into Eq. Eqs. (31) for the u formulation, and setting
(4), and setting EA = 1, L = 1 , we have EI = 1, L = 1 , we have the
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 + a 2 a u (0) c a c 2 + 6d 2b 6d + 2b + 6d
2 u (0)
2 2
u (0)
= . (52) 1 + 6d 2b + 6d
1 1
1 + a 1 a u (1) 1 + c u (1) 2b 6d
a c 2 u (0)
2 2
2 2
2 =
0 1
0
1 u (1)
The [ B1 ] matrix for a rod is singular when 2 2 u (1)
1 1
0
(1 + 2a) = 4c . This results in the degenerate 2
0
2
1 1
(54)
scale problem. According to the Fredholm c a c a b d
12 4
+ a + 2b + 3d
u (0)
alternative theorem, the degenerate scale depends 1 +c 1
a c a b d a + 2b + 3d
12 u (0)
on the rigid body term. When a = 0 and
4
.
0 1

1 u (1)
c = 1/ 4 , [ B1 ] matrix is not invertible and
0
4 2 u (1)
1 1
results in a degenerate scale. By employing the 0 0
4 2
SVD technique with respect to the influence The [ B1 ] matrix for a beam is singular when
matrix, for [ A1 ] and [ B1 ] matrices. The spurious
(1 + 12d ) 24a = 48c . This results in the
mode [ ] satisfies degenerate scale problem. When a = 0 , b = 0 ,
AT c = 1/ 48 and d = 0 , [ B1 ] matrix is not
[ ] = 0 , (53)
BT invertible and results in a degenerate scale. By
employing the SVD technique with respect to the
where the spurious mode [ ] and the rigid body influence matrix in the u formulation, for
mode [ ] are shown in Table 7. [ A1 ] , [ A2 ] and [ B1 ] matrices.

Table 5 Stiffness matrix for the Euler beams by using the direct method.
Eqs. A B K B K F

1 1 L 1 1
u- 2 0 0 0
2 2 12 4L
12 6L 126L 12 6 L 12 6 L
Eqs. (40) and (41)

1 L
0 1 0
1 1
0 2 L2 2
2 3 12 1 6 L 4 L 6L EI 6 L 4 L 6 L 2 L
2 2
2 2 4L
L
1 1 1 1
3

L 12 6L 12 6 L L 12 6 L 12 6 L
3

0 0 2 2
0 0
2 2 4L 2L 6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2 6 L 2 L 6 L 4 L
2

1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
2 2 4 L 2 L2
Rank ( A) = 2 Rank ( B ) = 4 Rank ( K B ) = 2 Rank ( K F ) = 2

1 1
0 0
u-m 1

1 L 12 4L
2 0
2 2 1
12 6L 12 6 L 12 6 L 12 6 L
0
1
Eqs. (40) and (42)

1 L 3 12
0
1 6 L 4 L
2
6 L 2 L2 2 2
EI 6 L 4 L 6 L 2 L
0
1 4L
L
2 2 2 1 1 1 L 12
3
6L 12 6 L L 12 6 L 12 6 L
3

0 2
0 0 0 0 2 L3 2 L2 2L
3
6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2 6 L 2 L 6 L 4 L
2

0 0 0 0 1 1 1
2 0
2 L 2 L3 2 L3
Rank ( A) = 2 Rank ( B ) = 4 Rank ( K B ) = 2 Rank ( K F ) = 2

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Table 6 Stiffness matrix for the Euler beam by using the indirect method.
Portential [ A] [ B] [ K ] = [ B ][ A]
1

L3 L2
U - 0
0 1 1
12 4 2 2 0 0
single and double layer

2
0 L L

0 L 1 1 12 6L 12 6 L
2 0 2 2 2
4
3 2 1 6 L 4 L
2
6 L 2 L2
L L 1 1
12 0 0 0 0
L 12
3
6L 12 6 L
4 2 2

L2 6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2
L L 0 1 1
0 0
4 2 2 2 2
Rank ( A) = 4 Rank ( B ) = 2 Rank ( K ) = 3

L3 L
U-M 0 0
12 2 1 1
2 2 0 0
single and triple layer

0
2
L 1 1
2 2
1 12 6L 12 6L
4 0 2 0 0

3
1 6 L 4 L
2
6L 2 L2
L L
12 0 0 1 1 0 0
L 12
3
6L 12 6L

2
2 2
L2 6 L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2
1 1 1 0
0 0 0
4 2 2 2
Rank ( A) = 4 Rank ( B ) = 2 Rank ( K ) = 3

According to Fredholm alternative theorem , SVD updating term and document technique. It is
the spurious mode [ ] satisfies found that rigid body mode and spurious mode are
imbedded in the right and left unitary vectors of
AT the influence matrices through SVD.
[ ] = 0 , (55)
BT

and the rigid body mode [ ] satisfies 6 References
 Gere, J. M., Mechanics of Materials, Thomson
A1 Learning, Inc., California (2002).
[ ] = 0 . (56)  , , , ,
A
2 (1992).
The spurious mode [ ] and the rigid body mode  Chen, J. T., W. C. Chen, S. R. Lin and I. L. Chen,
Rigid Body Mode and Spurious Mode in the Dual
[ ] are shown in Table 7. The mathematical Boundary Element Formulation for The Laplace
framework of [ A] and [ B ] is shown in Fig. 5. Problems, Computers and Structures, Vol. 81, pp.
1395-1404 (2003).
 Felippa, C. A., K. C. Park and M. R. Justino Filho,
The Construction of Free-Free Flexibility Matrices
5 Conclusions as Generalized Stiffness Inverses, Computers and
Dual boundary integral equations were Structures, Vol. 68, pp. 411-418 (1998).
employed to derive the stiffness and flexibility of  Dumont, Ney. A., Generalized Inverse Matrices
the rod and beam which match well with those of and Structural Analysis, Numerical Methods in
FEM. Not only the direct method but also the Continuum Mechanics (2003).
indirect method was used. It is found that  Pozrikidis, C., A Note on The Relation Between
u The Boundary- and Finite-Element Method with
displacement-slope ( ) and
Application to Laplaces Equation in Two
displacement-moment ( u m ) formulations in the Dimensions, Engineering Analysis with Boundary
direct method can construct the stiffness matrix. Elements, Vol. 30, pp. 143-147 (2006).
Similarly, the single-double layer approach  Banerjee, P. K. and R. Butterfield, Boundary
( U ) and single-triple layer approach ( U M ) Element Methods in Engineering Science,
work for the constructing of stiffness matrix in the McGraw-Hill, London (1981).
indirect method. For choosing a special  Hong, H.-K. and J. T. Chen, Derivation of Integral
Equations in Elasticity. Journal of Engineering
fundamental solution, the stiffness matrix can not
Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 114, pp. 1028-1044
be obtained for the degenerate scale. Rigid body (1988).
mode and spurious mode were studied by using the

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Table 7 Spurious modes and the rigid body modes for a rod and a beam in BEM.
Rod Beam

0.632 0.316

1 1
Spurious mode
2 2
(generalized force)
1
0.632
= 2
1 0.632 = 0.632 0.316
0.316

2
0.316

u '(1) = 0.258
u '(0) = 0.258
u (1) = 0.516
0.774

Rigid body mode u(0) = 0.774 A 0.258

=
1 1 0.516
(generalized displacement) u (1) =
u (0) = 0.258
2 2

1 0

u '(1) = 0.577

A
= 2 A 0.577

1 =
0.577

2
0.577

u (1) = 0.577
u '(0) = 0.577
u(0) = 0

A1 = B1
spurious mode

-0.632 T
" " " 0 " " " -0.774
0 " " -0.632
" " " 0
" " "

A = -0.632 " " " " 0 " " 0.258 0.577 " " B = -0.632 " " " " " " " T
1 1
-0.316 " " " " " " " -0.516 0.577 " " -0.316 " " " " " " "

0.316
" " " " " " " 0.258 0.577 " "
[ A1 , B1 ]
0.316 " " " "
" " "

## SVD updating document

A1 SVD updating term
A1 = A2
A
2
rigid body mode
0 " " " -0.774 T
0 " "

A = " 0 " " 0.258 0.577 " "
2
" " " " -0.516 0.577 " "

" " " " 0.258 0.577 " "

Fig. 5 Mathematical SVD structures of the influence matrices using updating techniques

 Chen, J. T. and H.-K. Hong, Review of Dual  Chen, J. T., I. L. Chen and K. H. Chen, A Unified
Boundary Element Methods with Emphasis on Formulation For The Spurious and Fictitious
Hypersingular Integrals and Divergent Series, Frequencies in Acoustics Using The Singular Value
Applied Mechanics Reviews, ASME, Vol.52, No.1, Decomposition and Fredholm Alternative
pp.17-33. Theorem, J. Comp. Acoustics, (2006).(Acepted)
 Chen, J. T., C. F. Lee and S. Y. Lin, A New Point  Chen, J. T., L. W. Liu and H.-K. Hong, Spurious
of View For The Polar Decomposition Using and True Eigensolutions of Helmholtz BIEs and
Singular Value Decomposition, Int. J. Comp. BEMs for a Multiply-Connected Problem, Proc.
Numer. Anal. Appl, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 257-264 Royal Society London Series A, Vol. 459, pp.
(2002). 1891-1925 (2003).

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