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TheTrialsofMasculinity

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TheChicagoSeriesonSexuality,History,andSociety
EditedbyJohnC.Fout

Alsointheseries:

ImproperAdvances
RapeandHeterosexualConflictintheOntario,18801929
byKarenDubinsky

APrescriptionforMurderer
TheVictorianSerialKillingsofDr.ThomasNeillCream
byAngusMcLaren

TheLanguageofSex
FiveVoicesfromNorthernFrancearound1200
byJohnW.Baldwin

CrossingovertheLine
LegislatingMoralityandtheMannAct
byDavidJ.Langum

LoveBetweenWomen
EarlyChristianResponsestoFemaleHomoeroticism
byBernadetteJ.Brooten

SitesofDesire/EconomiesofPleasure
SexualitiesinAsiaandthePacific
editedbyLenoreMandersonandMargaretJolly

TheInventionofSodomyinChristianTheology
byMarkD.Jordan

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TheTrialsofMasculinity
PolicingSexualBoundaries18701930

AngusMcLaren

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AngusMcLarenisprofessorofhistoryattheUniversityofVictoria.Heistheauthorofseveralbooksincluding:APrescriptionforMurder:TheVictorianSerial
KillingsofDr.ThomasNeillCream(UniversityofChicagoPress,1993)OurOwnMasterRace:EugenicsinCanada(McClelland&Stewart,1990)andA
HistoryofContraception(Blackwell,1990).

TheUniversityofChicagoPress,Chicago60637TheUniversityofChicagoPress,Ltd.,London

1997byTheUniversityofChicagoAllrightsreserved.Published1997

PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica

0605040302010099989754321

ISBN(cloth):0226500675

LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData
McLaren,Angus.
Thetrialsofmasculinity:policingsexualboundaries,18701930
/AngusMcLaren.
p.cm.(Chicagoseriesonsexuality,history,andsociety)
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.
ISBN0226500675(cloth:acidfreepaper)
1.MenHistorySources.2.Masculinity(Psychology)History
Sources.3.SexroleHistorySources.I.Title.II.Series.
HQ1090.M3971997
305.31'09dc21
9629523
CIP

ThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsoftheAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrinted
LibraryMaterials,ANSIZ39.481984.

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CONTENTS

Acknowledgments vii

Introduction 1

PartOne:Masculinities II

One 13
Deviants

PartTwo:LegalDiscourses:Men,Melodrama,AndCriminality 37

Two 39
Fools

Three 59
CADS

Four 89
Gentlemen

Five 111
Murderers

PartThree:MedicalDiscourses: 133
WeakMenandPerverts

Six 137
Weaklings

Seven 158
Sadists

Eight 182
Exhibitionist

Nine 207
Transvestites

Conclusion 233

Notes 239

Index 297

Illustrationsfollowpage132

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Inthecourseofthenineteenthcentury,manymenmadeapointofbecomingbiggerandfattertoadvertisetheirwealthandpower.Evengenius,claimedThophile
Gautier,manifesteditselfinaman'sgirth.ItwastakenashighpraisetostatethatBalzachadabarrellikebody,thatRossiniresembledahippopotamus,thatLablache
waselephantine.ThecultofcorpulencehadworshipersonbothsidesoftheAtlantic.Whenin1908WilliamHowardTaftwaselectedpresidentoftheUnitedStates,
heweighedinat332pounds.Attheturnofthecentury,asE.L.DoctorownotedinRagtime,"theconsumptionoffoodwasasacramentofsuccess.Amanwho
carriedagreatstomachbeforehimwasthoughttobeinhisprime."PerhapsbecauseIhaveaslightbuildmyself,Ilongwonderedhowitcouldbethatsuchbloated
behemothswereoncetakenasparagonsofmasculinity.Andwhowerethesebigmenmosttryingtointimidate,womenorlessermen?

Thesesortsofapparentlyinconsequentialquestionsstartedmeonanexplorationofevolvingmodelsofmanhood.RegretfullyIfoundthattocometoasatisfying
understandingofhowconceptsofnormalanddeviantmasculinitywereworkedoutinthepastIhadtoabandontheentertainmentprovidedbynineteenthcentury
saloonsandchophousesforthemorerestrainedtheatricsthatcourtsandconsultingroomsoffered.Ihad,however,verygoodcompany.Thosewhocontributedto
makingthisbookpossibleincludeJudithAllen,PeterBailey,LeonardBerlanstein,VernBullough,WilliamBynum,AlainCorbin,ChristineDelphy,KarenDubinsky,
JohnDuder,RichardEvans,MarvinGlasser,JohnGillis,AnnaleeGolz,LesleyHall,JohnFout,AnitaFellman,ChristopherFriedrichs,GingerFrost,PhilippaLevine,
ArleneTigarMcLaren,JohnMcLaren,FrancisRonsin,MartineSegalen,MaryLynnStewart,andCornelieUsborne.Usefulfeedbackonportionsoftheworkwas
providedbyparticipantsata"GenderandCrime"conferenceheldattheRoehamptonInstitute,a"History

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oftheBody"conferencesponsoredbytheSocietyfortheSocialHistoryofMedicineatUniversityCollegeLondon,ahistoryworkshopattheUniversityofBritish
Columbia,andbytheaudiencesataseriesoflecturesgivenatIndianaUniversity.Portionsofchapters4and6appearedinMedicalHistoryandtheJournalof
SocialHistoryIamgratefultotheTrustee,theWellcomeTrust,andtheeditorsandpublishersforpermissiontoreprintthismaterial.IowespecialthankstoBrian
DippieandRobertNye,whoreadtheentiremanuscriptandofferedtrenchantcriticism.SaraSmithdidevenmore.Inadditiontosavagingafirstdraft,shepeppered
mewithasteadystreamofreferencesandcitations.

IwouldalsoliketoexpressmygratitudetotheSocialSciencesandHumanitiesResearchCouncilofCanada,whosegenerositymadepossiblethenumerousresearch
tripsthatthisprojectrequired.AthomeattheUniversityofVictoria,IreceivedessentialsupportfromboththesecretariesandmycolleaguesintheHistory
DepartmentandthelibrariansatMcPhersonLibrary.SusanJohnstonwasanincrediblyinsightfulandindustriousresearchassistant.WhenIwasontheroad,thestaffs
oftheWellcomeInstitutefortheHistoryofMedicine,theBritishLibrary,theBibliothqueNationale,thePublicArchivesofBritishColumbia,andtheWoodward
MedicalLibraryattheUniversityofBritishColumbiawere,asalways,enormouslyhelpful.JohnFontproddedmeintolaunchingthisstudyandDouglasMitchell,
MatthewHoward,andDavidBlairmadecompletingitapleasure.

InVictoriaJuneBulldidawonderfuljobinrescuingmefromthevariouscatastrophescausedbyarelianceonanancientthatistosay,fiveyearoldcomputer.In
Paris,whenthesaidlaptopfinallycrashed,ChristineDelphykindlyofferedtheuseofherownmachine.ArleneandJessekepttheprojectonanevenkeelArleneby
continuallyimpressinguponmethenecessityofappreciatingtheinsightsoffeministscholarshipJessebydemonstratinghowinherentlyfascinatingthepassagetoyoung
manhoodis.

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INTRODUCTION
AreadingoftheOxfordEnglishDictionary'sentriesunderthesubject"man"servesasaforcefulreminderofhowcentralsexandgendernormsweretopowerand
culturalcategoriesattheturnofthecentury.Tohavea"mantomantalk,"wearetold,wastospeakdirectly"tobeone'sownman"wastobeinfullpossessionof
one'sfacultiesto"playtheman"wastoactcourageouslytobe"theman''wastobetheoneincharge.Theseweremorethansimplefiguresofspeech.Around1930
amanwhokilled"likeaman"wasapplaudedbyspectatorsandsetfreeinonecourtroom,whileinanotherthejudgesentencedtheaccused,whoseonlycrimehad
beentodresslikeawoman,toaprisontermofeighteenmonths'hardlabor.Suchcasesdramaticallydemonstratedtheimportanceearlytwentiethcenturysociety
assignedtothequestionofsexualidentity.Westernculturehad,ofcourse,alwaysstressedmaleandfemaledifferences.Butinrelativelyrecenttimes,genderhad
becomeprivileged,ofteneclipsingone'srank,status,profession,race,orreligionasthekeydeterminantofpersonality.1

Thebody,PierreBourdieuremindsus,carriesthe"fundamentalprinciplesofthearbitrarycontentoftheculture."For"nothingseemsmoreineffable,more
incommunicable,moreinimitable,and,therefore,moreprecious,thanthevaluesgiven[the]body,theprocesswherebymaleandfemalebodiesaresplitismystified."2
ThisstudyseekstorevealhowtheprocessofconstructionofwhatmanyintheWestnowassumetobenatural,timelessmaleandfemalegenderstookplacebetween
theeighteenthandthetwentiethcenturies.Thebookfocusesparticularlyontheperiodbetween1870and1930,whenextremeclaimsforsexualincommensurability
weremade.Thereismuchgoodevidence,asanumberofhistorianshavedemonstrated,thatnewscientificnormsofmaleandfemalesexualitywerepropoundedin
thelatenineteenthcenturybysexologistsandpsychiatristsbecausesocialtransformations(suchasthechangingnatureofmen's

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work,theriseofthewhitecollarservicesector,thereductionofthebirthrate,andwomen'sentryintohighereducationandtheprofessions)appearedintheeyesof
anxiousobserverstohaveunderminedtheexplanatorypowersofoldernotionsofmasculinityandfemininity.3

Manyofthescholarswhofirstexaminedtheemergenceofthelatenineteenthcenturypreoccupationwithsexandgenderpresenteditasapositive,progressive
refashioningofourthinkingabouthumansexuality.4 MichelFoucaultcounteredsuchoptimism,arguingthatthefreshlycreatedsexualcategoriesandgendernormsof
thenineteenthcenturyunderlayyetanothersystemofpower.Theprofessionalsinmedicine,criminology,pedagogy,andthelaw,heasserted,tookovertheregulatory
andpunitivefunctionsoftheabsolutiststateandelaboratednewmechanismsofconstraint.Theexperts'ultimategoalwastoorganizepoweroverthesocialbody
throughtheagencyofhumanbodies.5 Inessence,malepowerwasrevivedandnowbuttressedbybiologism.AuthorswhohavefolloweduponmanyofFoucault's
insightswhileseekingtoavoidthenotionofasimpleconflictbetweentheforcesoffreedomandoppressionincludeThomasLaqueur,LawrenceBirken,andCynthia
EagleRussettwiththeirimportantstudiesofmodelsofsexualityRuthHarris,JudithWalkowitz,andCarollSmithRosenbergwhoinvestigatedthepolicingof
femininityJeffreyWeeks,whoanalyzedtheconstructionofhomosexualityandRobertNye,E.AnthonyRotundo,LesleyHall,andKevinWhite,whodealt
particularlywiththerefashioningofnotionsofheterosexuality.6

Thisbookhasasitsfocustheturnofthecenturymappingoftheboundariesofmasculinity.7 Thegoalistoshowthatthenormsofmaleheterosexualitywerenot
innate,butsociallyandculturallyconstructed.Theintentistoshattertheillusionofpermanenceandnaturalnesswithwhichexpertsendowedlatenineteenthcentury
genderrelations.Wedosobyrevealingthewaysinwhichnewboundariesofnormalmaleandfemalebehaviorwerefreshlyestablishedbydoctors,sexologists,
magistrates,andsexreformersbetween1870and1930.Thefocusisprimarilyonhowsuchexpertsexploitedthestereotypeofavirile,heterosexual,andaggressive
masculinity.Theydidnotsomuch"create"thestereotypeitwouldbemoreaccuratetosaythattheyselectedanddeclaredpreeminentoneparticularmodelof
masculinityfromanexistingrangeofmalegenderroles.

Anexaminationoftheseprofessionals'preoccupationshelpsustoseethatmenweregenderedsubjectsandthatmasculinityhadavarietyofchangingforms.The
approachadoptedhereistoaskwhysomesexroleswerenaturalizedandothersdisqualified,whytherewereinclusionsand

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exclusions.Thistackallowsahistoricizingofarangeofpurportedlyvaluefreepsychological,sexological,andpsychoanalyticconcepts.Itallowstheneurasthenicmale
tobeseenastheproductofdefinitehistoricaltypeofsociety,theexhibitionistorserialkillerasthecreationofaspecificculture.8

Socially,Iexaminenotionsofmasculinityinboththeworkingclassandmiddleclass.Thesameauthorities,incondemninglaborers'brawlsasirrationaloutburstswhile
turningablindeyetogentlemen'sduels,wereimplicitlyacknowledgingthat"thetypologiesdesignatinghonorableanddishonourablemasculinitywerehighlyclass
specific."9 WhatisofspecialinterestisJoanScott'spointthatinterclassreferencestosexuality"seemtobepartofamorecomplicatedprocessof'classconstruction'
inwhichdefinitionsofthemiddleclassinvolvenotionsofsexualselfcontroland...dependonnegativeexamplesor'socialothers.'Inthiscasethesocial'other'isthe
workingclassits'otherness'isindicatedbyrepresentingitaswoman."10GeographicallyIdealprimarilywithdevelopmentsinEnglandandFrance,butIalsodrawon
sexologicaldiscussionsincentralEuropeandchangingnormsofmanhoodinNorthAmerica.Thestudypurposelytendstoa''geographicaleclecticism."Toomany
studiesofsexualityhave,asTheodoreZeldinhaspointedout,unthinkinglyembracedthenotionofnationalstereotypesthatnineteenthcenturyEnglishmenwere
giventoflogging,Italianstocrimesofpassion,Germanstosadism,andFrenchmentoduelingandphilandering.11Iamsuggestingnotthatstrongnationaltraditionsdid
notexistbutthatapreoccupationwiththemcanblindustomoreimportantsexandgendertraditionsandconventionsthatthenationsofwesternEuropeandNorth
Americashared.NonWesternsocieties,however,obviouslydidhavedifferentunderstandingsofmasculinity.Topursuethatquestionwouldbetobroachan
enormoustopic.Inthisbriefstudy,wehavetorestrictourselvestonomorethantheoddpassingreferencetotheimportantrelationshipsofraceandgender.12

Becausesomanyexcellentstudiesofthecreationofmodelsofmodernfemininityhavebeenproduced,Idevotemostofmyattentiontothepolicingofmasculinity.
Women'srolehaslongbeenregardedasproblematicalandthereforeworthyofinvestigationandregulation.Men,incontrast,havebeenregardedasunchangingand
thereforetheirsexualityhasnotwarrantedexamination.Freud'sfamousquestion"Whatdowomenwant?"hasgarneredagooddealofindignantattention.Fewhave
observedthathedidnotask"Whatdomenwant?"theassumptionbeingthateveryoneknew.

Womenwillnotbeignoredinthefollowingchapterssincemasculinity

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wasalwaysdefinedincontrasttofemininity,theoneconcepthavingnomeaninginisolationfromtheother.Thisbookseekstocomplement,noteclipsethestudyof
femininityitspremiseisthatitisessentialthattherelationalaspectsofgendernotbelostsightof.Accordingly,inthecourseofthebook,wewilllookatawouldbe
gentlemantryingtomarryhiswayoutofhardwork,butalsoathisfemalecounterparttracethecareersofboththebounderandthebarmaidandexaminetheways
inwhichboththegentlemanandtheladyemployedimagesofappropriategenderrolestoavoidentanglementswiththelaw.

Alargethoughrecentliteratureontheemergenceinthelatenineteenthcenturyofthehomosexualidentityalsoexists.Whilehomosexualityisnotthefocusofthis
study,anyaccountoftheconceptofnineteenthcentury"normal"heterosexualmasculinitycanonlybeunderstoodinrelationshiptocontemporaryideasconcerningits
"inversion"homosexuality.Anumberofpioneeringstudiesofthehistoryofhomosexualityhaveappearedinthelastdecadethisbookinasenseservesastheir
complement.13Itlooksattheshiftingdefinitionofnormality,atthelinesthatweredrawnandredrawntoseparatethedeviantfromthenormal,themalefromthe
female.Gayhistoryishelpingustounderstandhowtheselinesweremade,blurred,andreimposed,butamoreselfconsciousunderstandingof"normal"malenessand
heterosexualityalsohastobeprovided.

Settingthegoalsofthebookwasonethingdeterminingthemethodologywasanother.WhatIwantedtodowastofindwaysofrevealingandtestingtheprocessby
whichconceptsofmasculinitywerepropounded.Freudoncesaidthatthehystericcanbecomparedtothecriminal.Thecriminalhasasecretthathetriestoguard
thehysterichasasecretofwhichheishimselfunaware.Itisthissecretthatthedeterminedpsychoanalyst,liketheruthlessjuged'instruction,hasthetaskofextracting
fromhisunwillinginterlocutor.Itoofoundthatformypurposesanexploitationofboththemedicalandlegaldiscoursesonsexualityworkedwell.Ibeganby
examiningmuchofthemedicalandpsychologicalwritingofthetimeandthenturnedtotrialrecords.Ironically,thesameagethatgenderedabstractqualitiessuchas
"strength"and"independence"asmaledeclareditsallmalecourtsystemtobeobjectiveandgenderfree.14Nevertheless,Ifoundthattrialrecordswereaninvaluable
meansofgaugingthepublicimpactoftheconceptsofnormalandabnormalsexuality.Fewsourcessostronglydistinguishedbetweenthesexes.

Thisstudyisabouttwospecificsortsof"trials"ofmasculinity.Thefirstweretheformalcourtroomdramaswheregreatimportancewasplacedupondetermining
whetherornottheaccusedhadactedina"manly"fash

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ion.MikhailBakhtinhassuggestedthatthelawcourtisasitefortheproductionofmeaninginasmuchastrialshavealwaysfulfilledacriticalroleinlinkingthelawto
generalculture.15Infollowingupthisinsight,thefirstportionofthisprojectmightbelikenedtotheworksofGuidoRuggiero.16Itooappreciatetheenormousvalue
oflegalrecordswhiletryingtobesensitivetothefactthattrialstendedtoreifyboundaries,artificiallyandneatlydividethenormalfromtheabnormal.

IrelyheavilyonlegaldocumentationbecausemycentralworkinghypothesismuchlikeSanderGilman'sisthatunderstandinghowpreviousgenerationsconceived
ofthe"normal"issoftenmostdramaticallydemonstratedbyanalyzingtheirtreatmentofthe"other."17Theprosecutionofsexcrimes"forcedtheissue"ininteresting
waysforinthecourtroomsocietyhadtomakeclearwheretheboundarieslaybetweennormalanddeviantbehavior.Itcouldbesaidthatmy"hardcases"arenot
representative,reflectonlyextremesofbehavior,andrelyonsensationalevidenceandassuchcannottellusabout''ordinary"men.Butthesetrialsalsoofferthe
differinginterpretationscontemporariesmadeoftheevidenceintroducedandthusrevealnotonebutseveralcompetingdiscoursesofdoctors,lawyers,journalists,
politicians,radicals,laymen.

Sincethisstudyexploitsanumberofcriminalcases,itnecessarilydealswiththesubjectofmaleviolence.Criminologists,whileknowingthatmenarefarmorelikely
thanwomentocommitviolentcrimes,surprisinglyseenoneedtoinvestigatemasculinity.18Evensomeofthemorerecenthistoricalstudiesofmasculinityare
amazinglysilentontheissueofforce.19Yetanthropologiststellusthatthemoreviolentthesocietythemoreitismaledominated.20Itistemptingtoarguethatif
femalesexualitywaspolicedinthenineteenthcentury,malesexualitywasaswell.Butitwouldbesimplistictosuggestthattheresultwassomesortofsymmetry.
RoperandToshmakethepointthatmasculinityisalways"shapedaroundmalepower"and"relativetofemininity."Inotherwordsmalescanalwayshaverecourseto
violencesuchactionsenjoyculturallegitimacy.The"policing"ofmasculinityinthenineteenthcenturywasnotonlyrepressiveaswillbeseen,itincludedthe
sanctioningofcertainformsofmaleviolence,therebyacknowledgingthatgenderrelationshipswerealsopowerrelationships.Ifmanyofthemeninthefollowing
chapterswere"losers,"thefateofthefewscapegoatsorsacrificiallambsshouldnotblindustothefactthatthepowerofmostofthemaleflockwasenhanced.

Thesecondsortsof"trials"ofmasculinityexaminedinthisbookarethoseinwhichdoctorsplayedakeyrole.Psychiatristsandsexologists,employingbiologicaland
psychologicalargumentsthatstressedsexualin

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commensurability,emergedinthelastcenturydeclaringthemselvestobetheexpertsbestequippedtounderstandandbuttressessentialgenderdifferences.Toanswer
thequestionofwhenandwhymedicinetookoverasarbiteroftheperversions,thelatterportionofthestudyisdevotedtothehistoricalconstructionofthemalesex
pervert.21Inasensetheterm"malepervert"isredundant.Sexologists,untilFreud,althoughtheycataloguedfemaleformsofdeviancysuchasnymphomaniaand
lesbianism,definedtheperverseinsuchawaythatonlythemalecouldbea"real"pervert.Ostensiblysocietypolicedsuchmisfitstoprotectwomenandchildrenfrom
sexualdanger,butitwasneverthatsimple.First,"policing"included,asFoucaultsuggests,thedevelopmentofvariousformsofregulationincludingtherapy.Second,
theconstructionofnewsexrolesinvolvedshiftsinrealpower.

ThestudyinexaminingbothmedicalandlegalregulationfollowsatrailblazedbyMichelFoucaultandisinspiredbyamodestmeasureofpostmodernism.The
projectisnottryingtosimplycontrastthe"whatoughttobe"ofthemedicalandprescriptivetexts,withthe"whatwas"ofthecourtroom.Rather,amorecomplex
pictureissought.Ontheonehand,Iamsuggestingthattherewasanintriguing"real"materialpowerinthemedicaldiscourses.Ontheotherhand,severalchapters
shouldleadonetobecynicalaboutthesupposed"realness"ofthecriminalcourttranscripts.The''textlike"andconstructednatureoftheirdeliberationswereoften
onlytooobvious.Courtsweretheaters.22AndrGide,whosatonajuryin1912,wasfascinatedbytheimpactthattheaccused's"performance"couldhaveonthe
proceedings.23Tounderstandtherolesthatwereeitherappropriatedbyorattributedtoprisoners,wewillnecessarilyhavetodrawattimesonthestandardcastof
malecharactersportrayedinpopularcontemporaryplaysandnovels.

Inshortthisstudyinparticularthechapteronmedicalconfidentialityallowsustoseelawandmedicinemeetingandthedifficultiesofseparatingprescriptive
literaturefrompositivescience.Inwidertermsthebookseekstopointupthevalueofexploitingarangeofdiscoursesratherthanhivingoffforexaminationsimplyone
setofrecordsandregulatorysystems.Therewasnotonerightandonewrongdiscourse.Thereweremultiplediscourses,eachofwhichhastobeappreciatedto
understandthecomplexitywithwhichgenderexpectationswerewoven.Powerwasnotunifiedbutdispersed,notcoherentbutbrokenupintodifferentsocial"fields
offorce."24

Itisaccordinglytoostarkaquestiontoaskwhowonandwholost.Thecastofcharactersinthisstudyincludeinadditiontothefrequentlycited

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sexologists,psychologists,magistrates,andpublicmoralistsmurderers,sadists,transvestites,abortionists,exhibitionists,fraudartists,andsexradicals.Mycentral
argumentisthattheboundariesofmasculinecomportment,normalsexualbehavior,andmalegenderidentitywereconstructedandmaintainedbylaw,medicine,
politics,andpopularritual.25Whenrespectablesocietystigmatizedwhatittooktobedangerousformsofmalesexualbehavior,itwasnotprimarilypreoccupiedwith
protectingpotentialfemalevictims.Thefirsteffectofthenewmodelsofheterosexualitywastoshoreupthepowerof"normal"men.Thisexplorationofadiscoursein
whichexpertslamentedthepassivityofpervertswhilesanctioningaggressivemalesexualityaccordinglypromisestodeepenourunderstandingofboththerealitiesand
perceptionsofearlytwentiethcenturygenderrelations.

Thestudyofmasculinityorrathervariousmasculinitiesthatevolvedovertimeisanimmenseundertakingthatscholarshaveonlyjustbegun.Itwouldtakeateamof
researcherstomastersimplytheenormousliteratureproducedbytheEuropeansexologists.Themodestambitionofthisbookistoprovideanumberofcasestudies
toilluminatethekeyforcesthatwereatworkinthechangingconstructionsofappropriatemalesexualbehavior.Itseekstomapouttheculturalgridofconflictingand
overlappingaccountsofwhatitmeanttobeaman.Wewillbetracingboththerapidityoftheemergenceoftheideologyof"hegemonicmasculinity"andtheslowness
andunevennessofimposingsuchnewgendernorms.

Thebook'sargumentproceedsinsynchronicratherthanchronologicalorder,withthevariousnarrativespertainingtocriminalityandperversioncirclingaroundthe
centralquestionofmasculinity.PartOneofthestudybeginswiththequestionofwhyinthewesternworldattheturnofthecenturytheissueofsexualidentitytookon
suchgreatimportance.Whatwasa"realman"or"realwoman"?Thesewerenottimelessnotions,buttiedtotheparticularsocialandideologicalpreoccupations.Part
Twoshiftsfromtheprescriptiveliterature,whichsaidhowmenshouldbehave,totheactualboundariesofsexualityimposedbythelaw.Anumberofcaseswillbe
presentedtorevealthecontestedprocessbywhichmasculinitywasshaped.Thelawwasactivelyinvolvedintheconstructionofmaleandfemaleroles,thoughthe
boundariesthemselveswereflexible,bendingunderclass,gender,andethnicpressures.Indeed,thefourchaptersshowthatevenfictionalrepresentationsofhow
malesweresupposedtoacthadadirectimpactonthefateofmeninvolvedinlegalentanglementsresultingfromcourtship,seduction,abortion,andfinallymurder.26

Byexploitingthelegalwranglingsofamatrimonialagencywhosecase

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Istumbledupon,Ishowinchapter2howlowerclassmentriedtoapeupperclassmodelstorepresentthemselvesaseligiblemarriagepartners.Classconcerns
requiredthatthepresumptuousnessofmarginalmalesbepunishedbytheirsuperiors.Humorandlaughterfiguredcentrallyinthisasinothercasesasaweapon
employedbyelitemalestowardoffthreatsthatstruckclosetohome.Tomovetheanalysisfromcourtshiptoseduction,Iemployinchapter3bigamyandabortion
trialrecords.Thetreatmentofmalebigamistsisexaminedtodeterminewhyremarriagewasdeemedbytherespectabletobemoremorallydangerousthanadultery.
Andabortionlawsareexploredbecause,thoughtheyareusuallybelievedtohavepenalizedonlywomen,aseriesofEnglishcasesinthe1890srevealstheextentto
whichmenwhodidnotplaytheappropriatemasculinerolewereatrisk.Theselattertrialsdealingwiththeinducementofmiscarriageareofparticularinterestinthat
theyprecipitatedthefirstpublicdefensebymenofabortioninEnglish.

Genderandcomportmentwereintimatelyrelatedinthe1890s.Inchapter4Iturntotherecordsofthenineteenthcentury'smostfamoustrialpertainingtotheissueof
professionalconfidentialitytoshowhowanappreciationoftheway"ladies"and"gentleman"weresupposedtobehavecouldbeexploitedbydaringindividualsforthe
subversivepurposeofturningattentionawayfromwhatwereineffectimmoralandillegalpractices.Theultimateformofthepolicingofmalegenderroleswastheuse
ofdeadlyforcebyeithertheindividualorthestate.Chapter5providesananalysisofseveralhundredhomicidescarriedoutby"normal"Canadianmeninthefirsttwo
decadesofthiscentury.Thepurposeistoshowthat,ifitwasaquestionofdefendingone's"manhood,"societymightevenpermitanindividualtherighttokill.
Sexualityanddangerwerelinked.Whetherornotoneacted"likeaman''wasamatteroflifeordeathamurdererhadfewbetterdefensesthantoclaimthathisvictim
wasahomosexualortheseducerofhiswife.

ThemendiscussedinPartTwowhofellfoulofthelawwerechastisedfornotlivinguptothehegemonicmodelofmasculinity,buttheywerenotcondemnedby
societyasperverts.Theyweredeclaredbadnotmad.Whattheydid,thoughwrong,washeldtobeunderstandable.InPartThreeImovethediscussionof
masculinitybeyondthemarginsof"normal"malebehavior.WetendtothinkofVictorianwomen'ssexualitybeingconstrained.Transgressivemalebodies,incontrast,
havereceivedlittleattentionfromhistorians.Butattheturnofthecentury,the"pervert"wasconstructedsexualpractices(asWeeksandothershavenoted)once
con

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sideredmoralchoicesbecameregardedbythebourgeoisieassymptomsofbiologicalorpsychologicalflaws.FollowingArnoldDavidson'ssuggestivecomments,I
demonstratehowthecreationofnewlabelssadist,masochist,exhibitionist,homosexualmarginalizedsomemalesinthecommunitywhileempoweringothers.27

Whatconstitutednormalandabnormalsexualityattheturnofthecentury?Wesetthescenewithananalysisinchapter6ofboththeearlyscientificstudiesofsexuality
suchasthoseproducedbySigmundFreudandthepopularsexmanualslikethoseof"Dr.Jaf"togaugehowwidespreadwereboththenew,vulgarizednotionsofthe
sexologistsandoldersexualbeliefs.Newknowledgebutalsonewworrieswereintroducedtothepublicbysuchwritings.Insuchbooksreaderswerefamiliarized
withthedangersposedbysexualperversions.Whenandwhythepervertwascreatedisexaminedinthefollowingthreechapters.

Schoolbirchingsandprisonfloggingshadmanyrespectabledefendersinthelatenineteenthcenturywhowouldhavebeenoutragedbysuggestionsthatsuchactshad
anysexualcoloring.Wheredoesthesadist,acreationofthelatenineteenthcentury,fitintothesocialconstructionofmasculinity?Thequestionposedinchapter7isif
inconstructingthesadistthemanwhoinpursuitofsexualpleasureinflictedan"irrational"amountofpainsexologistswere,inabackhandedfashionalso
legitimatingthe"reasonable"amountofpainthenormalmanmightinflict.Theexhibitionistwasalsoa"creation"ofthenineteenthcenturymedicalexperts.Inchapter8
ananalysisofwhyexhibitionism,likevoyeurism,wasbydefinitionsaidtobeonlyamalecomplaintprovidesuswithsomeinsightsintotherestrictionsplacedon
exposureofthemalebody.Theexhibitionistthreatenedwomen,butoneisstruckbythefacttheexpertsdidnotlabeltheobviouslyfarmoredangerousrapistasa
"pervert."Therapistwas"normal''totheextentthathesoughtactualintercoursetheexhibitionist,becausehedidnot,wasdeviant.Thelatter,byhisridiculousactions,
endangerednewnineteenthcenturynotionsoftheselfcontrolledmale.

Thefinalaffronttomasculinitywasposedbythemanwhowantedtobeawoman.Thequestionsofwhysuchdesiresweremedicalizedandpathologizedandwhyit
wasconsideredmoredangerousforamantoputonwomen'sclothingthanforawomantoputonmen'saregrappledwithinchapter9.Transvestismobviouslybuilt
onanunderstandingofdifferencesofgenderandsexualitybutcalledtheseverysamecategoriesintoquestion.Anexaminationofanumberoftrialsoftransvestitesthat
drewtheattentionoftheBritishSocietyfortheStudyofSexPsychologytellsusmuch

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aboutbothshiftingattitudestowardhomosexualityandthemedicalizationofdeviancy.

Thisbookrangesfromananalysisofhowcommonmalemurdererscouldhope,byforegroundingtheirmasculinity,togetawaywiththeircrimestoadiscussionof
whymaletransvestitesdeniedtheirmaleness.Thegoalistodemystifyanynotionofsexualessentialismbyshowinghowconceptsofmasculinitywerecreated,
maintained,andpoliced.Thestudy'scentralargumentisthat"dominant"formsofmasculinitywereconstitutedoutofasetof"negative"varietiesthatappearedin
everydaydiscourseandpracticethatinacertainsenseitwaseasierforsocietytonotethebadexamplesratherthantheexemplarsofthemanlyideal.Thelegal,
medical,andpsychologicalexperts,indescribingdeviantmales,weredefininginnegativeterms"normal''men,thoughattimestheseexpertscouldbedetected
protectingontothe"other"theirownrepresseddesires.28Thebookwilltraceshiftsbothingenderidentitiesandinthosewhopolicedtheirboundaries.Inreviewing
theturnofthecenturyconstructionofsuchsexualidentities,weareremindedthat,althoughthediscoursesonsexualityweremaledominated,menwerealsosubject
tothem.Yetnormsandcommunityexpectationswerenevercarvedinstonetheskillfulcouldfindwaysofturningthemtotheiradvantage.Theveryconceptofwhatit
wastobea"man"wasopentoquestion.Byexaminingthemotivesthatlaybehindtheconstructionofanewrangeofsexualidentities,weareprovidedwithaclearer
notionofthesocialandculturalanxietiesoftheage.Doctorsandmagistrates,indiscussingwhatwerepurportedlyissuesofsexandgender,neversucceededin
disentanglingprivateactsfrompublicpreoccupations.Thenasnow,asoneobserverhasaptlynoted,"itisnotsexualitywhichhauntssociety,butsocietywhichhaunts
thebody'ssexuality."29

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PARTONE
MASCULINITIES

BrianDippie,inTheVanishingAmerican,1 hasprovidedabrilliantaccountofthepervasivebeliefheldbymanylatenineteenthcenturyNorthAmericansthatthe
indigenouspopulationwasdyingout.ThenativepeoplesoftheNewWorld,claimedseveralgenerationsofinvestigators,simplycouldnotsurvivetheravagesofdrink,
disease,andthegeneralpressuresexertedbymodernsociety.Somelamentedthedisappearanceofthe"RedMan,"butwithhindsightonecanseethattherewasa
gooddealofwishfulfillmentinsuchprophecies.Itwouldnotbenecessarytotakeactivemeanstoeliminateculturesthatstoodinthewayofprogressinthepitiless
Darwinianworld,theywereintheprocessofeliminatingthemselves.

Thatwhitesshouldhaveconvincedthemselvesoftheallbutcertaindisappearanceofa"lesserrace"seemshardlysurprising.Hardertoexplainisthatinthesame
decadesobserverssuchasTeddyRooseveltwereraisingthespecterofWesternculturescommitting"racesuicide."Healthy,decent,whitemeninbothwestern
EuropeandNorthAmericawere,ifoneweretobelievethesensationalisttitlesofafloodoflectures,books,andpamphlets,membersofanendangeredspecies.In
France,F.A.Vuillermetchallengedhisreadersto''bemen."InBritain,GeneralFrederickMauriceclaimedthatthearmyfacedthedifficultyof"WheretogetMen."
DanielCarterBeard,creatoroftheAmericanBoyScouts,gloomilyentitledhisautobiography,HardlyaManIsNowAlive.

Whatsuchwritersmeant,ofcourse,wasnotthattherewasanyshortageofmalesintheWesternworld.Theywerearguingthattheproblemwasthatthereweretoo
manymenofthe"wrongtype."WilliamJamesalertedhisreaderstothestrategyemployedbythosewhosoughttoincreasetheirownpowerbydenigratingothermen
asunfit."Callamana'cad'andyou'vesettledhissocialstatus.Callhima'degenerate,'andyou'vegroupedhimwiththemostloathsomespecimensoftherace."2

Page12

Jamesdidnotexplainwhy,atthefindesicle,suchnamecallingshouldhavereachedsuchacrescendo.Tounderstandtheprocessesbywhichconceptsofboth
healthyanddiseasedmasculinitywerecreatedandthefunctionstheyserved,wewillbegininchapter1byexaminingcloselythesocialandculturalpreoccupationsof
thepessimistic.

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One
Deviants
Inthecourseofthe1912LondonSessions,thechairmanofthecourtsentencedthirtymentobenotonlyimprisonedbutflogged.InwesternEurope'smostliberal
nation,whatsortsofcriminalswouldwarrantsuchbarbarictreatment?Elevenwerewhippedforsolicitingandsixforlivingontheearningsofprostitutes,fivefor
indecentexposure,oneforshowingobscenepictures,threeforbeing"incorrigiblerogues,"twofordamagetoaworkhouse,oneforassaultingaworkhouseofficial,
andoneforfailingtosupporthiswifeandfamily.1 Thesemen'sbackswerebloodiedasadirectresultofthelatenineteenthcenturycampaigntoreintroducecorporal
punishment.Respectablesociety,indeclaringthatmaleprostitutes,pimps,vagrants,andexhibitionistsdeservedascourgingthatevenmalemurderersandrapistswere
sparedwasnotonlyattemptingtodrawaclearlinebetweenthecriminalandnoncriminalworldsitwasalsorespondingtotheideathatcertaintypesofmenhad
forfeitedtherighttobetreatedashumanbeings.Thedangerposedbymaleviolenceandsexualdeviancy,accordingtoselfdeclared"normalmen,"hadbecomesuch
athreatanditswickednesssoexceededcommoncriminalitythatitwarrantedextraordinarypenalties.Anexaminationofthis"moralpanic,"whichjournalistsand
parliamentarianswhippedupoutofthenotionthatwomenandchildrenwerebeingpreyedonbyuntoldnumbersofbrutesandperverts,providesanexcellentpointof
entryintothenineteenthcenturydiscussionofthecrisisinmasculinity.TherecoursetofloggingwasapeculiarlyAngloSaxonresponse,butaswillbedemonstratedin
whatfollows,largenumbersofcommentatorsinbothEuropeandNorthAmericawereequallyshrillintheircondemnationofthethreatsposedtohealthysocietyby
maledeviants.

Corporalpunishmentthatistheadministrationofthelash,cat,orbirchhadlongbeenappliedtocriminalsacrosstheWesternworld,maleandfemale,youngand
old.2 Intheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiesit

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wasacommonpunishmentformisdemeanors,butinthenineteenthcenturyprisonsentencesincreasinglyreplacedtherecoursetoexecutions,transportations,and
floggings.Thenewpenitentiariesprovidedconcreteevidenceofprogressives'optimisticbeliefinenlightenedcustodians'abilitiestoreformthefelonandtomake
punishmentsfitboththecrimeandthespecificageandgenderspecificationsofthecriminal.3 Accordingly,fromthe1820sonward,flogginginBritainwasrestricted
tomenanewsensitivitytogendermadeitunthinkablethatwomenbesubjectedtosuchpain.Andeventhemensochastisedafter1832hadtheirpunishmentscarried
outinprivate.4

Britainwasnotaloneincarryingoutsuchreforms.Inthecourseofthenineteenthcentury,resorttoallformsofcorporalpunishmentdeclinedacrossEurope.In
Englandhumiliatingcorporalpunishmentssuchasbirchingswereincreasinglythoughtfitonlyforboysandby1848werelittleusedforadults.5 ThePunishmentBill,
introducedin1859,soughttoretaintheuseofcorporalpunishmentonlyfortheviolatorsofTreasonActof1842.InScotlandthelastfloggingsentencewashanded
downin1833recoursetoitwasabsolutelyforbiddenin1862.Progressivethinkersimaginedthatfloggingswouldsoonbelookeduponasarelicofthebarbarian
past.Butinthelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury,theuseofthelashwasreintroducedinEnglandandWales.Thereturntosuchabrutalpracticewasrationalizedby
itsproponentsonthegroundsthat"normalpunishments"werenotfelttobeadequateretributionforsomecrimes.Presumablyhardenedpoliticians,magistrates,and
policemenweredeclaringthatindealingwithsomeassaultstheywereovercomebyfeelingsofrevulsion.Thesecrimeswerenot,asonemighthaveanticipated,those
thatresultedinthegreatestsheddingofbloodbut,astheverdictshandeddownatthe1912LondonSessionsdemonstrated,ahodgepodgeofsordidmisdemeanors
thatoffendedanewsenseofbourgeoissexualdecorum.

RadzinowiczandHall,whoproducedthemostthoroughlegalanalysisoftheresurgenceofcorporalpunishmentinlatenineteenthcenturyEngland,notedthatthose
subjectedtofloggingcamefromwhatcouldberegardedasdisparatecategories:maleprostitutes,pimps,transvestites,andvagrants.Sincetheauthorsdidnotattempt
agenderanalysisofthecampaign,theydidnotnotewhatallthesecriminalshadsostrikinglyincommonafailuretoliveuptonewlycreatedstandardsof
masculinity.Thesignificanceofthecorporalpunishmentcampaignisitsrevelationthatattheturnofthecenturyafewmeninpositionsofpowerdeclaredmarginalized
mensexualpervertsandvagrantstobeinsomewaysworsethan

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themostviolentofcriminalsandsodeservingofthemosthumiliatingofpunishments.Thoughsuchfearswerenodoubtsincerelyfeltbysome,theyweresimply
exploitedbyothers.Inbothcasestheresultswerethesame,thecreationofthemasculine"other"oroutsider.

Theresurgenceoffloggingwasinitiallyduetothe"garroting"panicof1862causedbyshortlivedrashofLondonstreetrobberiesthatthepressplayedup.6 Choking,
suffocating,orstranglingtocommitarobberywasheldtobesounmanlyandsoprevalentadeedastorequirethespecialpunishmentspecifiedintheGarrotingAct.
Thehighpointforfloggingforthoseconvictedofrobberywithviolenceoccurredin1894,whensixtymenwerefloggedsuchpunishmentsthereaftersharplydeclined
only130weresochastisedbetween1900and1913.7 Manymembersofthelawabidingpublicnodoubtfeltbetterwhentheyreadofthefatethatawaitedsuch
felons,butnostatisticalproofoftheeffectivenessoffloggingasadeterrentwaseveradvanced.8

Inthelatterdecadesofthenineteenthcentury,fearsofrobberywanedandthecampaigntoextendfloggingtomoralcrimeswaspursued.Attemptsweremadein
1853,1856,and1857tohavethe"cat"appliedtothoseconvictedofassaultsonwomenandchildren.Manyjudgesclaimedthatthelashwasneededwhenacrime
involvedaman's"baseness,depravityorcowardlyabuseofstrength."9 YetintheUnitedKingdom,fourwifebeatingbillsweredefeated.Thekeycounterargument,
advancedbythemorecautiousmagistrates,wasthatsuchapenaltywouldmakeitevenharderthanitalreadywastogetaconvictions.10

IntheUnitedStatesin1885,abillwasintroducedinMassachusettstopunishwifebeatingwiththewhippingpost.LucyStone,theearlywomen'srightsadvocate,
organizedsupportinitsfavor.11ItpassedintheHousebutlostintheSenate.Whipping,authorizedbytheoriginal1790actofCongressasapunishmentforcrimes,
hadbeenabolishedin1839.12WiththeCivilWar,itwasendedintheAmericanarmyandinthenavyasnolongerasuitableformofdisciplinefor"freemen."13Yet
somestatesretaineditespeciallyfordealingwithboys.TheRepublicansledthecampaignbetween1876and1906foritsreintroductionaspartofageneraldesireto
legislateonmorality.InNewYorkandChicago,attemptsweremadetohavechildmolesters,perpetratorsofincest,andhabitualcriminalsflogged.Thecampaigns
linkeduptheinterestsofthoseinvolvedinchildrescue,temperance,socialpurity,andwomen'srights,whocalledonthestatetostepinasamoralfatherandpunish
the"brutishsoninlaw."14

InEnglandtheattempttohaverapepunishedbyfloggingwasnarrowly

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defeatedin1864,buttheoutcrythatfollowedW.T.Stead'sexposofchildprostitutionin"TheMaidenTributeofModernBabylon"ledtothe1885CriminalLaw
AmendmentAct,whichraisedtheageofconsenttosixteen,madeprocurationofwomenandchildrenacriminaloffensepunishedbyatermnotexceedingtwoyears
andintroducedfloggingasapenaltyforyouthsundersixteenconvictedofassaultingagirlunderthirteen.15Inthelate1880sand1890s,grandjuries,Quarter
Sessions,magistrates,andtowncouncilscontinuedtocallfortheextensionofcorporalpunishmenttoawiderangeofsexualoffenses.16ConservativeMPsin
particularpushedforactionagainst"abominablecrimes,"bywhichtheyhintedatbestialityandsodomy.17

Suchagoalwastoanextentachieved,notbyproducingnewlawsbutbyextendingtheprovisionsoftheexistingVagrancyAct.UndertheVagrancyActof1744,
"incorrigiblerogues"weretobewhippedinpublicbeforebeingreturnedtotheirplaceofsettlement.TherevisedActof1824,whichretainedwhippingasaprovision
forthoseconvictedasecondtime,wasaimedatmiserabledownandoutersnotbrutalcriminals.Itsfloggingprovisionswereusedinfrequentlythoughnever
abandoned.18In1904,forexample,fiveoldmenwerewhippedformerelybeggingandsleepingrough.Suchscandalsenragedlaborsupporters,revealingastheydid
thatthechiefeffectofthevagrancyactwastocriminalizepoverty.

TheoriginalityoftheamendedVagrancyActof1898wasthatitheldthatthosesummarilyconvictedofmalesexualdeviancysuchaspimps,maleprostitutes,and
exhibitionistswouldbepunishedinthesamemannerasvagrants.19Suchanamalgamationmightatfirsthandappearbizarre,buttrampswerethoughtbymanyto
posebothasocialandsexualthreat.IntheUnitedStates,accordingtotheReverendFrankCharlesLaubach,itwassocommonforaboytobe"enslavedbyatramp
forimmoralpurposes"thatthelatterwentbythewellknownappellationof"jocker."Theterm"punk,"whichintheeighteenthcenturywasusedtorefertorotten
woodorsomethingequallyworthless,attheendofthenineteenthcenturydesignatedapassivemalehomosexual,inparticularatramp'syoungcompanion.Some
minorcriminalswerelikable,concededLaubach,but"Thepervertisfarontowardinsanity,andisusuallyloathsome."20

TheEnglish1898vagrancyact,inallowingmagistratestodealsummarilywitharangeofmenchargedwithminorsexcrimes,deprivedthelatteroftherightsaccorded
moreseriouscriminals.IftheywerefoundguiltyundertheVagrancyActofindecentassault,livingontheearningsofprostitutes,or"masqueradinginfemaleattire,"
theywereconvictedas

Page17

"incorrigiblerogues."Floggingwasallowedasapunishmentforsuchimmoralactsinparticularfor"solicitationbyamalepersonforimmoralpurposes."21JudgeA.J.
LawrieatLondonSessionspassedanumberofsuchpunishmentsagainstmaleprostitutesandmaletransvestites.Thecruelironyofthesituationwasthathomosexual
acts,thoughcondemnedbythelaw,werenotthemselvespunishablebyflogging,butsolicitationwas

Mendrivenbyexhibitionistictendenciesweresimilarlyflogged.TheLeedsMercuryof10April1914reportedthataman,convictedsixorseventimespreviouslyfor
thesameoffenseofexposinghimself,hadjustbeengiventwelvestrokes.22Floggingwasused"incasesofindecentexposureandsimilaroffences,"butthesewere,
accordingtomanyobservers,reallycasesofdiseaseorimbecility.23DoctorsagreedthatthecompulsionwasrelatedtomentalimbalanceandtheHomeOfficewasin
factawarethattheexhibitionistwasnotasseriousathreatasthemanwhocommittedanindecentassault,yettheHomeSecretarycontinuedtoregardfloggingasan
appropriateformofpunishmentfortheformer.24Itwasnotendeduntil1948.25

Thosewhoexposedthemselvesorassaultedgirlswere,thoughtaprogressivemindedobserverlikeJosephCollinsonoftheHumanitarianLeague,"miserable
specimensofhumanity,allofthemtobepitied,andsomeofthemfitsubjectsforalunaticasylum."26Butinfacttheydidnotevenreceivethetreatmentmetedoutto
commoncriminals.Undermodernlawfloggingwasnotallowedforserioussexualcrimes,andthosesotriedusuallyhadtheprivilegeoftrialbyjury.Thisdidnothold
ifasinthecaseofexhibitionistsormaleprostitutestheyweretriedundertheVagrancyAct.27Moreover,untilthecreationoftheCourtofCriminalAppealin
1908,theaccusedhadnorighttoappealtheirsentences.Thoughcrimesofviolencesuchasrapeandindecentassaultwerepunishedwithlongprisonterms,minor
malemoraloffensesweretreatedasiftheywereinsomesenseworse.

ThecorporalpunishmentcrusadepeakedwiththeWhiteSlavePanicof1912.28Inasensationalistcampaignjournalistsandpoliticianssucceededinconvincingthe
generalpublicthatEnglishwomenwereatriskofbeingdruggedorseducedintoprostitutionbyhoardsofforeignprocurers.29The1898VagrancyActhadalready
includedwhippingsfor"souteneurs."butalarmisttalkaboutwomenbeingshanghaiedintothesextradewasrevivedin1911bypeoplesuchasLordAberdeen,who
inatalktotheNationalVigilanceAssociationcalledforthewhippingofprocurers.30In1912the

Page18

LiberalgovernmentwiththesupportofallpartiespassedtheCriminalLawAmendmentActbetterknownastheWhiteSlaveTrafficBillwhichmandatedthe
floggingofmensummarilyconvictedofbeingpimps.InboththeHouseofCommonsandLords,referenceswereevenmadetobranding,crucifying,andexterminating
suchmiscreants.31Asitwas,nomaximumnumberofstrokeswasfixedfortheirfloggingsunlikeasintheprovisionsoftheGarrotersAct,thenumberwaslefttothe
discretionofthecourts.32Thegovernmentthusleftthepublicwiththeimpressionthatthesafetyofsocietywasmoreendangeredbythepimpthanbythestrangler.33

ItclearlysalvedtheBritishconsciencetobelievethatwomenwereforcedintoprostitutionbybulliesratherthanbysheereconomicnecessity.Infactitwasraretofind
casesofprocurement.Onlyeightayearhadbeenbroughttocourtduringtheperiod19001909.UnderthestimulusoftheWhiteSlavePanic,thenumberjumpedto
seventythreein1913,thenfelltofortyonein1914,andby1929wasfinallybacktofiveorsixayear.34Somezealotswantedtogostillfartherintrackingdown
thosewhoviolatedthestandardsofmaledecency.ADutyandDisciplineSocietywasformedtoadvancetheuseofthecat,rod,andbirch.TheBritishAntiMormon
League,reportedtheDailySketch,soughtthefloggingofMormonelders.35WilliamTallack,oftheJohnHowardSociety,calledforuseofthelashagainstanarchists
whohad"scattereddeathandmiseryamongstpeaceablecitizensbymeansofdynamiteorsimilarexplosives."36Dr.H.C.Millersoughtthefloggingofmale
drunkards.TheyellowpresscouldalwaysbereliedupontodemandtheextensionoffloggingtoyoungmenfrequentingHydeParkforimmoralpurposesorfor
perpetratorsofincest.Yetoncethe1912actwaspassed,themoralpanicsubsided.Althoughin1913thefivethousandtelephone"girls"inLondonwerewarnedby
theirsuperiorstolookoutfordruggedchocolates,theoutbreakofWorldWarIturnedthereadingpublic'sattentionfromquestionsofseductiontofarmoreserious
issues.37

Explainingthesuccessofthecorporalpunishmentcampaigninitiallyposesachallenge,counteringasitdoesthegenerallyacceptedaccountofnineteenthcentury
criminalsbeingsubjectedtoevermore"humane,"rational,andreformistpunishments."Itisnoteasy,"theauthorsofthefullestaccountoftheBritishfloggingcraze
state,"toputtheadvocatesandopponentsoffloggingintoneatcategories."38Predictablymostconservativessupportedsuchactions,thoughsomedidnot.Less
predictablewasthesupportgivenfloggingbyLiberalsand"progressives"includingJohnStuartMillandHarrietMartineau.Althoughheconsideredalmostanypunish

Page19

mentpreferabletoflogging,Millstated,"Inthecase,however,ofcertaingravemoraldelinquencies,chieflythosewhichareeitherofacowardlyorbrutalcharacter,
corporalpunishmentinthatorsomeequivalentformmaybeadmissible."39EvenmembersoftheJohnHowardSociety,manyopponentsofcapitalpunishment,and
thesupportersofthereformatorymovement,thoughcriticalofthecrueltyoftheprisonsystem,backedthecallforthelash,thelattergroupbecauseitwouldatleast
keepboysoutofprison.

Ontherationallevel,theproponentsoffloggingarguedthatprisonsexpensiveandenslavingdidnotalwaysworkthatliberalreformershadgonetoofarin
coddlingprisonersthatbyprovidingthemwithfood,lodging,andtraining,thesoftheartedpositivelyencouragedthecrimesofruffians,evildoers,andhoodlumsand
finallythatsocietyneededtobeeffectivelyprotected.40SimeonBaldwin,theleadingAmericanadvocateofthewhipandlatergovernorofRhodeIslandprovided
areportonthesubjectfortheAmericanBarAssociationin1886.Baldwinarguedthatfloggingwaslesscostlythanimprisonmentandthecharityneededtosuccorthe
felon'sfamilyshouldhebejailed.41Otherproponentsoffloggingpresenteditasarationalresponsetomoraloutragesandlikeneditsopponentsintheirsentimentalism
totheantivivisectionistfaddistsopposedtotheadvanceofscientificmedicine.

Buttherealimpactoftheargumentoftheproponentsofcorporalpunishmentlayinwhatmightbecalledthe"irrational"sideoftheirargument,theirsensationalist
portrayalsofthevictimsandperpetratorsofviolence:"theparticularclassofcruelandbrutalmenwhoareapttodespiseotherinfluences,andfromwhomitis
necessarythattheirordinaryvictims,weakwomenandtenderchildren,shallbemoreeffectuallyprotected."42ThesensationalistdeviceexploitedbyHenry
Labouchre,theLiberalM.P.,inhisnewspaperTruth,wastopublishweeklyaccountscomparingtheseverepunishmentsleveledagainstthoseconvictedofproperty
crimesandthelaxonesagainstthoseconvictedofbrutalcrimes.TypicalexamplesweretheWarwickshiremanwhoassaultedasevenyearoldgirlandwasfinedten
shillingswhileanotherwhostolefourshirtsreceivedthreeyears,andtheGloucestershiremanwhorepeatedlymadeindecentassaultsonamarriedwomanand
receivedsixweeksinjailwhileonewhostolenailsgotfiveyearspenalservitude."Apparentlyverylittleimportanceisattachedtoachild'spurity,orawoman's
honor,"anoutragedLabouchrelamented.43Societyhadtoprotectitselflikewise,declaredWilliamTallack,secretaryoftheJohnHowardSociety,against"aruffian
whohasviolatedyoungchildrenorbrutallymaimedweakwomen."44

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Sexualfearsdominatedsuchmelodramaticarguments.Ifanywoman"fell,"claimedthecampaigners,itwasduetothemachinationsofsuchruffians,neverbyherown
volition.Thelashpromisedtocowsuchbrutesandsoendforeverthesocialblightofprostitution."ButsolongasBritish,AmericanandContinentallawpermits,as
hitherto,thenastiestandvilestofhumankindtoderiveaprofitabletradefromtheruinoffemalevirtueandthecausationofcruelestmiserytomyriadsofpitiable
creatures,solongwillprostitutionflourish."45Theuseoftheimageofthechildvictimwasanevenmoreeffectiveploy.SoTallackclimaxedalonglistofhorrible
assaultscommittedonwomenwithachillingassertion:"ThereisacrimestillmeanerthanthattowhichIhavealluded,thatamancancommittowardstheweakersex.
Itiswhenheluresachildintodishonor."46

Thecorporalpunishmentcampaignersplayedofftheimageofthesaintlychildorwomanvictimagainstastylizedvillain.Theycontinuallyharpedonthenotionthatthe
ruffian'sgreatestfailingwashislackofmanliness.Thosesubjectedtothelashweredescribednotasmenbutas"humandogs,""despicablemiscreants,""inhuman
foes,""monsters,"''cowardsandbullies."Inthewordsofonepolitician,thesewerethecruelandcowardly,"comparedwithwhomtheordinarythiefisaparagonof
virtue."Suchbruteshadforfeitedanyrighttobetreatedashumansandhadtobesubjected,aswereanimals,tothewhip."Itisabsurdtotalkabout'degrading'them
bythisinfliction.TheyhavealreadydegradedthemselvestotheUttermost.Anyprocessoftreatmentwhicheithercheckstheircrimes,orbringsthemtosomesenseof
wholesomefearorshame,isatonceanElevationandaMercy."47

Notsurprisingly,suchproponentsoffloggingplayedonracialfears,attributingsexualassaultsonwhitewomenandchildrentotheclassicoutsiders,the"Negroesand
Jews,"the"sleek,softlivingdegenerates,"and"diseasedcreatures"whohauntedcitycenters.48Theroleofthepimporprocurer,claimedArthurLee,theleading
parliamentarysupporteroftheWhiteSlavebill,wassomethingthatnohealthyEnglishmancouldembrace."Averylargeproportionofthem,Iamgladtosay,arenot
Englishmen.Iregretthatsomeare,butifthehon.Memberscouldseenotmerelyforeigners.notmerelydebasedEnglishmen,butdozensofnegroesintheWestEnd
ofLondonrunningwhiteEnglishgirlsonthestreets,theycouldseeatwhomwewishtoget."49

SuchtalkwasalsoresponsibleforthesuccessofthewhippingcampaignintheUnitedStates.WiththeWhiteCapsactiveinIndianaandtheKuKluxKlaninthe
South,someAmericanproponentsoffloggingpresented

Page21

themselvesashumanitarians,arguingthattheoptionoffloggingblacksmightbeturnedtobywhitesasanalternativetolynching.50Buttheproponentsalsoclaimed
thatblackmenenjoyedimprisonment,offeringasitdidfoodandlodging.Moredisturbingly,prisonheldouttheappealtoblackmenofbeingtheoneplaceinAmerica
wheretheymightfindsomethingapproximatingracialequality."Theyfindthere[intheprison]theonlygroundwheretheycanminglewiththeirwhitefellowcitizenson
termsofsocialequality.Buttheyaresensitivetophysicalpain.Afloggingtheydreadjustasaboydreadsawhippingfromhisfather,becauseithurts."51The
AmericandebateoverfloggingwhichwassuccessfullyintroducedinMarylandin1882,Delawarein1901,andOregon1905wasthusasymptomofanew
racismthatfocusedonthedangerousblackfreedman.52TheBritishalsoemployedfloggingtokeepdownasubjectracetheuseoftherattancanewasacommon
meansofpunishmentinIndiathroughoutthenineteenthcentury.In1878alone75,223suchwhippingswereadministered.53Fewpunishmentsbettersymbolizedthe
attemptsofthe"mothercountry"toinfantilizerestiveandunrulynatives.

Afewproponentsofcorporalpunishmentweresoconcernedbytheissueofprotectingtheracefromdangerousmenthattheytookthenextlogicalstepand
embracedthenotionofsterilizingorcastratingvagrantsandsexualdeviants.SimeonBaldwin,citingthesupportofvariousdoctorsandtheWomen'sChristian
TemperanceUnion,arguedthatcastrationwasasuitablepunishmentforsodomyandrape.

Itiswhatmanysociologistsaregravelyconsideringasapossibleandpermissiblemodeofpreventingthepropagationofadegenerateclassofimbecilesorpaupers.It
iswhat,infact,isbeingactuallydoneinaquietwaybynotafewofthemedicalprofessionwhoareinchargeofalmshousesandotherpublicinstitutionsinwhichare
feeblemindedchildren,theprogenyofaworthlessstock.Theircastrationissometimesdeemedanappropriateremedytowhichtoresorttopreventtheirfallinginto
vicesordisorders,towhichtheirnaturemakesitdifficultforthemtoofferanyeffectualresistanceandnonethelessappropriate,becauseitwillendthelineofafamily
whichismisusingtheearth.54

InEnglandWilliamHarbuttDawson,whohadgivenevidencebeforethe1904DepartmentalCommitteeofInquiryonthepoorlawreform,likewisehintedonly
sterilizationwouldendthemultiplicationoftheidle,theprofessionalloafers,andthesocialparasiteswholivedbybegging,blackmail

Page22

ing,andpillagingandenjoyedonlythe"parody"ofafamilylife.55Frenchproponentsofsterilizationhailedthis"American"formofchastisementitwasfirstenacted
inIndianain1907asadefenseweaponthatcouldbeusedagainstmenwholackedanysenseofmoralityandpersonaldignity.56

Howisonetointerpretthecorporalpunishmentcampaign?ClassandracepreoccupationswereclearlyinvolvedinthesuccessofthemovementinbothAmericaand
England.Viewedinthecontextofthe1890sdepressionandrisingworkermilitancy,thesurgingfloggingcrusade,inexploitingthespecterofincreasednumbersof
habitualcriminals,tramps,andperverts,whoonlyfearedthelash,markedaclearresurgenceofsocialconservatism.Theclassbiasofthelawswasobvious.Tories
wereawarethattheywereaccusedofindulging"inthecongenialtaskoffloggingtheworkingman."57Inthedebateoverfloggingprocurers,onehostileM.P.pointed
outthatitwasridiculoustoclaimthatthelawappliedtoboththerichandpoor."Howcoulditbepossibleforapoorwomantobekeepingamanwhohadmillionsof
money?Thethingisutterlyabsurd,andwhatwearelegislatingfor,andwhatweareprovidingpunishmentfor,isaspecialsetofcriminalswhohappentobepoor
men,whilethereisabsolutelynopossiblechanceofyoursecuringconvictionsagainstwealthypersonsemployedinthistrade."Anotherpointedoutthatthelawwas
nowgoingtoforceapoormantoprovehewasnotlivingontheavailsofprostitutionjustasithadpreviouslyforcedpoorwomentoprovetheywerenot
prostitutes.58

Thewayinwhichclass,race,andgenderpreoccupationsoverlappedwasmadeespeciallyclearwhen,intheHouseofCommonsdebateovertheWhiteSlaveAct,
attemptsweremadetodeclareintercoursewithanyfeeblemindedwomanstatutoryrape.Thattheintentwasnotsomuchtoprotectwomenfrommalelustasto
sparesocietytheneedforcaringfortheresulting"unfit"offspringwasindicatedwhenthequestionwasaskedhowonedefined"feeblemindedness."Animbecilewas,
Dr.Chappleansweredcrisply,obviouslyanywomanlivingoncharitywhohadmorethanoneillegitimatechild.59

Atfirstglancethereintroductionoffloggingmightbetakenasasignofasensitivitytotheturnofthecenturygrowingfeministagitationinfavorofequalrights.
Protectionofwomenandchildrenwascertainlyusedasabannerbytheproponentsofcorporalpunishment,butmanywereinfactextremesocialconservativesand
accordinglyopposedtowomen'semancipation.Someoftheiropponentswereneverthelesstakeninbytheirrhetoric.LawsonTait,inatalktotheHumanitarian
League,attributedthecallforthelashtoa"cliqueofoldfashionedwomansuffragists."60Suffragistswerenotadversetotakingadvantageofthewhiteslavery
agitation,but

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Mrs.Pankhurst,theirmostradicalleader,pointedoutthehypocrisyoftheproponentsofthelash:theyclaimedtobeopposedtoprostitution,buttheyonlywanted
pimpstobewhipped,nottheprostitutes'customers.61

Opponentsofthelash,inanefforttopointouttheillogicalitiesoftheargumentsinfavorofflogging,askedwhythosewhopresentedthemselvesasdefendersof
childrendidnotaskforthefloggingofwomenafterall,theycommittedmanyoftheattacksontheyoung.Andotherswonderedwhyonlymenweretobepunished
forprocuringwhenmanybrothelswererunbywomen.62MoreseriouslytheHumanitarianLeaguepointedoutthattheLiberalgovernment,seekingtowardoff
suffragistdemands,wasexploitingthefloggingcrazeinordertosilence,notrespondto,thespokespersonsofwomen'srights:"Theywillnotgivewomenthevote,
whichwouldbeinaccordancewithLiberalprinciples,buttheytrytoconsolethembywhippingWhiteSlavetraffickers,whichisinviolationwiththoseprinciples.As
theParliamentarycorrespondentoftheDailyNewsshrewdlyremarked:'AnyonewhohaswatchedthetreatmentofthissortofBillcanhardlyavoidtheconclusion
thatthedefeatoftheweakeningamendmentsisthedirectresultofthefranchisemovement.'"63Indeedsomeoftheproponentsofthewhipblatantlyrevealedtheir
antifeministcolors.ErnestVizetelleyintheDailyTelegraphrecommendedthatthebirchbeusedonmilitantsuffragettes.Mr.JusticeDayexpressedhisregretthathe
couldnotflogwomen.64Proponentsoffloggingsawthemselvesaschivalrouslycomingtotherescueofladiesindistresstheywerenotabouttoletwomenhelp
themselves.

TheWhiteSlaveTrafficActof1912wasahighlyemotionalresponsetothefearthat,withoutthehelpofspeciallaws,Britishwomencouldnotbekept"pure."The
moralpuritysupportersoffloggingclungtothenotionsofanolder,simplerworldinwhichhelplessfemalesnaturallyturnedtomenforprotection.Thedangerouscity,
withitsforeigners,drugs,cinemas,andautomobiles,wasthearenainwhichtousethewordsoftheArchbishopofCanterbury"silly"and"credulous"butinnocent
womenweremostatrisk.65Thosewomenwhoinsistedonleadingmoreindependentliveswereregardedbytheproponentsoffloggingaspartoftheproblem.
Protectingyouthsandwomenmeantmoreeffectivelycontrollingthem.TeresaBillingtonGreig,anactivesuffragist,wasenragedthattheimplicitmessageofthe
''neuropathsandprudes"whosowedtheseedsoftheWhiteSlavePanicwasthatwomencoulddonothingtohelpthemselvestheyhadtorelyontheprotectionof
males.Asawomanwhohadrunawayfromhomeatseventeen,shewasindignantthatfearmongersslanderedbothmenandwomeninclaimingthateverymissinggirl
hadbeenkidnapped.

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"Itispositivelynauseatingthatweshouldhavecasesandstatisticsofgirlsmissingfromhomequotedwithsolemntoneandfingerpointingtothebrothel,asthough
thereandonlytherecouldtheybe."66

Theideathatwomenwereatriskoncetheyventuredforthfromthehomewashardlynew.Thekeyinsightofferedbyagenderedanalysisofthefloggingcampaignis
thatitconjuredupthespecterofnewvillainstribesofmaledeviantswhoposednewdangerstotheweakandinnocent.Womenwerealwayswomen,butsomemen
werefailingthechallengeto"beaman."Churchmen,defending"Christianmanliness"maintainedthatthe''dignityofBritishmanhood"couldonlybeassertedbythe
whip.67Enthusiasticsupportersofthelash,suchasColonelLockwood,declaredtheywereatwarnotwithamanbutananimal,onewhose"manlikeinstinctshave
vanished,"whohaslost"allideasofhonorandallideasofanythingwhichmakesamanaman."68Lytteltonassertedthatprocurerswere"menwhohavenotthe
natureofman."69Suchoverheatedrhetoricwasnodoubtcoloredbycontemporaryliteraryaccountsthatplayedupthefrighteningprospectsofthedangersposedby
anunleashingofthedarksideofthemalepsyche.RobertLouisStevenson'sStrangeCaseofDr.JekyllandMr.Hydehadpresentedthe"apelike"and"dwarfish"
Hydeasabeingmarkedby"completemoralinsensibility."OscarWilde'sPortraitofDorianGray,anotherclassicman'sstoryallaboutmen,likewiseconcluded
withtheportrait,whichinmirroringonlytheinfluencesofthepassions,hadbecomea"monstrousandloathsomething."70Similarlytheauthorsofmodernhorrortales,
suchasDracula(1897)anddetectivestories,whichhadrecentlyemergedasanimportantnewliterarygenre,enjoyedgreatsuccessinasmuchastheyprojectedelite
males'sexualfearsandanxietiesontothe"other."71

Thisexaggeratedhatredthat"normal"mensovociferouslydeclaredtheyhadofthe"abnormal"haddisturbingsexualundertones,whichthoseinthecampaignagainst
floggingcouldnothelpbutnotice.72OppositionwasledbytheHumanitarianLeagueunderitssecretaryJosephCollinsonwiththesupportofsuchintellectualsas
EdwardCarpenter,HenrySalt,andGeorgeBernardShaw.73Thatmanyofthesesamemenwereinterestedinsexreformwasnoaccident.74Theysuspectedthatthe
corporalpunishmentcampaignwaslargelyfueledbyconservativemales'fears,notofthethreatthatmaledeviantsposedwomenandchildrenbutthethreatthey
posed"normal"men.Andthesethreatsinturncouldbedetectedtobeatleastinparttherepresseddesiresoftherespectableprojectedontothe"other."75

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ThomasdeQuinceyearlierinthecenturyhadpointedtothesexualnatureoftheflogger'smotivationwhenhedeclaredthatfloggingwastomaleswhatrapewasto
females.AfternotingthatJohnDonnehaddefendedanoblewoman'spreferencefordeathtothedishonorofrape,Quinceyassertedthat"withregardtotheother
sex,corporalpunishmentisitspeculiarandsexualdegradationand,ifeverthedistinctionofDonnecanbeappliedsafelytoanycase,itwillbetothecaseofhimwho
choosestodieratherthantosubmittothatignominy."76Thelusttoinflictpainandseebloodflowwaspalpableinmanyofthepronouncementsoftheflogginglobby.
"Themanwhogratifieshisownpassionsattheexpenseofacruelandhumiliatinginsultinflictedonanotherishimselfshamefullyandpainfullyhumiliated,"declared
JamesFitzjamesStephen,clearlyobliviousofthefactthatasadefenderofthewhiphewasdescribinghimself.77Onecolonelwasnotembarrassedtocryoutin
debate,"IwanttoseethemarksofgoodBritishmuscleontheirbacks!"78AnotherM.P.saidhewaswillingtodothewhippinghimself.AnopposingM.P.warned
thatsuchoutburstsrevealedanunsavorysadisticbentthatwarrantedexamination.Hehadhimselfwitnessedafloggingandrecalledthatthewarderwhohadfirst
shrankfromthebloodheshedsoon"seemedtobetakenwithabloodlust,andcouldhardlystophimselffrominflictingthepunishment.''79But,inthispreFreudian
age,theselfdeclaredopponentsofsexualdeviancywerehappytocontinuetoacknowledgetheirmorbiddesireswithstartlingcandor.

GeorgeBernardShaw,inalectureof24March1898on"Flagellomania,"pointedoutthatfloggingwasaformofdebauchery,amaniabased"onasensualinstinct"
anda"specialdisorderoftheimagination."80Hereturnedtotheissueina1912article,spellingoutthefactthatthoseinfavorofthelashignoredorpretendednotto
knowthatthedesiretoflogorbefloggedwasavice.Butraidsonbrothelsalwaysuncoveredwhippingparaphernalia.TheresaBerkeley'sfamousestablishmentwas
reportedin1899tohouseaspecial"horse."NewspaperssuchastheNewsoftheWorldfrequentlyreportedprostitutes'useofbirchesonwillingclients.81Yet
sexualignoranceshouldnotbefullydiscounted.Somenewspaperproprietorsweresodense,accordingtoSalt,thatin1909theyprintedalongseriesofletterstothe
editoronthebirchingofgirls,notrealizingthattheywerebeingexploitedbythosewithaprurientinterestinindecency.Thecorrespondencewasonlydroppedwhena
perceptivecolleaguealertedtheeditor.

Salt,likeShaw,dweltontheironythatthelashwasdefendedbythe

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purifiersofmoralsandtracedthe"psychopathicside"ofthequestionfromJeanJacquesRousseau'sConfessionsthroughtothecontemporaryanalysesofsadismand
masochismprovidedbyEllis,Bloch,andMoll.Saltwasnotopposedtovoluntaryandharmlesssexualpracticesbutattackedenforcedflogging,whichheasserted,
was"thegrossestandmostsensual"formofphysicalviolence.Thecampaignagainstthewhiteslavetradewould,Shawagreed,createyetanotherrushofmentothe
brothelstodemandtheservicesthattheyreadaboutinthenewspapers."TheAct,"heconcluded,"isafinaltriumphoftheviceitpretendstorepress."82Salt
concurred:"thegoodpeoplewhothinktheycanputdownvicebyhavingrecoursetotheimplementsofthebrothelareunintentionallydoingmoretopromote
immoralitythantorepressit.''83

Thefloggingcampaignersattemptedtodividemenintotwocampsthegoodandthebad.Theyowedtheirsuccesstothefeelingmanyinrespectablesocietyhadat
theturnofthecenturythatthenumbersofthelatterwereincreasingandtheywereinexorablyenteringanewanddangerouslysexualizedworld.AnEnglishM.P.,
whoin1912askedhimselfwhathadresultedfromalltheattemptsmadeinthepastseveraldecadestocontrolvice,replied."Anincrease,Iamsorrytosay,of
juveniledepravity,ofincest,andsodomy.ThepaintedboyhasmadehisappearanceintheLondonstreets.Hewasnotknownagenerationago."84Thiswas
nonsense.YeteveniftheknowledgeablehadpointedoutthatsuchyouthshadhauntedDruryLaneandCoventGardenacenturyearlier,itwouldhavehadlittle
effect.ThesuccessofthefloggingcampaigndemonstratedthatintheAngloSaxonworldsuchthreatswerethoughttohavesosuddenlyandsoseriouslyrisenthatthe
"normal"hadtoturntothewhiptobeatthemback.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

ThefloggingcampaignwasapeculiarlyAngloSaxonresponsetothepurportedthreatmalevagrantsandpervertsposedtherespectable,butviewedinthelarger
culturalcontextofthelatenineteenthcentury,itcanalsobeseenasasymptomofamoregeneralshoringupofthedefinitionof"normal"masculinity.85Themodern
senseofwhatitmeant"tobeaman,"whichwashammeredoutinthelatterdecadesofthenineteenthcentury,wasindeedbasednotsomuchonpositiveassertionsas
onthecastigationofthosemalesdeclaredtobe"unmanly."AstheWhiteSlavePanicdemonstrated,itwaseasierforjournalistsandpoliticianstodecrywhatthey
tooktobealackof"manliness"thantoagreeonthespecifics

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oftruemasculinity.AndwellbeyondBritain'sshore,thosepreoccupiedbymanlinesscarriedoutasimilarprocessofconstructingimagesofdangerousmaleoutsiders.

Toserveascontrasttohealthymasculinity,latenineteenthcenturypropagandistscreatedanumberofstockcountertypes.Firstcametheprocurerorpimp,the
favoritetargetoftheBritishcorporalpunishmentlobby.IntheUnitedStates,theMannActwaspassedtotargetsuchindividuals.86Thecontinentalregulationist
states,suchasFranceandGermany,whichcontrolledandpolicedprostitutioncouldnot,forobviousreasons,becomequiteasarousedbysuchacharacter.87
Nevertheless,underthepressureofmoralityleaguesandfearsofvenerealdisease,theyjoinedthecampaignagainst"whiteslavery,"salvingtheirconscienceby
implyingthatvicewastheresponsibilityofthe"other."88

MoreoverinFranceapanicovertheactivitiesofgangsofyoungworkingclasspettycriminalsdubbedbythepopularpress"Apaches"becausetheircruelty
supposedlymirroredthatoftheIndianssubduedbytheUnitedStatesmilitaryinthe1880scomplementedtheEnglishwhiteslaveagitation.89Thestereotypeofthe
urbanloutcanbefoundinDr.Lejeune'ssensationalworkFautilfouetterlesApaches?(1910).Londonhaditshooligans,Romeitsteppisti,andParis,Lejeune
warned,haditsApaches.90TheApache'slackofmanlinesswasmadeapparentbyhisuseofknives,hiscruelty,hiscowardlyattacksonthedefenseless,andmostall
byhissexualexploitationofwomen.Hewasadegeneratewhoborethestigmataofvenerealdisease,alcoholism,andan"almostfeminine"slightnessofbuild.91
DefendersofthelashinFrance,suchasthecontributorstothepopularjournalLeMatin,arguedthatitssuccessinEnglandandtheUnitedStatesandDenmark's
returnedtothe''bastonnade"in1905showedthatthedangerousyoungmalescould,ifdealtwithseverely,besubdued.92

AlexandreLacassagne,professorofcriminalanthropologyatLyon,wasFrance'smosteminentproponentofthewhip.Theguillotinewasusedlessfrequently,and
prisons,heargued,hadincreasinglylosttheirpowertoinspirefear,particularlyinthatabnormal5percentoftheschoolpopulationthatwasproducedbyalcoholic
parents.Antcoloniessanelysacrificedtheiruselessmembersinmodernhumansocietiesthesoftheartedinsisteddeviantsbespared.Lacassagneconcludedthat
France,facedwiththirtythousandprecocious,drunkenloutswhoonlyrespectedthewhip,hadnooptionbuttoturntothe"manireforte"ofcorporalpunishment.93

Thesecondstockmalecountertypewasthevagrant.Thevagrantwas

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themanwho,likethewoman,purportedlydidnotwork.Theimagesofthefecklessvagrant,thelyinggypsy,thehomelesstramp,andthethoughtlessnomad,ran
completelycountertobourgeoismoralizingontheupliftingnatureofworkandthrift.Thesewanderersappearedasincreasinglyfrighteningandsinisterfiguresinan
evermoresettledurbanlandscape.Moreoverthevaguedefinitionsgivenvagabondagehadtheeffectofblurringthelinebetweencrimeandunemployment.
Observers,inreferringtoitinerantworkersas"tribes"ofsavagesandriffraff,exploitedthefearsthat"honestworkmen"couldbesomehowdraggedbackdownthe
evolutionaryscalebyassociationwithsuchdegenerates.

CesareLombroso,theItaliancriminologistwhopresentedthetrampasabiologicalthrowback,anatavisticbeing,settheinitialtermsofthelatenineteenthcentury
discussionofvagrancy.94InAmericathehoboinitiallyenjoyedamoreromanticimage,yeteventherethetenorofthetimescouldbedetectedinJosiahFlynt's
openingstatementinTrampingwithTramps(1899)thathewasinspiredtolookat"humanparasites"and"criminals"ontheroadafterobservinghislaboratory
colleagues'investigationofvermin.95Unmanlinessapparentlycouldbecontagious.HiscountrymantheReverendFrankCharlesLaubachdeclaredthatrealmen
workedvagrancywastherefugeof"cowards"giventodrugs,drink,gambling,andsexualimmorality.Theproximityofsuchmeninjuredanddefiledhonest
laborers.96AccordinglyturnofthecenturylaborunrestwasattributedbyAmericanconservativestotheinfluenceofanarchisticforeigntrashwhereasAmerican
populistsbelievedthatthecountrywasbeingdividedbetweentrampsandmillionaires.

InFrancethe"chemineaux,"inparticularItalianbeggars,werelikewisecalledtheenemyofthepeasants.97Gypsiesweresingledoutbytheapprehensiveasthieves.98
Magistratesworriedthatwiththeendingofthe"livret"orworkerspassbookin1890itwouldbehardertokeepthepoorundersurveillance.Urbanworkersneeded
identificationpaperstoobtainjobs,buttrampsdidnot.Jailingofferednoremedy,soitwasclaimed,asvagrantsactuallywanted,atleastduringthewintermonths,to
beimprisoned.99JudgemileFourquet,theleadingFrenchexperton"lesvagabondscriminels."raisedthespecterofanomadicarmyoffourhundredthousandmen,
the"roulans''who,despiteworkopportunitiesthatcouldput"luxuries"withinthereachoftheindustrious,prowledthecountryside.100Theappealoftheroad,withits
dissipationsanddistractions,inevitablyledtodemoralization.CitingasanexamplethecareerofVacher,theserialsexkiller,Fourquetattributedapurportedlate
nineteenthcenturysurgeinmurders,thefts,rapes,andassaultsonchildrentotramps.101Vagrancywas

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presentedbysuchexpertsasapsychological,ratherthanaeconomicproblem.Tramps,likeswindlers,accordingtotheGermanpsychiatristEmileKraeplin,suffered
fromadisordermarkedbyahyperactivityoftheimagination,aninaccuracyofmemory,andaninstabilityoftheemotions.102

Thethirdstockmalecountertypewasthepervert.Insubjectinganumberofmalesexcriminalspimps,transvestites,maleprostitutes,exhibitionists,andpurveyorsof
pornographicmaterialtothelash,theEnglishwererespondingtoawidespreadfearofmalesexualdeviancy.Suchsickindividuals,claimedtheanxious,posedthe
greatestthreatstothevirtueofbothyoungmenandyoungwomen.Attentionwasthusdeflectedawayfromthemaleheterosexualwhoserapesandassaultswere
implicitly"normalized."103Thefactthatbythe1890ssomecommoncriminalswereseekingtojustifytheirassaultsbyclaimingtheirvictimswerehomosexualsshows
howquicklythisnewrankingofasocialbehaviorwaspopularized.

Europeanexpertsinsexuality,whileacknowledgingthedifferentmoresofancientGreeksandEasterncultures,assertedthathealthymalesexualityhad,withthe
advanceofWesternculture,becomeresolutelyheterosexual.Accordinglyevidenceofanyerosionofthenaturalgenderboundarieswasattributedtothe"decadence"
oftheupperclassesorthe"degeneration"ofthelower.PaoloMantegazza,theItaliansexologist,employingthepopularnotionthatontogenyrecapitulatedphylogeny,
arguedthatthegenderdifferencesnecessarilyincreasedwithageandcivilization.Butwitholdagetherewassomeunavoidableslippageelderlymen,forexample,
withtheirembarrassingtempertantrumsandunseemlyflightiness,actedmoreandmoreliketheirfemalecounterparts.104Dandyismandhomosexualitywerecitedby
othersasevidencethateventheyoungermalecouldslipintofemininity.IncentralEuropeOttoWeiningerlamentedtheappearanceofmasculinewomenandfeminine
meninViennaKarlKrauscondemnedhisageasoneofconfusionandbisexuality.

Popularnotionsofthepossibilityofevolution"goingbackward"wereconstantlyexploitedbythoseseekingtoexplaintheapparentlysuddenemergenceofdeviancy.
HenryMaudsley,thepioneeringEnglishpsychiatrist,notedthatmanytalkedofevolution,butdegenerationwasasnaturalandasmuchanongoingprocess.Justas
somenewchemicalproductswereonlymadepossiblebydecompositionofcompounds,

sonewproductsofanasocialorantisocialkindareformedintheretrogrademetamorphosisofthehumankindwhereforeitisthatwemeetwithnotonlydegeneratevarietiesof
thekind,suchasidiotsandlunatics,butalsowithagreatmanyformsandvarietiesofdegradationinpersonswhoareneitheridiotsnorlunatics....

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Theingenuityofvicewhichhe[man]hasachievedinthatrespecthasreachedthelimitofitsvarietyonlyinthelimitsofthephysicalcapacitiesofhisbodilymechanism
sothat,thesehavingbeennowexhausted,happilynoone,howsoevergreathispracticalgenius,willbeabletoinventanewviceofthatsort.105

Manusedhisreasontomultiplyandgratifyselfish,animalpassions,whichanimalsdidnot.Soman,accordingtoMaudsley,wouldnotreturntohisoriginsasa
monkeybutdescendtotherankofaslaveringidiot.

Theemergenceofthehomosexualthetermwasonlycoinedinthe1860swasboththecauseandtheeffectofthegrowingfearofthemale"other."106Untilthe
latterhalfofthenineteenthcentury,thepublicwastoldbyexpertsthatmalelustwas"natural"andunchangeable.Therewasnosuchthingasthehomosexual,although
thereweremenwhoperformedperverseacts.107ThelastsodomitetobeburnedaliveinFranceperishedin1783.Thenineteenthcenturysawashiftawayfroma
concernforparticularsexualactsandtowardthenotionofparticular"types"ofmaledeviants.108InParispoliceofficialssuchasTardieu,Carlier,andMaccreated
andpopularizedtheimageofthehomosexualasthespawnofdegenerativeforces,atavisticurges,andcongenitaldefects.109Theextentofsuchbeliefscanbegauged
byFriedrichEngels'responsewhenKarlMarxsenthimacallforhomosexualrightsthathadbeenwrittenin1869byKarlHeinrichUlrichs:"ThePederastsare
startingtotakestockandtofindthattheyconstituteapowerinthestate.Asyet,anorganizationismissingeventhoughsecretlyitexistsalready....itisluckythat
weourselvesaretoooldtowitnessthevictoryoftheircauseandtopaythepricewithourownbodies.''110

InEnglandLabouchre'samendmenttotheCriminalLawAmendmentActof1885,addedinthefirstplacetoprotecttheyoungofbothsexesfrompredatoryolder
men,hadthechiefeffectofhittingmalesamesexrelations.111Thelegislationcreatedthedeviantsitpoliced.Suddenlyparentsofsonswerealertedbylegislatorsthat
thenewsexualtypesofthepederastandinvertposedaserioussexualdanger.W.T.Stead,themuckrakingjournalist,notedpointedlyatthetimeofOscarWilde's
1895trialthatthevirtueoftheyoungmalewasnowdeclaredsacrosancttheyoungfemalewasstillfairgame."IfOscarWilde,insteadofindulgingindirtytrickswith
boysandmen,hadruinedthelivesofhalfadozensimpletonsofgirls,orhadbrokenupthehomeofhisfriend'swife,noonewouldhavelaidafingeronhim."112

Latenineteenthcenturysocialobserversofyouthworriedmoreabout

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boysthanaboutgirls.Youngwomen,itwasassumed,simplyhadtobepreparedformarriagewhereasyoungmenhadtobetrainedformoreimportantandcomplex
rolesintheworldsoflabor,themilitary,andpolitics.113PsychologistssuchasG.StanleyHallwhocoinedthetermadolescentraisedthealarmthatboyswere
putatriskinurbanenvironmentjustwhentheyweremostimpressionable.114Suchnewpreoccupationswithprotectingyoungmenfueledthelatenineteenthcentury
campaignsagainstsmoking,dancing,drinking,luriddimenovels,andwhatoneobservercalledthe"gangreneofpornography."115MoralentrepreneurssuchasRen
BerangerinFranceandAnthonyComstockintheUnitedStatescreatedrepressiveleaguescallingforcensorship.116InFrancepornographywasparticularlyseenas
fuelingthethreatsofnationaldegenerationanddepopulation.117Ifonewastobelievesuchpropagandists,youngmenonthecontinentwereexposedoutsidelyces
andat"ftespatronales,"cafs,concerts,andtheaterstoaconstantbarrageoftemptationsandseductions.Salaciousmaterialcameintheformsofcards,
photographs,newspapers,books,stereoscopes,andcinematographes.Boyswereoffered,inpublicationsthatcarriedadvertisementsfor"moyensanticonceptionnels"
andabortifacients,thepurchaseofeverythingfromlewdslidestofullyinflatablerubberwomen.118Immoralityledtodebaucheryoverexcitationtosadism,
heterosexualexcessesfinallytohomosexuality.Pornographywasdeclaredtobeevenmoredangerousthanantimilitaristicpropagandatonewnationsthedebauched
notonlyfailedtoreproduce,theybecamerebelsor''Apaches"whodriftedintocriminality.Fortherepublictosurvive,claimedthemoralpurists,letaloneproveits
moralsuperioritytootherregimes,itwasnecessarytosilencethoseseekingtodragyoungmendownintoimmorality.119

Thelastthreattotheidealofmasculinitytowhichthefloggingcrazedrewattentionwasnottheunmanlymanbuttheunwomanlywoman.InEngland,asnotedabove,
someoftheproponentsoffloggingsuggestedthatsuffragettesbesubjectedtothelash.Suchangerwasevidenceofthefeelingsthatmanymenharboredattheturnof
thecentury,thesensethatiftherewereacrisisinmasculinityitwasprimarilyduetothefactthatwomenwereunilaterallyredefiningthemselvesandtherebythe
relationsofbothsexes.Onthecontinentfromthe1870sonward,ahostofmalewriters,playingonstrongmisogynisticculturalthemes,launchedabacklashagainst
themodestadvanceswomenhadmadeinworkandeducation.InFranceAlexandreDumas,mileZolaandOctaveMirbeauaddedtheirnewmisogynisticmusingsto
theoldertheoriesoffemininesubordination

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thathadbeenearlierworkedoutbyJulesMichelet,AugusteComte,andPierreJosephProudhon.Suchwriterspresentedmenasthetrulydispossessedsexand
vulgarlylabeledVictorMarguerite,JulesBois,andLopoldLacour,whomtheyjudgedtobetraitorouslysympathetictowomen'splight,"lesvaginards."120

Misogynyseemedtoadvancewithwomen'semancipation.FreudreportedfromViennathatitwascommontofindthataman"onlydevelopsfullpotencywhenheis
withadebasedsexualobject."121ThiswouldhavemadenosensetoaconfirmedbachelorlikeHenryMaudsley,whoaskedwhatcouldbemoreunworthyofa
manarationalbeingthantobetransportedbythetouch"ofanotherbeinglessrationalthanhimself."122IncentralEurope,asJacquesLeRiderhaspointedout,
themisogynyofSchopenhauer,Nietszche,andWeiningerreachedunparalleledheights.123Therewomenwerecommonlycomparedbytheirdenigratorsinacademic
circlestoJews,blacks,andnativeAmericanIndians.AbooklikePaulJuliusMoebius'sSurl'imbecilitphysiologiquedelafemme(1900)wasabestseller.
Moebius,whoassertedthatwomenweremoreinstinctual,egotistical,anddegeneratethanmales,calledforanewmasculineculturethatwouldheraldthe
"emancipationofmen."ThisphrasewastheactualtitleofabookNorbertGrabowsky'sDieBestimmungdesMenschenpublishedin1897.124

EveninAmericathe"newwoman"wasoftenpresentedbyherfoesasanandrogyneorlesbian.Shewasregardedincollegesneitherasamannorasatraditional
woman.125Maleprofessionalpsychiatristsandpsychologists,inshiftingthedefinitionoffemaledeviancefromrejectionofmotherhoodtorejectionofmen,
increasinglyclassedindependentwomenassomethingakintoanintermediatesex.126SuchconcernswouldfindaplaceintheAmericannovel,wherethethemeofthe
wellmeaningmanleavingtheconfusingworldofwomenforthesimplerhomosocialworldofmenwasalreadywellestablished.127

Itmadesenseforthoseattackingthe"newwomen"tobelievethatonceuponatimethemeaningsofbothmasculinityandfemininityhadbeenclear,unquestioned,and
naturalasopposedtotheconfusedstateinwhichtheywerenowfound.Thegenderdebatehadacenturieslongpedigree,butaparticularconstellationofpolitical,
social,andculturalforcesinthelatenineteenthcenturymadethediscussionofappropriatemaleandfemalerolesanespeciallysensitiveissue.Intheincreasingly
democraticworldofcitizens,theoldstatusdivisionsthathadonceseparatedallsubjectsintogradedrankswereeroded.Indeedasbothpoliticalandindustrial

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revolutionsseemedtosweepawaytheartificialbarriersseparatingpeoples,theonly"natural"waysinwhichtocategorizeindividualsappearedtobeaccordingtoage
andgender.Thefearsvoicedbyalineofthemost"progressive"thinkersfromRousseauthroughtoProudhonandbeyondthatthesexesmightbeconfusedthat
womenwouldencroachonmaleprerogativeswasbutoneindicatorofthenewpoliticalimportanceaccordedmasculinity.128Intheselfconsciouslyscientific,
positivisticworldofthenineteenthcentury,biologicalargumentsabout"real"differencesplayedanevergreaterroleinjustifyingsocialhierarchiesandone'ssex
necessarilybecamemoreimportant,a"privileged"signofsocialidentification.

"Manly,"whichintheeighteenthcenturywasprimarilyusedtomeantheoppositeoftheboyishorchildish,wasintheVictorianageincreasinglyemployedasthe
antonymofthefeminineoreffeminate.Thenineteenthcenturybourgeoisieweresoconcernedthatthe"naturally"differentgendersofmenandwomennotbeconfused
thattheydemarcatedassharplyaspossiblethelinessplittingthefemalefromthemaleworldthehomefromtheworkplace,theprivatefromthepublic.129Seeninthis
context,thebourgeoisie'sstressonthevirilenatureofworkandlaborcanmoreeasilybeunderstood.MiddleclasspropagandistssuchasCobdenandBright
declaredthattotaketheidlearistocrat,fop,orrouasamalerolemodelwasathingofthepast.Manlinesswasnowdemonstratedbyone'sindustryandcompetence
notbychance.130Followingtheargumentofthenaturalseparationofspheres,menworkedandwomendidnotoratleastnotoutsideofthehome.Tradeunionists
inturndefendedthenotionofthemale"breadwinner"wageonthegroundsthatonlyitwouldallowworkingclassmentheincomerequiredtokeeptheirwomenfolk
athome.ThesongsoftheGermansocialistmovementhadtitleslike"BrothersEmbracetheLeague,"''NowStandTogether,MantoMan,"and"ManofLabor,
AwakenandRecognizeyourStrength."InEngland,aselsewhere,workingmen,toprovetheirvirility,shunneddomesticwork:"If,onoccasion,theyhadtolenda
hand...theylockedthedoorsfirstsothattheneighbourswouldnotsee.Thosehusbandswhowerecaughtintheactofscrubbingafloor,washing,orcookingwere
apttobecalledderisivenamessuchas'moprag'or'diddyman.'"131

ThenineteenthcenturyreadingpublicwasledfromthestressonChristianmanlinessthatmarkedthefictionalworksofCharlesKingsleyandThomasHughesto
HentyandH.RiderHaggard'sdepictionofrobustheroesdrivenbybrutalenergyanddominatingwills.132Tobeamanrequired

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effortandlaborthatwasnotrequiredofwomen.Onedidnotgoadonafemalebyforceofwillto"beawoman"shewasbornone.Exertionandactivitywas
requiredto"beaman."133Ineffectthepublicacceptedimplicitlythenotionthatmanlinesswasaconstructedidentitybecauseamalehadto"prove"repeatedlyat
workandatplaythathewasa"man.''Butwithtechnologicaladvancessuchargumentsincreasinglyranghollowmuchofurbanmen'sworknolongerposedthesorts
ofchallengesthatonceweededouttheindolentandweakfromtheindustriousandbrawny.Bytheendofthecentury,anarmyofwhiteblousedwomenworkers
emergedasteachers,secretaries,telephoneoperators,andnurses.Lowermiddleclassmen,whooccupiedsimilarpositions,tookthebruntofpublicsarcasmas
thosewhoseonlyambitionwastoachievesecurity.InFranceBarrsmockedfunctionariesas"demimles,"whileinBritainlaborerscruellyjokedaboutthefellow
who"wasbornamanbutdiedaclerk."134

PierredeCoubertinrespondedtosuchconcernsbyattemptingtoturnFrancetoathleticism.In1888theLiguenationaledel'ducationphysiquewonthesupportof
suchpublicfiguresasMarcellinBerthelot,GeorgesClemenceau,LouisPasteur,andJulesVerne,andin1895CoubertincreatedtheInternationalOlympic
Committee.135IntheUnitedStates,TheodoreRooseveltpubliclyembracedthestrenuouslife,exaltingtheneedfor
therougher,manliervirtues,andaboveallthevirtueofpersonalcourage,physicalaswellasmoral.Ifwewishtodogoodworkforourcountrywemustbeunselfish,
disinterested...butinadditionwemustbevigorousinmindandbody,abletoholdourowninroughconflictwithourfellows,abletosufferpunishmentwithoutflinching,andat
need,torepayitinkindwithfullinterest.Apeacefulandcommercialcivilizationisalwaysindangerofsufferingthelossofthevirilefightingqualitieswithoutwhichnonation,
howevercultured,howeverrefined,howeverthriftyandprosperous,caneveramounttoanything.136

BernarrA.MacFaddenstruckthesamechord,promisingmaleofficeworkersthatphysicaleducationcouldsaveboththeirmindsandbodies.137InEnglandRobert
BadenPowell,alarmedthaturbanizationwasproducingmenwhowere"stunted,narrowchested,easilyweariedyetvoluble,excitable,withlittleballast,stamina,or
endurance,"launchedthescoutingmovement.138Bodilyvigor,suchactivistsasserted,wasanindicatorofmoralvigorphysicalandmoralstrengthwereequated.
Attemptswereevenmadetomasculinizereligion.Christ,BillySundayinformedhis1890s

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Americancongregations,was"nodoughfaced,lickspittleproposition.Jesuswasthegreatestscrapperthateverlived."139Moreseriousthinkersbelievedthatmore
thanmuscleswasneededtomakeaman.AFrenchCatholicwriter,F.A.Vuillermet,beganSoyezdeshommes:laconqutedelavirilit(1909)withthe
dramaticassertion,"Therearenomoremen!"Forhimrealvirilityhadbeenunderminedbytheforcesofmaterialismandirreligion.140ArthurLautrec,inLaFindu
mondeprochainementattributedthesorrystateofcurrentmoralitytothe"invasion"ofFrancebyJews,socialism,FreeMasonry,andthe''cultedelafemme."141

Whatisonetomakeofthissenseofmanhoodundersiege?TheimportanceofthefloggingcrazeinEnglandisthatitdrawsourattentiontothewaysinwhich,by
conjuringupacastofcharactersagainstwhicharealmanhadtobattle,masculinitywasreconstituted.Masculinitywasattheturnofthecenturyobviouslygoing
throughaperiodofdeconstructionandreconstruction.Thecontextwasoneinwhichtheolderdisciplinarymechanismsemployedbyelitemalestocontrolwomen,
workers,andyoungpeopleessentiallythoseofthechurch,family,shop,andfarmwerebreakingdownandbeingreplacedbyteachers,policemen,anddoctors.
Theseprofessionalsdisciplinedthedeviantstheythemselveswereintheprocessofinventingordiscovering.Forexample,inFrancethemythofthemenaceposedthe
racebymalesubnormalswhowouldinevitablydriftintovagabondageandcrimewascreatedbythefirstgenerationofeducatorswhocarriedoutculturallybiased
formsofschooltesting.142SimilarlythenumberofmenwhocommittedsexualoffensesagainstfemalesappearedtoriseinEnglandoncetheChildren'sActof1908
allowedanindecentassaultuponayoungpersontobetriedsummarily.143

SaveforafewperceptivegadfliessuchasGeorgeBernardShaw,mostcontemporariesfounditdifficulttoplacetheapparentemergenceofdisturbing,newformsof
malesexualityinsocialperspective.Defendersofbourgeoissocietyassumedthatthoseonthemarginshomosexuals,Jews,vagrantswerelackinginmanliness.
Andtakingitasagiventhateverythingthatwasrational,productive,andorderlywasnecessarilyanaspectofmanliness,theybewailedasasymptomofemasculation
whateversucceedingsocialoreconomicthreatcurrentlypreoccupiedthem.AccordinglyFrance'sdecliningbirthrate,Britain'slossofindustrialsupremacy,and
Germany'slaborunrestwereineachcaseattributedtowaningvirility.PessimisticAmericansbelievedthatwiththeendoffrontieringtheywouldmeetthesamefate.
Viewedinthislight,thediplomaticrhetoricoftheturnofthecenturybecomesmoreunderstandable."Muchofthelanguageofcom

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pensatorybellicositywasinfactsexual.Thevirtuesofstrength,militarypreparedness,courage,hardness,aggression,vitality,comradeship,productivity,andsoforth
wereallvirtuesassociatedwithmasculinity."144

Andyetatthelevelofindividualcasestheideaofmanlinessremainedveryflexible,reflectingtheobserver'sclass,race,andculturalpreoccupations.Inthesameyears
thattheAmericantrampwasturnedintoafearfulfigure,theAmericancowboyyetanotheritinerant,unskilledlaboreremergedasamodelmale.145Menwho
claimedtobealarmedatthethreatposedbyhomosexualityforcedontheirsonsnotonlywesternsbutthebooksofH.RiderHaggardandJulesVernewiththeir
suspiciouslyallmalecastsofpurportedbachelors.146TheverysamereaderswhowereappalledattheideathatsocialdegenerativeforcescouldreturnEuropean
mentotheleveloftheapeswerethrilledbyEdgarRiceBurroughs'sTarzanstories.147AndamoralistlikeDr.Lejeune,whodeclaredhimselfrevoltedbythe
senselesscrimescommittedbytheApachesofParis,wasnotashamedtoadmitthatthecaseofamankillinghiswifeinafitofjealousy"acrimeofpassion"was
somethinghecouldunderstand.

Theturnofthecenturycampaignforthereintroductionoffloggingsignaledthatunmanlybehaviorhadcometoberegardedbymanyasposingaseriousdangerto
respectablesociety.Asawayoffurthertestingandexposingsuchgenderexpectationsinwhatfollowswewillturntoavarietyofothercourtcasesthatcoverawide
rangeofmaleconduct.Westernculturecreated,maintainedandpolicedconceptsofmasculinityincountlessways.Thenotionthatthereweretwodistinctand
oppositesexeswassowellinculcatedthatwhatitmeanttobeamanwasrarelyproblematizedmalenesswasrenderedalmostinvisible.Thetrialsthatinvolvedthose
perceivedtoberogueordeviantmalesareaccordinglyinvaluablesourcesbecausetheymadeexplicit,ascontemporariessuchasDr.Lejeunevaguelyperceived,the
vitalthoughoftenchangingnuancesoftheinjunction"beaman."

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PARTTWO
LEGALDISCOURSES:MEN,MELODRAMA,ANDCRIMINALITY
Totracethewaysinwhichthecourtsparticipatedinthepolicingofmasculinity,weanalyzeinthefollowingsectionaseriesoftrialsinwhichthequestionofthe
manlinessofthedefendantfiguredcentrally.Theissuesthatprecipitatedthesecourtroomdramashavebeenpurposelychosenfromawiderangeofcases:fromthe
relativelyinconsequentialthelosingofafewpoundsasaresultofafailedcourtshiptothemostseriousmurderandmanslaughter.Judgesandjuries,giventhat
theydealtwithsuchvitalissuesasanindividual'slife,liberty,andproperty,soughttoimpressuponthecommunitythattheirfindingswerebasednotonprejudicebut
onthefactsofthecaseandthedictatesofthelaw.Yetincaseaftercase,assoonastheelusivebutvitalquestionofgenderreareditshead,thecourtfounditself
forcedtosquareappealstothepotent,albeitintangible,conceptof"manhood"withreferencestomattersof"fact."

Themixingoffactandfantasy,whichplayedsuchanobviousroleintheWhiteSlaveryPanic,couldbeexpectedtobeencounteredwhenevertheissueof"manliness"
emergedinlegalconfrontations.Inthetheatricalenvironmentoftheturnofthecenturycourtroom,defendantsandplaintiffsinevitablyfoundthemselvesassumingthe
roleofoneofthestandardcharactersintheplayofmasculinity.TheserolestendedtofollowtheconventionsoftheVictorianmelodramaonewaseitheraheroor
villain.Themelodrama,itwillberecalled,emergedinearlynineteenthcenturyEuropeasapopulartheatricalformthatreflected,inanoverheatedfashion,concerns
fortheclassandsexualexploitationofthelowerorders.InsuchbreathlessclassicsasLondonbyNight(1844),ThePoorofNewYork(1857),andUnderthe
Gaslight(1867),theaudiencewastoldthatbeneaththeorderlyappearancesofeverydaylifelurkedsomedangeroussecret,whichtheheartlessvillainwouldtryto
turntohisadvantage.1 Theblackguard'susualintentwastohavehiswaywithsomeunwillingwomantheclosertheheroinecametosuccumbingtotheassaultson
hervirtue,the

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greaterthetensionoftheplay.Onlyinthelastactdidthevirtuoushero,bysomestrokeofluck,rescuetheinnocentfemalevictimfromthelonganticipatedrapeor
seduction.2

Melodrama,despiteitsformulaicabsurditiesandexaggerations,createdacastofstockcharacterswhowouldliveinthepublic'simaginationwellintothetwentieth
century.Thesimple,starkmoralclaimssuchcharactersmadegavethemenormousappeal.Sincethecourtswerebelievedtodealwithissuesofrightandwrong,it
wasnotsurprisingthatthepublicthatfollowedtheirproceedingsusednotionsdrawnfromthemelodramatomakesenseoutofanincreasinglycomplexworld.3 Such
anapportioningofrolesworkedperfectlyintheWhiteSlavePanic.Thesocialpurityactivistscouldbeeasilytakenandcertainlysawthemselvesasaudacious
heroes,theprostitutesaspassivevictims,andthepimpsasvillains.Inmanycriminaltrialsandinmostcivildisputes,however,thepowerrelationsoftheaccusedand
plaintiffwouldnotfromtheoutsetbeasasymmetrical.Insuchcasestherewouldensuefromtheverystartastruggleoverthequestionofwhohadtherightto
appropriatetheroleof"hero"andtherebyrelegatetheirantagonisttothepositionof"villain."Andiftheparticipantsinthetrialdidnotimmediatelymakesuch
identifications,thepopularpresscouldusuallybecountedontomakethemonbehalfofitsreadership.Inknowingthattheaccusedhadactedlikea"gentleman"ora
"cad,''a"decentfellow"ora"bounder,"thenewspaperpublichadafairlygoodideaofthetrial'sfinaloutcome.Asthefollowingfourchaptersdemonstrate,an
individual'smanliness,whichplayedavitalroleintheoutcomeofsuchcontests,wasnotsimplya"fact."Itwassomethingthatamanincourt,byturningtohis
purposesthemelodramaticnarrativeofsexualdanger,hadtoprove.

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Two
FOOLS
On11November1895,theoperatorsoftheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociation(Limited)ofLondonanditsmagazine,theMatrimonialHerald,werechargedat
theBowStreetMagistrate'sCourtwithfraud.Inthecourseofthelongcourtprocess,whichdraggedonuntilMarchofthefollowingyear,itcameoutthattheaccused
had,byofferingtoarrangeadvantageousmarriages,bilkedcountlessmenandwomenoflargesumsofmoney.Thecurioustrialproceedingsare,likemostreportsof
successfulconspiracyfrauds,inherentlyinteresting,butforthehistorianofnineteenthcenturygenderandsexuality,themoststrikingaspectoftheaffairisthelightthat
itcastsonVictorians'viewsofmenandmarriage.

Matrimony,theassumptionholds,hasbeenchieflyawoman'sconcern.Accordingtothetiredoldjoke,amanchasesawomanuntilheiscaught.Womenseek
marriagemenavoidit.Yetuntilthelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury,middleandupperclassmaleswerequitecandidaboutboththeirinterestsinmarriageandthe
amountsofwealththatmadeawomananespeciallysuitablematrimonialprospect.Writingtohissisterin1862,ayoungCanadianendedhisglowingaccountofhis
intendedbride'saccomplishmentswiththenotuntypicalobservation"andbestofall[she]ispossessedofproperty,andhasnohangerson.Nowthereissomethingfor
youtoreflecton."Onlyinthe1890scouldthemiddleclasses"beheardtodenouncethismaterialistichuntasunworthyofanidealizedunion,whichshouldbea
blendingofheartsratherthanatransferoffunds."1 Andeventhensomeretortedthatthecurrentattacksonthe"marriagemarket"weremerecant.2

Whatoccurredatthelowerlevelsofthesocialhierarchy?Storiesoftheoccasionalpredatorymiddleclassmalefortunehunterfromwhoseadvancesheiresseshadto
beprotectedhavebeentold,butlittlehasbeensaidofthewaysinwhichlowermiddleandworkingclassmenperceivedmarriageaspossiblyofferinganeconomic
"opportunity."3 Areviewofthe

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MatrimonialHeraldtrialservestheusefulpurposeofremindingusthatinVictorianEnglanditwasassumedthatmenofallsocialclasseswouldmakesuch
calculations.4 Thevictimsinthiscasecametogrief,sothereadersofthepopularpressweretold,notbecausetheysoughttomakereasonablyadvantageous
matches,butbecauseintheirgreedtheyreachedtoofar.Fortheirmiscalculationstheyweredoublypunishedfirstbyfraudulentbusinessmenwhotooktheirmoney
andthenbybettersituatedmiddleclassmaleswhobothinandoutofcourtcruellyenjoyedwhattheytooktobeahilariousaccountofhowsimplemindedlower
classmen,inseekingtousethemarriagemarkettomovebeyondtheirappointedstationinlife,hadcomeacropper.

ThedeclaredgoaloftheMatrimonialHeraldandFashionableMarriageGazette,whichranfrom1884to1895,wastoprovide"highclassmatches."butits
readerswereassuredthatnorequestforassistancewasconsideredtoomodest.5 ThepagesoftheHeraldcontainedlittlebeyondadvertisementsformenandwomen
seekingpartners.Suchqueriescouldbeplacedinitscolumnsatacostoffourshillingsforfiftywordslettersinresponseweresentcareoftheeditor.TheHeraldand
theassociationclaimedthattheiradvertisementsappearedinlocalpapersthroughouttheUnitedKingdomandthatresponseswerereceivedfromaroundtheworld.
Theassociationguaranteedthatabsolutediscretionwasassuredbyitslargestaff,whichworkedwith"celerityandfacility."

Matrimonialadvertisementshadbeenplacedinnewspapersbyindividualsfromtheeighteenthcenturyonward.6 Commercialagencieswereactivebythemid
nineteenthcenturyandwerefromthebeginningsuspectedoffraud.In1934GeorgeOrwellwrotetoafriendthathehadjustpurchasedayear'sissueofan
unidentified1851weeklypaper.
Theyranamongotherthingsamatrimonialagency,andthecorrespondencerelatingtothisiswellworthreading."Floraistwentyone,tall,withrichchestnuthairandasilvery
laugh,andmakesexcellentpastry.Shewouldliketoenterintocorrespondencewithaprofessionalgentlemanbetweentheagesoftwentyandthirty,preferablywithauburn
whiskersandoftheEstablishedChurch."Theinterestingthingtomeisthatthesepeople,sincetheytrytogetmarriedthroughamatrimonialagency,haveevidentlyfailedmany
timeselsewhere,andyetassoonastheyadvertiseinthispaper,theygethalfadozenoffers.Thewomen'sdescriptionsofthemselvesarealwaysmostflattering,andImustsay
thatsomeofthecasesmakemedistinctlysuspiciousforofcoursethatwasthegreatageoffortunehunting.7

Page41

TheactualworkoftendingtotheenormouscorrespondenceelicitedbytheHeraldwascarriedoutattheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociation,locatedat103New
OxfordStreet.Thosewhopreferrednottoadvertiseopenlycouldworkthroughitsmanagementandarrangecontactsby"privateoverture."Afeeoffiveshillingswas
chargedforaconsultationandadditionalsumswereleviedforintroductions.Theownersaffirmedthat,bya"lavishoutlayofcapital"andthroughtheintercessionof
theagency'smany"ambassadors"whomovedinsociety,countlesshappyunionswerecreated.IndeedtheHeraldassertedthattheassociationproducedmatches
thatworkedaswellandindeedwereoftenhappierthanthosethatresultedfrom"promiscuousmeetings."By1895theHeraldwasboastingthatinrespondingtothe
demandsofitsclientswith''anenormousandungrudgedexpense"itwasleadingthecontemporarymovementtoward"rationalmarriage."Itsstaff,soitclaimed,
numberedfiftyitssuccessfulclientsincludedontheonehandthousandsofyoung,beautiful,richwomenwithestatesandresidencesandontheotherthe
representativesofthe"sternersex"whorangedfrompeersandprofessionalsdowntocommonwaiters.A"PamphletofExtracts"ofthetestimonialsproducedby
satisfiedcustomers,declaredtheHerald,wasavailableonrequest.8

TheHerald'sactivities,thoughknowntomany,werebroadcasttotheentirenationwhenitsownersappearedatapreliminaryhearingatBowStreetbeforeMr.
Lushingtonon11November1895chargedwithconspiracytodefraud.InthedocksatMortimerDanielSkates(aliasDanielMortimer),proprietoroftheWorld's
GreatMarriageAssociationhisbrotherJohnCharlesSkates(aliasCharlesBarrington)hisfatherinlawJohnAbrahams(aliasDanielMortimeraliasJohnCharles
SkatesaliasCharlesBarrington)theSkates'snephewNormanGoldingHannah,secretaryoftheassociationandAnthonyMaddows,editoroftheMatrimonial
Herald.

Actingonnumerouscomplaints,thepolicehaddescendedontheofficesoftheassociationwhichprovedtoconsistofelevenclerks,allbutonewhowere
shareholdersatOxfordStreetandMecklenburghSquare,seizingbooks,registers,andthousandsoflettersandphotographs.WhenDetectiveSergeantMcCarthy
readthewarrant,theSkatesesprotestedthatatleastoneofthecomplainantshadalreadybeengivenhismoneyback.Thepolicerespondedthatthisrestitutionhad
onlybeenprovidedafterthecomplainthadbeenlodgedandproceedingsbegun.9 ItsooncameoutthatforthepreviousseveralyearsScotlandYardhadreceived
reportsthattheagencyplacedbogusadvertisementsinnewspaperstodrawinvictimsfromwhomitextractedregistrationfees,feestobecomeamember,andafter
marriagesubscriptions,allthetimehavingnointention,oratleastfailing,

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toprovidethecontactsitpromised.10Butitwasonlynowthatwitnesseswerewillingtolaycharges.11Afteralengthypreliminaryhearing,thedefendantswereon29
January1896committedtotrial,whichtookplaceinMarchintheRecorder'sCourtoftheOldBailey.12

Howhadthefraudsbeenperpetrated?Clients,mostofwhomappearedtobemen,wereluredintocontactingtheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociationthrough
advertisementsinlocalpaperspurportedlyplacedbywealthyindividualsseekingspouses.13Menwhorespondedweretoldbyreturnmailthattheycouldbebest
servedbyjoiningtheassociationnormallysuchamembershipcost1010s.butgiventhelargenumberofeligibleladiesontheregister,thefeewouldbereducedto
55s.,orevenaslowas12s.6d.Onreceiptoffees,moredummydescriptionsofwealthyyoungwomenweresentout.Oncethemenwerewellinvolvedintheir
romanticcorrespondenceswiththeseprizecatches,theassociationinformedthemthatiftheymarriedtheywouldhavetopaytheagencyanadditionalfeeof21/2
percentofthewoman'sestate,butiftheypaidinadvancea12,10s."freeassociatemembershipfee."alladditionaldutieswouldbewaived.Presumablymenwho
wereconvincedtheywereabouttosuccessfullysnaganheiressfeltitwasasmallpricetopay.Butoncetheassociationwasassuredthatithadobtainedallthemen's
availablemoney,themysteriouswealthywomenwhohadbeenusedasbaittodrawinthemaleclientssuddenlywentabroadorregretfullybrokeoffthe
correspondence.

Theassociationwasshrewdenoughtorealizethatitcouldnotsimplytakeitsclients'moneyandrun.Itremainedinbusinessformorethantenyearsbecauseit
provided,inadditiontoitsfictitiousheiresses,somebonafideintroductions.Whenitsmaleclientshadbeenclearlymilkedofallthemoneytheywerewillingtohazard,
theagencybegantosendthemthenamesandaddressesofrealwomenthatithadonitsregister,andcontactswereactuallymade.Butthesewomen,muchtothe
disappointmentofthefortunehunters,turnedoutnottobeheiressesbutdomesticservantsorpoorgovernesseswhohadthemselvessentofftheirmeagersavingsto
theassociationinhopesofmarryingoneoftherichgentlemenwhoseadvertisementsappearedintheHerald.Thesadironywasthatthedupedmaleandfemale
clientsoftheassociationhadmuchincommon:theysharedthesamemodestsocialclassbackgrounds,theirhopesforupwardmobilityviamarriagehadledtotheir
entrapment,andwhentheymettheirprospectivepartnerstheexpectationsofbothwerecruellydisappointed.

Nodoubtsomemarriagesdidresultfromtheagency'sactivities.Mr.Lushington,thepresidingmagistrateatthepreliminaryhearing,mentioned

Page43

havingreceivedlettersfromsuchpeople.14Butingivingtheirclientsintroductionstorealindividuals,theassociationwasprimarilyconcernedwithprovidingitselfwith
alegalcover.Evenso,therewerecountlessdisgruntledclientswhenJohnCharlesSkateswasarrested,hehadonhispersonnineteenletterscomplainingof"delusive
advertising"andonedemandingarefund.15Butclientsobviouslyhadtothinktwicebeforecomplainingtothepolice.Afteralltheyhadbeengivensomebonafide
introductions,andifitcametoacourtcasetheywouldbeobligedtodeclaretotheworldtheirowngullibilityandsordidcalculations.

Becauseofitscarefulplanning,theassociationhadalongandprosperouscareer.Socomplicatedwereitsmachinationstheaccusednotonlyposedasfictitious
clientsbutimpersonatedeachother,hencethemanyaliasthatittookweeksforthecrowntoworkoutexactlywhathadbeendoneandtowhom.Thepolicefound
ontheassociation'spremisesaseriesofthirteenindexbookscontainingthenamesofthirtythousandmenandwomen.Anadvertisementbooklistedthemanydummy
noticesplacedinprovincialnewspapers.Somewereespeciallysuccessful.Threehundredandfiftysixletterswerereceivedinreplytoanadvertisementsigned"Cecil"
and163wereaddressedtoa"Mrs.Huntley."TheowneroftheLamb'sConduitStreetstationer'sshop,whichserveduntil1895astheassociation'sletterdrop,said
hereceived100to150lettersadayaddressedtotheeditor"or"negotiator."16Inthefirsttenmonthsof1895thereceiptsoftheassociation'sregistrationdepartment
totaled3,375thoseofthe"freemarriagedepartment''2,095.JohnCharlesSkates,asmanagingdirector,skimmedoffthehandsomesalaryofonethousand
poundsayear.17

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

WhatdoesthisfraudrevealaboutVictorianconceptsofmasculinity?Thesuccessfulfraudartistnecessarilyhastoknowmorethanmostaboutthedesires,ambitions,
and"greatexpectations"ofthegullible.Theobviousinterestofthiscaseisthatthroughitsanalysiswecanseewhatconfidencemenknewofboththefantasiesandthe
realitiesoflatenineteenthcenturymatrimony.LetusbeginwiththefantasiesonwhichtheSkatesesandtheirassociatesplayed.Inperusingthetrumpedup
advertisements,oneisfirstprovidedwithwhattheeditorsoftheHeraldassumedwouldlooktotheirreaderslikeprizecatches.Typicalmen'sadvertisementsread:

Abuilder,clearingover2000ayear,wouldliketocorrespondwithadarkhandsomeyounglady,ofgoodfamily,withaviewto

Page44

marriage.Advertiserisfortyfive,ofkinddisposition,butisveryshrewdinbusiness.Ifcorrespondentcanplaythepiano,somuchthebetter.

AmerchantintheWestIndies,makingabout3000ayear,onaccountofhissister,whohasforsomeyearsactedashishousekeeper,beingabouttomarry,wisheswithaviewto
matrimony,tomaketheacquaintanceofarefined,cultured,prepossessingyounglady.

Thepurportedeligiblemaleswerepresentedaskindly,prosperous,andmature.Whyhadsucheminentlymarriageablemennotalreadybeenpickedoff?Inexplaining
theirrecoursetoadvertising,theyweregivenavarietyofstockanswersnotinfrequentlyitwasthattheyhadbeenrecentlywidowedoronlylatelyhadreturnedfrom
India.Thesefictionalbachelorsfurtherfittedtheromanticcontemporarymalestereotypeoftherugged,successfulmale.Therepeatedassertionoftheirbeing"kind"
seemstohavebeenacodewordfor"Iwillnotasserttheright,whichasamanIhave,tochastisephysicallymyspouse."Theyappearedtobelargelyindifferentto
theirpotentialspouse'sfinancialsituationyethadsetideasaboutthephysicalattractionssheshouldpossessmostmenhopedshewouldbeyoungbut"domesticated,"
andmanywentontodescribethecolorofhairandshapeoffiguretheypreferred.

Theadvertisementspurportedlywrittenbyfemaleclients,thoughtheyfrequentlyexpressedapreferenceforapartnerwithtasteandapositioninlife,were,incontrast
tothemen's,strikinglyundemanding.18

Caroline,twentythree,ablonde,thoroughlyaccomplished,prepossessing,withgood,welldevelopedfigure,andpossessingaprivateincomeof300perannum,wouldbe
pleasedtohearfromagentlemanresidingintheneighborhoodofLeeds,whomustnotexceedtheageofthirtyfive.

Anorphanyoungladyoflargemeans,whohavingjustlostheragedparents,whomshehaddevotedlyattendedintheirdyingdays,wasanxioustoassuagehergrief
bymeetingwithagentleman,bachelororwidower,withthesamemaritalobjecttofollow.19

"Prepossessing"perfectlydescribedthemodelVictorianfemale.Whereasamandidnotsufferfrombeinginitiallydifficultorgruff,awomanwassupposedtomakean
agreeablefirstimpressionandbeobviouslyattractive.Suchyoungbeautieshadjust,soitwascommonlyclaimed,enteredthe

Page45

marriagemarket.Somewereprovidedwithassertionsthat,havingrecentlybeenorphanedorhavingquarreledwiththeirfamily,theynowsuddenlyhadtothinkof
matrimony.Othersblushinglyconfessedthat,dutifullycaringforinvalidrelatives,theyhadhithertovirtuouslyputoffmarriage.

ThedescriptionsprovidedbytheHerald'sadvertisementsdrewdirectlyfromtheidealVictorianmaleandfemalestereotypesofpowerfulmenanddemurewomen.
Theadvertisersappeartohavesteppedfromthepagesofcheapnovelsorfromthestagesofpopularmelodramas.Butaspatentlyartificialandrepetitiveastheymay
appeartoday,atthetimetheysuccessfullyservedtheSkatesesandtheirassociatesasbrilliantlureswithwhichtohookthousandsofenterprising,ifnaive,menand
women.Ofcourse,mostreadersofsuchadvertisementsrecognizedthemforwhattheywereandturnedthepage.Butmanyrereadthem,hesitantthoughhopeful,
wonderingifthiswasnottheopportunitytheyhadbeenwaitingfor.Whatstrugglingyoungclerkmakingdoonayearlysalaryof80didnotdreamofmeetinga
"Caroline"withherwelldevelopedfigureand300perannum?20

TheHerald'senterprisingproprietorsexploitednotonlysuchdreamsbutthegapthatseparatedsparklingfantasyfromdrabreality.Assumingthattheirreadership
includedmanymaleswho,becauseofsomeslightcorrectableproblemwiththeirappearance,hadnotyetbeenromanticallysuccessful,theyofferedavarietyof
invaluableproductsandservices.Inadditiontocarryingnoticesofwhereonemightcontractaquietwedding.theHeraldranadvertisementsforobesitymedicines,
curesforthedeaf,hairdyes,malecorsets,shoeelevators,RestauroTonics,andelectropathicbeltsguaranteedtoprovidelifeandvigor.AlexRoss,aparticularly
prolificinventor,usedtheHeraldtoboastoftheefficacyofSpanishFlytogrowhair,a"SkinTightener,"a"NoseMachine,"andfor10s.6d."Ross'sEarMachine,
forplacingtheearsclosetothehead."21IfthecommercialadvertisementsintheHeraldconjuredupthedepressingpictureofamassmalereadershipofshort,deaf,
balding,whitehaired,overweight,impotent,jugearedmen,itisonlyfairtonotethatitsnoticesforArsenicWafers(toimprovethecomplexion),abortifacient
solutions,anddiscreteadoptionservicessuggestedthatitsfemalereaderswerealsofarfromperfect.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

Somuchforthefantasies.ItiswhenweturnfromtheHeraldtothetrialaccountsofitsproprietorsthatwearegivenasenseofthe

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brutalrealitiesmenhadtofacewhenattemptingtopenetratetheVictorianmarriagemarket.

Theaccusedreallyhadnodefense.ThomasHenryGurrin,ahandwritingexpertcalledbythecrown,declaredthattheletterspurportedlysignedbyavarietyoffemale
advertiserswereallwrittenbythesameindividuals.22Thedefense'sweakresponsewastoadmitthatsomeladies'nameshadbeenfalsified,butonlyinorderto
protectsuchwomenuntilthemeninterestedinthemhadtheirbackgroundschecked.Evenoneofthevictims,Bason,acknowledgedthatheassumedthatsomeladies
woulduseanomdeplume.Butatthetrial,thedefensewasfinallyforcedtoconcedethatmanyletterswereinfactwrittenbytheproprietorsandtofallbackonthe
argumentthatonlythosewhowantedtobedupedcouldhavebeentakeninsincetherewasnoattemptatdisguisingthehandwriting.

Thedefense'ssecondlineofargument,whichitfirstannouncedatthepreliminaryhearinginJanuary1896,wasthatitwould,ifforced,subpoenalargenumbersof
wealthymenandwomenwhohadmarriedthroughtheagency.Thefactthatsomeclientssuccessfullymarried,socounselclaimed,providedtheassociationwitha
reasonablebeliefthatotherswouldtoo.Asitwouldobviouslytakesometimetotrackdownthewitnesseswhowouldestablishthecharacterofthedefendants,the
defensecalledforanadjournment.ButLushington,thepresidingmagistrate,wasnottakeninbytheargumentthattheassociation'scharactercouldbedemonstrated
byshowingthatsomeofitsserviceshadnotbeenfraudulent.Heinsistedthatthedefenseonlycallwitnessespertainingtotheactualcasescomplainedofevidence
drawnfromothercaseswouldnotbeadmissible.23Toprovethattheadvertisementswerenotfraudulent,thedefensecalledatthepreliminaryhearingonewoman,
whosenamewasnotreleased,whotestifiedthatshehadinfactcorrespondedwithtwoofthecomplainants.Shewasstilllookingforahusbandwortha1,000a
yearandadmittedtohavingwrittentooverahundredmen.24Hertestimonydidnotcounterthecomplaintsoftheotherplaintiffs,andatthetrialthedefensechoseto
callneitherhernoranyotherwitness.

WhenthecasewasheardattheOldBailey,thecounselsretainedbytheproprietorsoftheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociationrealizedthattheyonlyhadonehope
ofmountinganeffectivedefense.Thathopelayinappealingtothesocialsuperiorityofthejudgeandtheallmalejurybyattackingthecomplainantsassocially
marginalcharacterswho,stupidlybelievingintheimpossible,didnotdeservetheprotectionofthelaw.Presumablytheproprietorsoftheassociationhadlong
harboredtheideaofsuchanargumentbecausewhenarrestedJohnCharlesSkatesimmediately

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exclaimed,"Wegetalotoftheseoutsidersthatpayusapoundortwoandexpectustofindthemawifewithafortuneinaweekortwo."25

Thecrownwasforitspartverymuchawareoftheproblemposedbywitnessesinsuchfraudcasesbeingtooembarrassedtocomeforward.Manywhoknewthey
hadbeentakenadvantageofwouldundernocircumstancesenterthewitnessboxtobemadethebuttsofthedefensecounsels.Nevertheless,atthepreliminary
hearingandthefinaltrial,adozenwitnessesappearedforthecrown,alltellingmuchthesamestoryofvictimization.

Thedefense'sstrategywasnottodenythefactsofthecasebutsimplytopourridiculeonthosewhorelatedthem.Indoingsoitwasappealingtothecommon
Victorianassumptionthatlikeshouldmarrylike,thatanyreasonablemanseekingmarriagewouldconfinehisambitionstothoseofasimilarsocialstatus."Afooland
hismoneyaresoonparted"ranthecommonsaw.Thedefense'sgoalwastoportraythecomplainantsasjustsuchfoolswhomthelawcouldneverhopetoprotect.

Thedefensefirstridiculedthewitnessesforbelievingtheycouldmarryabovethemselves.ThetreatmentmetedouttoAlfredJordan,Brightontobacconistandself
proclaimedthreetimeEnglishchampiondraughtsplayer,wastypical.HehadrepliedtoanadvertisementinthePeopleandwassenttheHerald.26Hestipulatedthat
hesoughtaladywho,inadditiontohaving200ayear,shouldbe"abouttwentyyearsofage,withbrowneyes,darkhair,heightabout5ft.6in.,goodlooking,good
teethandcomplexion,abletoseeandhearwithoutartificialaid,spinster,middleclass,mustbeEnglishandbelongtotheChurchofEngland,andmustbedomestic,
musical,welleducated,fondoftennisandgamesofskillandabletoswim,shouldtakeaninterestinsociology,temperance,dressreform,hygiene,&c,andifshe
wouldbeabletointerestherselfindraughts,cricket,orbilliardssomuchthebetter."27

Jordanwastohisjoyputintouchwith"AliceMay,"atwentytwoyearoldbrowneyedheiress,whowastakenbyhisphotographanddeclaredherselftobe
"especiallyinterestedinhispositionintheworldofdraughts."28ButonceJordanpaidhismoney,theyoungwoman,though"made"forhim(inmorewaysthanone)
brokeoffthecorrespondence.AtthetrialLockwood,forthedefense,laughinglywonderedifJordanreallybelievedthatthesortofaparagonthathesoughtcould
haveactuallyexisted.PlayingupthenotionthatJordanmusthavebeenfantasizing,thedefensefurtheraskedtheembarrassingquestionifitwerenottruethatJordan
hadevengonesofarastorequestawomanwith''filbertnails."

Similargrillingsweregiventheothercomplainants.Whenthedefense

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askedAdolphGruenfeld,aWigmoreStreettailor'scutter,whosoughtaladywith300to400ayear,howhecouldclaimtobeworth200ayear,Gruenfeldcould
notanswer.29CharlesOtto,anelectricianofVincentSquare,Westminster,paidafeeof212s.6d.andaskedforawifewithanincomeofabout1000ayear.
DefensecounselsmirkinglyinquiredwhyOtto,whoonlyearned3aweekatSiemensBrothers,hadthetemerityofexpectingtowedaheiressoratleastbuyonefor
212s.6d.Flustered,Ottoprotestedthathereadofsuchcasesinthepapersandbelievedthemtobetrue.30WilliamG.Pitcher,whosawhisfirstadvertisementin
theNorfolkNews,claimedtohaveanincomeof40ayearbutwhenpressedadmittedtolivingwithhisbrotherinlawandhavingnoincome."Anddidyou,"asked
defensecounselWarburtonwithfeignedastonishment,"reallythinkthatyou22yearsofage,earningnothing,andwith40capitalonlycouldgetawife?"31
Pitcherrepliedthathebelievedhecould.RobertBrocket,aScottishforesterwhosoughtawifewithanincomeof500ayear,similarlyadmittedtoearningthepaltry
sumof18shillingsaweek.32AndfinallythedefenseextortedfromHenrySuttontheconfessionthatalthoughhedemandedawomanworthatleast100ayearhe
didnottellhiscorrespondentsthathewasearningameretenshillingsaweekandboard,anadmissionthatelicitedloudguffawsincourt.

Havingrevealedthepresumptuousnessofworkingandlowermiddleclassmenseekingtowedwealthywomen,thedefensethenturneditsattackonthe
complainants'crassness.Hereweremenwhothoughttheycouldstipulatewhatsortofwomantheywouldmarry.CounselpointedoutthatOttohadthepoortasteof
requestinga"spinster,orphanpreferred"asonemightorderamealinarestaurant."Mr.Warburton'Oh,soyoudidnotwishforamotherinlaw?No.'"33Aletter
wasreadincourtthatJordanwrotetotheassociationstating,"Idon'texpecttogetexactlywhatIwant,butyoumaytakeitasageneralrulethatthebiggerthe
incomethelessparticularaboutlooks,etc.,Ishallbe,andviceversa."34Andthedefense,innotingthatJohnCharlesGeorge,ahousedecoratorofMexborough,
Yorkshire,joinedtheassociationinAugustbutwasaskingforhismoneybackinOctober,commentedthatheseemedtothinkamarriagecouldbearranged
immediately.35Allthisevidence,thedefenseargued,revealedthecomplainantstobeunsympatheticbumblingboorsforwhomfewcouldfeelmuchpity.

Thepresumptuousnessandcrudityofthewitnesseswasallthemoregalling,impliedthedefense,whenonesawthatmen,whohadthemisplacednotionofmarrying
beautifulyoungwomen,werethemselvesso

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lackinginpersonalcharm.DefensecounselpointedlyaskedJosephAvery,anelderlymanwhohadbeenmarriedtwicebefore,"Doesitnotstrikeyouthatyouwith
130to150ayear,awidowerwell,notinthefirstbloomofyouthandwithfourchildren,werenotaverygreatcatch?"36Averyhadnoanswer.

HenrySutton,aBowclerk,describedhimselfinhislettersashavinga"slim,militaryappearance."ThepressdidnotsaywhatSuttonactuallylookedlike,buthisself
appraisalwassofaroffthemarkthatwhenitwasreadatthepreliminaryhearingitelicitedaburstoflaughter.37DefensecounselWarburton,knowinghewasontoa
goodthing,inquiredaboutSutton'sotherattemptsatcourtship.
AmItounderstandthatthesenegotiationswerenotsuccessful?Theywerenotsuccessful.

Inspiteofyourmilitaryappearance?(Laughter.)

GeorgeBason,ashort,baldNorthamptonmachinistearning80ayearansweredanadvertisementintheWeeklyTimesandEchoandwasthusentrappedbythe
Herald.Healso,defensecounselclearlyimplied,wasnoAdonis.
ByMr.Cook.YousentyourphototoMissBurfordatherrequest?Yes.

Anditwasafterreceivingitthatsheceasedtowriteyou?Yes.(Laughter.)38

Atthepreliminaryhearing,defensecounselfurthersuggestedthatBasonliedabouthisageandreceivednoresponsetothequestionofwhetherhereallybelievedhis
selfdescriptionof"44lookyounger."PoorBasonbecamesodistraughtbythemockingcrossexaminationthathefaintedandhadtobecarriedfromthecourt.Upon
hisreturntheheartlessdefensecounselinsistedthatoneofhislettersbereadincourt,whichincludedtheline"Iknowthatsomeladiesdon'tliketoomutch[sic]
loving,buttheladymustexpectitfromme."Theintentwasobviouslytoexposethewitness'slackofeducation.Thedefense'soverallargumentwasthatsuchmen
weresolackinginsocialgracesandphysicalattractivenessthatnoone,noteventheproprietorsoftheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociation,couldbeheldguiltyfor
notfindingthemsuitablemates.

Thedefensewentfurther,bringingupthefactthatthemenhadbeenintroducedtowomenofasimilarstationinlife,whomtheyhadspurned.Warburtonpointedout
thataLondonwitnesswhowouldnothavetesti

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fiedwithoutasubpoenaandwasallowedtogiveevidencewithoutmakinghisnamepublichadbeenputintouchwithmanywomen.39"Oneladyhemethada
100ayear,andifhehadmarriedherhewouldhavehadnothingtocomplainofasregardstheassociation.Theladiesintroducedtohimwereofhisownsocial
standingandoneortwowerefairlygoodlooking."40Butwhatthewitnessstubbornlypursuedwasawomanwithatleast200ayear.Asecondman,whoseidentity
atthepreliminaryhearingwasalsonotdisclosed,hadbeenlookingforawomanwith500perannumandcomplainedhehadbeenintroducedtowomenwithonly
40to70ayear.41TospotlightJordan'sselfservingcalculations,thedefensenotedthathehadnottold"AliceMay"hewascorrespondingwithfiftyoneother
womenatthesametime.AndJordanwasforcedtoadmitthattwentyladieswereinterestedinhimbuthejudgedthatallwere,becauseoftheirlackofmeans,
unsuitable.42Gruenfeldwasvaguebutobviouslyforthesamereasonsfoundthatthetwowomenheactuallymetwerenotsatisfactory.43WhenWarburtonasked
Pitcherwhatwaswrongwiththewomen,mostlydomesticservants,towhomhehadbeenintroduced,Pitcherwhohimselfhadonly40capitalrepliedthatthey
hadnomoney.
Mightnottheyhavesavedatleast40?Yes.

Andcouldyounothavestartedinahumblewaywith80?

ThatwasnotwhatIexpected.Iexpectedatleastathousandortwo.44

AndfinallythedefensepointedoutthatSuttonhadbeenputintouchwithaMissAdams,whomhehadspurned,judginghernesteggof170insufficienttosupport
hisattemptstolaunchamusicalcareer.Thewitnessclumsilyrepliedthatheneededmoney"hisintentionwastopracticethefluteasmuchaspossible(laughter)."45

Outburstsoflaughterrepeatedlypunctuatedthepreliminaryhearingandtrialproceedings.Thecourtroomspectatorsfounditscreaminglyamusingthatlowerclassmen
whohadentertainedideasofmarryingabovethemselveshadcometogrief.Suchmenhadtolearntoaccepttheirappointedplaceinlife.Reiteratingthislesson
LockwoodcruellymockedBasonbyreadingtheselfdescriptionofferedbyoneofthewomentowhomhewasintroduced.

"Tall,welleducated,domesticated,groceryandofflicence"Whatmorecouldyouwantthanthat?(Renewedlaughter.)46

Page51

Thedefenseconcludedafterhavingaccusedthecomplainantsofbeingpresumptuous,crass,unattractive,andhardtopleasefantasistsbypointingoutthatalmost
alloftheminprovidingtheirownselfdescriptionshadlied.Totakeonlyoneexample,DanielDriver,anIrishlawstudent,complainedofhavingbeenledtobelievehe
wascourtingaJ.P.'sdaughterworth800ayear.InhiscrossexaminationthedefensecalledattentiontothefactthatifDriverwascomplainingoffraud,hewasa
fraudhimself.ItwaselicitedfromthewitnessmuchtothenoisyamusementofthejurythatDriverdescribedhimself,notasalawstudentbutasalawyer."Please
moderateyourhilarity,gentlemen,"interjectedtheRecorderinanattempttostifletheoutburstsoflaughter."Thisis,afterall,aseriouscase."47Butthedefensewas
maintainingthatitwasnotaseriouscaseitwasajoke.Whocouldseriouslybelievethatfor5onecouldobtainanheiressworthathousand?

Ashumiliatingastheattacksontheplaintiffsmighthavebeen,intheenditmadenodifferenceinlaw.Thejudge,insummingup,notedthatthecasehadoccasioneda
gooddealofhilarityandthatthedefensehadshrewdlyattemptedtolaughthecaseoutofcourt.Itwasnowhistasktoremindthejurythat"althoughtherehadbeena
largeamountoflaughterattheoutsetitremainedaveryseriouscaseindeed."48Hesummedupstronglyonbehalfoftheprosecutionpointingoutthatsomeofthe
advertisementsandthenamesemployedbytheassociationwereobviouslybogusandthereforefraudhadundoubtedlyoccurred.Afterfortyminutesthejuryfoundthe
SkatesesandAbrahamsguiltyofconspiringandobtainingmoneybyfalsepretenses.Thejudge,incastigatingtheaccusedforhavingpreyedon"simplemindedand
gulliblepeople,"sentencedJohnCharlesSkates,asringleader,tofiveyearspenalservitudeandMortimerDanielSkatesandtheseventyyearoldAbrahamstothree
years.HannahoverwhomthejurydisagreedwasputbacktothenextsessionMaddowswasdischarged.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

GeorgeOrwellwasoneofthefirstscholarstorecognizetheinvaluableinsightsintopopularcultureofferedbypublicationsliketheMatrimonialHerald."Paperslike
theExchangeandMart,forinstance,orCageBirds,ortheOracle,orPrediction,ortheMatrimonialTimes,onlyexistbecausethereisadefinitedemandfor
them,andtheyreflectthemindsoftheirreadersasagreatnationaldailywithacirculationofmillionscannotpossiblydo."49Outburstsoflaughterresultedwhen,
thankstothetesti

Page52

monythatcameoutincourt,thethoughtsdancinginthemindsofaparticularportionofthemalereadershipoftheMatrimonialHeraldwasmadeknowntothe
generalpublic.FewtrialstookplaceinthegloomyconfinesofLondon'sCentralCriminalCourtthattheaudiencefoundsoamusing.Andjokes,asRobertDarnton
hasrecentlyremindedus,usuallydonottravelwellifwehopetofullyunderstandwhatwasthoughttobesofunnyinthisconspiracycase,wehavetounderstandthe
ageinwhichittookplace.50

Thecaserevolvedaroundgenderexpectationsbutalsotellsusagooddealaboutsocialmores.Firstitbringshometousthenewlyrecognizedpowersofthelate
nineteenthcenturypress.ThecharacterspresentedinmostoftheHerald'sadvertisementsappearsostereotypedtheactive,powerfulmaleandtheattractive,
passivefemalethatitishardtoimaginethatanyonecouldhavebelievedintheirreality.Thiswas,ofcourse,theargumentadvancedbythepaper'slegalcounselthe
plaintiffsmusthaveknownitwasallajoke.Butthousandsclearlyeitherbelievedorhalfbelievedwhattheyread.Everyoneknewthatsuchadvertisementsmightnot
revealthewholetruth,butsomethoughtthattheywerenotentirelyfraudulent.Andnodoubtsomereaders,eagertoparticipateinthefantasy,probablydidnotcareif
theadvertisementsweretrueornot.

WastheHerald,whichdidnotinformbutdidatleastentertain,allthatmuchdifferentfromtherestofthetabloidpress?Itwasobviouslyaproductoftheageof
"NewJournalism,"inwhichmasscirculationpapersrelied,notsimplyon"facts,"butincreasinglyonbylines,headlines,pictures,interviewsandmostimportantofall,
thelettersintheircorrespondencecolumns.Whowrotetheseletters?Evenrespectablepapersinthelastdecadesofthenineteenthcenturywhippedupdebateand
increasedtheircirculationsbyhavingjournalistswritetheirowncontroversialletterstotheeditorwiththeintentofluringenragedreadersintoresponding.Anda
muckrakingjournalistlikeW.T.Stead,whopurchasedayounggirltopublicizethescandalofchildprostitution,providedthemostdramaticdemonstrationofhow
newspaperscouldcreateaswellasreportthenews.51Insuchanincreasinglyambiguousculture,howdidoneknowwhatthe"truth"was?Theselfappointedtaskof
somenewspapersseemedtobetomaketheworldmoreratherthanlessmysterious.Viewedinthiscontext.theMatrimonialHeraldcouldbeseenastakingtoits
logicalextremenewspapers'temptationtoblurthelineseparatingfactsfromfictions.

InrevealingthatthirtythousandclientshadturnedtotheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociation,thiscasealsodemonstratedthefactthatmanyVic

Page53

toriansfoundthemselvesinanincreasinglyanonymousworldinwhichonemighthavetorelyuponprofessionalgobetweensinarrangingwhatoncehadbeenintimate
familymatters.Appealingtothesensitivitiesofthepropertied,thedefenseshrewdlyarguedthatifmatrimonialagenciesweremadeillegalsotooshouldthefirmsthat
providedregistersofservants.Theimplicationwasthattherespectablemiddleclassmightlaughattheideaofabusinessprovidingspousesbutthatittoomoreand
morereliedonsimilarbusinesseswhenitcametothecrucialquestionofengagingstaff.52

ThedefensenotedthatonthecontinentmatrimonialbusinessesflourishedbutacknowledgedthatinEnglandtherewasaprejudiceagainstsuchundertakings.Infact
occasionalscandalsacrossEuropeandNorthAmericarevealedtheseamysideofsuchaffairs.InNewYorkinthe1850s,reportersexposedthefraudulentdealings
ofmatrimonialagents,someofwhomalsopresentedthemselvesasastrologers,phrenologists,clairvoyants,andpurveyorsofpatentmedicines.53InLondonin1890,
seventyyearoldLeslieFraserDuncan,proprietorandeditoroftheMatrimonialNews,wascondemnedinthepressasan"elderlyLothario"forattemptingto
seduceatwentyyearoldclient.Thewoman'ssuccessfulbreachofpromisesuitresultedinanawardoftenthousandpoundsindamages.54FromGermanyand
Franceaswellcameoccasionalreportsofagenciesinvolvedin"l'escroquerieaumariage."55M.GeraywassentencedinParistofiveyearsinprisonin1877andtwo
additionalyearsin1886formanagingfromthemisleadinglynamed"LoyalOffice"afraudulentmarriageagency.56AugusteBebel,theGermansocialistleaderwho
waswellknownforhisinterestinevolvinggenderrelationships,reportedthatthenefariousactivitiesofsuchbusinesseshadalsobeendisclosedincentralEurope.57

NeverthelessinEnglandtheMatrimonialPostandFashionableMarriageAdvertiser,foundedin1860,wasstillgoingstrongwellintothemidtwentiethcentury,
andwastoberivaledfrom1904onbythealmostequallylonglivedMatrimonialTimes.58Unfortunatelyweknowverylittleabouttheextentoftheiractivities
becausetheyavoidedentanglementswiththelaw.HistoriansareindebttotheSkatesesinasmuchasinforcingthepolicetorespondtotheirdisreputableundertakings
theyallowusaglimpseoftheambitionsandaspirationsofsomewhoreliedonsuchfirms.

Thesecondsignificantaspectofthecaseisthatittellsusagooddealaboutthelinkagesofclassandcourtship.Thepropertied,wholaughedattheplaintiffs,
customarilyfailedtounderstandthecourtingcustomsofthelowerclasses.Thelatterwerecondemnedbytheirbettersattimesforhastymarriagesandunthinking
sensualityandatothertimesforactingoutof

Page54

coldcalculation.59Inthiscasetheplaintiffs'goals,althoughtheywereregardedasridiculousbythewelloffpublic,werenotallthatbizarre.Middleclassmaleswere
supposedtopostponemarriageuntiltheyhadestablishedthemselvesprofessionallyforsomemembersofthelowermiddleandworkingclassitwasoftenthe
reverseearlymarriageandtheeconomicaidofaspousemadetheestablishmentofanindependenthouseholdpossible.60

Andweretheunionsoftheupperclassesfreeofsuchcalculations?"Aweddinghasbeenarranged"wasafavoritephrasecommonlyemployedbynewspaperswhen
announcingaforthcomingsocietymarriage.Althoughamiddleclassmallsdignityrequiredhimtofeignindifferencetothemoneyhiswifecouldbringtothemarriage,
suchmonetarysupportwasconsideredessential.Thedowry,assertedonecontemporaryhumorist,couldbestbedefinedasan"exporttax"paidbythefatherofthe
bride.61AlthoughaFrenchreformersuchasLonBlumforthrightlycondemnedmercenarymarriages,aBritishpsychiatristlikeHenryMaudsleyandanItalian
sexologistlikePauloMantegazzaweremorerepresentativeofbourgeoisthinkingininsistingthatbothmarriagesofloveandinterestcouldturnoutequallywell.62

IftheSkateses'attorneyshadbeenmoreforthcomingintheirdefenseofmarriagebrokers,theymighthavesaidthatinEnglandwhatcreatedscandalwasnotsomuch
thequestionofwhethermarriageswerearrangedbuthowtheywerearranged.EnglishandEuropeanmiddleandupperclassparents,althoughtheywerebeginning
toeasetheclosesupervisionoftheirmarriageablechildrenthroughsuchinstitutionsaschaperonage,continuedtoarrangetheirmarriagesbythetriedandtruemethods
ofinformalsurveillanceofschoolandsocialcontacts.63Pridingthemselvesonthesuccessoftheirprivate,informalstratagems,themiddleandupperclassescould
onlyviewpublic,commercialundertakingswithdistaste.Tohavetofallbackonsuchcrudetacticsobviouslyindicatedthatonelaughablylackedbothsavoirfaireand
accesstothebestcirclesofsociety.HenryLeachasixtyyearoldBradfordpainterandhousedecoratorwhowaslookingforaslightlyyounger,wealthywoman
andwhomaintainedtotheendhisbeliefinthenecessityofsuchmarriageagencieswasforthisreasonregardedbythecourtashopelesslycomic."Hestillthought
thatanassociationofthiskindwasoneofthegreatwantsofthepeople.(Laughter.)"64

Thethirdandmostimportantaspectofthecaseiswhatitrevealsaboutgender.Thetrialtellsusagooddealaboutlowerclassmenandwomen's

Page55

marriagestrategies,butparticularlymen's.Whywereonlymeninvolvedintheprosecution?Nodoubtmanywomenlostmoneytotheassociation,buttheshamethey
experienceddeterredthemfromappearingincourt.JohnCharlesSkatestriedtofendoffthepolicewhodescendedupontheAssociation'sofficesbyappealingto
theirchivalry:"Thisisamonstrousthing.Thisisarespectablebusinesswehavethousandsofladiesuponourbooks"65Mr.Lushingtonmentionedduringthe
preliminaryproceedingsthathehadreceived"lettersuponletters"frompeoplewhohadcorrespondedwiththeagencyanddidnotwanttheirnamesmentioned.66
Presumablytheyincludedsomewomen.Butmostoftheevidencesuggeststhatmenweretheassociation'smostlikelyvictims.Menhadmoremoneytoinvestinsuch
schemes,theyhadgreaterfreedomandenduredlesssurveillanceintheircourtships,andtheywerenotasrestrainedbyasenseofdecorumfromplungingintosuch
enterprises.Thesamereasonswouldappeartoholdtrueacenturylater.Manydatingservicesofthe1990sallowwomentoparticipatefree,butchargemenbecause
males'interestinsuchservicessoexceedsfemales'.67

Thecasealsoremindsusthatthemaleworldwassplitnotonlybetweentheworkingandthemiddleclassesbutbetweenthemarriedandtheunmarried.Althoughin
nineteenthcenturymaleculturebachelorhoodwaspraisedandthelossoffreedomsattendantuponmarriagerituallylamented,themanwhoremainedcelibatecould
beregardedbyhispeersasnothavingattainedfulladultstatus.68Theplightofthespinsterwasoftenbewailedbythepress,buttheoldbachelorwhofailedtomarry
herwas,atthebestoftimes,subjectedtogentleridicule.69TheFrench,inemployingthetermsclibataireandvieuxgaron,madeevenclearerhisanomalous
position.IndeedinFrancepronatalistslikeBertillonadvancedtheoverrepresentationofsinglemalesinasylums,prisons,andhospitalsasproofoftheactualsocial
dangersposedbythebachelor.70Durkheimconcurred,warningtheunmarriedmalethathewastwiceaslikelyasthemarriedmantocommitsuicide.71

Themoststrikingaspectofthistrial,however,wasitstheatricality.Thepublicattendingnineteenthcenturycourtcontestsexpectedtobetoldastorythatfolloweda
familiarscriptwiththestereotypicalpassivefemalevictim,bravehero,andnastyvillain.Themelodramaandthesensationalistnovelhadamajorinfluenceinproviding
thenineteenthcenturypublicwithsuchasetofrepresentationswithwhichtomakesenseofchangingrealities.Butifthemelodramahadsuchaninfluence,why,inthis
caseofpoormenbeingdefraudedbydisreputablescoundrels,didthepublicdecidethat

Page56

itwasviewingnotatragedybutacomedy?Theansweristhatthesuccessofamanincourtdepended,aswenotedearlier,ontheextenttowhichhewasableto
appropriatetheroleofhero.TheSkatesesclearlycouldnotassumesucharolebecausetheirguiltwasobvious.Buttheplaintiffs,becauseoftheirstupidityand
mendacity,weredebarredaswell.Attimestheywerealmostrelegatedtothefeminineroleofpassivevictim.Butthepublicrememberedatsomeunconsciouslevel
thatmostmelodramasincludedthecharacterofthe"poorinnocent"or"lepauvreniais."who,whenthetensiongrewtoogreat,wasbroughtonforcomicrelief.72It
wasthisroleofthe"fool"thattheplaintiffsfoundthemselvesplaying.Lowermiddleclassmales,sabotagedbytheirmixofpretensionsandinsecurities,maywellbe
thearchetypal"fools"ofmodernity.Ifthevictimsofthisfraudhadbeenwomen,theycouldhaveembracedtheroleofvictimandthecasewouldhavebeenplayedout
incourtastragedysincetheyweremen,ithadtobeplayedoutasfarce.

Ofcoursemiddleclassmaleswerealwayspreparedtolaughatthefoiblesoflowerclassmen.Thereadersofpopulardetectivestorieswereconstantlyinvitedto
shareinboththeupperclasshero'shatredfortheimmoralityofthevillainandhisamusementattheinherentineptitudeofthelowerorders,personifiedbythebumbling
bobbyorconfusedCockney.73Inthisparticularcase,however,thepopularpressalsojoinedinthelaughter.PeterBaileyhasrecentlyremindedusthat
"knowingness"wasacentralthemeofmusichallcomedy.Workingclassaudienceswantedtolaughatfoolsandbeassuredthattheywerenotamongtheirnumber.
The"swell"whosuccessfullyandmockinglyappropriatedthedressandmannersofgentilitywouldbeapplaudedwhiletheineptandimpoverishedclerkwho
unsuccessfullytriedtopasshimselfoffasa"gent"washootedwithderision.TheplaintiffsintheMatrimonialHeraldtrial,havingbeenexposedforputtingonairs
(afterthefashionofthemusichallwouldbegentleman,"BurlingtonBertiefromBow"),letthemselvesinforexactlythesortofmockingridiculetheworkingclass
reservedforthosewhomthecommunityhaddecidedhadtoohighanopinionofthemselves.74

Thetrialwasusedinavarietyofwaysbyavarietyofactorstopolicebothmalecourtshipandnotionsofmasculinity.Inarecentstudy,JudithWalkowitz
demonstratedhowaseriesofsensationalmediastoriesproducedinthelastdecadesofthenineteenthcentury"bothhighlightedandmanagedtheboundarydisputes
paradigmaticofmetropolitanlife."75Walkowitzdealtprimarilywiththewaysinwhichtheconcernwiththe"prostitutionproblem"wasemployedtorestrictrespectable
women'sfreedoms.

Page57

ThepummelingthatthemalewitnessesintheHeraldcasereceivedatthehandsofthedefensecounselsgleefullyretoldinthepressservedasimilarsortof
purpose.

Anewmasculineidentitywasintheprocessofbeingconstructedinthelatenineteenthcentury.Tobearespectableman,oneideallyhadtoenjoyadegreeof
economicindependence.Suchindependencewasinfactincreasinglydifficultifnotimpossiblefortheworkingmantoachieve,buthecouldatleastaimatwinninga
''breadwinner's"wage,whichmadehimtheproudsolesupportofhiswifeandchildren.76Theyweredeclaredbythemiddleclasstobe"dependents,"andtheir
accesstothelabormarketrestrictedbytheenactmentofcompulsoryeducationandprotectivelaborlegislation.Womenandchildrenhadinthepastmadeessential
contributionstotheworkingclass'sfamilyeconomy,butnowhouseholdsthatreliedtooheavilyontheirincomewerenolongerconsideredentirelyrespectable.77
TheplaintiffsintheMatrimonialHeraldtrial,revealedtobemenwhointendedtoliveofftheirwives,wereaccordinglysavagedforhavingattemptedtoviolatenewly
establishedbutalreadysacrosanctgenderroles.

Thatoneoftheplaintiffsshouldhavefaintedlikeawomanwasalmosttooperfectinasmuchasthedefense'scontentionwasthatnoneofthemhadactedlikereal
men.Suchablurringofgenderwastobeexpectedsinceitwaspopularlybelievedthattheextendedcontinencedemandedoftheunmarriedwasunhealthy,making
womenmasculineandmeneffeminate.78Therewerethusobvioussexualimplicationsinthechortlestowhichtheplaintiffsweresubjected.Inthemusichalls,notfar
fromtheCentralCriminalCourtswherethistrialtookplace,maleimpersonatorssuchasNelliePowerwongalesoflaughterbyexploitingthenotionthatfraudulent
gentswerenotonlysocialshams,theywerelessthanmen.

Andhewearsapennyflowerinhiscoat,lahdidah!
Andapennypapercollararoundhisthroat,lahdidah!
Inhishandapennystick
Inhismouthapennypick.
Andapennyinhispocket,ladidah!79

Socialhistorianshavenotedthat,"likemarriageinotherhierarchicallyarrangedsocieties,Victorianmarriageservedimportantstrategicfunctions:ithelpeddefinelevels
ofsociety,maintainclasspositions,andlocateanindividual'splaceinthesocialstructure."80Itwasnot,ofcourse,acrimeforamanofmodestmeanstotrytocourta
womanofahighersocialstatus,butanywhoharboredsuchideasmusthavehadsecondthoughts

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whenreadingtheMatrimonialHeraldtrialreports.Themeninvolvedwerenottoberememberedforhavingcourageouslyplayedapartinputtingtoanendan
enormousfraudconspiracy.Thebriefmomentoffamethesehumblefellowsenjoyedconsistedofbeingmadethebuttofseveralbarristers'wit.TheSkateseswere
foundguiltysoinawayweretheplaintiffs.Theircrimewastohaveattemptedtomarryabovethemselves.Theirpunishmentwastobemadealaughingstock,
coveredwithscornandderision,andtoldinnouncertaintermstogiveupdreamsofeasyupwardmobility.Untilthenineteenthcentury,ithadbeenthetraditionin
partsofruralEnglandandwesternEuropetosubjectsuchupstartstothepublicmockeryofacharivariorroughmusic.Bythe1890sthecourtsandpresswere
fulfillingthisroleindeclaringthatwealthywomenwerestrictlythepreserveofmenofthesamesocialclasspoacherswouldbeseverelydealtwith.Amanwhowas
caughttryingtobroachclassbarriersriskedhavingbothhismotivesandhismasculinityquestioned.

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Three
Cads
Turnofthecenturysocietyhadatitsdisposalanimpressiverangeofepithetswithwhichtocharacterizethemandeemedguiltyofimmoralbehavior.The"lady
killer"(tombeurdesfemmes)wascreditedwithadangerouspoweroffascinationoverwomen."Towomanize"meant,inthesixteenthcentury,toemasculate,butby
thelatenineteenthhadtakenonitsmodernsense,toconsortillicitlywithwomen,andthe"womanizer''(coureurdesjupons)wasaccordinglythemanwhowassaid
tolookuponallwomenasfairgame.Theterm"rake"(rouordbauch),usedtodesignatethemanofloosehabitsandimmoralcharacter,wasoriginallyappliedto
dissipatedmenoffashionandnevercompletelylostitsupperclassassociations.The"bounder"or"cad"(butororgoujat)was,however,likethefellowsconsidered
inthepreviouschapter,clearlyan"outsider"andnogentleman.In1790a"cad"wasahorseomnibusconductorwhopickeduppassengersforhisownprofitby
Victoriantimesthetermconjuredupimplicationsofimmoralityaswellasworkingclassdishonesty.1 Furtherdowntheclassscale,onecouldlocatethescoundrel
(crapuleorvaurien)andblackguard(canaille).Farmoreexamplescouldbeprovided,butthesesufficetogivesomesenseoftherichnessofthevocabulary
respectableturnofthecenturysocietyappliedtomalevillainy.

Oneisnotonlyimpressedbytherangeoflabelsoneisalsostruckbythefactthattodayallthesetermssoundterriblydated.Thetriumphinthelatetwentiethcentury
ofthebeliefthatwomenarenotpassivebeingswhohavetobe"protected"frommenpresumablyexplainswhyitisnowhardtothinkofanypolitewordcommonly
employedtodesignatethemanwhotakessexualadvantageofawoman.Yetthepowerfulresonancethatwordslikecadorbounderhadattheturnofthecentury
wasmaderepeatedlyevidentincourtcaseaftercourtcase.Judgesandjuriesexplicitlyassertedthatitwastheirtasktodefendboththelawandalargelyunwritten
codeoflegalchivalryaccordingtowhichvirtuouswomenweretobeprotected

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fromevilmen.Thequestionofwhoseinterestswerebestservedbysuchchivalrywarrantsattention.

Aswayofananswerinthischapterweturntotwoarchetypalnineteenthcenturyscoundrelsthebigamistandthemanimplicatedintheabortionofasinglewoman.
ThoughthediscussionofbigamyisdrawnfromaseriesofnineteenthcenturyFrenchtrialsandthatofabortionfromonesensationalEnglishcase,bothrevealthatthe
courtsandthepopularpress,maintainingthepopularstereotypesoftheinnocentfemalevictimandthemaliciousmalevillain,playedupthenotionthatifonlyallmen
adheredtohonorablestandardsofmanlinesswomenwouldbesafe.Thoughtheselfcongratulatorytoneofsuchdeclarationswasobvious,manyofthosewhomade
themwerenodoubtwellintentioned.Neverthelessthechiefeffectoftheseassertionswastoattributethesexualdangersprevalentinmodernsocietytothemoral
failingsofafewwretchesandtodeflectattentionfromthesocialconditionsinwhichbigamousmarriagesanddangerousabortionsoccurred.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

InJanuary1886theParisianpressdevotedanenormousamountofattentiontothetrialofLouisProsperLecouty,the"bigamistofAlfortville."Fiveyearsearlierthis
twentynineyearoldjewelrybrokerhadmarriedEmmaMarie,ayoungdressmaker.In1883,havingbecomeboredbyhismarriage,Lecoutymetandsetoutto
seducesixteenyearoldBlancheLevanneur,whosefamilyresidedinAlfortville.Hepilferedfromhisemployerandhisclientsinordertoshowerherwithgiftsher
parentsignorantofhismaritalstatusfinallyconsentedtohermarriage.Althoughstillresidingwithhisfirstwife,LecoutyhadmarriagebannsreadatMaisonsAlfort
andrentedaweddingoutfit,tellinghiswifehewasgoingtoattendafriend'snuptials.Nosoonerhadhissecondmarriagebeensolemnizedthanhislegitimatewife
discoveredthesubterfuge.Lecoutywasjailed,protestingthathehadactedoutofpassion.Thoughhisfirstwifebeggedforthecourt'sclemency,hewassentencedto
fiveyearsinprison.2

Thiswasthesortofbigamycase,amelodramaticmixtureofsordidcalculations,passion,andbetrayal,thatcaughtthenineteenthcenturybourgeoisreadingpublic's
attention.Bigamistswerethearchetypalnineteenthcenturycads.Giventhestiffprisontermsimposedonthem,oneisgiventheimpressionthattherewerefew
nonviolentcrimesviewedbytherespectableassoloathsome.Bigamywasvileandharmful,thepublicwasrepeatedlyinformed,becauseitbestrepresentedthe
despotismofmales

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andthesubmissionoffemales.Everybigamytrialcouldthereforebeconstruedasyetanotherdemonstrationofrespectablemen'sintenttopreventtheseductionand
abandonmentofinnocencewomenbyimmoralmales.Inrealitymostbigamycases,thoughtheyculminatedinthepunishmentofmen,wereturnedbyelitesmalesto
purposeoflegitimatingtheirrighttopolicethemoralityoftheirsocialinferiors.

Whowerethebigamists?ThestoryofLecouty,thedashingyoungmanmovedbyacrazedpassiontoattempttomaintaintwohouseholdssimultaneously,whichso
fascinatedtheParisianreadingpublic,was,asismadeclearbyaperusaloftheGazettedesTribunaux,hardlytypical.Mostbigamistswere,itistrue,men.They
tended,however,nottobeterriblyyoung.AsamplingofcasesindicatesthattheaverageculpritwasnotadashingyoungLothario.Ofcoursetobeabigamistaman
wouldhavetohavebeenmarriedatleasttwice,whichnormallymeantthattheyoungestwouldbeintheirmidtwenties.Mostmenchargedwereinfactintheirthirties,
forties,orfifties.Fewcrimesweresoheavilyweightedtowardthemiddleaged.Norweretheremanycrimesinwhich100percentoftheperpetratorsweremarried.
Moreoverbigamists'firstmarriageswererarelyasshortasLecouty's,andmanyoftheirsecondmarriageswerequitelengthy.

Lecoutywasalsodifferentinbeing,insocialterms,acutortwoabovemostbigamists.Menchargedwithbigamyincludedtheoddmerchantorofficer,butmost
occupiedmuchhumblersituationstheyincludedrailwayworkers,canalmen,housepainters,shoemakers,cooks,waiters,andhairdressers.Theirfirstandsecond
spouseswererarelyheiressesandweremorelikelydrawnfromtheranksofmaids,seamstresses,marketwomen,andlaundresses.Bigamywasprimarilyaworking
classcrime.Why?Bourgeoisobserversattributedittothelustsandvicesoflowerclassmalesthecadsandbounderswhopreyedonunwittingwomen.
Commentatorsgenerallyoverlookedthesocialcontextinwhichsuchmnagesweresetup.Areadingofbigamycasesremindsusofthetransientnatureofmuchmale,
nineteenthcenturylaboringlife,ofwhichsettled,propertied,middleclassmenhadlittleunderstanding.Thedemandsofworkthatrequiredaspousebeingawayfrom
homeforlongstretchesoftimecouldfractureamarriage.Workmen,becausetheyweremoregeographicallymobilethanwomen,hadtheopportunitytobe
bigamous.JulesBrlaz,alocomotiveengineer,marriedin1874andagainin1882.3 ABelgianrailwayworker,triedin1889,whotoldhissecondwifethathisfirst
wassimplyanoldmistress,remindsoneofthecharacterPecqueux,therailwayfiremaninZola'sLaBtehumaine,whohadwomeninbothLeHavreandParis.4
SylvainDerou

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movedfromtheCreusetoParisandthenfromParistoAlgeria,leavingawifebehindeachtime.5 AmanlodgedintheMazasprisonin1886marriedforthefirsttime
inFrance,thesecondtimeinRomania,andathirdtimeagaininFrance.6 JosephVial,acook,firsttookawifeinItaly,butwhenhecametoworkinthespatownof
Vichyweda"femmedechambre."7 MoreexoticandupperclasswastheMexicanofficerwho,asaresultofbeingcapturedbytheFrenchduringtheirsupportof
emperorMaximilien'sMexicanexpedition,wasbroughtbackasprisonerofwartoTours,wherein1864hebigamouslymarriedthe"picier"withwhomhelodged.8
Onoccasiongeographicmobilitywassimplyusedasacover.OneRouselle,agrocerwholefthiswifeandchildreninParis'sfourteentharrondissenment,letitbe
knowhehadgonetoAmerica.InfactheonlymovedasfarasthenearbysuburbofBoisColombes,wherehesetupanewhouseholdwithawidow.9

EvidenceofthedisruptionscausedworkingclasslivesbyFrance'spoliticalturmoilalsoemergedinthebigamytrials.In1848Bastienlefthisvillagetogooffto
supporttherevolutioninParisasaresultofendinguponthelosingside,hewassentencedtoeightyearsinthe"bagne,"forgetabouthisfirstwife,andonhisrelease
remarried.10AsimilarstorycameoutinthetrialofanoldfedrLouisVictorMarty,afiftyfiveyearoldshoemaker,whosecasecametocourtin1877.Bothhe
andhiswife,FranoiseGaoin,havingmarriedin1868,hadthrownthemselvesintodefendingtheParisCommuneof1871againstthetroopssenttocrushtheshort
livedexperimentinsocialism.FranoisewasseizedwhiledefendingabarricadeontherueMonge.MartywasstationedatthePanthonandprudentlywent
undergroundwhentheVersaillestroopsinvadedthecapital.FranoisewastakeninchainstoVersaillesandin1872sentencedbyaCouncilofWartofiveyears
penalservitudeintheprisonatChartres.Marty,wishingtoremarry,claimedthatshehadbeenshotandwiththefinancialaidofferedbythesistersofSaintVincentde
PaulandtheSocitdeSaintFranoisRgisweddedforasecondtime.Onlyin1875didthetruthabouthisfirstwife'sfateemerge.11

Workingclassmenhadtheopportunitytocommitbigamywhatweretheirmotives?Bourgeoismoralistsportrayedthemascrudesensualistsorcunningfortune
hunters.Thedefensesthatthemenpresentedincourtobviouslyhavetobetakenwithagrainofsalt,buttobefairitmustbenotedthatsomemighthavebeen
confusedastowhatconstitutedlegalmarriage.JosephVialclaimed,forexample,thathisfirstmarriagewasnotlegalsincehehadnotreceivedhisparents'consent.
Someoftheaccusedwereobvi

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ouslynottoobright.Ram,an"ouvrierterrassier,"wasfairlydimwitted,andTaupier,athirtysevenyearoldredheadedfellow,muchamusedspectatorsbydutifully
replyingtoeveryquestionputtohimbythepresidentofthecourteventhemostincriminatingwiththeexpression,"Oui,MonsieurlePrsident."Andifsomedid
notunderstandwhatmadeamarriage,otherswereuncertainabouthowdivorce,onlyreintroducedin1884,wasregulated.Taupierassertedthathehadreasonto
thinkthathehadbeendivorced.12Similarlyitwasclaimedincourtthatabusinessmancharged"lafemmeDuhamel"100francsforapaperthatshebelievedgranted
heralegalseparation.13In1886DavidHertzfeld,whenappearingbeforetheParisassizes,arguedthatthirteenyearsbeforehehadmarriedaccordingtoJewishrites
andthereforeassumedthathehadtherighttorepudiaterituallyhisfirstwife.14

Areviewofpossibleextenuatingcircumstancesisnottobetakenasadenialthatsomemenweredrawnbymercenarymotivestomarrybigamously.Allagreedthat
SylvainDerouwasadrunk,thief,andbigamistofdetestablehabits.MonsieurSimon,anotherdissipatedcharacter,desertedhiswifeofthirtytwoyearstomarrya
twentyyearoldwomanwithadowryoftenthousandfrancs.Hetoldthelatterthattheyshouldbediscreteandlodgeunderafalsenamebecausehewasbeing
stalkedbyanoldmistress,buthismotherinlaw'ssuspicionswereraised,andhewaseventuallyarrested.15AlcideCrouzire,athirtytwoyearoldpainter
decoratordescribedinthepressasagoodlookingfellow,hadpurportedlydupedmany.Aprofessionalconfidenceman,hecalledhimselfabaronandmemberofthe
Acadmiefranaise.Forbuyingjewelsoncreditandpawningthem,hehadalreadybeencondemnedfourtimesforabuseofconfidence.Tendaysafterhismarriagein
February1892hewasarrestedinSaintLunaire(IlleetVilaine).Evidencewasproducedthatin1885hehadmarriedatTeste(Gironde)oneMarieCondom,whom
hedesertedin1891.Heclaimedthatshetoldhimshehadobtainedadivorceandthathehadsimplymarriedhissecondwifetolegitimatethechildshewasexpecting.
Bothwomendeclaredincourtthattheywerestillinlovewithhim.16

Mencouldcommitbigamymorereadilythanwomenbecausetheycouldmovemoreeasilybothsociallyandgeographically.Womenemergedfromthemajorityofthe
pressreportsrepresentedsimplyasseducedandabandonedvictims.Yetsomewivesdiddeserttheirhusbands.SuchasituationwasreportedinthecaseofPaul
AntoineHenry,anastyandjealousman,whosewifewentofftoRussiain1873withheremployer,a"grandecouturire."Elevenyearslaterhemarriedforasecond
timehisfirstwife

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foundoutandlodgedacomplaint.Despitehisclaimingthathethoughtshewasdeadandhissecondwife'spleasthatshelovedhim,hewassentencedtothreeyearsin
prison.17MoretypicalwasthecaseofBrlaz,wholefthisfirstwifein1874andin1882marriedaseamstress.Tenyearslater,havingsiredfivechildren,hewas
triedforbigamy.Hisfirstwifehadonlydiscoveredhissecondmarriagebecauseshesoughtproofofhisdeathsothatshecouldmarryabaker.18Likewisethewifeof
Mastien,whohaddesertedherin1848,wantedtoremarryandintryingtoobtainhisdeathcertificateunintentionallyunearthedhisnewmnage.Thefiguresavailable
onseparationsshowthatwomenwere,ifanything,moreintentthanmenongettingoutofunsuccessfulmarriages.Inthethirdquarterofthenineteenthcentury,85
percentofrequestsforjudicialseparationscamefromwives.19Itfollowsthatwomenwerepresumablyaslikelyasmentowanttoremarry,butbecausetheytended
toremainintheirhomecommunityandhadtokeepuptheirreputations,theycouldnotflouttherulesofmatrimonyaseasilyastheirabsentspouses.

Accordingtothemoralists'scenario,thebigamistwasalmostbydefinitiontheman,andthevictimthewoman,butthepressdidreportthetrialsofsomefemale
bigamists.In1868AmlieArnoult,alaundress,marriedamonsieurThomas.ShelefthimforafellowbythenameofHametin1872,depositinghertwochildreninan
orphanage.Nineteenyearslater,inordertoregularizehersituation,sheusedhersister'sbirthcertificatetopretendthatshewaswidowedsothatsheandHametcould
bemarriedatthemairieofParis'seighteentharrondissement.UnfortunatelywitnessescameforwardtotestifythatThomaswasstillaliveAmliewassentencedto
threeyearsinprisonandahundredfrancfine.20

Women,accordingtothepress,werelesssensualthanmenandthereforelesspronetopursueasecondspouse.Ignoredwerethemoreobvious,practicalreasons
notedabovewhytheywouldbelesslikelythanmentocommitbigamy,andoneisnotsurprisedtofindthatthecourtrecordssuggestthattheymadeuplessthana
quarterofthosecharged.Itcouldbethecase,however,thatthejudicialfiguresdidnotprovideatruereflectionofrealityinasmuchasmenweremorelikelythan
womentobeprosecutedforbigamy.Abandonedwivesweresometimesdriventofilechargessincetheyandtheirchildrenneededtheeconomicsupportofaman.A
desertedhusbandrarelyhadanyeconomicincentivetotrackdownawaywardwife.Itisunlikelythatwomenwerehappierthanmenwiththeirweddedlot.A
proportionofwomenstayedinunhappymarriagesortriedtomaintainthemoutofsheereconomicnecessity.21Yetasfarasthepresswasconcerned,thescaleof
femalebigamywasreallyofnogreatimportance.Male

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journalistssimplydidnotfindfemalebigamistsveryinterestingandknewtheirreaderswereunlikelytobeenthralledbythemundane,unromanticcalculationsof
impoverishedwivesandmothers.

Thebourgeoispressridiculedandderidedthemeninvolvedinbigamytrialsas"levolage"(theflightyorinconstantspouse),"leftard"(themerrymaker),and"le
fricoteur"(thewomanizer),butnotesofvoyeuristicmaleenvycanoftenbedetectedintheseaccounts.Suchwasthecaseinthepress'sdescriptionofIsraelBernard
who,withtwohouseholdsoneithersideofParis,waspresentedastryingtoeatattwotroughsatthesametime.Hehadoriginallyabjuredhisfaithtomarrya
mademoiselleChassangandlaterexchangedvowswithamademoiselleFourny.Foratimeheastonishedhiswiveswithhishecticdays,whichstartedatfiveinthe
morningandtookhimfromMontrougetoBatignolles.Theingeniousfashionbywhichhetriedtomaintainbothmnages,whenitcameoutincourt,obviouslypiqued
theimaginationofthenewspaperreadingpublic.Unfortunatelyaninquisitivemotherinlawprovedhisundoing.HiscareerfinallyendedinacellintheMazasprisonin
1897.22IntheEnglishspeakingworld,asimilarvoyeuristicbourgeoisfascinationwiththetakingofmorethanonewifeunderlaytheinterestheldbytheMormons
andarticleswithtitleslike"TheMostSuccessfulBigamistonRecord."23

Whatmostinterestedthepublicwasthemalebigamists'initialsordidseductionandthenthestory'smelodramaticdnouement.Howwasthemancaught?Intheory,
sincebigamywasaseriouscrime,thecommunityshouldhavedenouncedtheculprit.Inpracticetheonusoffilingachargewasusuallyplacedontheaggrieved
spouse.Thecustomaryscenariowasforthefirstwifetolodgeacomplaintwhilethesecondwife,whohadeverythingtoloseifherhusbandwasfoundguilty,stuckby
herman.Sometimes,however,bothwivesactedinconcert.24Occasionallyagrownchildofafirstmarriage,ajiltedmistress,oramotherinlawbeganthe
prosecution.Inthelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury,itwasconservativelyestimatedthatabouttwobigamousmarriagesamonthwereperformedinthedepartment
oftheSeine.25FourorfivewenttotrialinallofFranceeachyear.Between1885and1894,thereweresixtysevenchargeslaidandfiftytwocondemnations,thatis
tosayafairlyhighconvictionrateofabout78percent.26Thelawconsideredthechildrenofthesecondmarriagetobeinnocentvictims,and,aslongastherewas
proofthatoneparent(presumablythemother)hadactedingoodfaith,theywerelegitimatedandenjoyedrightsofsuccession.Secondmarriageswereautomatically
nullifiedbythecourt,butifinthemeantimethefirstspousediedthesecondmarriagecouldbemaintained,theintentagainbeingtolegitimateresultingchil

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dren.27Sentencesforthemenfoundguiltyrangedfromtwotoeightyearsimprisonment,withtheaveragebeingaboutfouryears.AmonsieurHermantwhomarried
nearToulouse,remarriedinParis,andthenreturnedtohisfirstspouseandconfessed,receivedalighttwoyearterm.28Theheaviestpunishmentseightyearprison
termswereimposedonmenwhohadbeeninvolvedintheCommuneandtheRevolutionof1848,whichsuggeststhatthecourtswereusingthelawonbigamytodo
morethansimplyprotectthefamily.

Whydidthelawtreatbigamistssoharshly?In1920asoldierwhohadbeentakenprisonerin1914andthenuponhisreleaseattheendofthewarhadmarried
bigamouslyappearedincourt.Hislawyer,whileadmittingthathisclientmighthaveactedoutofignorance,insistedthathewasnofortunehunterandhadnocriminal
intention.Hisdeedwasmoreridiculousthanodious.Moreover,why,thelawyerasked,wasbigamyacrimewhenadulterywasnotanddivorcewasnowfreely
available?29LawsagainstbigamywerefirstpassedbytheemperorAugustuswiththeavowedpurposeofshoringuptheRomanfamily.InChristianEuropebigamy
waslumpedinwiththemostodiousofcrimes.30InEnglanditwasmadeafelonyforthefirsttimein1604thoughthelawwasinitiallyfairlylenient,itlatertreatedthe
crimeasacapitaloffense.ThefatethatawaitedthemaincharacterinNatalieZemonDavis'sTheReturnofMartinGuerreremindsusthattheCatholicchurchinthe
earlymodernperiodwasverymuchconcernedbybreachofpromiseandbigamycases.31TheCouncilofTrentsoughttopreventclandestinemarriagesbyinsisting
thatweddingsbepublicizedandtheblessingofmarriagebemadeobligatory.Bigamywasregardedbychurchmenasworsethanadulterysinceitwaslongerlasting.
Moreoverthebigamist,liketheheretic,profanedthesacraments.Inthesixteenthcentury,thedeathpenaltywasfrequentlyimposedonbigamistsotherswere
whippedandbanished.ThelastcaseinFranceofbigamybeingpunishedbydeathoccurredin1626a1658edictformallyendedthisextremeformofpunishment.32
Thereafteraconvictedmanwascustomarilycondemnedtoappearforthreedaysbeforethepublicinanironcollarhungwithadistaffforeachofhiswivesa
convictedwomanhadtowearastrawhatforeachofherhusbands.InEnglandtheguiltywerebrandedonthehand.InFrance,aftertheirpublicpenance,theywere
eitherbanishedor,ifmen,senttothegalleys,whilethewomenwerelockedupinconvents.Despitesuchharshpenalties,itishighlylikelythatthenumberofbigamous
marriageswasquitelarge.33

Althoughitisimpossibletotabulatetheexactnumber,theeasewithwhichmencoulddeserttheirfamiliesandtheabsenceofdivorceleadsone

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toexpectthattherateofbigamyuntilthelatenineteenthcenturyhadtohavebeenhigh.Thefactthatfewcaseswerereportedsuggeststhatonlywhenabigamous
marriagewasoffensivetothecommunitydiditcreateapublicscandalthatthenledtoatrial.34Neighborhoodsympathyandanindividual'sdiscretionweremore
importantthanthelaw.Eveninthenineteenthcentury,marriagescontinuedinthefirstinstancetobepolicedbythefamily.Ramwaiteduntilhisparentsweredead
andthenabandonedhislaundresswifeandmarriedanother.35PaulAntoineHenryalsotookthepassingofhisfatherandmotherasthesignalthatitwassafeto
remarry.AlcideCrouzireclaimedhisparentsweredead,buttothedelightofthecourthisfatheranoldrevolutionarywhohadbeenproscribedforopposing
NapoleonIII'sseizureofpowerin1851turneduptotestify.36

FollowingtheFrenchRevolution,thepenalcodeof25September1791decriminalizedadultery,andin1792divorcewasestablishedthoughitwasonlytolastuntil
1815.37Withthegeneralmovementtowardtheliberalizingofthecriminallaw,itcomesasasurprisetodiscoverthatArticle33ofthe1791codecalledforbigamyto
continuetobepunishedbyharshprisontermsofuptotwelveyears.UnderArticle310ofNapoleon's1810CriminalCode,thepenaltywasonlyreducedtobetween
eightandtenyears.Christianmoralistshadcalledforstiffpenaltiesbecausetheyregardedbigamyasbothaviolationofthesacramentofmarriageandasortof
"continuousadultery."Inaliberal,bourgeoisworld,someofthismoralizingwasmaintained,buttheirreligiousnatureofbigamywasnolongerregardedasitsprimary
danger.LawmenassertedthatFrancenowwasanindividualisticsocietymadeupoffreeindividualsheldtogetherbyfreelyenteredcontracts.Insuchacontext,
bigamyhadtobeconsideredastheworstsortoffraudinasmuchasitwasadastardlyviolationofacontract,indeedthecommunity'smostimportantcontract
marriagethatestablishedfamilies,whichwerethenaturalbuildingblocksofsociety.38

Yetifmarriagewasacontract,itwasanunusualonegiventheabsenceofdivorceinFrancebetween1815and1884inthatitwasindissoluble.Bourgeoismales,
ratherthanacknowledgingthatthepressuresimposedonthelowerclassessometimesledtobigamy,insistedthatitwasbigamythatcreateddisorderinworkingclass
communities.Ingivingrisetopublicscandal,bigamywas,inthewordsofpubliccommentators,a"socialcrime."Bigamywasamanifestationoftheworstsortof
deceitanddeceptioninsowingconfusioninfamiliesitunderminedsocialorder.Workingclassmales,sotheirbettersagreed,hadtobetrainedtoacceptandrespect
thesortofclearcontractsemployedbythemiddleclasses.39

Whatthesesortsofassertionsfailedtotakeintoaccountwasthatthere

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werepracticalreasonswhybourgeoisandworkingclassmaleswouldhavedifferentviewsonmarriageandtheestablishmentofhouseholds.40Commonlaw
marriage,or"concubinage"asitsdetractorscalledit,wascommoninpoorerneighborhoods.41Itistruethatitcouldleadtoconfusionthattheunscrupulouscould
exploit.JeanBaptisteLain,forexample,claimedthathisfirstwifewasonlyhisconcubinewhenhemarriedasecondtime.42Inthe1890sitwasestimatedthatthere
wereaboutfortythousand"unionslibres"inthecityofParisalone.Workersoftenlackedthetimeandmoneytoassemblethedossierrequiredtomarry.Catholic
charitiesliketheSocitdeSaintFranoisRgishadastheirmissionthegoaloftryingtoconvinceworkerslivingincommonlawrelationshipsofthemoraladvantages
oflegalmarriage.TheSocitwasfirstestablishedtohelpsoldiersundertheFirstEmpire.By1850ithadfinanciallyassistedfortytwothousandcouples.Thecharity
recognizedthedifficultiesposedworkersbyexistingmarriagelawsthatrequiredbirthcertificates,deathcertificates,andtheconsentofparents.43Severalbigamists,
suchasJeanBaptisteDufour,turnedtothisverycharityforaidwhencommittingtheir"crime."Manyothermenmarriedbigamouslywomenwithwhomtheyhadbeen
livingforyears.Theironywasthatiftheyhadcontinuedtolive"insin,"theywouldhavegoneunmolested.Bytryingtoformalizeadomesticarrangementandassure
thelegitimacyoftheirchildren,theybecamecriminals.

Membersoftheworkingclassalsohadtheirownideasaboutwhatterminatedonemarriageandallowedanother.Bigamyinthenineteenthcenturywas,asone
historianhasnoted,aworkingclassfactoflife.44Membersofthelowerclassestookpermanentseparation,traditionallyasevenyearsilence,asanindicationofthe
moralendingofamaritalrelationship.Forexample,inEnglandin1807,aSomersetrectorwhenaskedbyawomanifhewouldhaveherbannsread,repliedthathe
hadbeentoldshehadalivinghusband."ShesaiditwasallfalsewhatfolkssaidabouthisbeingalivethathewenttotheEastIndiesasasoldierupwardsofseven
yearsago,andhadneverbeenheardofsince."45InBritainthelowerclassesalsoemployedthe"saleofwives"asaformofpopulardivorce.46Whatthecourts
representedasbigamousmarriagesmighthaveresultedfromamicableseparations,butbylawsuchinformalarrangements,thoughtheysuitedtheindividualsinvolved,
couldnotbepermitted.Bastienwascaughteighteenyearsafterhisfirstmarriageandgivenafiveyearsentence.Lainwasarrestedtwentynineyearsafterhisfirst
marriage.Adecadeofasecondhappymarriagewastakenintoaccountbythejury,whichwantedto

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showitsleniencyinthecaseofBrlaz.Abigamytrialcouldaccordinglydestroysimultaneouslytwohouseholds.AlfredBloquel,forexample,acoiffeurfromPassy,
hadbeendesertedbyhisfirstwifein1872whenhewasinjail.Hewashappilymarriedin1886toaClsteEvrard,whoranafruitstall.Fourteenyearsafterthe
endingofhisfirstmarriage,avindictiveexmistressinformedthepolicethathewasalreadymarried,investigationswerecarriedout,andtheauthoritiesfoundhisfirst
wifelivingpeacefullyinRouenwithanotherman.47DivorceinFrancewasnotavailableuntil1884.48Andevendivorce,whichhaditsownlegalcostsand
complications,couldnotbeexpectedtoeliminateworkers'recoursetobigamy.

Prosecutorsinbigamycasesrepeatedlystressedtheneedtodefendthefamily,thecornerstoneofsociety.Itwasthereforeasomewhatcurioussituationthatmenwho
wereseekingtocreateafamily,toformalizearelationshipandlegitimatetheirchildrenshouldbelockedawayforuptoeightyears.Thebigamylaw,purportedly
designedtoprotectfamilies,wouldinpracticeoftenbeusedtobreakthemup.Itshouldberemembered,however,thatthesamelogicwasfollowedundernineteenth
centurydivorcelawinbothEnglandandFrance,whichheldthataspousefoundguiltyofadulterywasnottobeallowedtomarryhisorherlover.Thenotionthatvice
wasnottoberewardedwasmoreimportanttomoraliststhanassuringthehappinessofanewfamily.AsimilarmoralismwasmanifestedbytheCatholiccharitiesthat
soughttoencouragetheworkingclasstoenterformalmarriages.Priestsactuallycondemnedthestablecommonlawpartnershipsofworkerswhichsometimeshad
resultedingrandchildrenasmoresinful,sincelongerlasting,thanshorttermpromiscuity.

Theclassandmoralpreoccupationsofthedefendersofthelawonbigamywereclear.Forourpurposesthemostinterestingaspectofthediscussionofbigamyisthe
lightitshedsonnineteenthcenturynotionsofmasculinity.Bigamy,claimedmiddleclasslawmen,wasanevilinasmuchitwasnakeddemonstrationofthedespotismof
malesandthesubmissionoffemales.Thecourtsarguedthatthemostcommoncaseusuallyconsistedofaman'sbasedesire,bytheemploymentofodiouslies,to
seizethemodesteconomiesofsomepoorgirl.Thecrimewasconsideredsonoxiousthatmarriedwomen,normallyonlyallowedtolaunchaprosecutionafterthey
receivedtheirhusband'spermission,wereinthecaseofbigamygrantedexceptionalfreedoms.49Followingasimilarlogic,children,whoweregenerallyharanguedto
respecttheirparentsinallthings,wereinbigamycasespermittedsomelatitude.Achildofafirstmarriagewasallowedtolaunchasuitofnullityagainsthisfather'snew
marriageinordertoensurethathe

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obtainedhisrightfulinheritances.50Bysoarmingwomenandchildrenagainsttheirhusbandsandfathers,thestatecouldbeseenasstrikingablowagainstpatriarchy.
Inrealityupperclassmen,whocontrolledthejudicialsystem,wereemployingthelawagainstlowerclassmales.Bigamousmalesnodoubtfrequentlytookadvantage
oflesspowerfulfemales.Thecriminalcodewasemployed,however,notsomuchtospeaktotheneedsofsuchwomenbutrathertobringthelowerclasseswithinthe
paleofthelaw,toimposeonthemthemoralstandardsoftheirsocialsuperiors.

Mostofthediscussionofbigamyconsistedofbourgeoismaleslamentingthelowermoralstandardsoftheworkingclassman,buttheywerenotbeyondfinding
amusementinsomepoorfellow'sentanglementwiththelaw.Bigamytrials,accordingtothePetitParisien,usuallyelicitedamixtureoftearsandlaughter.Thetears
wereobviouslyshedbythemembersofthefamilyorfamiliesdevastatedbythecourt'sfindings.Thelaughtercamefromthemiddleclassobservers.Suchhilarityburst
forthinthetrialofJeanBaptisteDufour,describedasafiftyyearold''Lovelace."HehadmarriedinBne(Algeria)in1853,inLeHavrein1868,andinAlgiersin
1871.Alargeaudiencecameouttoseethe1874trialatLeHavreofthe"polygamist."Awigmakerrecentlywidowedwithwhomheworkedreportedthathehad
proposedtoher."QuestionYouwouldhaveconsentedtomarryhim?Answer(confidently)Oh,yessir,aftertheninemonths[ofmourning](generalhilarity)."51
Amusementinmoretypicaltrialswasprovidedbywhatthecourtreporterspresentedastheparadeofsheepishorcontritehusbandsandthegenerousorfoolishwives
willingtotakebacktheirstrayingspouses.Whenthesecondhusbandofawomantriedforbigamydied,thereporteroftheusuallystaidGazettedesTribunaux
quippedthatonehusbandwaslostbutanotherfound.Onecanthinkoffewotheroccasionsinwhichwomeninmourningweremadethebuttofbadjokes.52
Journalistscoveringthetrialsoftheworkingclassfeltthatsensitivitywasnotrequiredbecausepassionwasrarelythecauseofbigamyworkingclassmenwere
understoodtobemovedbybaserinstincts.BourgeoismalesfoundtheideaofamanlikeAlfredBloquellivingoffhiswifeparticularlydisgusting.53EvenLecoutywas
ridiculedbythejudgeforclaimingtoberichthoughhavingtorentclothesforhiswedding.Bigamywasundoubtedlyaformoffraudthatwasoftenemployedbymen
tovictimizewomen.ButasinthecaseofthetrialoftheownersoftheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociation,thecourts,whendealingwithbigamy,seizedthe
opportunitytodenigratethemoralityandmanlinessoftheworkingclassesandexaltthesuperiorityofbourgeoisnormsofmasculinity.

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Thepolicingofmeninvolvedintheabortionofsinglewomenwasturnedtosimilarpurposes.InMarch1896anEnglishjudgepronouncedthedeathsentenceonJohn
Hindson,afortythreeoldcommercialtravelerwhohadhelpedawomanfriendprocuretheinducementofmiscarriagefromwhichsheultimatelydied.Itcomesas
somethingofashocktorealizethatlessthanacenturyagothosewhoassistedwomenseekingtoendapregnancycouldbesubjectedtotheharshestsentences
Englishcourtshadathand.In1803theinducementofmiscarriagehadforthefirsttimebeenmadeastatutorycriminaloffenseintheUnitedKingdom,abortionbeing
theoneoperationspecificallyprohibitedbystatute.Inthecourseofthenineteenthcentury,thelawwasrepeatedlyamendedforthepurposesofsimplifyingits
enforcement,andbythetimeofthe1861OffensesAgainstthePersonActanabortionconvictioncouldresultinamaximumpenaltyoflifeimprisonment.Itcouldbe
argued,however,thatthelawhadlittlerealimpact.Anumberofhistorianshaveconcludedthat,giventheincreasedsocialpressuresonfamiliestorestrictfertilityin
thelatenineteenthcentury,abortionratesactuallysoared.Iffewabortionswerereported,itwasbecausemanymembersofthelawandmedicalprofessionsfeltthere
waslittletobegainedinprosecutingdesperatewomenwhosoughtbydangerousmeanstoendtheirpregnancies.54

Thegeneralpicturepaintedbyhistoriansofthelatenineteenthcenturyabortionlawisthatittargetedwomenbutwasinfrequentlyemployedthatitfacedmuch
popularoppositionbutthatseriouscallsforitsreformorrepealhadtowaituntilthetwentiethcentury.TheinterestofferedbyareviewoftheHindsoncaseisthatit
forcesustorevisetosomeextentsuchviews.First,theprosecutionofJohnHindsonprovidesevidencethattheabortionlawwasusedtopolicethemoralityofmen
aswellasthatofwomen.Second,Hindsonwaschargedwithmurder.Thisservesasareminderthatabortionattemptsweremostlikelytocometotheauthorities'
attentionwhensomethingwentseriouslywrongbutthatinsuchcasesthelawcouldrespondwithferociousvigor.Englishcourtsrepeatedlylevieddeathsentences
afterinducedmiscarriagesresultedinunintendedmortalconsequences.Third,theHindsontrialprecipitatedanunprecedenteddiscussionofbothabortionlawandthe
moralityofabortionitself.Inthecontextofthisdebate,thefirstpublicdefenseofabortionbymenwaspublishedinanEnglishjournalprecedingthewritingsofStella
BrownebytwentyyearsandtheactivitiesoftheAbortionLawReformSocietyby

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morethanforty.AreviewoftheHindsoncaseisaccordinglyofobviousinterest,promisingasitdoestorevealwhobecameimplicatedincriminalabortions,howthe
lawagainstthemwasenforced,andwhycallsweremadeforitsreform.Despitethepurportedconcernforthe"unbornchild"brandishedbytheopponentsof
abortion,thiscasemakesitclearthattheabortionlawwasnotjustaboutreproductionbutemployedtopolicegender.Assuchabortionlawsplayedanunexpected
roleindefiningmasculinity.

Hindson'stroublesbeganinOctober1895whenSarahEden,afiftysevenyearoldAstonmidwife,wasindictedforthedeathofbothRebeccaSimister,aneighbor,
andthatofMabelGordon,ayoungwomanwhohadworkedasabarmaidandbookkeeperattheAlbionHotelinLeeds.On12Septemberadoctorhadinformed
Gordonthatshewaspregnant.Theyoungwomanbegantakinglargequantitiesofpatentmedicinestoinduceamiscarriage,buttheydidnogood.Shethenturnedto
JohnMillarHindsonforassistance.Alltheevidencesuggeststhathehadimpregnatedher.Hindson,amarried,fortythreeyearoldcommercialtravelerofTorry
Street,Hull,wasdepictedinthepressasapparentlythearchetypalsleazytravelingsalesmanwhohadawomanfriendineverytown.Subsequentpoliceinvestigations
revealedthathewason"Intimateterms"withIsabellaPirieinAberdeen,MatildaManninginBirmingham,andMabelGordoninLeeds.IsabellaPiriewasatonetime
engagedtoHindsonforeightweeksandbelieved,aspresumablydidtheotherwomen,thathewassingle.Hindsonwasobviouslynota"gentleman"asthetermwas
understoodatthetime,buthedidnotabandonthepregnantMabelGordon.HewroteIsabellaPirieinAberdeenthatMabelGordonhadbeenbetrayedbysomeman
andthatshehadthereforeturnedtohim"tokeepher.''Hethensetaboutarrangingacomplicatedplanbywhichthebarmaidcouldsavebothherreputationandhis
own.HindsonwenttoBirmingham,fromwherehewrotePiriethathehadfoundaplacewhereanabortion"couldbebroughtoffallright."55Heconcludedby
sendingPirieloveandkissesandtherequestshedestroyhisletter.ToPirie'ssuspiciousquestion,"Whyyou?"Hindsonreiteratedthathewasnotresponsiblefor
Gordon'spregnancyandwasjustbeingagoodfriend.

HindsonaskedPirietoposeasarelativeofGordon'sandsendatelegramtoLeedssayingGordonhadtoreturntoAberdeen.ThiswouldallowGordontogetaway
fromheremployerforaweekorsoandhaveherabortioninsecret.56ThisPiriedid.On15OctoberMabelGordonshowedtotheAlbionHotelhousekeeperthe
telegramsayingshehadtoreturnhome

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toAberdeen.TherusepermittedhertotravelsecretlytoBirmingham.ItwasnotbychancethatHindsonhadarrangedforMabelGordontogotoBirminghamtostay
withMatildaManning.HindsonhadknownManningforsixyearsandwhenintheBirminghamarealodgedatherhome.Hewasonextremelygoodtermswithher,
addressingherinlettersas"MydarlingTillie"andconcludingthemlikethelettershewrotetoIsabellaPiriewith"loveandkisses."Hindsoninitiallydidnottell
MabelGordonofhisrelationshipwithMatildaManningbuteventuallyhadto.

MabelGordonarrivedatNewStreetStation,Birminghamat11:20on16October.Gordon,accordingtoManning,claimedthatshehadbeenseducedbyaLeeds
bookmaker.ThenextdayManningtookGordontonearbyAstontomeetthelocalmidwifethesameSarahEdenwhoattendedRebeccaSimister.Edenprovided
anabortionforwhichafeeoffivepoundswascharged.GordonreturnedtoboardatMatildaManning's,whereon18Octobershefellill,butitseemsthatHindson
wasinformedbypostthattheoperationwasasuccess.On22OctoberhewroteIsabellaPirietoreportthateverythinghadgoneoffasplanned.Butafewdayslater
Gordon,muchenfeebled,returnedbytraintoLeeds,whereshediedofbloodpoisoningon26October.57

ThemidwifeSarahEdenaccordinglyfoundherselfinDecemberchargedwiththemurderofRebeccaSimisterandindictedalongwithMatildaManningforthe
manslaughterdeathofMabelGordon.ThelesserchargewasleviedinthecaseofGordon'sdeathbecausetheLeedscoroner'sjurywasoftheopinionthattheyoung
womanmighthavelivedhadshereceivedbettermedicalcare.58SarahEdenwastriedforthemurderofRebeccaSimisterbeforeMr.JusticeJohnDayintheShire
Hall,Warwick,attheWarwickAssizesoftheMidlandCircuit,on10December1895.59Thetrialtookonlyafewhours.Thedefensearguedthatnoevidencewas
advancedbytheprosecutiontoconnectEdendirectlytotheoperationof23OctoberthatSimisterunderwent.DoctorsfurthertestifiedthatSimistercouldhave
possiblyinducedherownmiscarriage.ButMr.JusticeDaysummedupstronglyagainstEden,andafteramerefourminutesthejuryreturnedwiththeverdictthat
Edenwasguiltyofwillfulmurder.

ThereporterfortheDailyNewsclaimedthatthejury'sfindingshockedmostofthespectators,butMr.JusticeDaycongratulateditonitsacumen,insistingthatno
otherverdictwaspossible.Day,turningtotheprisoner,whohadbeenrenderedhalfunconsciousbytheunexpectedverdict,sanctimoniouslywarnedherthatshe
shouldnotlooktohisintercession,butratherseekmercywhereitwasonlytrulyfound:"atthefeetoftheSavior

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whoifapproachedwithtruesorrowandcontrition,wouldreceiveher."60HethensentencedSarahEden,atremblingwomanoffiftyseven,todeath.Edencollapsed
andwascarriedawayinafaint.

Mr.JusticeDaywasnotfinished.HavingdealtwithEden,henowpresidedoverthetrialofMatildaManning,thethirtyeightyearolddressmakerwhohadbeen
indictedforthemanslaughterofMabelGordon.Manning,aswasnoted,hadtakenGordonalongtomeetSarahEden.EdenhadbeenindictedwithManningfor
Gordon'sdeath,butsinceEdenhadalreadybeenconvictedofRebeccaSimister'smurder,EdenwasnottriedwithManningonthesecondcount.Thecrown'scase
againstMatildaManningwasweak.ManningstucktoherstorythatshehadnothingtodowithMabelGordon'sabortionandhonestlybelievedthatGordonhad
cometoBirminghamsimplytoarrangeforherconfinement.Manning'strialendedinanabruptandmostunexpectedmannerbutnotbecauseofeithertheclumsiness
ofthecrowncounselortheskillofManning'sbarrister.ThefirstwitnesscalledwasJohnMillarHindson,themanwhohadarrangedforGordontogotoMatilda
Manning'stoseekanabortion.Notappreciatingthedangeroussituationinwhichhefoundhimself,Hindsonshockedthecourtbytestifyinginacool,nonchalant
manneraboutGordon'seffortstofreeherselfofherpregnancy.DespiteMr.JusticeDay'smutteredwarningthatheneednotgiveselfincriminatingevidence,Hindson
moreoverfreelyadmittedthathewrotelettersonMabelGordon'sbehalftotheaccused.Whenaskedwhyhedestroyedotherpossiblyincriminatinglettersfrom
womenfriends,heflippantlyreplied:"Ialwaysdo."61

Hindson'scrossexaminationhadnosoonerbegunthanajuryman,perhapstakenabackbythewitness'scandor,collapsedinafit.Thetrialwashaltedanda
conferenceofthecounselsheld.TheprosecutiondecidedtodropitsweakcircumstantialcaseagainstManning.Mr.JusticeDaygrudginglyconcludedthat
"consideringherposition"hewouldgivethewomanalightsentenceandshewasreleasedwithacaution.ButonceManning'strialwasconcluded,Day,outragedby
whathehadheardofHindson'spromiscuousprivatelifeandnowoutforblood,orderedthepolicetoarrestthecommercialtravelerforthemurderofMabelGordon.
HindsonwasseizedashetriedtoleavetheShireHall.62Hewasnaturallyshockedatbeingchargedwithamurderthattookplacemilesawayfromwherehehad
been."Iwasneverneartheplace,"heprotestedtothepolice,''andIcanproveit."63

Theunexpectedturnofeventswasplayedupbythepress.TheDailyChronicle,undertheheadline"TheWarwickSensation,"reportedthat

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JohnMillarHindson,afamilyman,waschargedwithprocuringtheabortionservicesofMatildaManningandSarahEdenandwiththemurderofMabelGordon.64
Hindsonwasformallycharged23DecemberinMarch1896aGrandJuryissuedatruebillagainsthimforGordon'sdeath,andhewascommittedfortrialonthe
chargeofwillfulmurder.65HewastriedattheWarwickAssizesbeforeMr.JusticeJamesMathewon8March1896.TheBirminghamDailyGazettegavea
discreetversionofthetrial,notingthatthesubjecthadalreadybeendealtwith"anditwasnotnecessary,andcertainlynotdesirable,todiscussthedetailsofavery
painfulcase."66Afullaccountwasmadeavailablebyother,lessprudishnewspapers.TheyreportedthatEdenandManningtestifiedtoHindsonactingforthemand
MabelGordonasagobetween.SarahEden'stestimonydrew"muchinterest"asshewasthewomanwhoafewmonthsearlierhadbeencondemnedtodeath.She
spokeveryquietly,forwhichshewasadmonished,againinsistingthatshehaddonenothingillegaltoGordonwho,Edenreported,hadconfessedtospendingthreeto
fourpoundsonabortifacientpillsbeforecomingtoBirmingham.AsregardsHindson,Edenassertedthatshedidnotknowhimandhadnevermethim.

Dr.Green,themedicalwitness,testifiedthattherewasevidencethatsuggestedMabelGordonmighthavemiscarriedbefore.Regardingherdeathhereportedthatan
instrumenthadbeenusedonherbutthedrugsshetookandthejostlingrailwaytripbackfromBirminghamtoLeedsinherweakenedconditioncouldhaveplayeda
contributingpartinprecipitatingherfinalcollapse.Thedefensepointedoutthat,whateverthecauseofGordon'sdeath,therewasnoevidenceofHindson'sbeing
directlyinvolvedineithermurderoranillegaloperation.SarahEden,whooperatedonGordon,didnotevenknowhimhehadbeenahundredmilesawaywhenthe
operationactuallytookplace.67

ThejudgeobviouslyviewedHindsonasMabelGordon'sseducer,askingwhyhewenttosuchextremesinofferingtohelptheyoungwoman.ButHindsoncouldnot,
bylaw,provideadirectanswer.Mr.JusticeMathewnotedthattheaccusedincriminalcaseswasnotinfactallowedtotestifyonhisorherbehalf.Abillallowingthe
accusedsototestifyhadjustpassedtheLordsandhadbeensentontotheCommons.Mathew,presumablyregrettingnothearingwhatHindsonmighthavetosay,
declaredthatitwasabadlyneededreform,whichwouldhelpjudgesindeterminingappropriatepunishments.68AlthoughMathewseemedtowanttoappeartobe
fair,heneverthelesssummedupstronglyagainsttheprisoner.Afterabrieffifteenminutes,thejuryreturnedwiththeverdictofguilty,thoughthefore

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man,stating"weareallsorryforhim,"passedonthejury'srecommendationformercy."Withoutapauseofanysort"notedthepress,"thejudgepassedthesentence
ofdeath."69

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

Thesearethe"facts"ofthesecasesastheywerepresentedinthetrials.Whatdotheytellusaboutnineteenthcenturyabortionlawanditsrelationtothepolicingof
masculinity?Presumablythemainintentofthecourtsinenforcingthelawwastopreventwomenfrominducingtheirmiscarriages.Onreflectiononecanseethatthis
goalwasonlyachievedinanindirectfashion.Womenwhosoughtabortionswererarelyprosecuted.Foradoctor,evenoneviolentlyopposedtosuchpractices,to
bringtothenoticeoftheauthoritiesapatient'ssuccessfulinductionofmiscarriagewasalsoveryunusual.Andmostnewspapers,includingmanywhichdecriedany
attemptatfertilitycontrol,carriedadvertisementsforawiderangeofthesortofreputedabortifacientsthatMabelGordonhadconsumed.AsingleissueofthePenny
IllustratedPaperof30April1892,forexample,puffed"Dr.Mackay'sMarvelousRemedies,""ABlessingtoLadies""TheFrenchRemedy,""MadameLeno's
Remedy,''"Kelsey'sWidowWelchesFemalePills,""NurseBayley'sWorldRenownedSpecific,"andthe"Ladies'MissionTheGreatInfallibleRemedy."70

Abortion,throughacrime,waswidespread,andthelawagainstitbothdifficulttoapplyandhalfheartedlyenforced.Juriessimplywouldneitherindictnorconvicta
womanwhoinducedherownmiscarriage,theassumptionbeingthatshehadsufferedenough.Itwastheabortionist,notthewomanwhoaborted,whowasinevitably
charged.AndeventhenprosecutionsundertheOffensesAgainstthePersonActof1861usuallytookplacewhenawomanhaddied.Inshortthelawwasprimarily
concerned,notsomuchwithwhohadabortionsbutwithwhoprovidedthem.Therewere,ofcourse,someinthecommunitywholamentedthelaxitywithwhich
abortionwastreated.SuchviewswereclearlyexpressedbyMr.JusticeDay,whoassertedthatitwasnecessarytoimposetheharshestpossiblepenaltiestodeteran
actthatled,soheclaimed,tomanydeaths.Womenweresotemptedtocommitthiscrime,thejudgeobserved,thatithadtobeseverelypunishedwhenproved.He
wentontoconfessthatheevenfeltsome"satisfaction"inpronouncingthedeathsentenceonSarahEden,inasmuchasitwoulddeterothers.71Thepunishment,Day
hoped,wouldactasawarningtothose"whopractisedforhirethiswickedtrade."72TheBirminghamDailyGazetterejoicedinsuchseverity,complainingthatthe
"unlawfuloperation"wasacrimeof"deplorablefrequency."Thenewspapershared

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Day'sviewthatsincesomanyabortionswentundetected"severeandexemplarypunishmentisnecessary."73ThethoughtnevercrossedthemindsofeitherMr.
JusticeDayorhissupportersthatthefactthatsomanywomenweretemptedtocommitsuchacrimeimpliedthattheremightbesomethingwrongnotwithwomenbut
withthelaw.

Abortiontrialspittedmenagainstwomen.Althoughoneoftherationalesatthebeginningofthenineteenthcenturyformakingtheprovidingofabortionastatutory
crimewastoprotectwomenfromdangerouspractitioners,itremainedacrimethatwomenmostlycommittedandmenalonepunished.ThetrialofSarahEden
providedacleardemonstrationofthisalignmentofpowerandgender.Thejudge,police,andjurywere,ofcourse,allmales,asweremostofthespectators.Indeed
insomeabortioncases,theevidencerelatingtowomen'sreproductiveorganswasthoughtsounsavorythatthejudgeorderedall"ladies"toleavethecourt.74An
occasionaldoctorwasimplicated,buttheabortioniststriedwere,likeSarahEden,usuallyolderneighborhoodwomenwhoactedsometimesinpursuitofmonetary
gainsometimesoutofkindness.Theyincludedin1890thirtyfiveyearoldDinahClapp,midwifein1891ElizabethBerryandDorothyDavis,midwivesin1892
LizzieAnnMitchell,herbalistin1893MaryAnnBaker,dressmakerandAnnieStewart,midwifein1899sixtysevenyearoldJaneWhite,midwifein1900forty
eightyearoldErnestineKatz,midwife.75Almostinevitablythesefemalepractitionershadtofacethehostiletestimonyofmaledoctorswho,thoughalarmedbythe
dangersillegaloperationsposed,wereespeciallyconcernedtousethelawagainstabortiontoeliminatecompetingmedicalservices.

ButtheHindsontrialalsopointsoutthepatriarchalnatureofthelawthatis,itsusebypowerfulmentocontrolnotjustwomenbutother,marginalmen.Theattempt
bySarahSimister,amarriedwoman,touseabortiontolimitfamilysizedidnotseizetheVictorianreadingpublic'simagination.Thepolicingofhersexualitywas
assumedtobetheresponsibilityofherhusband.Inthenineteenthcentury,thementionofabortionwasfarmorelikelytoconjureuptheimageofaMabelGordon,a
seduced,singleyoungwomanseekingtoprotectherhonor.Insuchcasestheabortionlawwasobviouslyusedbythecourtstopolicefemalesexualitybymaking
intercourseoutofwedlockdangerous.AstheHindsoncaserevealed,thelawwasalsoemployedtopolicethesexualityofmalesinvolvedinsuchextraorpremarital
relationships.ThehusbandsofwomenlikeSimister,whoaborted,evenwhensuchmenclearlyactedasaccessories,wererarelyprosecuted.Unmarriedmalesoften
were.76

Hindsonsimplydidnotunderstandwhyhewasbeingprosecuted.He

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wrotetothepressprotestinghissentence,claimingthathehadnotbeenonimmoraltermswithMabelGordonandthattheLeedscoroner'sjuryhadestablishedthe
paternityofherchild.MoreimportantlyheaskedhowitwaspossibleforhimtobefoundguiltyofagreatercrimethaneitherEdenorManning.77Hedidnotrealize
thathehadbeensentencedtodeathnotjustbecauseofanabortiondeathbutbecauseofitslinktohispromiscuity.Mr.JusticeMathewnotedwithdistastethatwhat
thetrialhadrevealedwas"theremarkableinfluencesomemenhadoverwomen."78ThenewspaperpressportrayedHindsonasalicentious,calculatingcharacter,a
marriedmanbutwithunbridledpassions."Oneofthoselooseliving,selfindulgent,recklesscharacters,"reportedtheBirminghamDailyGazette,whosesoleaim
wastocorruptwomen.79TheBirminghamDailyMaildescribedhimas"athoroughlyloathsomefellow,aLothariowithoutscruple,ascoundrelwithoutashredof
conscience."Themoralsofthis"low,libidinousblackguard"hadledtothenoose.80TheYorkshireEveningPost,whilespeculatingthatHindson'sdeathsentence
wouldbeultimatelycommuted,concludedwithselfsatisfactionthatas''aheartlesssensualist,hewillberightfullypunishedwitha'lifer.'"81

WhatnoonesaidbutfewcouldhaveignoredwasthatifHindsonhadsimplywalkedawayfromGordonafterhefoundoutthatshewaspregnanthewouldbeafree
man.Hewasinprisonnotbecauseheseducedherbutbecausehehelpedherobtainanabortionfromwhichshedied.Thenotsohiddenmessagethecourtwas
givingtomenwasthatthesexualexploitationofbarmaidscouldbewinkedatamanonlyputhimselfseriouslyatlegalriskifinadditionheinvolvedhimselfinassisting
suchawomantoinduceamiscarriage.AndasHindson'snamewasblackened,MabelGordon'sreputationwasconverselyrescued.Weknowverylittleabouther,
butatfirstglancethistransformationappearsrathersurprising.Itmightberememberedthatthebarmaidwasinthenineteenthcenturythearchetypalmalesexual
fantasyfigure,creditedbyheroglerswithhavingaloosermoralcodethanmostwomen.82MoreoverevidencehadactuallybeenheardincourtthatGordonmight
haveabortedonapreviousoccasion.NeverthelessthelogicheldthatifHindsonweretobeportrayedasvillain,Gordonwouldhavetoemergeashisinnocentvictim.

Whatwasthepublicreactiontothesetrials?Inthe1890sonlyahandfulofmurderersinEnglandwereexecutedeachyear.83Thepassingoftwodeathsentencesin
thecourseoffourmonthsintwoabortiontrialsnotsurprisinglyprecipitatedagooddealofheateddiscussion.Inonecaseamidwifehadbeenbeggedbyafriendto
provokeamiscarriageintheothertheprisonerhadassistedafemalefriendindistressandbeenahundred

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milesawaywhenshedied.Dideitherwarrantthedeathpenalty?Treatingabortiondeathsasmurderobviouslybotheredmanyinthecommunity.InHindson'scasethe
connectionwasespeciallytenuous.Butseveritydidhaveitsdefenders.TheBirminghamDailyGazette,withoutopenlymentioningabortion,arguedthatthe"law"
washard,butonreflectiononecouldseethatsuchalawwas"necessary."Acrimethatresultedindeathhadtobetreatedthesameasmurder.84TheBirmingham
DailyMailsimilarlyfeltobligedtoreminditsreadersthat,accordingtoLordBramwell,aidinganother,evenwithherconsent,toabortifitledtodeathwasmurder.85
AttheLiverpoolWinterAssizesin1858,BramwellhadheldintheStadtmhlercasethatifapersonforanunlawfulpurposeuseddangerousinstrumentsormedicine
toinducemiscarriageanddeathensued,thiswaswillfulmurder.86ButStadtmhler,unlikeHindson,wasactuallypresentandassistedatanabortion.

MuchofthepublicdiscussionnecessarilycenteredonMr.JusticeDay,who,theBirminghamDailyGazetteadmiringlynoted,hadinthepastbuiltupareputationas
ascourgeofcriminality.Day(18261908)beganhislegalcareerasasuccessfulandhighlypaidbarrister.In1882,attheageoffiftysix,hewasmadeajudge.He
wasnotashamedofhisoldfashionedviewsand,accordingtohisson,wasapointedcriticofcontemporaryenthusiasmsforEuropeancriminalanthropologyand
"pseudoscientificsentimentalism.""ItmusthavebeenearlyinhisjudicialcareerthatMr.JusticeDaydecidedthathewoud[sic]domostgoodbydevotinghismain
energiestoenforcingthemorallaw,andtodeterringcriminalsfromfurtheroffensesagainstGodandsocietybymeansofseveresentencesincluding,whenpossible,
theuseofthelash."87ButDay,sohissonclaimed,havingterrorizedpoorwretcheswiththeprospectofcorporalpunishment,oftenultimatelyreducedtheharsh
sentencesthathehadimposed.

In1886Mr.JusticeDayclinchedhisreputationasonewhoenjoyedadministeringa"lawofterror."Atthatyear'sNovemberAssizesinLiverpool,intenton
impressingthelocalcitizenrywiththedignityofthelaw,hesentencedtwentyyoungrobberstotwentytothirtystrokesofthecat.Andtoensurethatthememoryofthe
degradationremainedfresh,Dayorderedthatthelastapplicationsofthelashweretobeinflictedjustbeforetheunfortunatesfinishedtheirprisonsentences.Onalater
occasionheregrettednotbeingabletohavefloggedanothergangofyoungthievesknowing,asheclaimed,thatyouthscaredonlyfortheirskins.88Infourteenyears
Dayinflicted3,766strokesofthelashon137prisoners."Showyourbacktoyourdissolutefriendswhenyoucomeout,"washiscustomaryadvicetosuchcriminals.
Thelipsmackingpleasurewithwhichthejudge

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imposedsuchsentenceswasboundtoelicitcriticisms.Wasthatthewayagentlemanbehaved?ThechiefconstableofLiverpoolrememberedDayasacarefuljudge,
"thoughundoubtedlyaverysevereone."89EvenDay'ssonhadtoadmit,withalargemeasureofunderstatement,thathisfather"wasnotgiftedNewmanlike,witha
trueapprehensionofthefeelingsofothers."90Day'sinfatuationwithfloggingandhislackofjudicialcalmnesswasattributedbyhiscontemporariestotheferocious
brandofRomanCatholicismthatheembraced.JohnMorley,theLiberalM.P.,on30July1888readtotheHouseofCommonsaletterfromJudgeAdams,oneof
theBelfastCommissioners,whodescribedDayas"amanoftheseventeenthcenturyinhisviews,aCatholicasstrongasTorquemada,aToryoftheoldhighflyer
andnonjurortype."91

SarahEdencouldnothavecomebeforealesssympatheticjudge.Daywasespeciallyprejudicedinsexcases.92Hisreligiousbeliefsnodoubtexplainedhisexpressed
hatredofabortionandthegeneralopinionwasthattheseverityofEden'streatmentwasclearlyduetoDay'spreoccupations.TheDailyNews,whichonearlier
occasionshadattackedDayasabrute,protestedthatEden'sdeathsentencewasagainstjusticeandnatureitwasa"miserablesubjectofjudicialerror"thathadtobe
remediedquickly.ThenewspaperassumedthattheHomeOfficehadbeenalerted,"because,inthematterofcapitalsentencesMr.JusticeDaynotoriouslyneeds
constantwatchfulness.Hehasagloomypassionforseverity,whichmakesitnecessarytobereadytosavehimfromhimself,aswellastosaveculpritsfromthe
consequencesofhispeculiarconceptionsofhisduty."93TheDailyChronicleconcurredthatitwouldbeascandalandacrimeifSarahEdenwereexecuted."Wedo
notbelievethatoneEnglishmaninahundredwouldconsenttoregardheroffenseasoneofwillfulmurder,ortopunishherdeed,gravelyculpableasitwas,withthe
lastdreadsentenceofthelaw.Leastofallcansuchapenaltybeproperlycarriedoutattheinstanceofajudgeholdingtheviewsofpunishmentwhichhavebeenmost
unhappilyillustratedonscoresofoccasionsbyMr.JusticeDay."94Inshort,inattackingDayasa''brute,"theliberalpresswasassumingtheroleofchivalrous
protectorofwomen.EventheBirminghamDailyGazette,anavidsupporteroflawandorder,askedthat"womanhood"begivenmercy.OnlegalgroundsEdenhad
beencorrectlyfoundguilty,butperhaps,thenewspapersuggested,sheignorantlysoughttodogood.Hopefullythejudgewouldsaysomething.ButinfactDay
refusedtorecommendmercythat,hedeclared,wastobedecidedbyhigherauthorities.95

SirJamesCharlesMathew(18301908),Hindson'sjudge,didnotenjoyDay'sreputationforseverity.Mathewwasanardentradical,knownforhis

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facileandhumoroussallies.ButasadevoutRomanCatholic,hehadaslittletimeforsexcrimesasDay.96Hearingthejury'sguiltyverdict,heimmediatelypassed
Hindson'sdeathsentence.Buttraditionallymurderhadtoentail"maliceaforethought."Hindson,theliberalpressprotested,wasclearlynotguiltyof"willfulmurder"to
suggestthatheintendedGordon'sdeathwasabsurd.

Somuchforthejournalists'critiquesofthecourts.Whatofthepublicdiscussionofabortion?MostEnglishnewspaperslamentedtheseverityoftheabortionlawasit
manifesteditselfintheEdenandHindsoncasesfewhadthecouragetoembarkonanydetailedinvestigationofwhytherewasademandforabortion.Oftheleading
dailies,theDailyNewswentfurthestinaskingifinducementofmiscarriagemightnotbe,incertaincircumstances,legitimate."Mrs.Eden,attheearnestsolicitationof
amarriedwomanwhohadreasontodreadtheagonyofaconfinement,consentedtoperformanillegaloperation....Shehadnocorruptmotivesheactedonlyfrom
afeelingofpityandperhapsonsomeconfusedideaofthesimilarityofherministrationstothoseinwhichthelifeofachildunbornissometimesfreelyandblamelessly
sacrificedtosavethelifeofamother."97Thewriterwasexpressingwhatmanynodoubtfelt.Theactofapromiscuoussinglewomantryingtohideevidenceofher
sexualtransgressionswasnotthesamethingasanillmotherseekingtoterminateaseventhpregnancy.Inapplyingthelawonabortion,thecourtshadtotakeinto
accountthecharacteroftheindividualsinvolved.Butthisisasfarastheleadingdailieswouldgo.

Foranactualdefenseofabortion,onehastoturntoanarticlewrittenbyAlexanderCohenentitled"TheCaseforMrs.Eden,"whichappearedinanobscurejournal
calledTheTorchofAnarchy.Cohen'sdefenseofabortion,becauseofitsdaringoriginality,deservesquotationinfull.
JusticeDay,thewellknownworshipperofthe"cat"hasmadehimselfnotoriousoncemore.AtthelastWarwickAssizes,thishighlyrespectableoldfloggermanaged,byhis
summingup,sotodirecttwelveimbecilejurymenthattheyreturnedaverdictofwillfulmurderagainstSarahEden,acharwoman,whobyan"illegaloperation"wasallegedto
havecausedthedeathofawoman,acertainMrs.Sinister[sic].

WedonotintendtodwellonthesentenceofDeathpronouncedbyDay.Butweareanxioustoknowwhatisthemeaningoftheseprosecutions,andinthenameofwhat
"principle"theyareinstituted.

Hereisthecase.Apoorwretchedwoman,whoneglectedto

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prevent,attherightmoment,theconceptionofherchild,obtainedtheservicesofanotherwomantoprocureabortion,inordertospareherselftheanguishofchildbearing,andat
thesametimetosavetheprospectivebabythepainofliving.Theoperationiscarriedout,andthewomandies.

Nowifatanytimethereexistedarightofproperty,thenmostindisputablyitisthatwhichawomanhasoverherunbornchild.Anditwouldbejustasreasonabletohanga
surgeonwho,byamputatingabrokenlimb,causesthedeathofhispatient,astocondemntodeathaSarahEden,underwhosemoreorlessexperiencedhandsawomandiesafter
undergoingasocalledillegalabortion.

Butletuslookatthequestionfromanotherpointofview:themostimportantone.Whyshouldnotwomen,evenwhentheyarenotinaweakstateofhealth,asMrs.Sinister[sic]
issaidtohavebeen,anddonotdreadthephysicalpainofchildbirth,abort,iftheychoosetodoso.How,insuchacase,cantheinterferenceofjudges,asrepresentativesof
Societythatrottenabstractionbejustified?

Forthequestionisnotwhetherawomandiesornotinconsequenceoftheoperation.Ifshedoesnot,sheandthe"operator"areneverthelessprosecutedandcondemned,ifthe
thingbecomesknown.

Womenmustprocreate,womenmustbeprolific,womenmaynotextirpateordestroythefruitoftheirwomb.Sosaysthelaw,andsosaythebrainlessidiotswhoabidebyand
worshipit.

Wesay:Thebringingforthofchildren,solongasthe"joyofliving"cannotreasonablybeexpectedtobetheirfate,isacrime,thegreatestweareabletoconceive.Howmuch
betterwoulditnothavebeenhadthescoresofcursedchildrenwemeetinthestreets,livid,bloodless,andthin,somanyindictmentsagainsttheirrecklessprocreators,iftheir
comingintoexistencehadbeenprevented,ofiftheyhadbeentaken,assoonastheycametothedarknessofthelight,bytheheels,andtheirbrainsbeendashedoutagainstthe
wall?

Wretchedwomen:besterile,closeyourwombs,abort!98

Despiteitsrhetoricalexcesses,thiswasaremarkabledocument.Itsauthor,AlexanderCohen,aDutchanarchistwhohadlivedmuchofhislifeinFrance,earneda
livingtranslatingintoFrenchtheworksofsuchGermanwritersasHugovonHoffmansthal,GerhardtHauptman,andEduardDekker.Cohenwasdeportedfrom
FranceandtriedinabsentiaattheAugust1894procsdetrenteafteranoutbreakofanarchistbombingattacksled

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theFrenchgovernmenttopasslawsthatallowedittotryconspirators.99CohenfoundintheLondonofthe1890salivelyanarchistculture,dominatedbyEuropean
exiles.100TheTorch,whichdeclareditselfajournalof"AnarchistCommunism."wasownedandoperatedbythreeyoungpeopleintheirtwenties,Olivia,Arthur,and
HelenRossetti,theniecesandnephewofDanteGabrielRossetti,thepreRaphaelitepainter.101TheTorchparadedanadvancedsexradicalism.Itattackedas"the
goodygoodyoldcats"theprudeswhoattemptedtoclosetheEmpire,apopularmusichall,102castigatedthepoliceforharassingprostitutes,103andleapttothe
defenseofEdithLanchester,ayoungwomanwhohadbeencommittedtoanasylumbyherparentswhenshesoughttoliveunmarriedwithasocialist.104

TheTorchstressedthatitwasnecessarytounderstand,ifnotcondone,thedesperateactsofwomenwho,givenexistingsocialmores,wereendangeredbytheirown
fertility.ThejournaldefendedMinnieWellsandAmyGregory,whoweresentencedtodeathforhavingcommittedinfanticide.105Wells,atwentythreeyearold
laundryworkerfromReigate,wasdeliveredoftwinsinMay1894evictedfromherhomeandimpoverished,shedrownedhertwobabiesinJune.106InMarch1895
theTorchsimilarlypresentedAmyGregory,whohadstrangledherchild,asavictimofsociety.Wasitanysurprise,itasked,thatGregory,atwentythreeyearold
laundresswhohavinggivenbirthintheworkhouse,starving,turnedoutofherhouseandunemployed,shouldhavekilledherbabydaughtertoprotectherfromalife
ofpain?107Suchdiscussionsprovidedaremarkableexampleofleftistmen,whomtherespectablepresscustomarilydepictedasscoundrelsandblackguards,
appropriatingthediscourseonchivalry.108Mr.JusticeDaywasthecadanarchists,theyasserted,werethetrue"gentlemen"inalonedefendingpoor,persecuted
women.Thisexampleof"anarchistgallantry"remindsonethatmenontheleft,evenwhencondemningtheeconomicandpoliticalaspectsofbourgeoissociety,prided
themselvesontheirstrictadherencetoamasculinecodeofhonor.109

MostoftheTorch'sarticlesonsexissuesweretheproductofFersenheim,aBerlinerwhowroteunderthenameofF.S.Paul.Hefollowedafamiliarleftistlinein
attackingbourgeoismarriageasacrasscommercialtransactionbutalsochidedotheranarchistmalesfornotrecognizingwomen'ssexualneeds.Hesoundedanew
notefortheleftinEnglandindefendingbirthcontrol.110Paul,inanarticleentitled"Malthusianism,"thoughadmittingalargefamilywasstillprobablyaneconomic
advantagetotheworkingclasshousehold,declaredthatanarchistshadnoobjectionsonmoralgroundstothe"useofpreventiveappliances."111Paulprovided

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theTorch'sdefenseofHindson.Hindson,accordingtoPaul,insteadofdenyinghisguilt,shouldhaveforthrightlydeclared:"Everywomanhasaninalienablerighttodo
withherbodywhatevershelikestogiveherselftowhomsoevershelists."Hindsonwould,ofcourse,havebeencrazytohavemadesuchastatementincourt,andfor
PaultomakesuchasuggestionindicatesthathehadlittleunderstandingofEnglishmores.NeverthelessthereisnogainsayingthefactthatPaulwaswillingtostate
whatnoEnglishwriterwould.Hindson,heobserved,"madearrangementswhich,ifsuccessful,wouldallowher[Gordon]tofacethefuturewithalightheart.Andfor
thisheistodie!...Whatafarce,whatatragedytohavetospendalifetimebehindironbarsforthecrimeofhavingbefriendedanunfortunatewoman!"112

InBritaintheTorchwentfarfurtherinitssexradicalismthananyotherleftistjournal.ThenineteenthcenturyBritishsocialistmovementwasfairlyprudish,inpartdue
tothefactthatfertilitycontrolwasassociatedwiththeconservativedoctrinesofMalthus.113Accordinglytheraisingofthesexissuewasregardedbymanyontheleft
notonlyasimmoralbutimpolitic.Thebroachingoftheabortionquestionreflectedanemergingconsciousnessofthesymbolicandpoliticalimportanceofsexuality
amongahandfulofleftists,butdidnotmarkamajorturningpoint.OncetheTorchceasedpublicationin1896andAlexanderCohenreturnedtothecontinent,radical
discussionsofsexissuesbytheEnglishleftflagged.114

Nevertheless,followingtheflurryofnewspaperdiscussions,EdenandHindson'sdeathsentenceswerecommuted.Eden'ssentencerousedgreatpublicinterest.115
TheDailyNewsreportedreceivinginnumerablelettersprotestinghertrial'soutcome.Apetitiononherbehalfultimatelygarneredthirtythousandsignatures.116The
HomeSecretaryannouncedthecommutationofSarahEden'sdeathsentenceinlate1895insteadshewassubjectedtolifeimprisonment.TheBirminghamDaily
GazettepraisedtheHomeOfficeforitsleniencytheBirminghamDailyPostgrudginglyadmittedthatthecommutationwasneededbutinsistedthateveryoneshould
agreethatcrimehadtobebeatenback.TheDailyNews,inreferringtothe"terriblesentence,"statedthatitcouldnotbelievethatthefinalwordhadbeensaid,anda
newpetitionwaslaunchedcallingforthereductionofEden'sprisonterm.117

AsregardsHindson,thepresshadnotedattheoutsetthathisdeathsentencewould"notarousetheemotionalsympathywhichenteredsolargelyintothecaseofMrs.
Eden."118Inotherwordsthediscourseofmalechivalrycouldnotbeturnedtoprotecthim.Indeedhistrialwasdescribed

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byconservativenewspapersashavingrevealeda"nauseoustragedy."119Nevertheless,inmidMarchof1896,theHomeOffice,inresponsetoapetition,replied
thatHindson'sdeathsentencehadalsobeenrespitedwithaviewtoitscommutation.120Hindsonstillprotestedthat,nothavingbeenallowedtospeakincourt,his
sideofthestoryhadnotbeenheard.Andhecontinuedtoaskhowhecouldbeguiltyofthemurderofawomanhehadonlytriedtohelp.121

WhywereEdenandHindsonreprieved?AlthoughthearticlesbyCohenandPaulareofobvioushistoricalsignificance,theHomeOfficewas,ifawareofthem,
obviouslynottobeswayedbythewritingsofafewanarchists.Werethenewspaperreportsandpetitionsinfluential?Perhaps,butattheendofthedaytheHome
Officeactedtostrengthenthelawnotundermineit.Eden'sreprievewashardlyunexpected.GivengenderconcernsinlateVictorianEngland,itwasunusualfora
womantobeexecutedforevenordinarymurder.In1895sixteenmenandthreewomenwerefoundguiltyofmurder.Elevenofthemenandnoneofthewomenwere
executed.122Moretothepoint,noonehadbeenexecutedforanabortionrelateddeathinEnglandsince1875whenAlfredThomasHeapwashangedinKirkdale
Gaol,Liverpool.Heap,amidwife'shusband,fatallyinjuredawomanwhenusingaspindletoprecipitatehermiscarriage.Hehadbeenpreviouslyconvictedand
sentencedtofiveyearsimprisonmentforasimilaroffense.Neverthelessthepublicregardedhis1875deathsentenceasexcessive.ThejuryprotestedtoBaron
Pollock,thepresidingjudge,thatifithadknownitsrecommendationformercywouldbeignoreditwouldnothavefoundHeapguiltyofwillfulmurderbuthave
broughtinamanslaughterconviction.123NeverthelessHeaphanged.

Mr.JusticePhillimoreintheWarkcasespelledoutthelawasitpertainedtoabortiondeathsasfollows.124
Iftheunfortunatewomancausedherownmiscarriage,then,sofarasshewasconcerned,itwasinlawacaseofsuicideorfelodese.Iftheprisonerwereheraccompliceinthat,if
hewerepresentaidingandabettinganillegaloperationwhichcausedherdeath,thoughhedidnotactuallyusetheinstrument,hewasequallyresponsibleforherdeath.Ifhe
werethere,orencouragedorassistedherbygettingaroom,hewouldbewhatthelawcalledaprincipalintheseconddegree.Ifhemerelyurgedorcounselled,andwasnot
himselfpresentattheillegaloperation,hewouldbewhatthelawcalledanaccessorybeforethefact,andwouldstillbeguiltyofmurder.125

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Thistheoryof"constructivemurder"mighthavemadesensetojudges,butthepublicfounditunsatisfactory.FollowingtheHeaptrial,althoughthedeathsentencewas
mandatorywhenthewomandied,thoseconvictedofmurderresultingfromaprocuredabortionweregivenreprievesbytheHomeOffice.126

ForourpurposestheEdenandHindsontrialsareofinterestforseveralreasons.Theyserveasusefulremindersthatthelawonabortion,althoughrarelyused,could
leadtotheimpositionofsavagepunishments,thatithitmenaswellaswomen,andby1895wassubjecttoattack.AsutopianastheanarchistcontributorstoThe
Torchmighthavebeen,theydidatleastrecognizethetruththatanylawagainstabortionwhichpittedmenagainstwomen,thewealthyagainstthepoorwasunjust
andunworkable.Therespectablenewspapersavoidedsuchsocialanalysesandsoughttoindividualizethetragicconsequencesoftheadministrationofthelawby,for
example,blamingSarahEden'sfateontheheartlessnessofthatoldreactionaryMr.JusticeDay.Injusticesoccurredbuttheyweredue,thepressreassuredthepublic,
topersonalratherthantostructuralfaults.Yetdespitesuchcomfortinginterpretations,manyfemalereadersmusthavebeenledtothetroublingconclusion,whichfew
couldorwouldyetvoice,thatthelawspertainingtoreproductionsystematicallypenalizedwomenandthateveryjudgepresidingoveranabortiontrialwasfreeto
administeralawofterror.

Butthesetrialsalsotellusagooddealaboutmen,andinparticular,aboutlatenineteenthcenturynotionsofthemalesexualpredatorandhisrelationshiptothemodel
female.MabelGordondiedbecauseofthelawonabortionnotbecauseofanyactionofHindson.Hewasmadeascapegoatbecauseheforcedhisactionsonthe
noticeofthecourt.Yetthecourtdidnotreallyknowwhattodowithhim,caughtbetweenitsrhetoricanditsreason.Hindson'scrime,asthepressrepeatedly
stressed,wasthathehadactedlikeacadorbounder,butdidthatwarrantthedeathpenalty?

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

Applyingpunishmentaccordingtoaculprit'scharacterandmoralswasbynomeansnew.Thetraditionalsummarylegislationfordealingwiththeloose,idle,and
disorderlyledtopeoplebeingimprisonedforwhattheywereratherthanforwhattheydid.Theinterestheldbytheviolentcastigationsoftheseducerthatcameoutin
bigamyandabortiontrialsstemsfromthefactthattheywerearelativelyrecentdevelopment,

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suggestinganevolutioninnineteenthcenturynotionsofmasculinity.TalesofmythicDonJuanfigureshadlongbeenastapleofWesternculture.Eighteenthcentury
novelistslikeRichardson,Laclos,Crebillon,andRestifdelaBretonneplottedthemachinationsoftheseducerinexcruciatingandoftenadmiringdetail.127
Nineteenthcenturybourgeoissocietyresolutelyturneditsbackonsuchthemes.Oronemightmoreaccuratelynote,ashasTonyTanner,thattheVictorianwriter
couldonlyjustifytheportrayalofsexualtransgressionsbymoralisticallyportrayingtheirnecessarilytragicconsequences.128

Onemightprotestthatthereisnoproofthatnineteenthcenturymenwereanylesspromiscuousthantheireighteenthcenturyforebears,butthatisnottheissue.
Representationsofsexualrelationschangedevenifactualbehaviordidnot.Unwedmotherswereregardedwithlesscompassion.129Cuckoldswerenottobe
laughedattheseducerwasnolongerafigureoffun.Inpartbecausethosewhoembracedthenewidealofcompanionatemarriagebasedonaffectiverelationships
necessarilyviewedwithdistastethosediscussionsofextramaritalsexthatoncehadbeensourcesofpopularamusement.130InpartbecausetheDonJuanfigure,who
devotedhisenergytoamorousconquestsratherthantosocialaccomplishments,wasincreasinglycastigatedbyseriousmiddleclassmenasa"feminine"type.
Accordingly"donjuanisme"wastoattracttheattentionofGregorioMaraon,Spain'sforemostsexologist,whowasinterestedintheindecisivenessoftheseducer's
sexuality.131Thenewmasculineheroofamaterialisticagewassupposedtoseekworldlysuccess.Evenyoungromanticadventurers,portrayedinthenovelsof
StendhalandBalzac,whiletheypursuedwomen,hadastheirrealgoalsocialmobility.132Accordingly,tobelabeledaseducer,aLothario,asHindsonandmanyof
thebigamistswere,couldhaveseriousconsequencesattheendofthenineteenthcentury.ThiswasanageinwhichinBritainElliceHopkins'WhiteCrossMovement
wasassertingthatiftherewerenoseducerstherewouldbenoprostitutes,whileinFranceseductionwasinadditionheldresponsibleforahostofsocialillsincluding
poverty,stillbirths,abortion,andinfanticide.133

Butthesetrialsalsoalertustothefactthatmasculinitywasthesubjectofmorethanonediscourse.Duetothepopularityofthemelodramaticnarrativeofsexual
danger,thedominantdiscourseonmasculinitysuccessfullypresentedMabelGordonasthepassivefemalevictimandHindsonasthelibertine.134Yetthedebates
elicitedbytheabortioncasesrevealedthattherewerecounterdiscoursesatworkaswell.Whowasactinglikeatruegentleman?Themanwhoassistedapregnant
womaninfinding

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anabortionist?Thejudgewhosentencedtodeathanelderlymidwife?Theanarchistwhodefendedapoorwoman'srighttocontrolherownbody?Theveryfactthat
suchquestions,wereevenraiseddemonstratesthatalthoughtherewasahegemonicdiscourseonmasculinityitdidnotgoundisputed.

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Four
Gentlemen
Ifthewordbounderhastodayacuriouslyarchaicring,sotoohasthetermgentleman.Yetitwasonlyinthe1800sthattheappellationofgentlemantookonits
specialsignificance.ItsayssomethingofboththenewnessandthesocialimportanceoftheconceptthatthenineteenthcenturyFrench,thoughtheyspokeof"un
hommebienlev"or"bienn"hadnoexactequivalentandsosimplyadoptedtheEnglishexpression,referring,forexample,to"unvraigentleman.''1 Alexisde
TocquevillewasstruckbythefactthatinFranceundertheOldRegime"gentilhomme"wasemployedwhenreferringtoamemberoftherestricted,landed,social
caste,whereasinAmericahefoundthatrespectablemenofeveryclassconsideredthemselves"gentlemen."2 Thatistosay,theybelievedthatthepublicesteem
enjoyedbyamaninamodernnationwasnolongerdirectlydeterminedbyhisbirth.Asocietythatassumedsocialfluiditynecessarilyheldthatthemoralitythataman
exhibitedinhisdailydealingscouldoverrideeventhedisadvantagesofhumblesocialstanding.Andcontrarily,aman,nomatterhowrich,couldbecondemnedbythe
publicshouldhefail"toactlikeagentleman."Whatthisexactlyentailedcouldneverbefullyspelledout,buttheveryvaguenessofthegentlemanlyethicenhancedits
attractivenessasabondingcredoformenwho,despitethepressuresofanincreasinglyindividualisticworld,sawthemselvesstrivingtomaintaincertainidealsof
honestyandgenerosity.Thisethic,inpurportedlysymbolizinganewstandardofmoralitytowhichmostmen,bothrichandpoor,couldadhere,helpedtoserveasa
meansofaccommodationforthewhite,malecitizensofnewacquisitiveandcompetitivesocieties.InAmericaandEnglandinparticular,character,courtesy,and
cultivationweredeclaredbypubliccommentatorstobereplacingbirthandwealthasthehallmarksofthe"naturalgentleman."Middleandlowermiddleclassmen,
thoughoftencontinuingtodreamofaristocraticconnectionsandobsessedbystatusanxieties,wereatthesametimewontotheappeals

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voicedbynovelistsandclergymen,politiciansandprofessionalstoembracethepopulistandfraternalcultofthegentleman.3 Evenworkingclassmenwerenot
immune.Gladstone,theEnglishprimeminister,madeapointofalwaysaddressinghislaboringaudiencesas"gentlemen"inordertoimbuethemwiththeflattering
notionthattheirconcernsweretakenseriouslybytheleadershipoftheLiberalparty.4

Giventhepervasiveadulationofgentlemanlyorchivalrousbehavior,ahostile,publicconfrontationbetweena"lady"anda"gentleman"somethingthatintheory
shouldneveroccurwasboundtocreateasensation.Thesituationwouldbeallthemoreexplosiveifthecontestalsoinvolvedthemenwhostaffedtheprofessionsof
lawandmedicine,epitomizingastheydid,bytheirconcernforthetrustplacedinthembytheirclientsorpatients,thearchetypalvirtuesofthe''scholarand
gentleman."Forthesereasonsinthischapterwefocusonalatenineteenthcenturytrialthatnotonlydramaticallydemonstratedthepowerfulmoralattributionsgiven
bythepublictothetermsladyandgentleman,butalsorevealedhowlawandmedicinetwokeysystemsofgenderregulationcould,becauseofprofessional
rivalries,onoccasionclash.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

ThesensationalKitsonv.Playfairtrialof1896waslongtakentobeBritain'smostpublicizedtestof"privilegedcommunication."Thiscelebratedcasecenteredona
doctor'sdefenseofhisrighttobetrayafemalepatient'sconfidences.5 Forourpurposesthemostimportantaspectofthetrialisthatitshowshowclassandgender
preoccupationsshapedthepracticesofbothlawandmedicine.ThelegalwranglesinKitsonv.Playfairtooksuchsurprisingtwistsandturnspreciselybecausegender
preoccupationswereusedtocounterboththeletterofthelawandthescientificpronouncementsoftheLondonmedicalelite.Thetrialandtheresponsesmadetoit
bothinsideandoutsideofthemedicalprofessionarealsoofinterestinthattheycastarevealinglightonlatenineteenthcenturydoctors'confusedunderstandingof
exactlywhatconfidentialitymeant,aconfusionexacerbatedratherthanclarifiedbycourtrulings.Thecasedemonstrateshowthemedicalprofessionfound,toits
discomfort,thatinhavingasoneofitsrepresentativesamanwhofailedtoactlikeagentleman,itleftitselfopentoattackbyitsoldrival,thelegalprofession.

TheKitsonv.Playfairtrialwasononeleveladomesticdispute.TheKitsonfamilyfortunewasestablishedinthemidnineteenthcenturybyaLeedsironfounderwho
siredthreesonsandonedaughter.In1864Emily

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Kitson,theonlydaughter,marriedDr.WilliamSmoultPlayfair,awellknownobstetrician,whowasonhiswaytobecomingtheroyalaccoucheur.SirJamesKitson
(18351911),theeldestson,ledanactivepubliclifeasLordMayorofLeeds(189697),presidentoftheNationalLiberalAssociation(18831890),andLiberal
memberofParliamentrepresentingColneValley(18921907).AlthougharadicalheconsentedtoconcludinghiscareerasthefirstBaronAiredaleandleftanestate
worthonemillionpounds.6 Hawthorn,thesecondson,lookedafterthefamilybusinessesinYorkshire,whichcenteredonthelocomotiveworksatHunslett.Arthur,
theyoungest,filledtheroleoffamilyne'erdowell,hislife"undoubtedlymarkedbyirregularitiesofconduct."7 Ostensiblyactingashisfather'soverseasagent,hewent
offtoAustraliatomakehisfortune.Therein1881hemarriedanEnglishwoman,LindaDouglas.Shegavebirthtotwodaughtersinquicksuccessionthepregnancies
precipitatedagooddealofillnessfollowedbyaseriesofweakeningmiscarriages.

InOctober1892LindaKitsonandherchildrenreturnedtoEnglandwhileArthur,stilltryingtostrikeitrichandapparentlypursuedbycreditors,setofffromPort
DarwinonaseriesofmysterioustripsinthePacific,includingstopsinHongKongandHawaii.UponLindaKitson'sarrivalinEngland,SirJamesandHawthorn
KitsondecidedtomakeovertoherandherchildrentheallowanceofsomefivehundredpoundsayearthattheyhadhithertosenttoherhusbandinAustralia.The
familyhadapparentlydecidedthatArthurhadledthelifeofaremittancemanlongenoughandwasnowtobelefttosinkorswimonhisown.LindaKitsonsettledina
houseinKensingtonand,herhealthstillfailing,consultedDr.MuzioWilliams.8 Asanobstetricalproblemseemedtobethesourceofherdiscomfort,Williams
suggestedthatDr.Playfair,herbrotherinlaw,becalledinasaconsultant.ShewasinitiallyreluctantbutinJanuary1894agreed.

WilliamSmoultPlayfair(18361903)wasperhapsthebestknownobstetricianinBritain.HehadreceivedhisM.D.fromEdinburghin1856,servedbrieflyinIndia,
andwasappointedprofessorofobstetricsatKing'sCollegeHospitalin1871.Heenjoyedareputationasawellknownsocietyphysician,especiallyforwomen's
complaints,havingintroducedtoEnglandthe"restcure"popularizedintheUnitedStatesbyWeirMitchell.Inthe1890sPlayfairasroyalaccoucheurandrespected
patronoftheartswasatthepeakofhiscareer.Hehadrecentlyturneddownaknighthoodintheconfidentexpectationofultimatelyreceivingabaronetcy.9

Dr.Playfair'spersonalsuccessunfortunatelymadeitdifficultforhimtosympathizewiththemisfortunesofothers.WhenhesawLindaKitsonon

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16January,henotednothingexceptionalarisingfromhisbriefexamination.Butinadditiontoherphysicalproblems,LindaKitsonwasplaguedbyworriesabouther
absenthusband'sfinancialproblems."Lethimstarve."wasPlayfair'scoldresponse."Itwouldbethebestthingthatcouldhappentohim."10

PlayfairattendedthestillailingLindaKitsonagainon24February.ItwasnowrevealedthatshehadnotmenstruatedsinceDecember.Shewasputunderchloroform
byPlayfairwithWilliamspresent,andhercervixdilated(sothecourtwaslatercrudelyinformed)tothesizeofafiveshillingpiece.Accordingtoherlatertestimony
shebecamepartiallyconsciousinthemidstoftheexaminationandheardPlayfairsaying,"Idon'tknowwhatelseitcanbe.Iknowverylittleabouther.Shemusthave
beenuptosomehankypanky."11Williamsprotestedthathecouldnotbelievethisasshehadbeensocandid.Bothdoctorslaterdeniedthatanysuchwordshad
beenuttered.TheirrecollectionwasthatLindaKitsonawoketoaskthemwhattheywereaccusingherofwhentheyhadasyetaccusedherofnothing.12

Whatwassaiddidnotreallymatter.Thepointwasthatbothmen,whohadbeguntheoperationinthebeliefthattheyweredealingwithanintrauterinecancerous
growth,discoveredthatLindaKitsonhadrecentlyhadeitheranaturalmiscarriageorabortion,whichtheyhadtocleanup.13Thismeantthatshemusthavehadsexual
intercoursewithinthepreviousthreemonths,andgiventhefactthatshehadnotseenherhusbandforsomethinglikeayearandahalf,itcouldonlybeconcludedthat
shewasanadulteress.Presumablynodiscoverymadebytheroyalaccoucheurcouldhavebeenmoremortifyingthanstumblinguponevidenceofhissisterinlaw's
promiscuity.14

PlayfairhadtheplacentalmaterialthatheremovedfromLindaKitsonexaminedatKing'sCollegeHospitalbyhiscousin,Dr.HughPlayfair,whoconfirmedhis
suspicions.Playfairimmediatelydeterminedthathecouldnotallowhisunchastesisterinlawtosocializefurtherwithhiswifeandgrownupdaughters,andhehadDr.
Williamsinformherofhisdecision.LindaKitsonfranticallywrotetoPlayfairsayingshecouldnotcommunicatewithhimthroughWilliamsandbeggedforapersonal
interview.Tohisimplicationthatshehadbeenmadepregnantbyanadulterousrelationship,sherespondedwiththeguardedassurance:"Icansayastowhateveritis
youarethinking,thatnonebuttherightoneisthecause.Myheartisbreaking.Thereisonlyonecanclearme,butnotyet."15Whatsheappearedtobeimplyingwas
thatyesshehadbeenmadepregnant,butherhusband,

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whowasresponsible,couldnotforthemomentrevealthathehadsecretlybeeninEngland.

Playfair,evertheprig,coollyrepliedthatsheshoulduseherillnessasanexcusetoleaveLondon.Ifshedidnot,hewouldbedutyboundtoinformhiswifeofthe
facts."Noonewhorespectshimself,hiswifeandhisfamilycansupposeforamomentthatIcanallowsocialrelationsbetweenyouandmyfamilytogoonasthey
werewhenIknowyouhavehadamiscarriage."16Thereensuedaprotractedandconfusingcorrespondence.ThroughoutitLindaKitson,althoughneverdenyingthe
"facts"ofthecase,pleadedfortimetovindicateherself.Sherepeatedlyimpliedthatherhusbandcouldclearhername.Playfairneverreallybelievedher,butdeclared
himselfreadytobeconvinced."IfyouareabletoinformmethatyourhusbandhasbeeninLondonIshallnotonlygreatlycommiserateyou,butbeverysorryforthe
suspicionwhichunderthecircumstanceswasinevitable."17ButLindaKitsonneverprovidedastraightanswershewouldnotsaythatwhichsheinsinuated.Todoso
wouldbetoliebecause,asshelateradmitted,herhusbandhadinfactnotbeeninEngland.

Playfair,notgettingaclearanswerandfacedwiththeprospectofhisfamilyrenewingtheirsocialtieswithLindaKitson,finallywrotetosayhehadnoalternativebut
toinformhiswifeofthesituation.18LindaKitsonnowwrotetoEmilyPlayfairbegginghernottotellherbrother,SirJames.Mrs.Playfair,likeherhusband,askedfor
assurancesthatArthurhadbeeninLondon,thoughshewonderedhowthatcouldbesincethefamilyhadreceivedhistelegramsfromAustralia.19Noclearresponse
againbeingmade,Mrs.PlayfairaskedherhusbandtoinformSirJamesKitsonofthesituation.SirJamesimmediatelywroteLindaKitsonthatallcommunicationwith
thefamilyhadtocease,thatherallowancewasended,butifshereturnedtoAustralia,hewouldprovideasmallmaintenance.

Inthemeantime,allthroughthespringof1894,LindaKitsonhadbeentryingtocontactherhusband,Arthur.AletterfinallyreachedhiminAustraliainJuneby
SeptemberhewasbackinLondondeclaringhimselfreadytofighthisownpeople.Hisfirstmovewastoclaim,falsely,thathehad,ashiswifeimplied,returned
secretlytoEnglandthepreviousDecember.Playfairwasbegrudginglyforcedtoapologize."YourcomingsurreptitiouslytoLondonwithoutinformingthefamilyhas
beenthecauseofallthisannoyance.YourstatementthatyouhavebeeninLondonallowsofthewithdrawalofanyimputationonyourwife."20Kitsonwasnot
appeased,presumablybecausethefamilyallowancewasstillnotrenewed.TakingthisasevidencethatthePlayfairapologywasworthless,LindaKitsoninFebruary

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1895filedsuitforlibelandslanderagainstDr.andMrs.Playfair.Thecase,whichbeganon21March1896,wastriedbeforeaspecialjuryattheQueen'sBench
presidedoverbyMr.JusticeHenryHawkins,betterknownas"Hanging"Hawkins,adevotedopponentofimmorality.

ThePlayfairs'solicitorwasthewellknownSirGeorgeLewisandtheirleadingcounselSirFrankLockwood,Q.C.,theformersolicitorgeneralwhoin1895had
successfullyledtheprosecutionagainstOscarWildeforactsof"grossindecency."Counselpresentedthedefendantswithachoice.Onecourseopentothemwas"to
justify,"thatis,contendthattheslanderwastrue.Truthisanabsolutedefenseagainstthechargeofslander.ButprovingtothesatisfactionofajurythatLindaKitson
hadcommittedadulterytheonlyevidencebeingmedicalwasadauntingchallenge,andPlayfair'scounselwasawarethatifthedistastefulattemptofmakingsucha
dishonorablechargefailed,aniratejurycouldbecountedontoassesspunitivelyhighdamages.

Theapparentlysafercoursewastoarguethat,evenifDr.Playfair'sstoryofLindaKitson'sadulterywasfalse,inthisparticularsituationitwasa"priviledged
communications,"thatistosayacommunicationthatbecauseitonlyoccurredwithintheimmediatefamily,couldnotbeheldaseitherlibelousorslanderous.21
Playfair,ontheadviceofhislegaladvisers,tookthislattercourseofpleadingprivilege.Thedefense'slineofargumentwasthatPlayfair,withnomaliceintended,but
onlytheprotectionoffamilyhonorinmind,hadfeltdutyboundtotellhiswifeofwhathethoughtwasevidenceofLindaKitson'simmorality,andMrs.Playfairinturn
toldherbrother.22

Thedefensehadwhatappearedtobemorethanenoughammunitiontowardoffanunfavorableverdict.DespitethefactthatLockwoodfoughtthecaseonthe
groundsof"privilegedcommunication,"hepresentedincourtagooddealofevidencethatsubstantiatedPlayfair'sbeliefinMrs.Kitson'sadultery.Indeedthemedical
evidencewasalmostwhollyonthesideofthedefendant.OnlyDr.HerbertSpencer,professorofmidwiferyatUniversityCollegeLondon,testifiedonLindaKitson's
behalf.23HemadetheastoundingstatementthathermiscarriageofFebruary1894waspossiblyrelatedtoalegitimateconceptionthatoccurredinOctober1892.But
thoughSpencerassertedthateighteenmonthsafterits"cause"aconditionsuchasLindaKitson'scouldexist,hehadtoadmithehadneverseensuchacasehimself.
JohnBlandSutton,FRCS,repliedforthedefensethatplacentalmaterialcouldnotberetainedforoversixmonths.AndthedefensebackedupitsattackonSpencer's
preposterousargumentbycallingonLon

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don'sleadingobstetricians,who,inadditiontoW.S.PlayfairandHughPlayfair,includedDr.FrancisChampney,lectureratSt.Bart's,andSirWilliamPriestly,
consultantatKing'sCollegeHospital.24AttimesitappearedasthoughtheentiremembershipoftheObstetricalSocietyofLondonwasincourt.Withtheexception
ofSpencer,theyallsupportedPlayfair'sviewthatLindaKitsonhadbeenmadepregnantafewmonthsbeforeFebruary1894.Hercounselrightlyobjectedtothe
lengthy,hostilemedicaltestimony,butMr.JusticeHawkinsallowedittocontinue.Dr.Spencer'sopinionwasclearlylaughedoutofcourtbyPlayfair'smedical
witnesseswhatthejurorsthoughtofitremainedtobeseen.

Lockwood'ssecondlineofdefensewastocallonSirJohnWilliamsandSirWilliamBroadbent,seasonedexpertsinissuesrelatingtoBritishmedicalethics,to
supportthecontentionthatPlayfair'sviolationofhispatient'sconfidenceswas,giventheparticularsituation,warranted.25ThetestimonyofBroadbent,seniorcensor
oftheBoardoftheRoyalCollegeofPhysicians,carriedparticularweight.BothdoctorssaidthatasprofessionalstheycouldenvisagedoingthesameasPlayfair.26

LockwoodlargelyskirtedtheembarrassingquestionofwhyLindaKitsonprevaricatedandwhyArthurKitsonhadinitiallyliedaboutbeinginEnglandinDecember
1893.HewantedtopresentPlayfairasagentlemanwhowasnotouttohumiliatehisrelatives.Inanyevent,heargued,suchdetailswerenotdirectlyrelevanttothe
questionofprivilege.InhissummationLockwoodreturnedtothedefense'sbasiclineofargumentthatPlayfairhadbeenhonorboundtowarnhisfamilyofhissister
inlaw'ssituationandsuchintimateconversations,beingprivileged,werenotactionable.Thesearguments,supportedastheywerebythetestimonyofsomany
eminent"gentlemenandscholars,"shouldpresumablyhavebeensufficienttoimpressanyBritishcourt.

Mr.LawsonWalton,wholedfortheplaintiff,couldhavearguedthecaseonstrictlytechnicalgrounds.TherumorsthatPlayfairtoldothersbesideshisimmediate
familyofhissuspicionsregardingLindaKitsonmighthavebeenusedtounderminethedefenseof"privilegedcommunication."andmalicecouldhavebeeninferred
fromthefactthatPlayfairwasawarethathisdisclosuresjeopardizedLindaKitson'sannualallowanceoffivehundredpounds.27ButWaltonshrewdlyappealedtothe
emotionsratherthantheintellectofthemalejurors.Therealquestion,heargued,waswhetherornotPlayfairhadconductedhimselflikeagentleman.

ThetrialwasbelievedbythepublictohingeonwhatinVictoriansocietycouldonlybeconsideredtherivetingquestionofwhetherornota

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middleclasswoman'sadulteryhadbeenexposedbyamanwhowasbothherphysicianandherbrotherinlaw.Thisiswhatmadetheaffairsosensational.The
defensethoughtitsaferandmoregentlemanlytoavoidsuchavolatileissueandarguesimplyforprivilege.Thisprovedtobeamistakebecauseitpreventedthe
defensefromrespondingdirectlytoWalton'sconstantportrayalofhisclientasaninnocentwomanaladyfightingtoprotectherhonoragainsttheslursofacold
heartedphysicianwhosebasemotivescouldonlybeguessedat.

LindaKitsonwasthepictureoftheaffrontedfemaleattractivebutwrackedbyanxiety,dressedelegantlybutdemurelyinblack,awhiteroseatherthroat.28She
weptsheswooned.Thefirstdayofthetrialshealmostfaintedandhadtobeledbyherhusbandintotheopenair.Thejudgeaskedhertositwhiletestifying.She
spokeinawhisperherwaterglassrattledagainstherteeth.Whenwhatthepressdescribedasthe"ordeal"ofhertestifyingwasover,shewasassistedfromthebox
byherhusband.29Hetoomadeagoodimpressionasthepoorrelativefightinghiswealthyandpowerfulfamilytoprotectthehonorofhiswife.

ThefactthatLindaKitsonhadliedprovednottobeanembarrassment.WaltonskillfullyattributedhertoyingwiththetruthtoPlayfair'sinstigation."Mr.ArthurKitson
hadnotbeeninthecountry,andyethiswifemustassureDr.PlayfairthathehadbeeninEnglandwithinthelastthreemonthsorhaveherfairnameblasted.Dr.
Johnson,inthelastcentury,saidthatifamurdereraskedwhichwayhisvictimhadgone,falsehoodwasjustifiabletoturnhimoffthetrack."30Theinconsistencies,the
insinuationsofLindaKitson,whichonthefaceofitweresodamaging,weretransformedbyWaltontoformanintegralpartofhisportrayalofanhonest,innocent,
impressionablewomandriventodistractionbya"moralinquisitor."31Thecourtallowedhersimplytoapologizeforhavingfalselyandrepeatedlyimpliedthather
husbandwasinLondon,anditwasleftatthat.LindaKitsoninshortmadeanexcellentwitness.SirFrankLockwood,sensingthatthejurysympathizedwithalady
whohadapparentlysufferedmuch,wasafraidofsubjectinghertoanintensecrossexaminationforfearthatitcouldonlywinhermoresupport.Inanyevent,sincethe
defensehaddeclareditwouldnotattempttojustifyPlayfair'sallegations,Mr.JusticeHawkinscouldnothavebeenexpectedtotoleratemuchquestioningalongsuch
lines.

ButthemostimportantwitnessfortheplaintiffprovedtobeDr.Playfair.Undercrossexaminationhewasaskedifhestillretained"anopinionadversetothislady's
honor."Nowitisofprimeimportancetorememberthatthisquestionwasnotatissue.Playfairhadtheintelligencetorecognize

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theimproprietyofthequeryandaskedthejudgeifheshouldanswer.Hawkinsmadethemistakeofsayingheshould,buttheselfrighteousPlayfairmadetheeven
greaterblunderofcoldlyandcategoricallyreplyingtoWaltonthathecontinuedtoviewLindaKitsonasdishonored.Playfair'spublicassertionthathissisterinlaw
wasguiltyof"unchastity"causedasensationinthecourtroom.32LawsonWaltonhadwhathewantedandpounced.Whythen,heaskedindignantly,hadPlayfairnot
been"manenough"tofightouttheissueincourtinsteadofemployingthecowardlydefenseofprivilege?Playfairreplied,honestlyenough,thathehadsimplyfollowed
hiscounsel'sadvice.Thiscouldonlyappearasyetanothermealymouthedanswer.WaltonhadsucceededinindeliblyportrayingPlayfairasacad.33

WaltonproceededtoaskifPlayfairwasnotimpressedbyDr.Spencer'smedicaltestimonyorifinfactanycontrarytestimonycouldmakehimreassesshisviews.
Playfairrepliedthatnonewould.Thoughallofthishadlittletodowiththequestionofprivilege,itfurtherfixedinthejury'smindanimageofPlayfairasadogmatic
moralistwhocouldnotbereasonedwith.

Playfair'skeyassertionthatitwashisdutytoprotecthisfamily'shonorwassimilarlyparriedbyWaltonwiththequestionofhowtheaccusationofsoseriousacharge
astheadulteryofasisterinlawcouldbebasedsimplyonthefindingsofforensicmedicine.

Mr.LawsonWalton:Incomingtothisconclusiondoyourejectallbutmedicalconsiderations,andrejectallmoralones?

Witness:WhenawomanhashadamiscarriageinthefaceofanactualabortionIdorejectthem.34

Walton,skillfullyplayingonPlayfair'spenchantforassertingthathismedicalconclusionswereinfallible,hadteasedoutthenotionthatmedicalpractitionersbelieved
theyhadarighttobasemoraljudgmentsonevidenceunavailabletoothers,anotionmanynineteenthcenturyjurieswereknownnottoshare.35ThepriceofPlayfair
claimingtheinfallibilityofhismedicalopinions,thunderedWalton,hadbeenthesacrificeofalady'shonor.36InsummingupWaltonatlastreturnedtothequestionof
privilegedcommunication.HeconcededthatPlayfairmighthavehadtherighttodivulgeinformationtohiswifebutdeniedthattherightofprivilegedcommunication
couldbeextendedtodefendthepassingonofsuchinformationtoSirJamesKitson.37

Mr.JusticeHawkinsnowhadhissay.Hewasnotregardedinlegalcirclesasparticularlyable,butthatdidnotpreventhimfromplayingan

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activeroleineverytrialoverwhichhepresided.SomejusticeswerecontenttotakenotesHawkinsdeclaredthatitwashis"dutytoseethatthejurydoesnotgo
wrong."38WaltoncouldonlyhavebeenhappythatHawkinsrepeatedlyallowedthecrossexaminationtowanderoffintotherealmofjustificationwhenitshould
havebeenrigidlyrestrictedtoquestionofprivilege.HisdirectionstothejuryalsopleasedWaltonbecausetherewaslittledoubtwhereHawkins'ssympathieslay.He
agreedwiththeplaintiff'scounselinopiningthatifLindaKitsontoyedwiththetruthitwasbecausePlayfairhadputherinatightcorner.Hawkinswasmoreover
clearlyhostiletothedefense'suseofprivilege,whichheconstruedassignifyingadoctor'srighttobetrayhispatient'sconfidenceswheneverhechose.Butmosttelling
ofallwasHawkins'sspiriteddepictionofadoctor'sinformingonawomanwhohadabortedasa"monstrouscruelty,"anissuetowhichwewillreturn.39

InhissummationHawkinsinstructedthejurythatthreequestionshadtobeansweredwerethewordscomplainedofutteredbyPlayfairingoodfaith?Werethey
utteredwithoutmalice?Weretheyuttered,notfromameresenseofduty,butfromsomeindirectmotive?HawkinsremindedthejurymenthatwhetherornotLinda
Kitsonhadbeenunchastewasnotatissuebutthat"iftheyfoundthatshehadplayedthewantontheycouldtakethatintoconsiderationinestimatingthedamages."40
Afterthreehoursthejuryreturnedtofindfortheplaintiffonallthreecounts.TheamountawardedtoLindaKitsonwastwelvethousandpounds,reputedlythelargest
settlementforlibelandslanderevermadeinaBritishcourt.41TheTimesreportedthattheverdictwasgreetedwithloudapplauseinthecourt.Reynold's
Newspaper,amorepopularperiodical,notedapplause,clapping,andstampingoffeet.42

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

TheKitsonPlayfairtriallongenjoyedthereputationofhavingbeenparticularlysignificantinrefiningthemedicolegaldefinitionofprivilegedcommunications.Infactit
leftdoctorsinanethicalmuddle,whichiswhatmakesthecasesointeresting.Thetrialandthediscussionsitprecipitatedrevealedthecomplexwaysinwhichnotions
ofprofessionalconfidentialitywereinextricablyenmeshedinlegal,class,andgenderpreoccupations.Lawnotmedicinedeterminedtheboundariesofconfidentiality.
Playfairwassuednotforbreakingconfidencebutforlibelandslander.Thefactthathewasadoctorwaslegallynotessentialtotheplaintiff'scase.LindaKitsoncould
havesuedanyonewhohadsaidthesamethingasPlayfair.Thedefenseofa"privilegedcommunication"raisedbyhimwaslike

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wisenotspecificallyrelatedtohisstatusasadoctor.Hewassimplyassertingthatwhatahusbandtoldhiswifewasaprivilegedcommunication,andsotoowhata
sistertoldabrother.

InsummationHawkinsstatedthatdoctorsmighthavetheirownrulesregardingconfidentiality,buttheycouldnotimposethemonothersintheendthecourtswould
decide.Adoctorwasnotboundtoinformonapatient,hetoldthejuryitalldependedonthejudge.Hawkinsrefusedhimselftoinstructthejuryonwhetherornota
doctorwhogratuitouslyrevealedapatient'ssecretwasmakinganillegitimatebreachofconfidence.Sothegeneralquestionwasleftunsettled,Hawkinsleavingthe
issueofprivilegedcommunicationsasconfusedasever.TheDailyNewschidedhim,pointingoutthattheissueofprivilegewasamatteroflawthatheshouldhave
decidedon,leavingthequestionofmaliceafacttothejury.43

ThelegaldiscussionofmedicalprivilegebeganinBritainin1776,whenasurgeoninitiallyrefusedtotestifyregardingtheDuchessofKingston'sbigamy.Lord
Mansfieldeventuallyforcedhimtogiveevidence,rulingthatdoctorscouldbecompelledincourttodivulgetheirpatient'sconfidences.44Thoughcriminalactswere
notprivileged,barristersandsolicitorscouldnotbeforcedtotestifythelegalprofession,unlikethemedicalprofession,enjoyedtherightofprivileged
communications.45Absoluteprivilegewasonlygrantedanythingthatwassaideveniffalseormaliciousincourt,inParliament,andbetweenhusbandandwife.
Qualifiedprivilegepertainedtoeveryothersituation.Wordsexchangedindoctors'consultingroomswerenotspecificallyprivilegedevenconfidencesimpartedto
priestswereonlyprivilegedbytradition.Inasuitforbreachofconfidenceandslander,thetrialjudgeusuallydecidediftheparticularoccasionprivilegedthe
communicationofstatementsthatotherwise,ifwillfullyandknowinglydefamatory,wereactionable.46

InFrancearticle378ofthe1810CriminalCodemademedicalsecrecymandatoryformidwivesandpharmacistsaswellasfordoctors.47InNorthAmericathestate
ofNewYorkin1828,aspartofapublichealthcampaign,launchedthefirstdeparturefromthecommonlawruleininstitutingastatuteprotectingtheprivilegeof
medicalcommunications.48Bytheendofthecentury,sixteenotherstateshadfollowedsuit.CharlesMeymottTidy,inenviouslynotingtheAmericanlegislation,
expressedthehopein1882thatinBritainthesameresultswouldbeachievedbyindividualeffort."Itseemsamonstrousthingtorequirethatsecretsaffectingthe
honouroffamilies,andperhapsconfidedinamomentofweakness,shouldbedraggedintothegarishlightofalawcourt,theretobediscussedandmade

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jokeofbyrudetonguesandunsympathetichearts.''49Tidyexpectedthatsomedoctorswouldsacrificetheirlibertyforhonorandgotojailratherthanbetraytheir
patients'secrets.JohnGlaister'smoremodestsuggestionwasthatevenifcourtsforceddoctorstodivulgeinformationtheyshouldalwaysprotestinordertoimpress
onthepublicthejealousywithwhichtheyprotectedtheirpatients'secrets.50Contagiousdiseasesbylawhadtobereported.Sincescarletfever,forexample,was
knowntobeonthelistofsuchdiseases,itsreportagebyadoctorwasnotconsideredaviolationofmedicalsecrecy.Itwasassumedthatthepatient,incomingtoa
doctor,impliedhisorherconsenttosuchdisclosure.51

InshortthegeneraldriftofnineteenthcenturyBritishmedicaldiscussionsofconfidentialitywastowardtheneedforgreatersecrecy.Butwhendoctorswereputonthe
spot,astheywereinthetrialinquestion,theyfrequentlyallowedtheir"moral"preoccupationstocloudtheirunderstandingofwhatsecrecyentailed.Themedical
witnesseswhoappearedforbothPlayfairandKitsoncertainlydidnothaveafirmgraspofwhatmedicalconfidentialityreallymeant.Orperhapsitwouldbemore
accuratetosaythattheywantedtopresentthemedicalprofessionasboththeguardianofthepatient'ssecretsandthedefenderofpublicmorality.Theydidnot
understandthattheycouldnotalwaysbeboth.

Dr.Spencer,whoappearedforLindaKitson,whenaskedbyLockwoodtoexplaintheruleofconfidentiality,repliedthatitcouldonlybebrokentopreventonefrom
beingmadeanaccessorytoacrime.Hewouldnot,forinstance,warnawomanthatherfiancsufferedfromvenerealdiseasesincesuchamarriageviolatednolaw.
Andifaman,toavoidjuryduty,falselyclaimedtobeill,whatwouldSpencerdo?Spencerrepliedhewouldsaythemanwasnotill.Andinsodoing,Lockwood
pointedout,thedoctorwouldbebetrayinghispatient'sconfidence.52Goingfurther,Mr.JusticeHawkinsaskedSirJohnWilliams,aleadingobstetrician,who
appearedforthedefense:
Supposeamedicalmanwerecalledintoattendawoman,andinthecourseofhisprofessionalattendancehediscoversthatshehasattemptedtoprocureanabortion.Thatbeing
acrimeunderthelaw,woulditbehisdutytogoandtellthePublicProsecutor?

Witness:TheansweroftheCollegeofPhysicianstothatveryquestionwas"Yes."

Mr.JusticeHawkins:ThenallIcansayisthatitwillmakemeverycharyintheselectionofmymedicalman.53

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Williamswasnodoubtdumbfoundedthatajudgeshouldupbraidhimforstatingthatacrimeshouldbereported,butHawkins'sdistasteforsuchtaletellingwas
obviouslysharedbythegeneralpublic.Theygrasped,asWilliamsdidnot,thedifferencebetweenthespiritandtheletterofthelaw.Agentlemanwasdiscreet.

Thepressgleefullynotedthepatheticfigurescutbythesocalledexpertsinmedicalethics.Thecase,accordingtoonewriter,hadrevealedthatatthehighestlevelsof
theprofessionwasfoundan"absoluteignoranceoftherulesofprofessionalhonour."54AneditorialistintheDailyNewsreferredtothe"ratherirregularevidence"of
SirJohnWilliamandSirWilliamBroadbentinwhichtheyassertedthatadoctor,inordertoprotecthiswife,hadtherighttobetrayhispatient.Thiswas,the
journalist,declared,an"alarmingproposition."55Suchchidingrepresentedthetraditionalsuspicion,borderingondisdain,thatbarristersandjournalistshadforexpert
witnesses.Playfair'sclaimstomedicalinfallibilityobviouslydidhimnogoodwhatsoever.Reportersrelayedtheclearmessagethatthepublicviewedwithhostilitya
doctorwhoassertedthathismedicalevidencecouldnotbechallengedbutthenrefusedtosubmitsuchevidencetothejudgmentofthecourt.''Thisunscientific
dogmatism."theDailyNewsdeclared,"asoftenfoundinscientificmen,isasdangerousasanypoliticalortheologicalprejudice."56

Incolumnsheaded"WestEndScandal"and"DoctorandHisPatient:ASocietyScandal"thepressheartilyagreedwiththejudgmentandthehugeawardfor
damages.ArestrainedTimeseditorialdeclaredthatthetrialhadbeenanunfortunatespectacletheonlysatisfactionwasthatalessonhadbeentaughttothefewrash
membersofthemedicalprofessionoftheneedforcarefuljudgment,itbeingpreferabletosinbysilencethanby"indiscreetanduncalledforbabbling."57TheEvening
Newstrumpetedthattheverdict"suppliedthemedicalprofessionwithtwelvethousandreasonswhyadoctorshouldkeepthesecretsofhispatientsinviolate."58In
1896judges,barristers,andjournalists,notforthefirstnorthelasttime,hadthegreatpleasureoflecturingdoctorsonwheretheirchiefloyaltiesshouldlie.

TurningfromthelegaltothemedicalresponsestotheKitsonv.Playfairtrial,itcanbeimaginedhowdistressingthemedicalprofessionfoundthecase.Itwasnotjust
aquestionofmedicalexpertisebeingdenigratedofmoreimportancetoaprofessionthatassertedthatitshonorandauthoritywasbasedinpartonitsdignified
treatmentofpatientswasthatarepresentativehadbeenfoundtohavefailedtohaveactedlikeagentleman.59British

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doctorsrespondedinoneoftwoways.Thefirst,representedbytheLancet,wastoconcedethatmistakeshadbeenmade."Wefeelitourpainfuldutytoassentto
thepropositionthatDr.Playfairdidnotactasdiscreetlyashemighthavedone.WasitwisetoplacesuchalternativesbeforeMrs.Kitson?...Whilstwerecognize
hisperilousposition,webelievethatheshouldhavesoughtotherprofessionaladvicetoprovehisdeterminationtoactjustlybetweenmanandman."60Butthislast
linewasmisleading.Afterall,Playfairhadbeensupportedbythemosteminentdoctorsintheland.Howwouldfurtherconsultationshavemadeanydifference?

TheBritishMedicalJournalrepresentedamorepugnaciousresponse,demonstratingfarmoresupportforPlayfairthanhadtheLancet.Playfair,declaredtheBMJ,
hadonlyacted,asanyhonorablemanwould,toprotecthisfamilyandhadbeen"mulcted"fordoingso.61Turningtothejournalisticsnipingwhichmedicalwitnesses
hadtoendure,theBMJridiculedthenotion,popularizedbythepress,thatdoctorsneededtoberemindedofthesacrednessofconfidentiality.Itpointedoutthat
doctorswereforevercaughtinthemiddlepatientswantedtheirsecretskept,butatthesametimethepublicwanteddoctorstoreportcasesofabortionand
overlaying.62Doctorswhousedtheirdiscretionwerepraisedbysomejudgesanddamnedbyothers.Ontheonehandthosewhorefusedtoprovideacourtwith
informationcouldbechargedwithcontemptwhileontheotherthosewhorevealedtheirpatients'secretscouldbesuedforslanderandlibel.63TheBMJconcluded
thattosparephysiciansfurtherhumiliationsanew,definitelawonthesubjectwasneeded.64

ThecomplexitiesofconfidentialitywerefurtherairedintheletterstotheeditorcolumnoftheTimes.AmemberoftheRoyalCollegeofSurgeonsremindedreaders
thatmedical"secrets"werenotpossiblegiventheneedformedicalconsultations.Somewritersrecognizedthatadoctor'sprivilegewasnodifferentfromthegeneral
public'sotherswantedahardandfastrule.65Severalcorrespondentstooktheoccasiontocallforanextensionofthelistofnotifiablediseases.66Turningto
specifics,"E.J.D."askedifthePlayfairjudgmentmeantthatadoctorshouldnotinformthecustomersandemployersofasyphiliticmilkmanofthedangerstheyran.67
"Honorarium"repliedthatthedoctorshouldtellthepatienthewaslegallyandmorallyrequiredtoseektreatmentthedoctorwouldnotbeliableifhesoughttoprotect
thepublicsinceinsodoing,unlikePlayfair,hewouldnotbeattemptingtoservehisowninterests.68Alegallyinformedcontributorconcurredthat"justification"
providedadequateprotectionfromanychargeofviolationofconfidentiality.69"MedicalJurisprudence''tookthe

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highroadindeclaringthatadoctordidnothavetherighttodecidewhattodowiththeinformationhereceivedfromhispatients.CitingtheHippocraticOath,he
pointedoutthatthedoctor'sonlydutywastocureandtartlyconcluded:"Itisindeedpitiableifabodyoflearnedgentlemenshouldhavetobeforcedbypunishmentto
holdtheirtongues."70

Turningtothesocialcontextinwhichthetrialtookplace,thepress'sconstantreferencestothe"ladies"and"gentlemen"involvedmadeitclearthatclassplayedakey
roleincoloringnineteenthcenturynotionsofconfidentiality.Whereonewaslocatedinthesocialhierarchydeterminedhowmuchprivacyonemightlegitimatelyenjoy.
Frenchcommentatorsatthetimespokeofhonorasasortofpropertyanditslossequivalentto"theft."71Playfairwasdamnedwiththeepithetof"moralinquisitor."
Why?Thiswastheageoftemperanceagitation,sabbatarianism,regulationofprostitution,andtheraisingoftheageofsexualconsent.PoorLawandCharity
OrganizationSocietyinvestigatorsprowledthroughworkingclassneighborhoodsreprimandingthedissolute.GiventhefactthattheVictorianspridedthemselveson
theirmoralrectitude,whyshouldPlayfair'sactivitiesnothavebeenapplaudedratherthansoroundlycondemned?Partoftheanswerlayinwhosemoralitywasbeing
policed.TheVictorianconceptofconfidentialitywasverymuchabourgeoisconceitinasmuchasitwaspresumedthatdoctorswouldalertmastersoftheillnessesof
theirservantsandhelpcharitiessortouttheablebodiedfromtheimpotent.72LindaKitson'scasewasobviouslyquitedifferentinthatonewasdealingnotwitha
servantorprostitutebutwithamiddleclasswoman.Strikinglyenoughthepressdeclaredthatalady'scharacterbywhichitmeantamiddleclasswoman's
charactershouldneverbedecidedonmedicalevidencealone.73

Theconceptof"privilegedcommunications"wasrarelyfoughtoutincourt.Ifonerelies,ashasbeendoneinthischapter,onlegalrecords,onewillonlyhearaboutthe
violationoftheconfidencesoftheLindaKitsonsofthisworld.This,ofcourse,doesnotmeanthatonlymiddleclasswomenransuchrisksitmeansthatonlythose
withsufficientmoneytolaunchcostlylegalactionsappearedintherecord.Similarly,whenwesearchforsuitslaunchedbymales,wesurprisinglyfindthattheyoften
pittedonedoctoragainstanother.In1884aDr.CassonunsuccessfullysuedacolleaguefortellingthosewhomCassonservedasclubsurgeonthathisincompetence
wasresponsibleforamember'sdeath.Thejudgeruledthattheseconddoctor'scommunicationtotheclubwasprivilegedandthetrialendedinanonsuit.74In1899a
doctortoldhisassistantthatacolleaguehadbeendrunkandin"abitofafog"whenattendingapatient.Thelatter

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doctorwenttocourtwhereheacceptedanapologyandfortyshillings.75Suchcasessignifiednotthatdoctorswereparticularlypronetobackbitingbutthatthey
werebetterplacedtorespondtoslanderthanweretheirpatients.Membersofthelowerclasseswereeffectivelypreventedfromlaunchingsuchsuitsbecausethey
lackedboththemoneyand,moreimportantly,society'srecognitionthattheirprivacyshouldberespected.

Genderconcernsplayedthemostimportantroleinthisparticularbreachofconfidencesuit.LindaKitsonwonmuchsupportbyperfectlyplayingtheroleofthelady
indistress.AbouttheonlyantifeministresponsetothetrialsurfacedinthepagesoftheMarxistjournalJustice,themouthpieceofH.M.Hyndman'sSocial
DemocraticFederation.Itschiefcontributor,themisogynistE.BelfortBax,havingspentallof1895beratingsupportersofwomen'semancipationincludingEleanor
MarxAvelingwasnotabouttoletthetrialgobywithoutonelastswipeatfemales.Havingnotedthattheverdicthadmetwithgeneralapproval,the"Tattler"went
ontoreflect:"WithoutintheleastattemptingtocondonetheactionofDrPlayfair,however,oneisconstrainedtopointoutthathe,afterall,onlytoldhiswife,andthat,
asusual,itwasawomanwhowasmainlyresponsiblefortheinjurywroughttooneofhersex."76HeconcludedthatLindaKitsoncouldconsiderherself"fortunatein
beingawoman."Nomanwouldeverreceivetwelvethousandpoundsforslander,whichproved,despitethewhiningofsome,howadvantagedwomenwere.Several
femalecorrespondentsimmediatelyrepliedthatJustice,fullasusualofcoarseandtriteantifeministabuse,failedtonotethatthejudgeandjurywereallmen.Women
wantednotspecialtreatmentbut"fairplay."77

AsidefromJusticeandtheBritishMedicalJournaltwounlikelybedfellowsthepresswasoverwhelminglyonthesideofLindaKitson.Aletterthatappearedin
theTimesprovidedinanutshellthepublicperceptionofthetrial."NowwehaveanEnglishmanoftheveryhigheststandingtorturingafeebleandlonelywomanby
threatsofrevealingwhathethoughthehadlearned."78Herewerecombinedalltheclichsoftheblackmailthriller,thesensationalistnovelandtheantivisectionisttract.
Manyofthestockcharactersandsituationsappearedaswellthecrueldoctor(ironicallynamedPlayfair),thedamselindistress,theadministeringofchloroform,the
violationfirstofthewoman'sbodyandthenofhersecrets.79

Waltonplayedupsuchthemesinpresentingthetrialasawoman'sheroicattempt"toescapefromachargewhichreflecteduponherhonour."AlthoughPlayfairwas
theactualdefendant,LindaKitsonneverceasedto

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beregardedbythepublicasthevictim.EvenLockwoodhadtoacknowledgeruefullythatitwashardforthejurytofreetheirmindsoftheimageofLindaKitsonasa
pathetic,terrorizedcreatureandPlayfairasherinquisitor.80

ItwasnotedearlierthatPlayfair'sdecisiontofallbackonthedefenseofprivilegewasanenormousblunder.Lockwoodcouldnotdisentanglethequestionofprivilege
inthepublic'smind,indeedinthemindsofthejudgeandjury,fromtheaspersionscastonLindaKitson.Middleclasssocietyresolutelycondemnedadultery,butwas
evenmorehostiletoanyonewhowouldbeso"unmanly"astoblackenalady'sreputationandthenrefusetobackuphiswords.Waltonrepeatedlyarguedthat
Playfairhadcunninglynotsoughttoprovethechargesofadulterybecauseheknewitwasimpossibleclaimingprivilegewasthecoward'swayout.Hehadactedlike
acad.

InresponseLockwoodappealedtothejurorsas"menofhonourandmenoftheworld"toputthemselvesinPlayfair'splace.WhatelsecouldPlayfairhavehonorably
done?Thiswasanothergravemiscalculationonthepartofthedefensehypotheticalsituationsinspirehypocrisy.Mostmenfelttheycouldhavedonefarbetter,been
farmorecharitable.Indeedtheresponseofthepopularpresswasdominatedbyexpressionsofselfrighteousmaleindignation.TheWeeklyYorkshirePostdoubtedif
thereexisted"twelverationalEnglishmen,withheartsbeneaththeirwaistcoats,whoarecapableoftakingthePlayfairviewofthecase."81

Thetriallargelyrevolvedaroundthewayinwhichmenweresupposedtobehave.Victoriansocietybelievedthatmennecessarilyhadpoweroverwomenbutwere
nottoabuseit.Middleclassmaleswererarelyprosecutedforcoercingwomenitwasrarerstillforadoctortobetriedforintimidatingapatient.Whensuchrare
casescametolight,anexamplewasoftenmadeoftheunluckyculprit.Playfairwasnodoubtjustsuchasacrificiallamb,punishedfornotplayinghispartasthe
chivalrousgentleman.Theimplicationdrawnbythepresswasthatsuchmisdeedswerenotsystemic,nottheresultofanyasymmetryinthepowerwieldedbymenand
women,buttheresultofsomeindividualquirk.Patriarchalpowerwastherebystrengthenedratherthanunderminedbysuchshowtrials,demonstratingastheydidthat
malescouldbereliedupontopolicethemselves.

SostrongwasthemalechorusofsupportforLindaKitsonthatitdrownedoutthefewfemaleexpressionsofsolidarity.Onemighthaveexpectedfeministstohave
seizedupontheKitsontrialasaclassiccaseofmaleoppression,butasfarascanbedetermined,theleadersofthewom

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en'smovementavoidedextensivecomment.Dealingasitdidwiththeadulteryandmiscarriageofamiddleclasswoman,theKitsonaffairperhapshittoocloseto
home.Theleadersofthewomen'smovementtendedtobemorecomfortableindisplacingtheirconcernsaboutsexualityontothetopicofworkingclassprostitution.
82

Nineteenthcenturyfeministshadnotedthatconfidentialitywas"gendered,"mostnotablyundertheContagiousDiseasesAct,whenphysicianswererelieduponto
informauthoritieswhichstreetwalkerswereillandaccordinglyweretobeincarceratedbythepolice.83Maledoctorskeptthesecretsoftheirmalepatients,however,
evenfromtheirwivesorfiances.Doctorscould,ofcourse,beexpectedtoprotecteachother.ThemostextremecaseoccurredwhenDr.Pritchard,theinfamous
medicalmurderer,succeededinpoisoninghiswifebecauseacolleaguebelieveditwasagainstthe"etiquette"oftheprofessiontoreporthissuspicions.84Dr.Spencer,
whoappearedforLindaKitson,waspresentedbyLockwoodwithamorefamiliarscenario.Amalepatientsufferingfromvenerealdiseaseannounceshisintentionto
marrywouldSpencerwarnthewomanandpreventsuchadangerousunionfrombeingforged?Spencerrepliedthathewouldnot.85Protectingmenmeant,bythe
sametoken,betrayingwomen.Thepointhasbeenmademanytimesbeforethatdoctorsoftenkeptnineteenthcenturymiddleclasswomeninignoranceofthe
workingsoftheirownbodiesandthethreatsposedthembyothers.Theclassiccasewouldbethatofthedoctornotinformingawomanthatshesufferedfroma
venerealcomplaintbecausetodosowouldrevealthatherhusbandorherhusbandtobehadbeenunfaithful.86

Butdoctorsalsoprotectedsomewomen'sconfidences.IntheKitsoncase,notdeceptionbutcandorwasthethreat.Playfairplayedtheroleoftheblackmailera
stockbogeymanoftheageininspiringfearbythreateningtorevealratherthansuppressthetruth.87Iftheclassicmalemedicalsecretwasthatonewassuffering
fromvenerealdisease,thefemaleequivalentwastohavehadanabortion.Keepingthesecretofawomanwhoabortedwasmorallylessproblematicalthankeeping
thesecretofamanwhohadavenerealdiseasebecauseshedidnotposeamedicaldangertothosearoundherwhilehedid.Butabortionwasacrimeand
communicationspertainingtocriminalactswerenotprivileged,evenforbarristersandsolicitors.Theconfidencesofthevictimsofcrimessuchasrapeweretobe
protected,notthoseofdefendants.Butabortionwasaspecialcase.Thewoman,althoughpartytothecrime,wasviewedbythecourtsasalsoits"victim,"and
thereforeherphysician'stestimonywasusuallyruledto

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beinadmissible.88Whenonenineteenthcenturydoctor,whopretendedtobeassistingacoupleinprocuringanabortion,betrayedthemandappearedincourtas
bothamedicalexpertandprosecutionwitness,thejudge,insteadoflaudingthephysician'scivicmindedness,damnedhimforhavingactedasanagentprovocateur.89

Mr.JusticeHawkinswentsofarastodeclareinopencourtthatifawomanabortedtosavehercharacter,herreputation,andherlivelihood,hedoubted"very,very,
verymuch"thejustificationofadoctorrunningofftothepolicetosay:"Ihavebeenattendingapoor,youngwomanwhohasbeentryingtoprocureabortionwiththe
assistanceofhersister.Sheisnowprettywell,andisgettingbetter,andinthecourseofafewdaysshewillbeoutagain,butIthinkIoughttoputyouontothe
woman."90That,Hawkinsasserted,wouldbe"amonstrouscruelty."91

Hawkins'swordsserveasausefulreminderofhowtheclassandgenderpreoccupationsofthegentlemanlyethiccouldleadevenajudgetoturnablindeyetocertain
crimes.WhenHawkinsthoughtaboutabortion,heassumed,asdidmostofhiscontemporaries,thatthewomaninquestionwouldbepoor,single,seduced,and
abandoned.Sinceshewasineffectavictimofherowncrimeandheractionsjeopardizedneitherpropertynorgenderrelationships,hisheartcouldgoouttoher.But
howwouldthecourtsrespondtoawealthy,marriedwomanwhosoughtanabortionaspartofherstruggletofreeherselffromahatedhusband?Justsuchacase
surfacedafewyearsaftertheKitsonv.Playfairtrial.In1901JessieM'Ewan,whowasundergoingthetravailsofbothanastymaritalbreakupandanunwanted
pregnancy,calledintheEdinburghsurgeonP.H.Watsontoexamineher.Watson(18321907),anexpertingynecologyandhonorarysurgeoninScotlandtoQueen
Victoria,wastobeknightedforhisservicesin1903.92Inhisprivatenotes,themoralizingWatsontookthetroubletorecordboththebackgroundtothepatient's
marriageproblemsandhisadvicethatJessieM'Ewanbesenttoanursinghometoawaitherdelivery."Thisviewnotpleasingtopatientnortoherfather(whohas
marriedasecondwife),anditseemstheyareallbentuponinducingprematurelaboursoastofreethepatientofanypermanentreminderofthismarriage,and,if
possibleobtainaseparation."93WatsonshowedthesenotestothesolicitorsofJessieM'Ewan'shusbandandwhenthecouplesoughtadivorcein1903appearedas
awitnessonhisbehalf.JessieM'EwansuedWatsonforbreachofconfidenceandslander.ThecasewasfoughtallthewaytotheHouseofLords,whereHalsbury
gavetheleadingjudgmentthatwhatWatsontoldMr.M'Ewan'ssolicitorswasnotaction

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ablebecauseitwasbothtrueandprivileged.94JessieM'Ewanhadtobearboththeheavylegalcostsandthehumiliatingpublicexposureofherprivateaffairs.

TherewasnodoubtthatDr.Watsonhadviolatedtheconfidenceofhispatient.JessieM'Ewanlosthersuitbecausesheemergednotasalongsufferingfemalebutas
anangryandrebelliouswife.ThereisequallylittledoubtaboutLindaKitson'sadultery,butherskilledcounselsimplyconjureditaway.Thepublicwaswilling,inthe
caseofthispretty,persecutedwoman,tobelieveinthepossibilityofasixteenmonthpregnancy.95Claimingallthewhilethatinher"lightheaded"wayshedidnot
knowwhatshewasdoing,LindaKitson,inperfectlyportrayingtheroleofthefemalemartyr,gotawaywithadultery,perhapsabortion,andtwelvethousandpounds
aswell.96

ThepressandlaitythoughtthattheKitsonv.Playfairtrialhadplayedanimportantroleinestablishingaclearerdefinitionofdoctors'dutiesasregardsconfidentiality.97
Thiswas,aswehaveseen,nottrue.Despitethegeneralbeliefthatdoctorsfollowedsomeelaboratesecretcodeofethics,therealitywas,notedone1905
commentator,that"obediencetothedictatesofmedicalethicsimpliesapplicationtotheordinarychancesofprofessionallifeoftherulethatamanshoulddoashe
wouldbedoneby."98

AttheJune1920meetingoftheBritishMedicalAssociation,aresolutionurgeditsmemberstofighttokeepconfidentialwhattheylearnedintheirconsultingrooms.
Doctorsopposedtosuchviewsimmediatelymadetheirvoicesheard.Oneaskedrhetoricallyifthephysicianwastoremainblithelysilentandindifferentwhenheknew
thatamalepatientsufferingfromvenerealdiseaseriskedinfectinghisinnocentfamily."Doesthatresolutionmeanthisthatweare,asaprofession,toallowa
boundertoliveandhiswifeandchildtodie?"99

Inconjuringuptheimageofthechivalrousphysiciangallantlyprotectingawifefromherbrutishhusband,thosearguinginfavorofadoctor'srighttodecidewhenand
iftodivulgeinformationwereturningtoanoldploy.Whocouldfailtorespondtothecalltoprotectwomenandchildren?Butifdoctorsweresimplyrelieduponto
usetheirdiscretionandgoodsenseinsuchmatters,wasitlikelythatmostwouldturntheirknowledgetothepurposesofprotectingtheweakfromthestrong,women
frommen,servantsfromtheirmasters?Doctorswereaskingtobetobetrustedtoactasgentlemen.100Althoughtodayonemightsayitisfarfromclearwhatthis
mightmean,attheturnofthecenturysuchanappealhadrealresonance.

"Theageofchivalryisgone:thatofsophisters,economistsandcalcula

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torshassucceeded:andthegloryofEuropeisextinguished."101SoclaimedEdmundBurkeattheendoftheeighteenthcentury.Yetahundredyearslater,menwere,
ifanything,evenmoreentrancedbythenotionofselflessactsofloyaltyandsacrifice.Manymiddleclassmendreamedofwhatonecommentatorhascalled"areturn
toCamelot"andparadedtheirdistrustof"cleverness"byrankingcharacteraheadofintellect.Inanevermoreindustrializedandbureaucratizedworld,itseemedallthe
moreimportanttobelievethattheamateurcouldoutdothehardenedprofessional.102ChivalrytendedtobedomesticatedinBritainandAmerica,where"muscular
Christians"successfullypromotedsportasasuitabledemonstrationofmasculineaggressionandhardihood.Buteventheenduringpopularityofduelinginturnofthe
centuryFranceandGermanywasonlyanotherexampleofthemoregeneraldesireofimportantsegmentsofthebourgeoisietodemonstratethatheroismwasnot
restrictedtoaristocraticmales.103Onlyacowardwoulddirectsuchaggressivenessatthe"weakersex"indeedaconcernfortheprotectionofthe''ladies"figured
centrallyinappealstochivalry.Thiswasnotjustrhetoric.Oppressivepatriarchalpowerbegantogivewayinthelastdecadesofthenineteenthcenturyasthose
sympathetictowomen'srightscastigatedexamplesofthesortofexcessivemaleviolencethatwereexposedindivorcecourtproceedings.104Giventhiscontextthe
disasterawaitingDr.Playfairwasalmostpredictable.

Itwasonlydecadeslaterthatavarietyofsocialcriticsbegantoassertthattheemploymentofappealstogentlemanmoralitylargelyservedtheinterestofelitemalesas
awayofdefendingexistingsexualandsocialhierarchies.HaroldLaski,inaninsightful1932essayentitled"TheDangersofBeingaGentleman,"pointedoutthatthe
cultofthe"gentleman"flourishedinthesameageasthepoorlawandthesexualdoublestandard.Laskialertedhisreaderstothesocialexclusivenessandanti
intellectualism,theconservatismandhypocrisythatwereinherentcomponentsof"gentlemanly"ethics.105Toassumethattheaccoladeofgentlemanhadanypotency,
thatchivalryhadtobeaninherentpartofsocialinteraction,meantthatonetookasagiven,indeedas"natural,"thatsocietywasdividedonclasslinesbetweenthe
powerfulandtheweak,thepropertiedandthepropertyless,therespectableandtherough,andongenderlinesbetween"gentlemen"and"ladies."

Thecontemporaryembarrassmentexperiencedinemployingsuchtermsasladyandgentlemanmeansthatittakessomeefforttoappreciatethepowerthatthese
wordshadacenturyago.Asthischapterhasindicated,suchwastheirresonancethatthoughtheychieflyservedtojustifytheau

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thorityofestablishedhierarchiestheycouldattimesbeturned,bythecalculating,toserveasacoverforimmoralorillegalpractices.Butsuchstrategiescanhardlybe
consideredsubversiveonthecontraryLindaKitsonwonpreciselybecausesheacceptedtherulesandplayedthegameof"ladiesandgentlemen"moresuccessfully
thanDr.Playfair.

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Five
Murderers
Forcefulnesscontinuedtobehailedbycontemporariesinthelatenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturiesasacrucialaspectofmalegenderidentity,whileits
counterpart,acquiescenceorpassivity,wasattributedtothefemale.Butatwhatpointdidtheforcefulmanbecometheviolentbrute?Whencouldalackof
forcefulnessbrandoneaneffeminatecoward?Onewayofansweringsuchquestionsisbyusingcourtrecordsthatchronicledtherecoursetothemostextremeformof
violencemurder.Judgesandjuriesfacedwithsuchactshadtosay,onthebehalfofthecommunity,howfarlegitimateforcecouldbepushed.1

Genderpreoccupationsobviouslycoloredsuchdeliberations.Yetthefactthateveryjurydecisiondidnotwinpublicapprobationforcefullyremindsusthatthecriminal
justicesystemdidnotsimplyrubberstamppublicprejudices.Trialverdictsinvolvingmenwereobviouslynotbasedsolelyonthecommunity'sinterpretationof
masculinity.Thosewhoservedthecourtshadtheirownagendastheirchiefpreoccupationwastoopposethreatstotheruleoflaw.Proofthattheaccusedhad
resortedtovigilantismcouldaccordinglycounteranysympathyhemighthavegarneredbydemonstrationsofmanlyassertiveness.Legalpractitionerswerenaturally
intentondemonstratingthatcasesweredecidednotonthebasisofsimplecommunitypressurebutontheevidencepresented.Butwhenoneexaminesthe"evidence"
advancedinthemostseriouscases,oneisstruckbytheinclusionofbothhardfactsandvaguegenderexpectations.Ata1910murdertrial,onedefensewitness
statedthattheaccusedhad"alwaystreatedhimlikeaman,"asecondtestifiedthatatthetimeofthekillingtheaccusedhadassertedthat"amanhastodefendhis
home,"andtheaccusedhimselfrecollectedthatwhenservedwithawarranthehadaskedthespecialconstable"whyhehadnotproduceditlikeaman."2
Contemporariesconcurredthatevidencethatonehadorhadnotacted''likeaman"wasfrequentlycrucialtoacourt'sdeliberations.

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Inadditiontorevealinghowdegreesoftolerableviolencewerecarefullycalibratedbycommunitiesinthepast,thedocumentationgeneratedbymurdertrialsprovides
unusuallyintimateportrayalsofmaleinteractions.3 Accordingtoanoldmaxim,men,unlikewomen,"donotliketotalk,"butthemosttaciturn,whenputontrialfor
theirlives,becameloquacious.Suchmaterial,thoughobviouslyhavingtobeusedwithcautionoftenthethoughtsandactionsofworkingclassmenbeinginterpreted
forandbymiddleandupperclasslawmenneverthelessprovidesapricelesssourcefortheinvestigationofthemeaningsgivenmanhood.

Intacklingsuchissues,thefollowingchapterdiffersconsiderablyfromtheprevious.Inturningfrombreachofconfidencecasestomurdertrials,wewillbemoving
fromtherelativelymundanetothemostseriousofconflicts.Wewillmoreoverbeexaminingtheconfrontations,notofmenwithwomen,butsimplyofmenwithother
men.Andthesemen,betheymurderersorvictims,willbe,unlikethoseofthepreviouschapters,verymuchalike,almostallbeingworkingclass.Asecureincome
andmembershipinarespectableprofessionrepresentedformiddleclassmenlikeDr.Playfairanimportantaspectoftheirnotionofmanliness.Laborersnecessarily
definedmasculinitydifferently.

BecausesomuchhasalreadybeenwrittenaboutmurderandthemalecodeofhonorinEuropeandthesouthernUnitedStates,wewillfocusonaseriesoftrialsthat
tookplace,sotospeak,ontheperipheryoftheWesternworldinBritishColumbia,Canada'swesternmostprovince.4 Insoabruptlyshiftingscenes,anumberof
purposesareserved.First,thecourtroommelodramasfocusingonmurderpresentthemostdramaticexamplesoftheimportanceoftheaccusedbeingpresentedas
eitherheroorvillain.Second,popularmythologyholdsthatthefrontierwasparticularlypronetoviolence.Wedecidedtochroniclethetreatmentofmurderinthe
PacificNorthwestbecauseitprovidesanespeciallyinterestingexampleofaregionmarkedbyBritishlegaltraditions,EuropeanimmigrationandAmericancultural
influences.If,inthiscasestudy,despitethedramaticchangeinlocale,personae,andcrime,wefindthenowpredictableconstantscourtsbeingswayedbyafamiliar
melodramaticscriptwithitsinvocationoftherightsanddutiesof"manhood"wewillhaveattainedsomeideaoftheextentofthemasculinemystique'spervasivnessin
bothtimeandspace.

LetusbeginwithanotatypicalBritishColumbiankillingthattookplaceinCranbrook,asmallinteriortown,whichliesonthewesternedgeoftheRockyMountain
Trench,fiftymilesnorthoftheMontanaborder.Attheturnofthecentury,mostofitsmaleinhabitantsworkedeitherfortheCanadianPacificRailway,whichmade
thetownadivisionalpointwith

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roundhouseandaccommodationsfortraincrews,orinlumbering.On15September1915,HughMcGill,aCPRshopemployee,beattodeathSamuelWatson,a
formerCPRbrakeman.TheinquestjuryfoundthatWatson"methisdeathfromafracturedskullcausedbyfallingagainstaverandahpostthroughablowstruckby
theaccused,McGill."5 ThechiefofpoliceattributedMcGill'sattacktothefactthatthetwentyfiveyearoldWatson"hadbeenpayingtoomuchattentiontohis
[McGill's]wife."ApparentlyanumberofpeopleinCranbrookknewthatWatsonandNellieMcGilleitherhadorwerehavinganaffair.Theyhadexchangedletters.
Onereadattheinquest,addressedtoSamandsigned"YourdevotedloverNellie,"referredtoapastsexualrelationship.6

McGill,knowingthatWatsonwascomingtovisit,layinwaitontheverandahandlashedoutathisrivalassoonasheknockedonthedoor.Iftherewasafight,itwas
verymuchonesided.Theaccusedwasleftwithmarksonhisknuckles,butnoneonhisface.Theverandahpostandthegroundonwhichthevictimlaywerecovered
inblood.HowhadWatsondied?Amedicalwitnesstestifiedatthepreliminaryhearingthatthoughthevictimhadbeendrinking,fallingfromtheverandahandhitting
hisheadonapostcouldnotalonehavecauseddeath.Anexaminationofthedeceasedsuggestedthathehadbeenhitabouttheheadwithabluntobjectthreeorfour
times.

OnceWatsonwasdowninapoolofblood,McGill'sfirstthoughtwasnottosummonmedicalaid,buttofetchhisfriend,PercyAdams,thechiefofpolice.McGill,
thoughexcited,wasclearheadedenoughtobealreadyframinghisdefense."YourememberthemanItoldyouaboutlastyear?...WellIgothim.Comeandsee
whereheis.Iwillshowyouwhereheis."AdamsonseeingthebodycalledforadoctorandarrestedMcGill.Toldbythepolicethathisvictimhaddiedandwarned
towatchwhathewassaying,McGillreplied:"Itwascomingtohim.Itwasinselfdefense."

TheCranbrookcourthouse,whereMcGill'spreliminaryproceedingsinSeptemberandhistrialinOctobertookplace,waspackedwithhisfriends.7 Thecrown
counselinformedtheattorneygeneral'sofficethattheaccusedenjoyed"agreatdealofpublicsympathy."8 Neverthelesstheprosecutionproceededwiththecase,
arguingthatMcGillhadtopayapriceforbeingtheaggressorinafightthatendedindeath.ThedefensecounteredthatWatsonthoughwarnedhadrefusedtostay
awayfromtheMcGillhouse,madethreats,andonthefatalnightstruckfirstwitharidingcrop.McGillnowclaimedthathesimplydefendedhimselfandintheensuing
meleeWatsonaccidentallyfellbackwardandhithishead.Thespectators,bytheirapplauseforthedefensesummation,madetheirloyaltiesknown.

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Thejurywasoutnomorethanthirtyminutesbeforereturningaverdictofnotguilty.WhyhadMcGillbeenacquitted?Theshortanswerisbecauseheactedinaway
thatthecommunityconsideredappropriateforaman.Murderwasadesperateact,butitwasunderstoodthatinagivensituationamanhadtherighttokill.

AnanalysisofBritishColumbiantrialandinquestreportsfortheyears1900to1923providesafulleranswertothequestionsofhow,where,andwhymenkilled
othermen.Thefirstsectionofthischapterwilldealwiththehowandthewherethatis,accountforthenumber,location.andmeansofkillings.Sectiontwowill
focusonthetrickierissueofwhy.Therecanbelittledoubtthatbecauseofthewaygenderconcernspatternedtheuseofviolence,itwasmore"normal"formenthan
forwomentoresorttodeadlyforce.Beginningwiththepremisethatcertainformsofmaleviolenceweresanctionedbythecourts,wewillseewhatmurdertrialstell
usaboutthesocialconstructionofmasculinity.Whencouldforcefulnessbepushedsofarastojustifyahomicide?Wasmurdernecessarilyacowardlyact?Were
there"manly"waysofkilling?Whatinshortaccordingtojudges,policemen,jurymen,lawmen,andnewspapermendiditmeantobeaman?

DespitethefactthatBritishColumbiaattheturnofthecenturycouldbeconsideredinmanywaysafrontiersociety,itsmurderratewasnotexceptionallyhigh.
GermanyandEngland'srateswerelessthan1per100,000whilethoseintheUnitedStatesrangedfrom6per100,000intheNortheastto28per100,000inthe
Southwest.BritishColumbia'srate,likesouthernEurope's,wasabout5per100,000.9 TheoverwhelmingmajorityofBritishColumbiankillerswere,asintheMcGill
case,men.InwesternCanadaaselsewhere,thenasnow,menwerefarmorelikelythanwomentohaverecoursetoviolence.10Moreover,intheearlydecadesof
thiscentury,BritishColumbia,likeotherpioneeringcommunities,experiencedaserioussexratioimbalance,menfaroutnumberingwomen.11Between1900and
1923,270menandonlyeighteenwomenwerecitedinmurdercases.Malesalsodominatedasvictims.Twohundredandtwentyonemenwerekilled,butonlythirty
fivewomen.

Thisdisparitybetweenmaleandfemalemurderratesisconfirmedbythefiguresdrawnfrominquestrecordsonunsolvedanduntriedmurders.Ofthe205victimswho
diedinsuspiciouscircumstances,164weremenandfortyonewerewomen.Thesexofthemajorityoftheassailants(149)wasunknown,butoftheknownassailants
(whousuallyhadavoidedtrialbyescaping,dyinginjail,orcommittingsuicide)fiftyoneweremenandonlyfourwerewomen.12

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Intheyearswehaveexamined,214menwerethevictimsofmalemurderers.AsintheMcGillcase,men"normally"killedothermenofthesameclassandethnicity.
The"typicalmurder"involvedamale(likelydrunk)killinganacquaintance,friend,orworkmate.Murderswereendogenous.Tokilloutsideofone'sclass,gender,or
ethnicgroupwashighlyunusual.Maleassaultsonwomenobviouslyplayedapartintheconstructionofthemasculinerole,butthedifficultiesfacedbyamanwho
attackedawomanindefininghismanhoodwillnotbetracedhere.13Inwhatfollowsweattempttounderstandthemeaningsgivenmasculinityinearlytwentieth
centuryBritishColumbiabyexaminingthemurdersofmencarriedoutbywhiteworkingclassmales(manyofthemimmigrants),thejustificationstheyprovidedfor
theiracts,andtheresponsesmadetothembythecourtsandthepress.ThemurderscarriedoutbyaboriginalandAsianmenwillnotbetreatedhereexceptin
passing,inpartbecausedifferentethnicgroupsmightwellhavehaddifferentviewsofmasculinity,butprimarilybecausetheprejudicialtreatmentthecourtsaccorded
membersofvisibleminoritiesdeservesmoreextensiveanalysis.Killingsofandbywomenwill,forsimilarreasons,alsobesettooneside.

Whereweremenkilled?BothMcGillandhisvictimworkedfortherailway.Agrandjurynotedin1904thatmurder"may,perhaps,beattributedtothefloating
populationfollowingrailwayconstruction."14Acommonplace,oftenrepeatedbythepress,wasthatamobile,malecultureservedasanaturalbreedinggroundfor
violence.Butthepointusuallymissedbycontemporaryobserverswasthatsuchcommunitiesweremorestablethantheyoftenappearedtooutsiders.Killerswere
rarelystrangersmenweremainlymurderedbythosewhomtheyknewmenwithwhomtheylived,worked,andplayed.Settingasidethecasesinwhichwomen
werethevictimsandthemurderscommittedbynativepeoplesandAsians,thereportsrevealthatin130casestherelationshipofthewhitemalemurderertothemale
victimwas:

Acquaintance 38.5%
Friend,neighbor,boarder 27.7%
Stranger 18.5%
Workmate,employee,employer 12.3%
Relative 3.0%

Mostmenworkedtogetherinwhatwerelargelysinglesexindustries.Thepeacefulworkplacecouldsuddenlybecomeamurdersite.Gunsandknivesthemost
commoninstrumentsofdeathwerereadilyathandinthebush,onhomesteads,andonranches,butfists,boots,andordinary

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toolsalsosufficedasweapons.Minerswerebludgeonedtodeath,fishermenknifedordrowned,loggers'skullssplitbyaxes,soldiersshot.Atypicalscenariosawa
GreekfishermanmeethisfateinaboatinPlumper'sPassoffVancouverIsland.Accordingtotheaccused:"Itoldhimtogetoutandnotcomeintomyboatbutjust
thesamehejumpsintheboatallrightandgrabbedmebythethroatfrombehind.IbentforwardandIwasdrunkmyselfandhehadmedownIhadaknifeinmy
handtheknifeIhadwasonewehadforcuttingbread,cleaningfishoranything,oneweusedontheboat,theknifewasaboutaslongasthissheetofpaper....I
don'tknowhowhegotthecutIwaslyingdownandhewasontopofmeIthinkhemusthavestept[sic]onithimselfintherow."15Murdersattheworkplace
usuallysawlaborersturningoneachother,butfiringanemployeecouldprovokesimilarviolence.AstorehousemanattheEsquimaltNavalYard,dismissedin1903
fornegligence,retaliatedbyemptyinghispistolathissupervisor.16In1912itwastheCanadianNorthernRailwaygangforemanBarneyMulliganwhokilledanirate
worker,whomadethemistakeofscreamingathiminthecampkitchen,"Youoldbullshitter,youarenogood,youcomeoutsideandI'llfixyouupforwhatyoudid
yesterday,youIrishsonofabitch."17Mulligan,whohaddismissedtheworkerthedaybefore,thenstruckhim.

Mennotonlyworkedtogether,manylivedtogether.18Criminologistsoftendrawadistinctionbetween"domestic"murdersinvolvingmenandtheirfamiliesand
"public"murdersinvolvingmainlymen.ButinBritishColumbiaintheearlydecadesofthecentury,suchclearcutdistinctionscouldnotalwaysbemade.Murdertrial
accountsofsixChineseworkerssharingashackinSteveston,sixItalianlaborersbunkingtogetherinahouseinVancouver,andthreedrunkenprospectorsholedup
inacabinatSummitCampcapturedthesuffocatingatmosphereofmenpileduptogetherbothdayandnight,gettingoneachothers'nerves,enjoyinglittleprivacy,and
havingnowheretoescape.Menwerecrammedtogetheronfishboatsandrailwaybunkcarsandinisolatedcabinsandshacks,forcedtoendureeithereachothers'
companyinthesharedaccommodationsofthinwalledroominghousesortheinquisitivenessofthesuspiciousfamilieswithwhomtheyboarded.Largenumbersslept
inthebarracksprovidedforsoldiersandsappersandthebunkhousesforloggers,railwaymen,androadgangs.19Privacywasnotevenfoundinbed.In1915two
RuthenianlaborersworkingontheCanadianNationalRailwaytunnelatMile127,havingoppositeshiftsbutsharingthesamebunk,eventuallycametoblows.20

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SomesenseofhowthedaytodaytensionsofsuchclaustrophobicsituationscouldescalateintoviolencewasconveyedinthediaryofFrederickTrumper,whoin
1907sharedatinycabinatPouceCoupewithanincreasinglycantankeroussixtyyearoldtrapper.

Oct.15th HadtalkwithColemanonhisgrouchiness.
Oct.27th Colemanisononeofhiscrankyspellsagain.
Nov.10th Colemanisonatearagain.
Nov.18th Colemanisnowtalkingofmovingout.

UnfortunatelyforTrumper,ColemandidnotleaveinsteadonNovember25Colemancameathimwitharifle,andinwardinghimoffwithamallet,Trumperdelivered
afatalblow.21

Laborersmaynothavehadthesamedesiresasthemiddleclassforprivacy,butsomesinglemenwouldhavelikedattheleasttheoptionoflivingontheirowngiven
thelackofpublicfacilities,itwasrarelypossible.Theironywasthatthevastexpansesof"frontier"wildernessoftenofferednewcomerslessprivacyoranonymitythan
thelargercitiesofeithertheEastCoastorEurope.

Mennotonlyworkedandlivedtogether,theirleisuretimeactivities,especiallydrinkingandgambling,weremainlysharedwithothermen.22Formany,tobeaman
wastodrink."Thedeceasedwasaprettygoodman,"saidanItalianofacompatriot,"hedrankjustenoughtokeephimingrandshape."23Alcoholplayeda
precipitatingroleinabouthalfthemurders.

Andwheredidmurdersusuallyoffriendsandacquaintancesoccur?Ifnotattheworkplace,shack,orcampsite,thenthelikelihoodwaswhereverliquorwas
available.Thehotelbarorsaloonwasusuallythevillageortown'smostimportantallmaleinstitution.Maleleisurepursuitswerepursuedinpublic.Murdersfrequently
followeddrinkingboutsattheVictoriaHotelinVernon(1901and1908),atthebarroomofStarke'sHotel,Peterborough(1901),outsidetheGermaniaSaloonin
Victoria(1902),attheSt.Elmo'sHotelatTrail(1907),Kirby'sHotelinKeremeos(1907),thePalaceHotelinVancouver(1908),theManhattanSalooninNelson
(1911),theQueen'sHotelinKamloops(1913),theNewTelkwaHotelinTelkwa(1913,1915),andtheEmpressHotelinPrinceGeorge(1921).Bartenders,often
theonlysoberbystandersatsuchencounters,consequentlyfoundthemselvesbeingcalledaswitnessesatinquestsandtrials.24

Thecourtrecordsdescribetheextensivepopularvocabularyemployed

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todescribedrinkingtoexcess.Oneman'sdyingdeclarationbeganwiththeline,"Iamdying.IgotfullthedayafterpaydayandEdMorellathrewarockatmyhead
andnoonesawhimthrowit."25Victimsandmurderersweresaidtobe"full,""onaspree,""wobbly,''"undertheinfluence,""quarrelsomeinhiscups,""maddrunk,"
"fightingdrunk,"and"absolutelyinebriated,goodanddrunk."Participantsinsuchdrinkingsessionscouldnotalwaysbesurethatwhatbeganaspartiesorcelebrations
anddegeneratedintoquarrels,"friendlyscuffles,"andbrawlsmightnotendinmurder.Oneprospectorrecalledthatsevenoreightbottlesofwhiskeywereconsumed
byhalfadozenmenataCariboocountrygettogether."IleftandthatwasthelastIknowofit,exceptthehowlingandscreechingandshootingallnightlongasthere
waslotsofnoise."26Despitethecommotionhewasgenuinelysurprisedtodiscoverthenextmorningthathisfriendsandpartners'partyhadculminatedinbloodshed.
Sotoowastheacquaintanceoftwotrapperswhoexchangedshotsin1911:"theyweregoodfriendsexceptwhentheyweredrinking."27

AlthoughA.W.Vowell,superintendentofIndianAffairsinBritishColumbia,placedtheblameforthehighnumberofnativemurdersonthepresenceofliquor,no
groupseemedtobeimmune.28Buttheimportanceofdrinkwaspossiblyexaggerated.Claimingtohavebeendrunkandnotrememberingwhathadhappenedwasa
convenientexcuseforthosewhocouldthinkofnoother.JamesDaleblameddrinkforhis1906shootingupofthetownofCarmi,whichresultedintwodeaths.29
Likewise,CharlesEganclaimed:"ThefirsttimeIknewamanhadbeenkilledwasthenextdayTuesday.PrisonertoldmeIhadkilledaman.WhenIfirsthearditI
gotsick."30"Igotfull,"claimedathirdmurderer,"andcan'trememberanythingafter."31"Iwasfullatthetime,"lamentedAlbertMcDougal,whohadkilledhis
brother."Idon'trememberhowthisthinghappened."32Suchdefenseswereusuallysuccessfulinatleastreducingachargefrommurdertomanslaughterandwere
accordinglytrottedoutagainandagainthoughawitnesssaidofagunnerwhoin1910killedhiscaptainatVictoria'sWorkPointbarracks,"Itisthedopethatdoes
it."33In1908themanufactureandsaleofopiumwasbannedinCanadabutatleastaslateas1914wasstillfreelyavailable,eveninjail.34

Themostcommontypeofmurderresultedfromfriends'orworkmates'argumentsescalating,undertheinfluenceofdrink,intoatradingofinsultsandfinallyto
violence.SomethingastrivialasarivalryinbanjoplayingledFrederickCollinsin1901tokillArthurDando,betterknownastheBanjoKid.35Sometimesthetension
betweenfriendsroseoverthecourseof

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monthsifnotyearsonotheroccasionsitflaredupafteradrinkortwo.Suchkillingswererarelypremeditated.SevenJanuary1914beganwithSerreCovaland
AndrewCharnot,twoRussiansworkingonrailwayconstructionnearThompson'sCrossing,celebratingRussianOrthodoxChristmasitendedwithCovalshooting
Charnot.36JohnDoherty'slastwords,saidofafellowhospitalorderlyin1919,were,"Itisallright,heisafraidtopressthetrigger."37JohnCasey,asoldierina
forestrybattalion,whentoldin1917thathehadkilledacomrade,drunkenlyretorted,"Oh,he'sallright,he'sonlyfooling."38Buthewasnot."GetupErnie,youson
ofabitch,"bellowedCharlesNeffathisbestfriend,whomheflooredon11August1913withaweldinghammer,"Youarenotdead.''39Buthewas.Scrappingand
fightingwerecustomarymeansbywhichassertionsofmasculinityweremadebymenwhocouldpridethemselvesonlittlemorethantheirmusclepower.Ifsuch
brawlsescalatedandbloodwasshed,theybecameasortoflotterywhomurderedwhomdependedlargelyonchance.Itwaslessamatterofchanceinthecasesof
theoneortwo"psychopaths"whokilledmorethanonce.RoccoFarrante,anobviouslyinsaneItalianB.C.ElectricRailwaylaborer,whowasfoundnotguiltyofthe
shootingdeathofafriendinNovember1915,thenextmonthdecapitatedhisroommate.40In1918JohnWalsh,whohadpreviouslyservedsevenyearsinprisonfor
manslaughterinhisnativeNewBrunswick,wassentencedtodeathforthemurderofafellowlogger.41

Whenstrangersweremurdered,itwasoftentheunintendedconsequenceofplannedbutbungledrobberies.In1911theowneroftheManhattanSalooninNelson
andin1912theownerofaVancouverliquorstoreweremurderedduringrobberyattempts.42MikePopovich'ssuddenprosperityin1914linkedhimtotherobbery
andmurderofaRussianlaborernearEndako.43InVancouverthreeScots'attempttostickupabootleggerendedinthelatter'sdeathin1919,44twoIrishmenkilled
aloggerforhismoneyin1920,45andadeafman'sfailuretounderstandtwothieves'orderto"stick'emup"ledtohisdeathin1921.46Finallytwoteenagemuggers'
"warningshot"killedaVictoriabankclerkin1923.47

Thepolicekilled,ofcourse,butastheirdeedswerenottreatedasmurder,theywillnotbeexaminedhere.Butlawmenwerealsonumberedamongthosekilled.At
twointhemorningof29August1914,adisheveledMickeyMcKillarneytoldafriendthat"hehadashootingscrapeandhethoughthehadcroakedabull."Lawmen
stoodoutastheusualvictimsofthehandfulofmurderscarriedoutbyprofessionalcriminals.WilliamHaney,anAmericanbankandtrainrobber,in1909shotto
deathaspecial

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constableoutsideAshcroftandsuccessfullygotaway.48In1912WalterJameskilledapoliceguardonboardthesteamerOkanaganwhileattemptingtoescape
custody,andconstableLewisJ.ByersdiedinashootoutinVancouver.ThesameyearattheNewWestminsterPenitentiary,twoconvicts,inthecourseofajail
break,murderedaprisonguard.49In1913HenryWagnerandWilliamJulian(AmericanswhowerepurportedlyoldmembersofButchCassidy'sgang)shottodeath
aspecialconstablewhohadsurprisedthemduringarobberyatUnionBay.50InMayof1913aconstablewasthevictimoftwoVancouverrobbersevadingapolice
search.51Oneofthemostfamousmurdersofalawmanoccurredin1914inVancouver,whenfollowingtheKomagataMaruaffair(whichinvolvedtheauthorities'
forciblepreventionofthelandingofaboatloadofSikhimmigrants),MewaSinghgunneddownimmigrationofficerWilliamHopkinsoninthecitycourthouse.52The
secondpolicekillingof1914inVancouvertookplacewhenMickeyMcKillarney,theexconvictnotedabove,shotadetective.53InJune1914apoliceconstable
waskilledinKamloopsbyapersonorpersonsunknown.54In1917MalcolmMcLennan,Vancouver'schiefofpolice,diedinashootoutwithBobTait,asmalltime
AfricanAmericandrugdealer.55FredDeal,anotherblackman,in1922killedaVancouverpoliceofficerwhileresistingarrest.56

Butmurdersresultingfromruninswiththepoliceandbungledrobberiesrepresentedonlyasmallfractionofallcases.Mostkillingswereprecipitated,aswehave
seen,byquarrelsandarguments.Athreattoone'slivelihoodwhichjeopardizedbothaman'spropertyandhonorcouldalsoresultinadeath.Suchstrugglesmight
involvethecontrolofscarceresources.In1908Vernonfarmersfatallyfoughtoverirrigationwater.57LongfeudsbetweenCaribooranchersovergatesandgrazing
rightsendedinbloodshedin1920and1923.58Yetwhenconflictsoverpropertyledtoviolence,theyweremorelikelytobeovertheownershipofsuchthingsas
guns,watches,bottlesofliquor,sacksofpotatoes,andsidesofbeef,inwhichthestrugglebetweenmenwasasmuchifnotmoreoverpower,honor,andselfrespect
thanforthepaltrygoodsinquestion.Generallyspeakingtheftswerenotimportantinprecipitatingdeathsmenmurderedtodefendchallengestotheirmanhood.59

Wehaveseenwheredeathsoccurredandhavesomeideaofwhymenkilledeachother.Oncearrestedwhatargumentsdidtheyemployasjustificationsfortheir
acts?Whatresponsesweremadetothembythecourtsandthepress?Atthisstagewhathadoftenbeenprivateconfrontationsweresuddenlymadepublic.Intheory
thosewhohadnotintendedtokill

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orwhoseassaulthadbeenprovokedshouldhavehadtheirchargereducedfrommurdertomanslaughter.Inpracticethosewhohadmurderedinthecourseofa
robberyorinafightwithalawmancould,nomatterwhattheirdefense,expecttoreceiveshortshrift.Thesixwhitemenwhobetween1900and1923weretriedfor
themurderofalawenforcementofficerwereeachfoundguiltyandsentencedtodeath.60Butwhenitcametomoretypicalmurders,questionsofintentand
provocationwereofcruciallegalimportanceitwasunderstoodthatinstrugglesoverhonorandindefenseofone'sfamilyagoodmanmightbeforcedtokill.Hadthe
accused,thepublicwantedtoknow,beensufficientlyprovoked?Thiswasalifeanddeathquestion.Iftheaccuseddidnotknowwhat"hehadtosay"hewasno
doubtsooninformedbyhiscounsel.Generallyagreedonnotionsofmasculinityplayedakeyroleinthecommunitydeterminingwhetherornottheaccusedhadacted
like"aman"orlikeaneffeminatesneak,whetherheshouldgofreeorbepunished,andifpunished,whetherlightlyorseverely.Suchgenderconcernswereespecially
evidentinsexrelatedmurders,butplayedapartinthepresentationofeveryconflictthatpittedonemanagainstanother.Thecourts,awareofthedangersfrontierlife
posedformen,werenotunsympatheticeventosuchvenerablegambitsasthatessayedbyaDutchpreemptor(orhomesteader)whoshothispartnerin1915:"Idid
notknowthegunwasloaded."61Buttheguiltorinnocenceoftheaccusedlargelydependedwhentheissuesofclassandethnicitywerenotofprimaryconcernon
whatthecourtthoughtofaman'scharacter,thesituationinwhichheclaimedhehadtodefendhimself,thefairnessofthefight,andhisrespectforthelaw.

Courtscarefullyscrutinizedthecharacterofboththeaccusedandthevictim.Howwasaman'scharacterdetermined?Thoughtestimonythattheaccusedwastruthful,
temperate,andlawabidingwasdiligentlyrecorded,thecourtsseemedparticularlytakenbythenotionthataman'smoralitycouldbejudgedbyhisattitudetoward
work.Abadworker,itwasassumed,wasabadman.Suchaspersionswereoftencastonthedead,whowerenottheretodefendthemselves.ArthurDando,shotto
deathin1901,wasdisparaginglydescribedbythechiefconstableofPeterboroughas"formerlyabuglerintheNorthWestMountedPolice,ayoungmanofinferior
characterdislikingwork."62Anothermurdervictimwasreportedtohavebeen"aheavy,powerfulfellow,whodidnowork,butlivedbycardplayingand
'bootlegging'andwasconstantlylookingfortrouble."63AnItalianlaborerchargedwithmurderin1910shrewdlyclaimedthathewasprovokedintofightingbyaman
who,lazilydroppinghistools,hadbragged,"We

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don'tgiveadamnforthejobandIdon'tcaretowork."64Tobeworkshy,itwasunderstood,wasunworthyofarealmanoratleastofanymanwhowas
consideredamemberoftheworkingclass.

Agoodworkerwasassumedtobeagoodman.Witnesseswereconstantlyaskedtocommentontheworkethicoftheaccused.Apolicemanwasquizzedregarding
aprisonerchargedwitha1901Victoriamurder:

Q.Youfoundhimaquietorderlyman?

A.Yes.

Q.Ahardworkingfellow?

A.Yes.

In1915ajudgerecommendedthatabridgeworker,whosesinglepunchhadcausedthedeathofadrinkingpartner,begivenasuspendedsentence.Despitethefact
thattheaccusedhadbeenpreviouslyfinedforfighting,thejudgeconcluded"characterevidenceshows[heisa]goodworkman."65Aconstableata1917inquest
whobeganhistestimonywiththeassertionthattheaccusedwas"ahardworker"appearedtoregrethavingtoadd"but[he]hasacrazystreakinhim."66Tobeable
topresentoneselfas''steadyandindustrious"wasvitallyimportantforanymanontrial.Thepress'sdescriptionoftheaccusedina1921trialas"ayoungmanoffrank
andcleancutfeatures...hardworkingandhonest"wasaclearsignalofthecommunity'sbeliefinhisinnocence.67

Thehardworkingindividualpresumablywouldhaveneitherthetimenorinclinationtogoaboutpickingfights.Butthenotionthatareasonablemancouldnotsimply
walkawayfromeveryprovocationwithfullselfrespectprovidedthebasisfortheargumentofselfdefense."IshotFrankMartin,"declaredtheaccusedina1919
trial,"firstbecauseIwasafraidofhimforhewastwicemysize.Secondly,becausehewasabully.Thirdly,becausehehadthreatenedme,andfourthly,becausehe
wasaproGerman,unscrupulous,andamenacetothecrownandgovernment."68Theprotestationsofnationalistconcern,presumablytackedonbecausetheGreat
Warhadjustended,todayringjarringlyfalse.AmorebelievablepresentationwasmadeonbehalfofMurdockCampbell,whobeattodeathafellowScotsminer.
Campbell,sohisfriendsclaimed,inleavingadrinkingestablishment,hadtriedhisbesttoavoidaconfrontationwithabully."Theabusewasenoughtomakesome
mengetupandfight.Theprisoneringettingupandgoingoutwassubjectinghimselftothetauntofbeingacoward."69Areasonablemancouldonlytakesomuch
thevictiminpursuingCampbellwasatfault.Campbellwasfoundnotguilty.CharlesEgan's

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supporterslikewisetestifiedthathehadbeengoadedintoattackinghisfriendWilliamShiells:"Shiellswasusingbadlanguagecallinghimasonofabitchandacock
sucker.HewastryingtoprovokeCharlietofight."70

Ifthingscametoblows,itwasexpectedthatyouwould"takeyourmedicinelikeaman."Implicitinsuchanattitudewastheegalitariannotionthatinaphysical
confrontationeveryman,nomatterhowhumblehisrankorstatus,hadtheopportunityofprovinghismasculinity.71Buta"fairfight"wasoneinwhichtheoddswere
judgedtobeeven.FrankNicolas,whostabbedafellowGreekfisherman,protested,"IfIhadn'tkilledhim,hewouldhavekilledme."72GuiseppeBianca,astone
masonwhoknifedabricklayer,similarlyarguedthathehadonlydefendedhimself.73Butineachcase,theaccusedhadaknifeandhisvictimdidnot.Nicolaswas
sentencedtofiveyearsinprisonandBiancatoseven.74

Themalecommunityoftenmadeclearitsviewsofsuchmurderousencounters.Mostofthewitnessesweremenwhomayhaveeggedontheparticipantsandatthe
veryleastprovidedanaudiencethatjudgedthemoralityofthemelodramaplayedoutbeforethem.WhenJamesMcGilldesRiviresfornoapparentreasonina
drunkenquarrelstabbedtodeathhisfriendHarryRowand,hisargumentofselfdefensewasaccepted.TheGreenwoodWeeklyTimesexplained,"Publicopinion
hereisstronglyinfavoroftheprisoner."75Thesethingshappened.ButwhenasixtysixyearoldmanshotasixtyyearoldVernonfriendformakingfunofhim,a
witnessnotedthattheaccused"showedmoreangerandexcitementthanthematterwouldwarrant,morethanIhaveeverknowninhim."76Similarnegative
communitysentimentwasexpressedin1913inthesmallCariboovillageofFreeport.ThecigarstorekeeperreportedthatMulvihill"saidheheardIaccusedhimof
shootingKelly.ItoldhimIhadnotexpressedmyopinion...butalltheboysthoughtso."77Thecourtsrespondedtothecommunity'scondemnationandfoundthe
accusedguilty.

Therewaslittlejudicialsympathyforthemanwho,claiminghehadnowhereelsetoturn,actuallylaunchedapremeditatedattack.SuchwasthecasewhenFrederick
Collins,whosehousehadbeenbrokeninto,declared,"IwanttoseeamagistrateasIwantsomesatisfaction.IfIcannotgetsatisfactionfromamagistrate,Ihavegot
meansofsatisfyingmyself."78Hethenkilledthepurportedintruder.SimilarlyaVernonfarmerwhokilledaneighborclaimedhehadnochoice."Hesaidthatthelaw
didnotprotecthimandhewouldhavetoprotecthimself."79Thecourtsmadeclearbyimposingheavypunishmentsthattheydidnotapproveofsuchpreemptive
formsofselfdefense.

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Theaccusedwhomeasureduptothemodelofthehardworkingindividualwhotriedtoavoidviolenceandfoughtfairlywhenhehadnootherrecourse,evenifhehad
causedadeath,stoodagoodchanceofwalkingawayfromcourtafreeman.Hischanceswerefurtherimprovedifitcouldbesuccessfullyarguedthathisadversary's
actionshadthreatenedtheaccused'svery"manhood."

Fearofphysicalviolencewasusedtojustifymurdersotoowasmen'sfearofsexualviolence.EarlytwentiethcenturyBritishColumbiawasverymuchamaleworld,
forsomea"homosocial"world.Eveninbedamancouldbeattacked.AnItalianworkerasleepinabunkhouse,whofoundhimself"pickedupblanketandall"from
hiscot,inarageshottodeaththecampbullyandwentfree.80Thisparticularcasehadnoobvioussexualovertones,butitisnotsurprisingthatreferencesto
homosexualactsshouldoccasionallyemergefromthemurderrecords.Thewayinwhichtheyweretreatedtellsusgooddealabouthowfaronecouldgoindefending
one's.heterosexualmasculinity.

On13October1901inthecanteenoftheWorkPointBarracksjustoutsideVictoria,HaroldGill,atwentyyearoldEnglishsapperintheRoyalEngineers,shotand
killedGarlandClinnick,agunnerintheRoyalGarrisonArtillery.ItwasanaccidentGill,apoorshot,hadmeanttokillgunnerMahoney,whowassittingnexttothe
unfortunateClinnick.Gill'sdefensewasthathehadbeen"goadedintodesperation"byrumorsspreadbyhisfellowsoldiersofahomosexualrelationshiphehadhad
withMahoney.81

GillandMahoney,bothbeingmembersofthegarrisonband,hadparticipatedtheweekbeforeincelebratingtheleavingforEnglandoftheRoyalHorseArtillery.
AfteranallnightdrunkenpartyattheSt.George'sInn,theyhadbeenseenasleeptogetheronacouchwithonlytheirshirtson.Gillwasthereafterunmercifullyteased.
"Lookout,thismanbelongstotheband"and"Lookout,here'sMahoney'spal"greetedtheblushingGillwhereverhewent.Acomradewhoadmittedparticipatingin
thegossipingandteasinglaterprotested"nothingItoldhimwouldleadhimtobelievethatanunnaturaloffensehadbeencommittedagainsthim."NeverthelessGill
brokedownunderhistormentors'relentlesshazingandapparentlybelievedthathehadbeensodomized.Howdoyouprovethatyouareaheterosexual?Gill,inorder
toreasserthismanhood,soughttokillnotthepersecutingtroublemakersbutthefellowvictimofthisgossip,hispurportedhomosexualseducer,Mahoney.Gill,by
attackingMahoney(followingtheadviceofoneortwofriendswhoclearlyputhimuptoit),thoughthecouldtherebydemonstratebeyonddoubtthathewasnota
homosexual.

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Thisincidentsayssomethingabouthowseriousthechargeofbeingahomosexualcouldbetakeninanallmaleenvironment.82Someinthegarrisonnodoubtthought
itwasajokingmatter,butothersbelieveditcouldjustifymurder.Gill,describedimmediatelyaftertheshootingas"excitedandhysterical,"criedthathewould"rather
bedeadthandishonored."Hisdemeanorandrhetoric,impliedobservers,manifestedtheverygenderinversionheclaimedtofearandloath.Hebitterlyregretted
killingClinnickandhadnoqualmsaboutmakingitabundantlyclearthatwhenheraisedhiscarbinehisintentionhadbeentomurderMahoney.Attheensuingtrial,
Gill'sdefenseattorneypursuedtheargumentthatGill'stragicactwasunderstandable,ifnotentirelyforgivable,because"hehadbeenorbelievedhimselftobe,the
victimofamonstrousindignityatMahoney'shands."Indeed,thedefenseargued,Mahoneywastherealculprit,amanwholiedabouttheeventsattheSt.George's
Inn,whosought"toconcealhisguilt.''Gill,whohadsufferedan"outragetohismanhood,"had,hislawyerargued,simplyactedin"ablindinstantofpassion."This
brazenattempttoarguethatahomosexualactwasworsethanmurderdidnotworkforthesimplereasonthattherewasnoproofthatsuchanacthadevertaken
place.Gill,foundguiltyofthemanslaughterdeathofthe"innocent"Clinnick,wassentencedtofifteenyearsimprisonment.83

Theverdictdidnotmeanthattheseriousnessofthe"disgracefulacts"committedbyhomosexualswasinanywaydiminishedintheeyesofthecourt.Sodomywasstill
acrime.Evensomeheterosexualactswereregardedbythebarasperverse.Thejudgeata1906murdertrialrefusedtoallowevidencetobeadmittedofthe
accused's"peculiarsexualdesires"(forcunnilingus).Suchevidence,hislordshipsaid,would"tendtoindicateinsanity."84IntheGillcase,onesuspectsthatifthe
accusedhad,asheintended,killedMahoneyamuchlighterpunishmentwouldhavebeenimposed.WithMahoneynotincourttodefendhimself,askilledcounsel
mightwellhavesucceeded,giventhetauntsandsneersthatthesubjectofhomosexualityelicited,inblamingthevictimforhisownmurder.

Justsuchadefensewascalledintoplayon22October1907,whenEdwardBowen,ayoungEnglishlaborer,shotandkilledParatreapSinghattheSpokane
RoomingHouseinVancouver.ThetwomenhadonlymetthatdayatthebaroftheAlexanderHotel.AfterdrinksthenewfoundfriendsreturnedtoSingh'sroom,a
shotwasheard,andawhitemanwasseenrunningaway.ApolicemantrackedBowendownafewstreetsoverfromSingh'sroominghouse."Andtheboysaidhe
shottheHindoo....Andhesaid'WillIshowyoutheplacewheretheHindoowas?'...AndhetoldmethathehadshottheHindoo,andthattheHindoohadtried
to

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commitanindecentact."85AfriendoftheaccusedcorroboratedthestorythattheHindoo"triedtobuggerhim[Bowen]."Wasthisthecase,orhadBowen
attemptedtorobSinghofthetwohundreddollarshewasreputedtohave?Thepresslaidouttheoptionsinaheadlinereading,"Bowen'sHonororHindusPurse."

Ironically,foratrialthatfocusedonmasculinehonor,thedefenseassertedthat"amanhasthesamerightasawomanandwasjustifiedintakingalifetoprotecthis
honor."86Bowenandhiscounselbelievedthatthecommunity'srevulsionagainsthomosexualitywassuchthattheclaimofhavingbeensexuallyattackedheldoutto
theaccusedthebesthopeofgettingawaywithmurder.87Butonceagain,asintheGillcase,theprosecutionsucceededinshowingthattherewasnoevidenceofa
homosexualattackindeedtherewasmuchtosuggestthatBowen'sstoryhadbeencontrivedtocoverhiscrime.Hewasconvictedofmanslaughterandsentencedto
tenyearsinprison.AsintheGillcase,Bowen'sconvictiondidnotsignifyadownplayingofthedangersposedbyhomosexuality.Thepublicwaslefttounderstand
thatahomosexualadvancemightjustifyrecoursetomurdertheproblemwasthattheattorneysinbothtrialshadfailedtoconvincethejuriesoftherealityofsuch
attacksontheirclients'honor.

Suchquestionsoflossof"honor"morecommonlyfiguredinmen'sstrugglesoverwomen.Somementriedtoseizeothermen'spropertysomementriedtocarryoff
thosewhoincommonparlancewerereferredtoasothermen'swomen.88Althoughbythetwentiethcenturywomenhadbeengrantedpropertyrights,the
commonplaceassumptionstillheldthatamanownedbothhiswife'searningsandthewifeaswell.Latterdaynotionsofchivalry,whichheldthatifamanhadaright
todefendhimselfhehadadutytodefendhiswoman,wererepeatedlyandsuccessfullyusedtojustifymurder.LeoEnglish,foundnotguiltyofmurderin1901,
employedjustavariantofthisdefensewhenchargedwiththeshootingdeathofhisbrotherinlaw.Englishclaimedtobeprotectinghissisterfromherhusband,who
wastreatingherbadly.Thevictim,dislikedinVernonasadangerousdrunk,attackedEnglishwithastickandEnglishshothim.Awitness,althoughaccidentally
woundedinthemelee,backeduptheaccusedwiththeclaim,"IfeveramanhadjustificationEnglishhad,toshoot."89

Moretypicalwasthecaseofahusbandassertingthathehadbeenforcedtokilltoprotecthiswife.In1904LouisGillierwasfoundnotguiltyofthemurderofa
loggerwhomtheFrenchmanhadshottwicewithashotgun.Gillier'sstorywasthatthegunhadgoneoffaccidentallywhilehewasattemptingtofreehiswifefromthe
drunkenembracesofthevictim.90

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In1905OleOleson'sshotgunkillingofGeorgeHolcroftledtoanotguiltyverdictafterOleson'swifetestifiedthatHolcroft"pulledmyclothestopiecesandhitmein
thebreast."91In1921thesameverdictwasrenderedforasimilarcaseonMoresbyIslandinwhichamanforcedhisattentionsonafriend'sspouse.Suchactions
were,declaredthepress,"ampleprovocationforthedesperatedeed."92TheinquestjurywassoimpressedbythetestimonyofaVancouvermanwhoshottodeath
hiswife'sexpimpthathewasnotevenindicted.ThefactthatthevictimwasanAfricanAmericanwhobrokeintotheaccused'shomeandattackedhimnodoubt
playedaroleinthemercyshown.93

Whatif,asinthecaseofadultery,thewifedidnotwanttobeprotectedfromtheotherman?94Ifalovetriangleledtomurder,thehusbandwasusuallythemurderer
andtheloverorwifethevictim,butonoccasionthemaleroleswerereversed.LouisPaquettekilledAlfredLegreinordertoobtainhiswife.Paquette,OliveLegre
testified,"wastellingmethathelovedme.Hehasbeentellingmethatfornearlythreeyears.HetoldmehewasgoingtoshootmethenexttimeIwenttoNotchHill."
Paquette'sstorywasthat"hispassionbecameunbearableandhemadeuphismindtokillthehusbandandwifeandthenkillhimself."95Thisviolationofthefamily
resultedinadeathsentence.Similarly,in1913BrunoCutri,who,whileattemptingtorunoffwithMariaDiatella,killedherbrotherinlaw,wassentencedtodeath.96

Butonoccasiontherewerespecialcircumstancesinwhich"theotherman"wasnotconvicted.In1910HarrietCarlson'sabusivehusbandwasstrangledbysomeone
whobrokeintotheirhouse.Theevidencepointedtoanexlodgerwithwhomshewasfriendly,buttheprosecutioncouldnotproduceenoughevidencetoconvince
thejury.97In1912twentyyearoldHaroldMcNaughtonsuccessfullyavoidedgoingtojailfortheaccidentalbeatingdeathofhiswomanfriend'shusband.
McNaughtonapparentlyhadactedinselfdefensebutwasunwiseenoughtopaytheyoungwomantoleavetown.Givensuchsuspiciousbehavior,whywashe
treatedsoleniently?ThefactthathewasthesonofaleadingVancouversocialiteandoneofthefewmembersofBritishColumbia'smiddleclasstofaceamurder
chargeprobablyhadaneffect.98OnemightalsoassumethathisagehadsomethingtodowithitsinceMcNaughtonwasdescribedinthepressas"aWestEnd
youth."Butclassandagewerelinked.Amiddleclasstwentyyearoldmalewasreferredtoasa"boy"or"youth,''aworkingclasstwentyyearoldasaman.And
McNaughton'ssixteenyearoldwomanfriend,thewifeofanironworker,wasneverreferredtoasa"girl."

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Whenadulteryledtomurder,themostcommonresolutionandthesafestcourseasfarastheaccusedwasconcernedwas,asintheHughMcGillcase,forthe
husbandtokillthelover.In1906CharlesJohnsonwasfoundnearthedeadbodyofhislodgeryelling,soawitnessrecalled,"hewouldlearnsomebodytocome
aroundtotrytofuckhiswife."HildaJohnsontestifiedthatherhusbandhadbeendrinkingallnight:"Myhusbandcameintothefrontroomandthenhecomeandsiton
theedgeofthebedandIwaslayinginthebedandthenhesaid'somebodywillbekilledtonight.'Thenhesaidformetogetupinthemiddleofthefloorandthenhe'll
killmeandthenIjumpedoverthefootofthebed.Whenhewassittingontheedgeofthebedhehadagunandputtwocartridgesintoit....Icalled'Johnbringthe
revolver,he'llkillus....'InaminuteorveryquicklyafterJohncameintotheroomtheshotwentoff."Johnsondidnotdenythefactthathisguncausedthelodger's
death,butheclaimedthathehadbeenhaving"troublewithmywife....ShesaidshehadbeensleepingwithJohn.''Andthatitwasherwho,intryingtograbhisgun,
causedittodischargeandkillthelodger.99Thedefensewassuccessful.

Anevenmoredramaticexampleofthelenienttreatmentaccordedtoanenragedhusbandwasprovidedina1919PrinceGeorgetrial.Theaccused'sstatementwas
clearenough.

IsaidtoMastIunderstandyouaregoingtotakemywifeawayandbreakupmyfamily.HesaiditisnoneofyourdamnedbusinessifIam,andstartedtoabusemeandcallme
namesandcametowardsmewithhisfistsclenchedandsaidhewouldmakemeeatsmokebeforehehaddonewithme.IknewtherewasarifleintheblacksmithshopsoIstepped
insideandtookupthegun,whichwasstandinginthecorner.Whenhesawmewiththegunherantowardsthesleigh,assoonasIsawhimrunningIthrewuptherifleandshot
athim.WhenIfiredhedroppedtothesleighandstartedpullingattheblanketsinthesleighand,asIthoughthewasgettingathisgunIfiredagainandthenathirdtimeatthe
thirdshothefelltotheground.100

Althoughhefiredthreebulletsintohisrival'sback,thefactthatthefarmerimmediatelygavehimselfupwasenoughtoconvincethecourtofhisgoodintentionshewas
foundnotguilty.Insuchcasesthewifewouldoftenbethestarwitness,butonatleastoneoccasionthedefensewassuccessfulinarguingthatshecouldnot,because
ofherstatusundertheCanadaEvidenceAct,testifyagainstherhusband.Heaccordinglywentfree.101

Alltheevidencesuggeststhatahusbandwhomurderedtokeephis

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womanstoodaverygoodchanceofgettingawaywithit.ButtheBritishColumbiacourtsdidnotextendtherightofsurveillanceofthewifeasmighthavebeenthe
caseinotherculturestothehusband'sfriendsorrelatives.

In1922aSwissimmigrantranchingintheKootenays,inorderto"redeemone'swoman'shonor,"shottodeaththemanbotheringhiswife.Whenhewasdeclarednot
guilty,thelocalpressnotedthat"whiletheletterofthelawwaslostsightofbythejurytheirverdictwasajustone."Thejudgewasnotsosureandtoldtheaccused
thatitwas"insomewaysincomprehensibletometheyhavefoundyounotguilty."102Butwhyshouldthejudgehavebeensurprised?Althoughjudgesonmorethan
oneoccasionwarnedthattheydidnotwanttosee''southernjustice"thatis,AmericanvigilantismbecomecommoninCanada,inpracticethecourtsrepeatedly
gavecredencetothenotionthatthe"protectionofthehome"couldjustifymurder.103

Wecanconclude,aswebegan,withtheHughMcGillcase.Initthecourtmadeexplicititsacceptanceofahusband'srighttousedeadlyforcetowardoffsexual
competitors.McGillactedlikea"realman"indefendingthepatriarchalfamilyandhisownershipofhiswifebymurderingthemantowhomshewasattracted.McGills
sanitywasneverquestionedhismoralswereneverdisparaged.IndeedthejudgecongratulatedMcGillonhisacquittaland,incaseanyoneshouldhavemisreadthe
jury'sfindings,remindedthecourtthatthenotguiltyverdictservedas"asalutarywarningtoanymanwhoinfuturesetsoutwiththepurposeofdestroyinganother
man'shome."104

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

Parttwoofthisstudyhasbeendevotedtodeterminingthewaysinwhichthecourtscontributedtothesocialconstructionofmasculinity.Inourearlierchapterswe
sawhowthemelodramaticscriptsthatsetthebounderagainstthebarmaidandthegentlemanagainsttheladycouldbeplayedout.Inamurdertrialitwasalso
obviouslycruciallyimportantforthedefendanttoavoidbeingpresentedasthecadorvillain.Themodelmalewhoemergesfromthetrialtranscriptandpressreports
wasthehonorable,hardworking,fairfightingindividualwhowasloathtotakethelawintohisownhands.Butaslawabidingashewas,thecourtswarned
interlopersthatjudgesandjurieswouldbackuphisrighttoemployviolenceagainstthosewhoattackedhishonororviolatedhishome.Thiswas,ofcourse,notnew.
Thesameargumentshadbeenmadeinpreviouscentu

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ries.ThatmeninEuropeandNorthAmericashouldhaveturnedmorereadilythanwomentomurderishardlysurprisingandcertainlydoesnotrequiretheassumption
ofanyinnatemasculineaggressiveness.Menweresupposedtobeforcefultheywererepeatedlyinstructedbythecourtsandthepressthatinsomesituationstheir
recoursetoviolencewouldnotonlybecondonedbutapplauded.

Researcherswhohaveplottedtheevolutionofdefinitionsofmalenesstellusthatinthelatenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturiestherewasaperceptibleshiftaway
fromthecultofruggedmasculinityandtowardanewmodelof"masculinedomesticity."105Butthesefindings,thoughsuggestive,arebasedprimarilyonthe
prescriptiveliteraturethatlaidoutthedutiesofthemiddleclass,suburbanizedmale.Didthenewmiddleclassidealsfilterdowntotheworkingclass?Andisone
talkingaboutrealchangesinbehaviororonlyinculturalstereotypes?Aconvincingaccountoftheshiftingboundariesofappropriatemasculinebehaviorisunlikelyto
beattainedaslongasresearchisrestrictedtotraditionalliterarysources.Thesourcesexaminedinthischaptertherecordsgeneratedbythecriminaljustice
systemhaveasyetgonelargelyuntappedbut,dealingastheysooftendidwithmen'suseofviolenceagainstothermen,greatlyenhanceourunderstandingof
popularnotionsofmasculinity.

WehavefoundlittleevidenceinearlytwentiethcenturyBritishColumbiaofthepurportedtransitionfromthecultofruggedmasculinitytothatof"masculine
domesticity."Asofterimageofmasculinitymightwellhavebeenemergingineasternadvicemanuals,butinwesterncourtstherewasmoreevidenceofcontinuitythan
ofchange.Muchaggressiveandviolentmalebehaviorwasjudgednottobedeviantbutnormal.Thatwasperhapstobeexpected,giventhattheranksoftheaccused
werenotfilledbymiddleclass,suburbanizedmales.Moreovertheerosionofsharplinesofgenderdifferentiation,adevelopmentassociatedwiththeriseofsecondary
industryandthegrowthoftheservicesector,wasunlikelytooccurinaregionwherephysicalskillandstrengthwerestillverymuchindemand.Yet,aswenoted,the
province'smurderratewasnotashighasthatofmostpartsoftheUnitedStatesandwasataboutthesamelevelfoundinthecountriesofsouthernEurope.Oneis
moreoverstruckbythefactthateventheurban,middleclassjudgesandjournalistsoftheprovince,indrawingthemoralofwhata"man"mightbeforcedtodo,
rarelyappearedtodiscriminatealongclasslines.ComparedtolawabidingEngland,theCanadianwest,insustaininghighermurderrates,couldbeconstruedas
manifestinga''culturallag,"butitwasverymuchinstepwithmanypartsof

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EuropeandNorthAmericainmaintainingtraditionalnotionsofaggressivemanliness.Viewedinthecontextofwhatwehavealreadyseeninearlierchapters,wecome
awaywiththeimpressionthatintheWesternworldbetween1880and1920thegeneralsocietalexpectationsofhowa"realman"shouldbehave,whenseriously
threatened,hadchangedverylittle.

PartTwoofthisstudyhasfocusedonwhatmightbecalled"badmen"inPartThreewewillmoveontolookat"madmen."Bywayofconcludingourexaminationof
malemurderers,itisworthreiteratingthatthemajoritywereregardedbytheirpeersashavingactedrationally.Recoursetoviolencewas,somenweretoldbythe
pressandthecourts,insomecircumstancesalegitimatemeansbywhichtodefendone'sreputation.Tofailtodosowouldbeasignofdeviancy.Tobeknownas
someonewhoskirtedrisks,avoideddangersandrefusedtocontemplatetheuseofviolencewastoexposeoneselftothechargeofnotbeinga"realman."
Confrontationalhomicidewaslocatednotbeyond,butwithintheboundariesofnormalmasculinity.

Page

12.
PicturesproducedbythesurgeoninchargeoftheUnitedStatesAmbulance
Unitsuggestingthatthehorrorsofwarbroughtoutmen'sdangerous
atavistictraits.GeorgeW.Crile,AMechanisticViewofWarand
Peace
(London:Macmillan,1915).

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PARTTHREE
MEDICALDISCOURSES:WEAKMENANDPERVERTS
Ajudge,inportrayingamanasabullyoracad,abounderorascoundrel,wasmakingcleartothecommunitythattheindividual'sguiltresidednotsomuchinhis
breakingofanylawasinhisfailuretoliveuptotheunwrittencodeofmanliness.Inthelastdecadeofthenineteenthcentury,authorsoftextbooksonlegalmedicine,
sexology,andpsychiatryinintroducingtothepublicanewcastofmalevillainsthehomosexual,thesadist,theexhibitionist,thetransvestitegreatlyexpandedand
modernizedthevocabularydevotedtodescriptionsoftheunmanly.Thequestionofhowandwhycertainmaleformsofsexualbehaviorbecamemedicalizedand
pathologizedisacomplicatedone,involvingasitdidnotsimplythepolicingofsexualactsbutthesurveillanceofdesiresandemotions.

Onestrikingindicationoftheattentionpaidtomaleemotionalitycroppedupinthelatenineteenthcenturydebateoverfloggingwhen,aswenoted,eachsideaccused
theotherofbeing"sentimental."Thesheddingoftearsbygrownmen,acommontropeofromantictheaterandliteratureintheearly1800s,wasbythe1890s
regardedwithembarrassment,ifnotdisgust.1 Educatedmenweresupposedtorestrictsignsofemotiontoappropriateoccasionsthedeathofalovedone,the
raisingoftheregimentalflag.Darwininformedhisreadersthattearswerelargelygivenupbythecivilizedandmorehighlyevolvedthatiswhyidiots,women,and
childrenwerestillpronetoboutsofweepingwhilematuremenreservedtheirenergyforcreativepurposes,whysoppycontinentalswerelessrestrainedthanthe
English.2 Inasocietygovernedbypurereason,wroteHenriBergson,onemightlaughbutnolongercry.3 Thisrepressionofmaleemotionalitydidnotsignifythat
men's"naturalness"or''spontaneity"wassuddenlylostmaletearshadoncebeenobligatory,butitwasnowunderstoodthatoutburstsofmaleemotionswerereserved
fortheprivateworld.Menweretaughttocontroltheiremotionsjustaswomenwereinstructedtoindulgeintheirs.4

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Theinjunctionagainstmaletearswassymptomaticofnewnineteenthcenturygenderdivisionsinthecreationofwhichmedicalscienceclearlyplayedacrucialrole.In
earlymodernEurope,asLaqueurandothershavenoted,doctors'explanationofreproductionwasbasedonabeliefinthe"onesexmodel"thatimpliedthatmales
andfemaleshadroughlysimilarsexualneedsandfeelings.Doctorsbegantodrawradicaldistinctionsbetweenwhatweretobecalledthe"oppositesexes"onlyfrom
theseventeenthcenturyonwards.Indeedwomenbegantobetellinglyreferredtoas"thesex."Awoman'ssexualitythefactthatshehadanuteruswasmagnified
inimportancebynaturalscientistsandphilosophersandtakenasanindicationofboththeprivateandpublicroles"nature''meanthertofulfill.Masculinity'slinkageto
sexualitywasconverselymuchreduced.Men,unlikewomen,werenolongersupposedtobebotheredbysex."Lemleestmlequ'encertainsinstants,lafemelleest
femelletoutesavie,oudumoinstoutesajeunesse."5 ThegeneralassumptionmadebyobserverslikeRousseauandMicheletwasthatmaleswerebasicallyhealthy
andfemalesunhealthythatthemalesexdrivewasunproblematic,theonlyconcernbeingtokeepitincheck.6 Marriageguides,admittedlyprovidingimperfect
reflectionsofmaritalpractices,challengedmiddleclassmentoprovethemselves"athletesofcontinence."Theyinturnweretoinstructtheirsons"astoagentleman's
dutyofselfcontrolandrespecttowardalady,andastotheproperoccasionsforexecutingsuchselfcontrolinthemaritalrelation."7

Inthelatterhalfofthenineteenthcentury,malesexualitybecameproblematized.Itgoeswithoutsayingthatquacksbasedtheirlucrativepracticesonasuccessful
exploitationofmen'sfearsofdiseasethequestionwhydoctorsadoptedasimilarlyalarmistviewofmalesexualityisexaminedinchapter6.Anervousmancouldby
forceofwill,thedoctorsasserted,holdhimselfbackfromthemostdangeroussexualexcessesthepervertwaslikelylostforever.Thismedicalizationofsexual
deviancywhichwetraceinchapters7to9advancedmostquicklyonthecontinent,wherethetraditionofmagistratescallingontheaidofthe"medicalpolice"to
dealwithprostitutionregardedasapublichealthmatterwasbytheearlynineteenthcenturyalreadywellestablished.Moreoverdoctorswerehappytoappearin
EuropeancourtroomsthatfollowedtheRomanlawsystem.Astheywerecalledonbyjudgesas"experts"toassistthecourtinhavingabetterunderstandingof
difficultmatters,theycouldanticipatebeingtreatedwithrespect.8 SuchwasnotatfirstthecaseintheAngloSaxonworld.Intheadversariallegalsystem,medical
witnessescalledbyeither

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theprosecutionordefensecould,aswenotedinchapter4,besubjectedtoharshandoftenhumiliatingcrossexaminations.DoctorsinBritainandNorthAmerica,
thoughanxioustoassisttheauthoritiesinmaintainingpublicmorality,wereaccordinglywaryoflegalencounters.

Thecourts'treatmentofmalesexualperversionsdoesnotatfirstglanceappeartofollowthemelodramaticscriptthatprovedhelpfulinunderstandingthecasesdealt
withinparttwoofthisstudy.Theveryfactthatthestoriestoldbymaleperverts"madenosense"wasthereasonwhyjudgescalledonthehelpofmedicalmeninthe
firstplace.Yetbyplacingdoctors'constructionofthesadist,theexhibitionist,andthetransvestiteinhistoricalcontext,theenormousinfluencesuchculturalformsas
thedecadentnovel,thecharivari,andpublicshamingritualshadinframingtheapparentlynewfigurethesexpervertbecomeimmediatelyobvious.Madmenrather
thanbadmenwerenowthepurportedtargetsoftheauthorities'sanctions,butdoctorstooktheopportunitytoturnthedescriptionsofthemostidiosyncraticformsof
behaviortothepurposesofdemarcatingtheboundariesof"normal"masculinity.

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Six
Weaklings
InAugust1863MontagueAugustusClarke,acaptainintheFiftiethRegimentstationedatParkhurst,Scotland,perusedtheadvertisementpagesofhislocalpaper.
Therehefoundnoticesforbookson"marriageanditsimpediments"andthe"vigourofyouthregained,"includingDr.Curtis'sMedicalGuidetoMarriageandDr.
La'Mert'sPhysiologyofMarriage,andahostofadvertisementsaimedatmenforavarietyofmedications,includingDr.Brights'SpeedyCure,Dr.Watson'sSelf
CureforDebility,NervineEssence,NerveLozenges,SelfCureforSpermatorrhoea,andtheSilentFriendonMarriage.Oneadvertisementinparticularcaught
Clarke'seye."Dr.Henerymaybeconsultedinallcasesofaprivateandconfidentialnatureincidentaltomaleorfemale.Acureeffectedinafewdays.Nocharge
unlesscured.HoursfromtentilltwoSundaysbeforetwo.ParticularsofthenewdiscoveryforsixstampsAddress52,DorsetStreet,BakerStreetW.''1 Overthe
courseofseveralmonths,ClarkeconsultedHenery,forwhoseserviceshepaidoneguineapervisitandfromwhomhepurchasedatonicwhichonlaterinvestigation
provedtobenothingmorethancoloredwaterat1isperbottle.AltogetherClarkesawHeneryeleventimesandpaidouteightyfivepounds,roughlythe
equivalentinthe1860softwoyearswagesforanunskilledlaborer.

ClarketookthemedicineforfourmonthsandalsofollowedHenery'sadviceregardingexerciseandcoldwaterbathing.Thecaptainappearedtobelievethatthe
treatmentworkedandwroteHenerytosayhefeltstrongerandwasimproving.ButinJulyof1864,whenClarkeceasedhispurchases,Dr.Heneryattemptedto
blackmailhim.AndwhenClarkerefusedtohandover150pounds,thedoctorhadanaccomplicesendhispatientthefollowingthreateningletter.
Now,supposingIweretoinformyouapplicationwillbemadeattheWarOffice,withexplanationofcase,andifweweretodosoyouknowwhattheconsequenceswouldbeor
supposingIwere

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toinformyouthatIexpecttobeinyourneighbourhoodinScotlandnextweek,andthatIdon'tintendleavinghere,intheeventofyourstillpersistinginyourrefusaltopay,
withoutmakingitknownintheneighbourhoodforwhatpurposesIamhere.Iaminnohurry,andwillallowyoutimetoreflectwhetheritwillbebettertopayDrHenery'slegaland
justclaimorsubmittoexposureofyourfilthycase.2

Clarkegavethelettertohisattorney,thepolicewerecalled,andon26November1864"Dr.AlfredFieldHenery"(whoprovedtobeWilliamOsterfieldWray)and
WilliamAndersonof52DorsetStreet,PortmanSquare,weretriedbeforeMr.BaronBramwellattheCentralCriminalCourt.3 Atthetrialitcameoutthatthe
accusedhadforsometimeusedadvertisementswithsuchleadingwordsas"manlyvigourgiven"andcuresfor"youthfulindiscretion"toluremaleclientswhowere
worriedabouttheirdecliningsexualpowers.Theaccusedinsistedonacquiringtheaddressesoftheirpatients,butitisnotclearhowmanymentheyactually
blackmailedorthreatenedtolibel.Inanyevent,becauseofatechnicality,thelibelchargefiledagainstthemintheClarkecasewasultimatelydroppedtheconspiracy
chargewasupheld.Onthe24Novembertheywereconvictedandsentencedtotwoyearshardlabor.4

Themedicalpressplayedupthetrial,theLancetnotingthatmanyothermenlivedinfearofsuchrogues.Indeed,in1857thepolicehadrevealedthataDr.Kahn,
proprietorofanAnatomicalMuseuminCoventryStreet,hadfraudulentlyobtainedmoneyfromthousandsofyoungmen,includingmanymembersoftheclergy.Athis
trialonemanreportedthatwhenheaskedforhismoneybackKahnreplied,"Ifyoudareaskforthat,Ishallaccuseyouofmasturbation."Thistestimonycauseda
sensationinthecourt,thejudgeprotesting,"Oh!evenifitweretrue,itwouldbeamonstrousthingforamedicalmantoassert."5 TheBritishMedicalJournal
insistedthateventhewritersofmelodramasandsensationalistnovelshadneverimaginedvillainsasevilasHeneryandKahn.
Novelwritersofthenewsensationschoolhavenotbeenveryscrupulousintheirresorttothecatalogueofcrimesbuttheyhavefoundorinventednomoreodiouscharacter
thanthatofamanwho,possessingsomefatalsecretofanother'slife,usesittoextortmoneyorgainothersinisterends.Notonlyisrobberycommonlypushedtoaruinous
extent,butthewretchedvictimisreducedtoaconditionofcompletemoralslavery,andsubjectedtoincreasingmoraltorture,whichnocorporalinflictioncanadequately
represent.6

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Worsewastocome.Aninquest,heldattheChequersInn,Higham,Kent,onJamesMiles,agedtwentyfour,whohadbeenfounddrownedon19January1865,
wastoldthatinhispocketswerehandbillsofDr.deRoodofTavistockSquareandDr.SmithofBurtonCrescent.Thelocalsurgeonclaimed,afterlookingatthe
papers,that"Ihavenodoubtwhatevertheywouldcauseagreatdepressionofspirits,andtendtoapersoncommittingsuicide.Personssufferingdiseasearehighly
susceptibleofdepressionofmind.Thepapersarebillsissuedbyquacks.Itisnotunusualforcasesofsuicidetoarisefromreadingpamphletssimilartothose
produced."7 TheLancetdrewthelessonthatbyreadingsuchadvertisementsthatplayedupthedangersposedby"selfabuse,"apoor,weakfellowfell"likeso
manyothers"intothewayofdeath.Immensecirculationswereenjoyedbybooksthat,assertedtheeditor,"containeveryelementofprurience,ofvilesuggestion,and
ofcunningterrorism.''8 Therewasnodoubtthatthetradewasextensive.Quackssentbookstostudents,businessmen,armyandnavyofficers,andmembersofthe
civilservice."Whatafrightfulundercurrentofsecretmiserymustbeunderlyingthefabricoflowerclassmiddle[sic]Englishlife,"thehorrifiededitoroftheLancet
lamented,"tomakeitworththewhileofthesewretchedquackstoexpendsuchenormoussumsinadvertisingtheirabominablewares!"9 Socalledquackshadbeen
denouncedbefore,butthesewerethefirstserioussalvosfiredbyregularphysiciansinwhatwastobeadecadeslongattackonthe"irregulars"whocateredtoa
marketmadeupofmalesworriedthatmasturbation,venerealdisease,andsexualexcessesthreatenedtorenderthemimpotent.10

Recentresearchhasrevealedthatananalysisofobsceneliteraturedoesnotprovideasmanyinsightsintotherolesexualbehaviorplayedinevolvingnineteenth
centurydefinitionsofmasculinityaswasanticipated."Malesexuality,paradoxically,isoneoftheobscureareasinmuchpornography.Althoughearlymodern
pornographywaswrittenbymenforapresumablymaleaudience,itfocusedalmostsinglemindedlyonthedepictionoffemalesexuality,asifmalesexualityweretoo
threateningtocontemplate."11Themedicalliteratureononanismhasincontrastproventobeafruitfulsource.Itisnotnecessarytorehearseherethemuchabused
historyofmasturbation.12Sufficetosaythatthoughchurchmenlongcondemnedthesinof"pollution,"theyhadnotbeenpreoccupiedbyitsphysicalconsequences.
Andearlymodernphysiciansfortheirpartheldthatemissionswerenecessarytomaintainhealth.WiththeappearanceofOnaniainearlyeighteenthcenturyEngland
andtheworksofTissotinFranceinthe1760s,however,themodernpanicoverthemedicaldangersposedbymale"sexualexcesses"wasignited.13Inthenineteenth
century,thismarket,exploited

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bythecommerciallymindedincludingSamuelLa'MertandJ.L.CurtisinEngland,Dr.BrennusandDr.BelliolinFrance,andDr.RetauinGermanynodoubt
expandedbecauseinadditiontoanxiousadolescentstheremusthavebeenmanyamongtheincreasingnumbersofmenwhoemployedthewithdrawalmethodofbirth
control(coitusinterruptusor"conjugalonanism")tocontrolfamilysizeuntilthe1930sthemostcommonformofcontraceptionintheWesternworldwho
wonderedifsuchpracticeswouldhaveanydeleterioussideeffects.14

Doctorswereoutragedbyevidencethatquacksturnedtoblackmail.Butthemedicalprofessionwasnotsatisfiedbythebringingtojusticeofonlyoneortwo
scoundrelslikeHeneryandKahnwhohadactuallycommittedcrimes.Itwantedallquackswhoexploitedthesexualfearsofgulliblemalepatientssilenced.Doctors
offeredamixedmessage.Ontheonehand,themedicalpresscalledfortheMedicalCounciltoacttoenddisplaysofadvertisementsfor"VitalEssences,""Elixirsof
Life,"and"Restoratives"thatclaimedtosuccorwornoutdebauchees.15TheLancetinsistedinparticularthatthegovernmentsilencethe"advertisingscoundrels"
whoseactivitieswereanoutragetomoralsandtotheprofession.Fortyyearslateritwasstillwarningthatquackswerebilkingorblackmailingapublicworriedabout
sexualweaknesses,genitaldisorders,andcontraception.16Medicaljournalslamentedthatthenewspaperpressthesupposedguardianofpublicmoralswas
responsibleforabettingsuchbounders.Butontheotherhand,themedicalpressassertedthatamalepatient'srevelationofsomesexualmalfunctioningshouldnot
entailanyshameorconcealment.Yetthemedicalprofessionwasnotterriblywillingtorespondtotheobviousdemandforinformationonsexualmatters.Many
laymenpointedoutthatthereasonthepublicturnedtoquackswasbecausedoctorswouldoftennotanswertheirpatients'questions.17

MostdoctorsinbothEuropeandNorthAmericawereoftheopinionthattheirprofession,intheprocessofestablishingitself,couldonlysufferifitbecametoo
involvedwithsexualissues,associatedastheywereinthepublicmindwithmidwifery,quackery,andprostitution.18Somenodoubtremainedtruetotheoldnotion
thatamanhadtosowhiswildoats,buttheycouldnolongerexpresssuchopinionsinpublic.Otherscandidlyadmittedthatinanyeventtheyknewnomorethantheir
patientswhenitcametodealingwithsexualproblems.19Mosteitheravoidedsuchissuesorcloakedtheirignoranceinpessimisticmoralizing.20Butasmallnumber
begantotreatmalesexualityasasubjectworthyofseriousinvestigation.Thesedoctors,whofirstturnedtotheproblemsposedby"weakandner

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vousmen,"wereverymuchconsciousoftheneedtodistinguishthemselvesfromirregularpractitioners.Consequentlytheysetouttomakeitcleartoboththeir
professionalbrethrenandthegeneralpublicthattheywerenotlikequacksabouttopandertoamaleclienteleofdebaucheesseekingeasyrelieffromdiscomforts
causedbysexualmisdemeanors.21Theydidsobytheirgloomyprognosticationsandtheirprescribingoffrequentlypainfulandpunitivetherapies.Althoughthey
condemnedirregularsforprayingontheanxietiesoftheirclients,doctors'portrayalofsexualmalfunctioningtendedifanythingtobeevenbleaker.Indeedthe
genealogyofthegrimappraisalofmalesexualitycanbetraceddirectlyfromWilliamActoninthemidnineteenthcenturytoSigmundFreudintheearlytwentieth.22

Acton,whohadhelpedintheprosecutionofKahn,wasthebestknownmidcenturyBritishauthorityonthesubjectofmalesexualdisorders.23Youthneededsexual
education,assertedActon,toinoculateitagainstfalseknowledge.Butthe"education"heofferedpresenteddiseaseasapunishmentforindiscretions,calledforthe
dressingofboysinrestraintstopreventtheirselfabuse,andwarnedmenoftheallimportantneedtoharbortheir"energy."Acton'scomplaintthatotherwiseintelligent
gentlemen,whenplaguedbygenitalproblems,threwthemselvestodisreputableharpieswasmademoreunderstandableonceoneappreciatedthetherapieshe
offered.Hesubjectedhismalepatientstogalvanictreatments,dosesofcantharides,and,ifallelsefailed,painfulcauterizationswithascaldingcausticsolutioninjected
viaasyringeforceduptheurethra.Actonmarveledthatfeweveraskedforaseconddose,apparentlyobliviousofthefactthattheirrigationwassopainfulthatthe
patientoftencouldnotwalkforthreetofourdaysafterward.24Thegooddoctor,inassertingthatthesufferer'sonlytrueremedylayin"selfcontrol,"setamoralistic
lineofargumentthatsubsequentgenerationsofphysicians,atleastwhendealingpubliclywithmalesexualproblems,closelyfollowed.

IntheUnitedStates,GeorgeBeard,whobeganspeakingonthesubjectin1868,declaredthatavarietyofmalegenitalweaknessesincludingdebility,impotence,
spermatorrhea,andprostatedifficultieswereallsymptomsoftension.25Suchtensionwasinturntheresultofacomplexmixtureofstressestowhichmodernmanwas
subjectedbythemarchofprogress.Onthephysicalside,patientsfellpreytoaddictionstoevilhabits,alcohol,andtobaccoandonthepsychologicalsidetosuch
tensionsasthosecreatedbyrailwaytravelandtheshockofbadnews.Suchcombinations,Beardgloomilynoted,couldrendersomemenhysterical.26Hewasthe
firstto

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popularizethenotionthatthepressuresofmodernsocietyweresuchthatthosemenwhocouldnotstanduptothemwereturnedinto"weaklings."

Beardcoinedthetermneurastheniatorefertomalesexualexhaustion.27Doctors,notedBeard,hadinthepastrarelyaskedforthesexualhistoryoftheirmale
patients,somensufferingfromstressweredismissedashypochondriacsjustaswomenoftenhadbeenashysterics.Butnowasgynecologistswereuncovering
women'srealcomplaints,sotoodoctorswhoinvestigatedmen'sdistresseswerealsodiscoveringworryingpractices.Themale'slossof"nervousforce"was,
accordingtoBeard,whatprimarilyledtoirritabilityandnervousness.Nocturnalemissionsandselfabuseifexcessivecouldcauselossofenergyandultimately
impotence."Prolonged"intercoursewashurtfultoo,butbirthcontrolencouragedthemostdamagingexcesses.Andofalltheformsofunnaturalcoitus,withdrawalor
thespillingofmaleseedwastheworst.28Asawarningtohismalereadersagainstsquanderingone'snervousforce,Beardcitedthefrighteningcaseofthe
"Mujerados,"PuebloIndianswhowerereportedlymasturbatedbytheirfellowsuntiltheylostallsexualdesireandtheirorgansshrank.Theywerethereafterdressed
aswomenandplayedareligiousroleinthecommunity.29WhenBeardspokeof"lossofmanhood,"heliterallymeantjustthat.

Asidefrominsistingthathispatientsgiveuptheirdestructivehabits,Beardofferedarangeoftherapiesincludingameatdiettobuildupthepatient'sstrengthwhilehis
rebelliousmemberwasdealtwithbyelectrictherapies,sedatives,andcauterizations.Beardwasparticularlygiventothedangersofthe"redundantprepuce,"whichhe
suggestedbedealtwithbycircumcisionand/or"stretching."Beardalsoexperimentedwiththeuseofplacebos,whichhefoundworkedwellwithbothfunctionaland
organicproblems.Indeedhewasverymuchaproponentofwhathecalled"mentaltherapeutics,"ofappealingtowork,travel,andmarriage.30He,likeActon,
believedthataman'srealrecoverywasaccomplishedbyforceofwillpower."ResolveBeardadvisedhispatients,"tobecomeusefulorfamous."31

Suchattacksonsexualexcesses,particularlyrelatedtomasturbationandcoitusinterruptus,becameacommonplaceofnineteenthcenturymedicalliterature.In
France,FlixRoubauddeclaredthatcoitusinterruptuswasmoredebilitatingforthemalethannormalcoition.32InCanada,M.H.Utley,repeatingTissot'soldline
thatoneounceofsemenwastheequaloffortyouncesofblood,warnedmenofthedangeroflosingtheir"manhood."33InAustria,VictorG.Veckisuggestedarange
ofcuresformasturbationrangingfromdosesofnuxvomicaandcocainetohydrother

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apy,electrotherapy,andhypnotism.34Vecki'sviewthatcoitusinterruptuswas"afruitfulparentofallsortsofnervousandmentalderangements"wassharedby
many.35InBritain,GeorgeSavage,inthemidstofhis1907LumleianLectureson"Insanity,ItsCauseandIncrease,"solemnlydeclared,"Ihavenotimetogointothe
questionofsexualcausesofinsanity,butitwouldnotberightifIdidnotexpressmyopinionthatthetendencytolatemarriagesinmen,thegreatlimitationinthe
numberofchildren,andthedistasteofthemotherstonursetheirchildrenallhavepotentinfluenceinproducingmentalinstability."36

Freud,itisgenerallybelieved,stoodoutfromhiscolleaguesinattributingtheexhaustion,weaknesses,andtimidityofhismalepatientstopsychologicalratherthan
somaticcauses.HenryCampbellandArthurCooper,withtheirdirepredictionsaboutthedangersofmasturbation,andF.W.Mott,withhiswarningsoftheperils
posedbythelossofthe"highlyphosphorizednucleoproteidscontainedinthesperm,"seemfarremovedfromthemeasuredintrospectionofFreud'sbetterknown
works.YetashemadeclearinAnAutobiographicalStudy,his"momentousstep"instartingoutonhisownpathofdiscoverywasmadeinlinkingthehysteriaofhis
patientstotheirsexuallives.37Inthe1890shetoocametotheconclusionthattherewasasomaticsidetoeveryneurosis.Closeobservationmoreoverconvincedhim
thatacentralformofsexualabnormalitywasthepracticeofcoitusinterruptus.Itwasthis"abuse"thatwasthehiddencauseofamultitudeofnervousconditions.
Ithoughtthattheanxietyfromwhichthepatientssuffershouldbelookedonasacontinuationoftheanxietyfeltduringthesexualactthatistosay,thatitwasahysterical
symptom.Indeed,theconnectionbetweentheanxietyneurosisandhysteriaareobviousenough.Twothingsmightgiverisetothefeelingsofanxietyincoitusinterruptus:inthe
woman,afearofbecomingpregnant,inthemantheworrythathis[preventive]devicemightfail.Ithenconvincedmyselffromanumberofcasesthatanxietyneurosisalso
appearswheretherewasnoquestionofthesetwofactors,whereitwasbasicallyofnoimportancetothepeopleconcernedwhethertheyhadababy.38

Anobviousquestionisifthecouplewereunconcernedwhethertheyconceivedachild,whyweretheypracticingcoitusinterruptus?Freudappearstohave
overlookedthisflawinhislogic,andinsummingupthetypesofanxietyarisingfromsexualcausesheaccordinglylistedaftertheabstinentandthevirginal:

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(4)Anxietyofwomenlivingincoitusinterruptus,or,whatissimilarofwomenwhosehusbandssufferfromejaculatiopraecoxofpeople,therefore,inwhomphysicalstimulation
isnotsatisfied.

(5)Anxietyofmenpracticingcoitusinterruptus,evenmoreofmenwhoexcitethemselvesinvariouswaysanddonotemploytheirerectionforcoitus.39

ToappreciatefullyFreud'sattitudetowardcoition,ithastoberecalledthatinhisearlywritingsheasserted,asdidmanyofhiscontemporaries,thatmasturbationwas
itselfacauseofnervousdebility.Contraceptioneitherbycoitusinterruptusorbycondomhepresentedinturnaslittlemorethanasubspeciesofselfabuse.InDraftA
ofthe"AetiologyoftheNeuroses,"writtentowardstheendof1892,heposedthequestion:"Issimplecoitusreservatus(condom)anoxa[danger]atall?"40By
"simple"hemeantasunrelatedtomasturbation.InDraftB,writteninFebruary1893,heansweredintheaffirmative.Thesourceof"neurasthenia"ornervous
exhaustioninyouthswasmasturbationinadultsitwascoitusinterruptusorreservatus.
Thissecondnoxaisonanismusconjugalisincompletecoitioninordertopreventconception.Inthecaseofmenallthemethodsofachievingthisseemtofallintoline:they
operatewithvaryingintensityaccordingtothesubject'sdisposition,butdonotactuallydifferqualitatively.Evennormalcoitionisnottoleratedbythosewithastrong
dispositionorbychronicneurasthenicsandbeyondthis,intoleranceofthecondom,ofextravaginalcoitionandofcoitusinterruptustaketheirtoll.Ahealthymanwilltolerateall
oftheseforquitealongtime,butevensonotindefinitely.Afteracertaintimehebehaveslikethedisposedsubject.Hisonlyadvantageoverthemasturbatoristheprivilegeofa
longerlatencyorthefactthatoneveryoccasionheneedsaprovokingcause.Herecoitusinterruptusprovestobethemainnoxaandproducesitscharacteristiceffectevenin
nondisposedsubjects.41

Relianceuponthewithdrawalmethodrequiredthemaletocontrolhimselfsufficientlythatheclimaxedonlyafterexiting.Thewoman,however,wouldpresumablybe
"lefthanging,"andherfrustrationwouldresultinhysteria.Freudinsistedthathisinvestigationoftheeffectsofcoitusinterruptusledtohismajordiscoverythatallforms
ofanxietystemmedfromalackofsexualrelease.

In1895Freudexpandedhisaccountofthedangersofcontraceptive

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practices.42Masturbationwasthefirstdangeror"noxa"thatanindividualfacedinsexuallifecoitusinterruptuswasthesecond.Theformerpracticeresultedin
neurasthenia,whichcouldinturn"dispose"onetoanxietyneurosisifthelaterpracticewasadopted.Speakingspecificallyofanxietyneurosis,Freudasserted:
Thereisnoquestionbutthatitisacquired,andspeciallybymenandwomeninmarriage,duringthesecondperiodofsexualnoxae,throughcoitusinterruptus.Idonotbelieve
thatdispositionowingtoearlierneurastheniaisnecessaryforthisbutwheredispositionislacking,latencyislonger.Thecausalformulaisthesameasinneurasthenia.Therare
casesofanxietyneurosisoutsidemarriagearemetwithespeciallyinmen.Theyturnouttobecasesofcongressusinterruptusinwhichthemanisstronglyinvolvedphysically
withwomenwhosewellbeingisamatterofconcerntohim.Thisprocedureintheseconditionsisagreaternoxaforamanthencoitusinterruptusinmarriage,forthisisoften
corrected,asitwere,bynormalcoitusoutsidemarriage.43

ItisstrikingthatFreudshouldhavelinkedmasturbationandcoitusinterruptus.Presumablyhewasthinkingthatwhensolitaryyouthsmasturbateandmarriedmen
enactcoitusinterruptustheybothspillseed.Yetthemotivationsareobviouslydifferent,andtheyaresuchdifferentpracticesthefirstinvolvessexualselfexcitementto
ejaculationasquicklyandconclusivelyaspossible,thesecondinvolveswithdrawalandrestraint.Bothmight,fordifferentreasons,produceanxietyevenguiltbut
theoneseemspoortrainingfortheother.

Freudacknowledgedthathistheorywouldbecriticized.Somewouldsaythat"thenumberofpeoplewhopracticecoitusinterruptusandthelikeisincomparably
largerthanthenumberswhoareafflictedwithanxietyneurosis,andthegreatmajorityoftheformertoleratethisnoxaverywall."44Whenitwassuggestedthatsome
menpracticedcoitusinterruptusforyearswithoutanyapparentilleffect,Freudreplied:
Thoseindividualswhoapparentlytoleratecoitusinterruptuswithoutharm,infactbecomedisposedbyittothedisordersofanxietyneurosis,andtheymaybreakoutatsometime
orother,eitherspontaneouslyorafterashocktraumawhichwouldnotordinarilysufficeforthisjustas,bythepathofsummation,achronicalcoholicwillintheenddevelopa
cirrhosisorsomeotherillness,orwill,undertheinfluenceoffever,fallvictimtoadelirium.45

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Freud'suseofalcoholismasananalogywithsexualoverindulgencerevealstheextenttowhichhecouldfallbackonthecommonplacesofhisage.Asmanyhistorians
havenoted,theofficialmoralityofnineteenthcenturyEuropewasheavilyinfluencedbyeconomicconsiderationsinwhichoverexpenditure,beitinmoney,alcohol,or
sex,waspresentedasthreateningthemiddleclassmanwiththedangersofmonetary,physical,andpsychologicalbankruptcy.Freuddidnotescapethistendency.46

Freudwasnodoubtcorrectinholdingthatmanymusthavefoundcoitusinterruptusafrustratingpractice.Butwhatshouldnotbeforgottenisthatheinsistedthatfull
satisfactionwasonlypossiblebypenetration.Orgasmsachievedbyanyothermeanshecondemned.Theideathatnormalintercoursemightbespurnedbypatients
whoemployedcoitusinterruptusandthenproceededbyothermeanstoreachclimaxcould,claimedFreud,onlyleadtofurtherproblems.Forthecoupleorthe
womanherselftofallbackonsomeothermeanssuchasclitoralstimulationwasinhiseyesaretreatfrommaturity.In"Civilized"SexualMorality(1908),he
moroselychronicledtheincreasedemploymentofsuchmaneuvers.

Thesternnessofthedemandsofcivilizationandthedifficultyofthetaskofabstinencehavecombinedtomakeavoidanceoftheunionofthegenitalsofthetwooppositesexes
intothecentralpointofabstinenceandtofavourotherkindsofsexualactivity,which,itmightbesaid,areequivalenttosemiobedience.Sincenormalintercoursehasbeenso
relentlesslypersecutedbymoralityandalso,onaccountofthepossibilitiesofinfection,byhygienewhatareknownasperverseformsofintercoursebetweenthetwosexes,
inwhichotherpartsofthebodytakeovertheroleofthegenitals,haveundoubtedlyincreasedinsocialimportance.Theseactivitiescannot,however,beregardedasbeing
harmlessasanalogousextensions[ofthesexualaim]inloverelationships.Theyareethicallyobjectionable,fortheydegradetherelationshipoflovebetweentwohumanbeings
fromaseriousmattertoaconvenientgame,attendedbynorisksandnospiritualparticipation.47

Thelanguageisrevealing:civilizationmadesterndemands,normalsexwasa"seriousmatter,"nongenitalvariantswere"ethicallyobjectionable"becausetheywere
"attendedbynorisks,"bywhichhemeantthatconceptioncouldnotoccur.IndeedFreudwastogosofarindefending"normalintercourse"thathewaslatertowrite
inhisIntroductoryLectures,"We...describeasexualactivityasperverseifithasgivenuptheaimofreproductionandpursuestheattainmentofpleasureasanaim
independentofit.''48

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Turnofthecenturydoctorsdidnot,ofcourse,speakwithonevoiceonthesubjectofsexuality.Ahandfuldefendedbirthcontrol.Some,likeJamesPagetinEngland,
poohpoohedthedangersofmasturbation.49F.R.Sturgis,professorofmedicineattheCityUniversityofNewYork,whodedicateda1902studytothe"sexual
cripplesoftheUnitedStates"wentsofarastojokeaboutthe"thehomelypleasureofthehand."50Butthemajorityofdoctorsthoughtitsafertoadoptfarmore
conservativepositions.Freud,whodifferedinmanywaysfromhiscolleagues,sharedwithmostthepessimisticnotionthatmenhadtopayapricefortheirunfettered
pursuitofsexualpleasure.

Malepatient'svoicesarerarelyheardinsuchdiscussions,butthereisevidencethatmanymenwerenotimpressedbydoctors'warningsabout"sexualexcesses."The
contributorstotheGrandeDictionnaireduXIXesicleobviouslyfoundthesubjectof"Impotence"alaughingmatter,listingundertheentryastringofamusing
anecdotes.51AndinLondonin1857,themalespectatorsburstoutlaughingwhenthecourtheardthatDr.Kahnhadterrorizedayoungmanwhothoughthehad
spermatorrhoeawiththeassertion,''Yourbrainsarepassingoutintoyourwater,andyouwilldie."52LikewiseaGermanworkerwhowasinformedinthe1890sbya
socialsuperiorthatcoitusinterruptuswashealththreateningretortedthatifthatwasthecase"everyonewouldbesick."53

Suchmenwere,ofcourse,unlikelytohavereadFreudorBeard.ButthankstothetrialofRexversusDesctes,whichtookplaceinMontreal,Canada,on23
December1924,wearegivensomeideaofhowsuchnewsexologicalideaswerevulgarized.54L.A.Desctes,theproprietorofabookstoreat290MontRoyal
Est,waschargedwithsellinganumberofobscenetextsincludingLaPderastie,LaVirginit,LaProstitution,LaPerversionSexuelle,andLaFolierotique,all
theproductsofthepenoftheprolificFrenchauthor,"Dr.Jaf."55JudgeLacroixcouldimaginenocircumstancesinwhichthesaleofsuchbookscouldbedefended
andaccordinglyfoundtheaccusedguiltyascharged,sentencingDesctestotheoptionofeitherimmediatelypayingafiftydollarfineorservingthreemonthsin
prison.56

Wehaveseenthattheofficialnineteenthcenturymedicaldiscussionofsexualitywasdominatedbypiousmoralizing.Whatwasthemessageofthe"obscene"booksof
"Dr.Jaf"andhisilk?Thesignificanceofsuchaliteratureisthatitdocumentsimportantchangesbutalsorevealsremarkablecontinuitiesinsexualbeliefs.Aperusalof
thesebookssuggeststhatthevulgarizationofmodernsexologicalknowledge,takingtheformsthat

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itdid,wasunlikelytohaveprecipitatedeithermen'sdescentintocorruptionasbewailedbyjudgeLacroixorthe"flightintoknowledge"toward"sexualenlightenment"
somelaterhistorianshaveclaimedtodetect.57

"Dr.Jaf"wasthepennameoftheenterprisingandproductiveDr.JeanFauconney,whoalsowrotedozensofbooksundertheanagram"Dr.Caufeynon."Most
appearedinaseriespublishedinParisinthefirstdecadeofthiscenturyentitledthe"Bibliothquepopulairedesconnaissancesmdicales."TheBibliothquepopulaire
boastedofpresentingatthemodestpriceofonefrancpervolumeabsolutelyprecise,scientificfindingsinaclear,simplelanguageaccessibletoall.58

Itisimpossibletosayhowmanyreadthesebooks.Onehastotakewithalargegrainofsalttheauthor'sclaimthatby1926Scuritdesdeuxsexesenamourhad
soldeighthundredthousandcopies.ButwedoknowthatthesebookswerereadwidelynotonlyinFrancebut,astheQuebeccasemakesclear,throughoutthe
francophoneworld.TheywerealsotranslatedintoSpanishandEnglishinthe1920s,andsomevolumescontinuedtoappearinAmericaneditionsaslateasthe
1950s.59

AlthoughitwouldbehazardoustoattempttomakeanypreciseclaimsabouttheextentofDr.Fauconney'sreadership,itissafetosaythatattheveryleasthisbooks
providesomeideaofwhattheadventurousmaleFrenchreaderoftheearlytwentiethcenturyinsearchofuptodatesexualinformationwouldhavebeenlikelytofind.
SuchamanmighthaveheardofForelorFreud,HavelockEllisorKrafftEbing,butprobablysoughtoutthelessacademic,moreaccessible,andcheapertextsthat
theBibliothquepopulaireprovided.Dr.Fauconney'ssuccessinsellingsomanybooksforsolongpresumablystemmedfromhisabilitytoknowbothwhatwell
knownmedicalauthoritiesweresayingandwhatordinaryreaderswantedtohear.

Whatdidthesebookscontain?Someofthevolumeswereproducedsimplyforthecuriousorvoyeuristic.L'Eunuchisme:Histoiregnraledelacastration,
althoughitdidcontainsomepertinentinformationonovariotomiesandcircumcision,couldhardlybeconsideredmorallyoffensive.60Thevolumeon
L'Hermaphrodisme,whichprovidedasurprisinglyfulltreatmentofthediscussionofthesubjectfromMontaigneinthesixteenthcenturytoTardieuinthenineteenth,
wasequallycircumspect.61Preoccupyingturnofthecenturymedicaltopics,whichatfirstglanceseemedtobeonlytangentiallyrelatedtosexuality,alsoreceivedDr.
Fauconney'sattentioninsuchvolumesasL'Hystrie,L'Hypnotisme,andLesMorphinomanes.ThegooddoctorevendedicatedanentirebooktoLesTatouages,

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revealingtotheinquisitivethewaysinwhichcriminals,prostitutes,andhomosexualspurportedlyusedbodymarkingsassecretcodes.62ButDr.Fauconneyfocused
primarilyontheproblemsposedbyheterosexuality,withthetwentytitlesintheBibliothquepopulairemoving(inalphabeticalifillogicalorder)fromL'Avortementvia
LaSyphilistoLaVirginit.Altogether,morethanfortybooksdealingwithvarioussexualproblemsappearedunderthenamesof"Dr.Jaf"or"Dr.Caufeynon."many
simplyrepeatingandrepackagingthesameinformationandanecdotesinavarietyofcontexts.

Whatfirststrikesthecontemporaryreaderishow"old"muchofthis"new"discussionofsexualitywas.MostofFauconney'sbooksappearedinthefirstdecadeofthe
twentiethcentury,butthediscussionofcontemporarysexualissueswasconstantlybeinglinkedtothepastby,forexample,citationsculledfromMartial,Catullus,and
AmbroisePar.Fauconney,understandingthathisreaderswantedtoknowwhatpreviousgenerationshadthoughtofsexuality,moreoverproducedfulleditionsofthe
worksofboththepopulareighteenthcenturywriterNicolasVenetteandthemedievalscholasticAlbertusMagnusdevotedto"conjugalduties."63

Dr.Fauconney'sownbooksonthesexualissuespreoccupyingthebellepoqueconsistedofacuriousamalgamofbotholdandnewinformation,ablendoftraditional
loreandscientificdiscovery.Dr.Lutaud'ssuccessinusingsyringestocarryoutartificialinseminationswasnotedbyFauconneyalongsidetraditionalbeliefsinthe
abilitytodeterminethesexoftheunbornchildandthepowerofamother'simagination.64Forexample,awhitewomanwhowaspassionatelyinlovewithablack
man,thereaderwasinformed,wouldhaveablackbabywhateverthecolorofherspouse.65Likewisetheoldargumentthatawomaninfullpossessionofhersenses
couldnotberapedbyonemanthoughthosewhowereasleep,drugged,orhypnotizedcouldwasretold.66Fauconney'sdiscussionofthecausesofhysteria
rangedsimilarlyfromtraditionalnotionsofpentupgenitalexcitementtoMorel'stargeting,inthemidnineteenthcentury,oftheimpactofhereditytoCharcot'smore
recentannouncementoftheneurologicalbasisofbothmaleandfemalehysteria.67InshortDr.Fauconney'sbookswerestuffedwithacuriousandcomforting
hodgepodgeofcitationsdrawnfrombothancientandmoderndiscussionsofsexuality.Thenewsexmanuals,liketheoldchapbooksandalmanacsthatcontained
ambiguousorcontradictoryinformation,oftenleftthereaderpurposelyfreetopickandchoosewhathewantedtobelieve.68

Thedistinctlyanticlericaltonefoundinmanyofthesexmanualsen

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joyedavenerableFrenchlineage.TheenemiesoftheCatholicchurchfromatleasttheeighteenthcenturyonwardusedthesexquestionasastickwithwhichtobeat
clerics.Dr.Fauconneyfollowedthistraditionin,forexample,searchingthechurch'spenitentialsforevidenceofthevicesofmedievalmonks.69AmbroisePar's
seventeenthcenturyreferencetoanabbwhodiedfromsexualexcesseswassimilarlycitedbyDr.Fauconneywhenassertingthatcelibacy,whichwaspropagatedby
thechurch,disastrouslyresultedinmadness,anargumentbuttressedbycitationsdrawnfromtheeighteenthcenturyphilosophesRousseauandMontesquieu.70
Confessorswere,aswastobeexpected,attackedinthesexmanuals,astheyhadbeeninsomanynineteenthcenturyrepublicantracts,forpryingintofamilies'
privateaffairs.Dr.Fauconneyattributedhysteriainparticulartowomen'sirrationalfearsbeingonoccasionexacerbatedandexploitedbythealarmingteachingsofthe
church.71Andifreligioncouldleadtomadness,madnesscouldleadtoreligion.Thereligiousdeliriumofwomenwas,claimedDr.Fauconney,infactoftensimplya
phenomenonprecipitatedbymenstrualcomplications.72

Theanticlericals'tacticofattributingthecausesofthosevicestheyfoundmostobjectionabletotheinfluenceofpriestsworkedwellforauthorswhowantedbothto
exploitaninterestinsexualityandpresentthemselvesasmoralists.Accordingly,theactofsodomycouldbesimultaneouslydescribedandcondemned.Fauconney,in
characterizingitasthegreatestpossibleoutragewhichcouldbecommittedagainstwomen,reproachedthechurchforpopularizingbyitsteachingssuchunnaturalacts.
Heclaimedthatinaworklike"DeSodomia"bytheCapuchinFatherd'Amenotherewasevidencethatcasuistsarguedthatanalsexwasacceptableaslongassperm
wasnotejaculated.Inshortthechurchdoctorsprovedthemselvesonexamination,theindignantauthorclaimed,tobemoreimmodestthanlaylovers.73

Carryingthecampaignagainstthechurchevenfurther,Fauconneyincludedinsomeofhisbooksadvertisementsforaspecialized"CollectionAnticlricale"withsuch
offeringsasLaBibleamusanteandLaViedeJsusbyLoTaxilaswellasevenmoreoutrageoustitlessuchasLemoineincestueux,LeCouventdeGomorrhe,
LesAmourssecrtesdePieIX,LaBelledvote,Lesdbauchesd'unconfesseur,andUneOrgieautempsdeJsus.Thesexmanuals,containingastheydidso
manygratuitousattacksonthepriesthood,necessarilyscandalizedthefaithful.ButDr.Fauconney,whoaimedhiswritingsatawidemalereadership,obviouslyfelt
thatsuchreferenceswereunlikelytoendangersalesinFrance.Theymightevenhelp.

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Priests,intheirskirts,thoughnotviewedasrealmen,werefrequentlyregardedbyhusbandsasrivalsincontrollingtheintimatemattersofthehousehold.Giventhefact
thatsuchsuspicionscouldbetracedbackoverseveralcenturies,manyreadersmusthavefoundthatanticlericalslursgavethetextsacozilyfamiliarifnotadownright
oldfashionedring.

Dr.Fauconney'sbookswerenodoubtanticlerical.Weretheyimmoral?ClearlymuchoftheBibliothquepopulaireaimedtotitillatesuchworkswouldinclude,for
example,LesVnusimpudiques:LaGrandeprostitutiontraverslesges.74Buteventhisbook,adutifullythoroughreviewofthecareersofgrandcourtesans
fromtheancientworldtotheRenaissance,demandedagooddealfromitsreaders.Thepurchaserdrawnbythesensationaltitlewouldlikelybedisappointedtofind
himselforherselfplungedintowhatattimesreadlikeanuninspiredsurveyofEuropeanhistory.Similarly,readersattractedbyatitlelikeLaProstitution
dbauchecorruptionwerenodoubtfrustratedtodiscoverthattheyhadpurchasedafairlydryhistoricalaccountofthegovernmentregulationofvice.

DidsuchbooksoffermenpracticaladviceonhowtoflauntthelawsofGodandman?No,atleastcertainlynotinthesensethattheyinanywayquestionedthe
"normality"ofheterosexuality.Samesexrelationswere,aswillbenotedbelow,resolutelycondemned.Butindiscussingheterosexualrelations,didsuchbookssay
anything,forexample,aboutbirthcontrol,whichwasbeingsointenselydebatedinFranceattheturnofthecentury?Presumablymany,withthethoughtinmindof
limitingfamilysize,purchasedDrs.JafandCaufeyron'sSecuritdedeuxsexesenamour.Buthereagainthebookprovedtobelessradicalthanonemighthave
imagined.Inpartone,entitled"Hyginedessexes,"thereaderwascategoricallytoldthatthenaturalgoalofintercoursewasreproduction.Thetext,althoughitnoted
thatthechurch'scondemnationofcontraceptionevenwhenawoman'shealthwasatriskwasshortsighted,wentontonotethat"nature"alsocondemned
"frauds."75

Today'sreaderwouldprobablyexpectthatadiscussionof"security"inasexmanualwouldentailanexaminationofmethodsofcontraception.ButDr.Fauconney's
chiefconcerninthistextwasnotwithundesiredpregnanciesbutwithvenerealdisease.ThispreoccupationhighlightsthefactthatDr.Fauconneywrotenotsimplywith
theheterosexualreaderinmind,butmoreparticularlyforthemaleheterosexualreader.Forprotectionagainstsexuallytransmitteddiseases,themanwasadvisedto
usevaselinebeforeintercourseandcalomelafterwards.Butasparttwo"LaSterilitvaincue"madeclear,reproductivefailurewasalsoviewedasaproblem.

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Theauthorattributedsterilitytothetraditionalreasonoflovers'toogreatdesire.Patientsbothmenandwomenwereadvisedthatlove,sympathy,andaffinitywere
requiredtoensureasuccessfulconception.Somenineteenthcenturyscientificadviceontimingwasadded,butunfortunatelyitwasbasedonPouchet'sinaccurate
calculationofthewoman'sovulationcycle.76

Forthoseinsearchofpracticalbirthcontrolinformation,theadvertisementsthatappearedinthebackpagesofFauconney'sbookswerenodoubtoftenmoreuseful
thanthetextsthemselves.77InhisAmouretmariageenOrient,whichwasmainlyadiscussionofpolygamy,appearedadvertisementsfor"prservatifs"and
"pongesdesret."Thelatterwhenusedbythewomanwithanasepticdouchingwaterlike"l'eauCyrienne"wassaidtoactasacontraceptiveandalonecouldalso
beemployed"pourprotgerlelingeauxpoquesmenstruelles."Anumberofcontraceptivesheathswithsuchevocativenamesas"LeFavori,''"LeNervi,"and"Le
Cygne"werealsoofferedforsale.78TheadvertisementsthatappearedinthelastpagesofL'Hystrienoticesforpornographicnovelsandvenerealdiseasecures
crammedtogethercheekbyjowlwiththoseforcookingmanualsseemeddirectedatthesortofsophisticatedFrenchreadershipthatsomehistorianshavecometo
believewasamerestereotype.79

TurningfromDr.Fauconney'streatmentofnormalheterosexualitytohisexaminationofwhathedeemed"perversions,"onehasabettersenseofthelimitationsofsuch
aliterature.JudgeLacroixdeclaredthatthesebooksdescribingsexualpracticeshadtheeffectofinflaminglasciviousdesires.Whathastobenotedisthatthevolumes
intheBibliothquepopulaireconstantlyharpedonthenotionthatsocietywasthreatenedbyalacknotanexcessofpassions.Dr.Fauconneyrepeatedlyexpressedthe
fearthatonewaslivinginanenervatedage.Thedecadenceanddegenerationoftheurbanmiddleclassesheattributedtotheirdebaucheries,theassumptionbeingthat
thephysicallydemandinglifeledbypeasantsandworkerssparedthemsuchblights.Fauconney,assertinglikesomanycontemporarymedicalauthoritiesthatsexual
excesseswereacauseratherthananeffectofperversions,accordinglypreachedmoderation.Thismedicalmoralismwasmadeespeciallyclearinthepassageshe
devotedtothediscussionsofmasturbation,prostitution,andhomosexuality.

ThemessageofthedangersposedbyselfabusewascarriedinDr.Fauconney'sAberrations,foliesetcrimesdusensgnital,whichdrewheavilyonthehorror
storiesfoundintheacademicworksofLombroso,Tardieu,andMagnan.Masturbationwhichtheauthorclaimednursestaughtto

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ninemontholdbabieswascastigatedastherootofthemadnessofmurdererslikeGabrielleBompardandabortionistslikeLaThomas.80Nevertheless,in
L'Onanismechezl'hommeanunusuallybalancedaccountofmasturbationwasprovided.Theauthor,afternotingthattheancientswereuntroubledbythevice,
observedthatonlyaftertheappearanceoftheworksofTissotinthelateeighteenthcenturywereexcitement,imagination,andhereditytargetedascausesofself
abuse.Admittingthatbecauseof"sympathy"excessivemasturbationcouldbeharmfultothewholebody,thebookconcludedbyassertingthatworkandexercise
werebetterthantheterrorandmechanicalrestraintsbrandishedbysomenineteenthcenturydoctorsandthatinanyeventboysalmostalwaysdroppedsuchhabits
oncetheydiscoveredwomen.81

Dr.Fauconneypresentedthosemenwhowereweakenedbyselfabuse,necessarilyseekingformsofsatisfactionlessdemandingthanthosefoundinthemarriage
bed,asturningtocommercialsex.Thesamemoralizingtonethatheemployedinhistreatmentofmasturbationwascarriedoverintohisdiscussionofprostitution
(muchofitdrawnfromParentDuchtelet'sclassic1830saccount)inwhichtheclientsweredescribedasidle,overeducated,enervatedyoungmenandtheprostitutes
asslothful,superstitious,sentimentalyoungwomen.TheextentofthetradeDr.Fauconneyattributedtotheevilofarrangedmarriages,whichincreatingdisgustand
boredominthepartnersdrovethemtoseekpleasuresoutsidethehome.82

Andthedebauchedclientsofprostitutes,protestedDr.Fauconney,werenolongercontentwithtraditionalservices.83Oralsexinparticularwasbecomingpopular
becauseofmen'sfearofvenerealdisease.Modernsociety,accordingtoFauconney,wasoverexcitedandenervatedbyanimalfoods,books,plays,sexualprecocity,
andtheincessantcontactwithmembersoftheoppositesex.84ThesexactsthatthisenvironmentspawnedFauconneydescribedas"absolutelydisgusting,"butwith
aneyeonsaleshedescribedthemnevertheless.85

Dr.FauconneyeventriedhishandatwritingapornographicnovelaboutprostitutionentitledScnesd'amourmorbide(Observationspsychophysiologiques).
Containingasitdidlewdphotographs,itwasobviouslymoretitillatingthanthebooksintheBibliothquepopulaireseries,butitwasjustasmoralistic.Emma,themain
character,followedapredictablecourse,degeneratingfromtheyounginnocentoftheearlychaptersintothedebauchedstreetwalkerofthenovel'smiddleportionsto
asordiddeathintheconcludingchapteratthehandsofagangofParisianApaches.86

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Theultimateformofperversion,inDr.Fauconney'seyes,washomosexuality.Accordingtothedoctor,itwasthemenwholackedeventheenergytotrackdownthe
womenofthestreetswhofinallyturnedforsexualsatisfactiontoothermales.87Homosexualityhelabeledthe"turpitudesdevieillards.""lafinduvieuxlibertinbout
deressources"whowasvainlyseekingnewpleasures.88InLaPderastie,thereaderwasinformedthatthepracticeofmalesamesexrelationsthoughnotacrime
inFranceasitwasinAustriaandGermanyhadbeendeterminedbydoctorssuchasPouchetandTardieutobeafailing,asortofanimality,thatwasspawnedby
thelaxityofmodernsociety.89Onceembracedvoluntarilybythemorbid,itspreadbyasortofmoralcontagion.Thecharacterflawsofitsadherentstheirlies,
hypocrisy,gossip,andvanitymadethemeasytodetect.90Thatis,femalecharacteristicswereattributedbyDr.Fauconneytohomosexualsand,followingthesame
logic,malecharacteristicswereattributedtolesbians.Thepathologyofwomen'ssamesexrelationswasdiscussedbyDr.Fauconneyinthecontextoftheworksof
Moll,KrafftEbing,andMartineau.Allhomosexualsmanifestedmoralfailings,heasserted,buthealsofollowedtheolderideasofLombrosoinarguingthatdeviance
wasinadditionrevealedbyphysicalstigmata.91Fauconneysharedwithhismorerespectablemedicalcolleaguesthebeliefthatonlyonedimensionthegenderofthe
objectchoice,ratherthantheactorthefrequencyshouldbetakenasthecrucialindicatorofmalesexualorientation.92

ThoughDr.Fauconneysingledouthomosexualityandprostitutionasthechiefexpressionsofthewaveoflubricityoutragingpublicdecencyattheturnofthecentury,
inhisbooksallexcesseswerepresentedasdangerous.Thedoctor,citingcontemporaryexpertslikeCharcotandKrafftEbing,warnedthatselfabusecaused
excessivesensitivityandjealousy,useofcantharidessappedvigor,nymphomaniadebasedwomen,andothersimilarexcessesresultedinepilepsyandmadness.Thus
themalereaderwhowadedthroughthediscussionsoffolly,nymphomania,satyriasis,andothervicesinworkslikeL'AmourmaladeandLaFolierotiquewasleft
withthesternwarningringinginhisearsthatsexualdissipationinevitablyledtophysicaldecayanddecayledinturntoperversions.93

Dr.Fauconney'sdiscussionofsexuality,likesomanyotherpurportedly"frank"accountsthatappearedintheearlytwentiethcentury,wasmarkedbyanunmistakable
moralism.FoucaulthasarguedthattheVictorians'attempttodenythesignificanceofsexualityhadtheunintendedeffectofincitinganinterestinthesubject.94Taking
thebooksofDr.Fauconneyasexamples,oneisledtoconcludethatmanyearlytwentiethcenturysex

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manualsworkedtheotherwayround:althoughpromisingtotitillate,theirveryexplicitnessandpreoccupationwithmalfunctionsmaywellhaveoftenfannedtheflames
ofguiltandanxiety.Intheeighteenthandearlynineteenthcenturies,thosewhowroteaboutsexuality,obsessedastheywerebythethreatsposedbythetraditional
problemsofsexual"excesses"suchasnymphomaniaandsatyriasis,assumedthatthechallengewastoprovideadviceonhowtocontrolorreininthepassions.Inthe
laternineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturies,thetasktakenupbythesexologistswasjusttheopposite.Theirconcern,facedwithdecliningbirthratesthatthey
attributedinparttothemodernplaguesoffrigidityandimpotencyspreadbyanovercivilizedsociety,waswiththenewproblemofhowtoguarantee"arousal."
Westernculturehadaccordinglyshiftedfromfearingluststofearingenervation,fromapreoccupationwiththeoversexedmaletoaconcernfortheundersexed
weakling.95Somehavearguedthatpsychiatricpatients,inunconsciouslylearningtosignaltheirdistressbychangingtheirsymptomsfromthoseofhysteriatothoseof
fatigue,similarlydemonstratedanunderstandingofwhatcaughttheattentionofmodernmedicine.96

Thecourseofcivilized,urbanlife,which,itoncehadbeenhoped,wouldcounterthecomplaintsposedbytheanimalpassions,wasincreasinglyviewedasthecause
ratherthanthecureofvice.TheFrench,whosefertilityratehadbeenmoreorlessdecliningcontinuouslysincethe1860swhilethatoftheGermansremained
ominouslyhigh,wereparticularlypronetoexpresssuchfears.97Andeugenicistsaddedtothegloomyprognosticationsofthepronatalistsinwarningthatacareless
approachtothecrucialquestionofreproductionthreatenedthequalityaswellasthequantityoffuturegenerations.98Wehaveworkedourwaythroughagreat
numberoftextsdealingwiththeperversionstoseewhattheytellusaboutevolvingnotionsofmasculinity.Whatwefoundwasthatareadingofanation'ssexmanuals
tellsusasmuchaboutaculture'sviewofitsbodypoliticasaboutthemalebodyperse.99Doctorstranslatedintomedicallanguagethefantasiesoftheirage.100

Anexaminationofthetrialsinwhichsuchbooksfiguredalsorevealthegrowingpowersenjoyedbythemedicalprofession.ThefactthatDr.Jaf'sbookswere
prosecutedwhiletheregularmedicaltextshequarriedwentundisturbed,thatthemedicalpresscondemnedquackswhosoldtheirpatientsnothingworsethansugared
waterwhileapplaudingdoctorswhosubjectedtheirmalepatientstopainfulandpointlesscauterizations,servesasaforcefulreminderofthesuccessphysicians
achievedinappropriating

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theroleofsexexpert.Withonlytheoccasionalprotest,thepublicconcededtothemtheroleofjudgingwhichmalesexactswere"legitimate"andwhichwerenot.A
newrangeofmedicalcriteriaaccordinglyhadtobemettoproveone's"manhood."Itwashardlysurprisingthatregularphysiciansshouldhave"discovered"inthe
nineteenthcenturythatapparentlygrowingnumbersofmenweresufferingfromsexualmalfunctions.Thecynicalmightconcludethatthediscoveryorinventionofa
somaticbasisofnervousnesswaspredictablebecauseitjustifiedphysicians'colonizationofalucrativefieldpreviouslymonopolizedbyquacks.Rejuvenation
treatments,forexample,wereverymuchindemandbywealthymalepatientsattheturnofthecentury.101Themoresympatheticmightarguethatdoctorssimply
failedtonotethattheirpessimisticprognosticationswerebasedonanexaminationofaselfselectedsampleofoverlyanxiouspatients.Ofcoursethebleakpicturethat
manydoctorspaintednodoubtcreatedanxietieswheretheyhadpreviouslynotexisted.SexualmoderationhadlongbeenpreachedintheWesternworldnowitwas
backedupwithdiseasesanctions.102

Arealman,doctorsinformedtheirreaders,wasforceful."Nervousness,"declaredProfessorKrafftEbing,Germany'sleadingsexologist,"isonlythemildest
expressionofaninferiororganizationofthecentralnervoussystemtendingtowardsdegenerationintheanthropological,biologicalandclinicalsensesoftheword."103
Whendoctorsreferredtoimpotenceas"lossofmanhood,"theymeantjustthat.Traditionallycowardicewasequatedwithimpotencyandvirilitywithhonor.104Ina
modernizingworld,physicianscontinuedtoattributeanynumberofaman'ssocialandpsychologicalfailingstosexualmalfunctions.Men'snervousnessandfearof
honeymoon''fiascos"presumablycouldhaveonlyrisenastheywererepeatedlytoldthatthepressuresofmodernlifenecessarilyproducedcasualties.Aculturethat
embracedSpencerianifnotDarwiniannotionsofthe"survivalofthefittest"naturallyenoughregardedthepurportedriseinthenumberofthenervoustotheinabilityof
theinherentlyweaktostanduptothestressesandstrainsofrapidsocialchange.Theselfconfidentwelcomedsuchpressuresastheywouldnecessarilysortoutthe
weakfromthestrong.105Yetevenhealthymen,doctorswarned,whodidnotcarefullyhusbandtheirphysicalandpsychologicalresourcesmighttumbleintotheranks
oftheweakandnervous.Policingandjudgingwhatwasexcessivewasataskappropriatedbyphysicians.Whereasinthepast"masculinity"wasdeterminedinlarge
partbytheexplicitdisplaysofthesocial,economic,andpoliticalpoweronewielded,nowdoctorsweredeclaringitto

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beamoremysteriousqualitythatonlythetrainedprofessionalcouldaccuratelyjudge.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

AyearbeforetheDesctestrial,HenriMartin,anOblatepriest,raisedthewarningthatQuebecmoralitywasthreatenedbythediscussionsofcontraceptionand
sexualitythatwerefilteringintotheprovincefrombothFranceandtheUnitedStates."Ourjudges,"hepredicted,"willknowonlytoowellhowtodealvigorouslywith
thewretches,convictedinthecourtsofsuchutterances."106Hewasprovedright.JudgeLacroixwasmotivatedbythebeliefthatsocietywasendangeredbyurban
youthsbeingoversexed,whereasDr.Fauconneylamentedthefactthatsexualvigorwasendangeredbycitylife.Thisdialogueofthedeafalertsustoanimportantsea
changeinthediscussionofWesternsexualitythatwastakingplaceattheturnofthecentury,ashiftfromaconcernwithmale"excesses"toaconcernformale
"arousal."Itwasinthiscontextthatthepervertwasinvented.

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Seven
Sadists
Inthemid1890s,JosephVacher,adischargedsoldier,committedaseriesofhorrificsexualassaultsandmurdersacrossruralFrance.AlexandreLacassagne,the
country'sleadingexpertinlegalmedicine,concludedhisreviewoftheseapparentlyinexplicablecrimeswiththeassertionthatVacherwasnotinsanehewasasadist.
"Certainlyheisabnormalasregardsthesatisfactionofhissexualinstinct.VacherhadspontaneouslyputintopracticethetheoriesofdeSade."1 Thequestionsraised
byLacassagne'srevealingwordslieattheheartofthischapter.Sexcrimeswerenothingnewwhynowcallamanwhocommittedthemasadist?Whatwassadism?
Howdidtheconceptmaketheworldmoreintelligible?Inwhatwaysdidsuchaconceptframenotionsof"normal"masculinity?

Thetermsadismonlyenteredthemedicalvocabularysometimeinthe1880s.OnecouldaccordinglyarguethatstrictlyspeakingthemarquisdeSadeshouldnotbe
describedasa"sadist."Thesocialconstructionofthesadisttookplaceinthelastdecadesofthenineteenthcenturynottheeighteenthaspartoftheelaborationof
thesexualidentitiesofahostofmale"perverts"homosexuals,masochists,fetishists,andexhibitionists.Theclassificationanddefinitionofsexualpathologies
representedinpartanewmedicalizationofsexuality.Intheworksofsexologistswhodemandeddetailedconfessionsfromtheirclientseruptedintoprint"thespeaking
pervert."2 Before,suchmenweresilencedortheirmutteringsignorednowcarefulreportswerekeptoftheirincriminatingstatements.Inclassicaltimesvirtuallythe
wholerangeofsexualpracticeshadbeencategorized,butinthelatenineteenthcenturycertainsortsofsexualdeviantswerediscoveredoronemightsay"invented."
Whatdoctorsnowdeclaredtobeimportantwasnotsomuchwhatamandidaswhatamanwashavingadoptedanessentialistmodel,theyshiftedattentionfrom
''doing"to"being."Wesawthissameprocessinthedebateoverfloggingwhen"vagrant"and"idle"ceasedbeingadjectivesandbecamenouns.IanHack

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inghasarguedthatbythisprocess,"akindofpersoncameintobeingatthesametimeasthekinditselfwasbeinginvented.Insomecases,thatis,ourclassifications
andourclassesconspiretoemergehandinhand,eacheggingtheotheron."3

Butsexologydidnotsimplycreateitssubjects."Sadism"wasasmuchaliteraryasascientificconstruct.DeSadewashimselfawriteroffictions,manyofwhose
themesweretakenupbythedecadentnovelistsofthe1880sbeforetheywerepursuedbydoctors.Accordingly,theincreaseduseofthetermsadismattheendof
thecenturydidnotmeanthattherewasanynecessaryincreaseinviolentsexualactsnoranyrealgrowthinpsychiatricknowledge.Realitywasmorelikelycopyingart
thanartreality.4 Whywerebothdoctorsandnovelistsattheendofthenineteenthcenturysomorbidlyobsessedwithwhattheyregardedassexualperversity?In
whatfollowsitwillbearguedthattheirconcernswerenotsparkedsomuchbythenewthreatspurportedlyposedtosocietybyperverts,asbysuchdisturbingsocial
phenomenaasthedeclineoffertilityratesandtheriseofthewomen'smovement,whichweretakenaschillingevidenceofthefailureofthe"normal"toembrace
appropriategenderroles.Inparticulartheemergenceoftheconceptofsadismwasasymptomofalatenineteenthcenturymaleidentitycrisis.Sadism,thischapter
willsuggest,wasprimarilyusedbypubliccommentatorstopolicemalebehaviorandsoplayedanotinsignificantroleintheconstructionofmodernnotionsofnormal
masculinity.Theapparentexplanatorypowersthatsocialinvestigatorsattributedtothenotionofsadismareaccordinglyonlyfullyunderstandablewhenplacedinthe
contextoftheliterary,cultural,andpoliticalconcernsofthefindesicle.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

On1September1895atBnonces(Ain),elevenyearoldAlexandreLegerwasaskedbyastrangertocomeintothewoodstoseesomethingpretty.Theboy
refused.LaterthatdayfifteenyearoldJeanMarieRobin,noticingthatthecattlehadbeenallowedtowanderintoacloverfield,setouttolookforthevillage
shepherd,sixteenyearoldVictorPortalier.JeanMariediscoveredinaditchVictor'ssexuallyabused,butchered,anddisemboweledbody.5 Twoyearslater,onthe
afternoonof4August1897,astonecutteratChampuis(Rhne),respondingtorepeatedcriesforhelp,subduedandheldforthegendarmesaloutwhohadattempted
tomolestafarmwoman.Theassailant,avagrantbythenameofJosephVacher,wason7Septemberfoundguiltyofassaultandsentencedtothree

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monthsinjail.AshisdescriptionmatchedthatofthesuspectedmurdererofVictorPortalier,hewashandedovertomileFourquet,ajuged'instruction,whohad
since1895beenstruckbythesimilarityofthedescriptionofthesuspectsinanumberofruralmurderswiththatofthetrampseenwithPortalier.Vacherwasquickly
identifiedbywitnessestotheoutrageatBnonces.Buttothehorrorofhisinterrogators,VacheralsoconfessedtonotonlykillingPortalier,butalsotothemurderand
sexualviolationofanadditionalsevenfemalesandthreemales.6

Vacher'sfirstvictimhadbeenatwentyoneyearoldfemaleworkerinthe,IsreinMay1894thesecondinNovember1894athirteenyearoldfarmer'sdaughterin
theVarthethirdinMay1895aseventeenyearoldfemaledayworkerintheCted'OrthefourthinAugust1895afiftyeightyearoldwidowintheSavoie.
Vacher'sfifth,sixth,andseventhvictims,allkilledinSeptember1895,wereVictorPortalierintheAin,asixteenyearoldfarmer'sdaughterintheDrme,anda
fourteenyearoldmaleshepherdintheArdche.Ayearlater,inSeptember1896,Vacherclaimedhiseighthvictim,anineteenyearoldwomantendingaflockinthe
AllierhisninthinOctober1896,afourteenyearoldgirlshepherdintheHauteLoirehistenthinMayof1897,afourteenyearoldboyvagabondintheRhneand
hiseleventhandlastinJune1897alsointheRhneathirteenyearoldboyshepherd.AlthoughVacherconfessedtothemurderandsexualviolationofseven
femalesandfourmales,theauthorities,notingtheunexplainedhiatusinhisattacksbetweenSeptember1895andSeptember1896,suspectedhimofbeingresponsible
forasmanyassixteenotherruralkillings.

Shouting,"GlorytoJesus!GlorytoJoanofArc!Tothegreatestmartyrofalltime!AndglorytotheGreatSavior!,"JosephVacheronthe26October1898entered
thecourd'assisesofthedepartmentoftheAinsittingatBourgtofacethechargeofmurder.7 Thetrialtookplacebetweenthe26and28Octoberunderthe
presidencyofM.leconseillerCoston.M.CharbonnierappearedforthedefenseM.Ducherwastheprocureur.Fortynine,witnessestestified,includingVacher's
shamefacedbrothersandsisters.TheaccusationwasthatVacher,drivenbytheoverexcitationofashamefulpassion,hadmercilesslykilledunsuspectingvictims.He
hadshowedhissanity,arguedtheprosecution,inpickingontheweakandisolated,inneverreceivingasmuchasascratch,andinhidingthebodiesofhisvictims
afterwards.The"sangfroid"hedemonstratedexcludedthenotionofhisbeingthevictimof"alinationsmentales.''

ThequestionthecourtdealtwithwasnotifVacherhadcommittedmur

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der,butwhy.Whatsortofpersonwashe?Vacher'ssimpleresponsewasthathewasamadman.AmultitudeofwitnessesconcurredthatVacherhad,inabrief
twentynineyears,livedatragicandviolentlife.Born16November1869atBeaufort(Isre),hecamefromapoorfamilyofelevenbrothersandsisters.Atfourteen
hehadbeensentouttoworkasashepherdforM.DeclerieuxatStGenisLaval.Theboy'speculiarnaturewasnotedearlyon.Ifhecriedlikeadog,Vacher
repeatedlyinsisted,itwasbecauseofthebitehehadreceivedasachildfromarabidanimal.Butsomeneighborsclaimedthathehadfromthefirstbeenabrutal,
violent,andcraftycharacter.Attheearlyageoftwelve,accordingtoFranoisBouvier,alandownerfromBeaufort,Vacherhadtriedtostrangleabrother.

ManyofVacher'sdifficultieswithotherswereattributedtothesexualconflictsheexperiencedindealingwithmales.Hedidlearntoreadandwriteandateighteen
hadenteredthemonasteryofthefrresMaristesasapostulant.Helefttwoyearslater.Witnessesstatedthathewasexpelledbythebrothersbecausehesubjected
someofhiscomradestoodiousandinfamousacts.Attheveryleast,hehadshown"hiscelery"toothersand,accordingtoafriend,"ilavaitmasturbsescamarades"
andattemptedanact"contrenature''withtwelveyearoldMarcelinBourde.8 Onalateroccasionheattemptedtoclimbintobedwithamanwhoseroomhewas
sharing.ThelatterreportedhehadthreatenedVacherwithachair,"addingthatwewerenotinAfrica."9 Contractingavenerealdisease,hesoughtcuresinLyonand
Grenoble.Heclaimedincourtthathehad,thankstoDrs.GailletonandDsiratthe"hospicedel'Antiquaille,"beenmiraculouslycuredofhis"secretdisease."In
Lyonhetookupthetradeofpapermaker.Hereheagainmanifestedanabnormallyviolenttemper,reportedlymenacingafellowworkerwithaknife.Exemployers
claimedthathespoutedanarchistideas,andacolleaguerecalledthat"weusedtosaythathehadascrewloose."10

InNovember1890VacherbeganhismilitaryserviceatBesanonwiththeSixtiethArtilleryRegiment.Plungedoncemoreintoanallmaleenvironment,Vacherfound
thathis"inversiontendencies"elicitedhiscomrades'hostility.Unlikethemhedidnotdrinkorgotothebrothels.Hismessmatesregardedhimasabigotand
brownnoser.Asa"blue"orrookie,hewasaccordinglysubjectedtomuchroughhazingthatreachedsuchlevelsthatevenhisofficersprotested.Vacher'sresponse,
truetoform,wasmoredeadlyononeoccasionherepliedtothebarrackroombullies'attempttotriphimupbyfiringhisrifleatthem.Enragedwhennotnamed
corporal,hethreatenedtobayonetaroommate.Heattackedanoncommis

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sionedofficerwitharazor.Hisfellowrecruitsbecamesoterrifiedoftheonewhomtheycalledthe"bear"orthe"madman"thattheysleptwithbayonetsunsheathed.
CaptainGreilsammer,Vacher'slieutenantwhenhewasintheSixtiethRegiment,laterrecalledhavingtoreporthimasabadcharacterwhowasalwayslookingfor
victims.

ButVacherwasasmuchamenacetohimself.Hewasknowntocryoutinhissleepandstrikehisheadagainstthebarracks'swallsandononeoccasiontrytocuthis
ownthroat.InOctober1891hisparanoiddelusions9ledtohimbeingputundermedicalobservation.In1893hisincoherencewassuchthathewasfirsthospitalized
andthenallowedtogoonconvalescentleave.Inthisconfusedstate,Vacherfoundhimselfnotonlytauntedbymenbutrejectedbyawoman.AtBeaulesDameshe
askedLouiseBarrant,whomhehadmetinBesanon,tomarryhim.Fortheshorttimethathehadknownher,hehadprovenhimselfinsanelyjealousofrivals,
threateningherandotherswithaknife.Whensherefusedhisofferofmarriageheshotherandthenturnedthegunonhimself.Shewasslightlywounded,andVacher
onlysucceededinlodgingabulletinhisownskull.Theslug,whichcouldnotberemovedfromhisrightear,causeddeafnessandfacialparalysis.Theattackwas
treatedbytheauthoritiesasasimple"crimepassionel,"andinJuly1893VacherwassenttotheasylumatDole,fromwhichhereportedlytwiceescaped.Hewas
arrestedinBesanon,judgedbytheauthoritiestobeirresponsibleandsenttotheasylumofSt.Robertinhishomedepartment.TherehewastreatedbyDr.Dufour,
who,afteramerefivemonths,optimisticallydeclaredVacher,whostillhadabulletlodgedinhisskull,tohavebeenrestoredtomentalhealth.Hewasreleasedin
April1894andthenbegan,inVacher'swords,hishorrible"pilgrimage,"whichinthreeyearsresultedinthelossofatleastelevenlives.

IncourttheoverarchingargumentofVacher'smelodramaticdefensewasthathewasonlyresponsibletoGod,ofwhomhewasaninstrument.Hewashappytobe
photographedwithhisbibleandstaff,onwhichhehadinscribedwordsofpraiseforMaryofLourdes.Raisinghisvoicetoashout,heconcludedhiscourtaddress
withthewords:"TobeabletoresistmyparticularpassionforsolongrequiredProvidencetokeepspecialwatch"overme."11Vacher'ssecondtackwastoclaim
thatasachildhehadbeenbittenbyarabiddogandhisbloodpoisonedbythemedicinehewaslatergiven.The"guilty''werethereforetheempiricswhosoldcures
forrabies.Havingabulletinhisheadduetohisattemptedsuicidehedescribedasathirdextenuatingcircumstance.AndfinallyVacheraccusedDr.Dufourofthe
asylumofSt.Robertforincompetentlylettinglooseadangerousman.

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WhenthecourtapplaudedPlantier,thestonecutterofChampuiswhohadapprehendedhim,Vacherwailed"toolate,toolate"andhitoutatthegendarmes,saying
thattheyshouldhavearrestedhimmuchearlier.Whyhadsomuchbloodbeenshed?Theasylumdoctorswereguilty:"Becauseofthefaultsoftheasylumswhich
succeededinhavingtheinnocentturnoneachother,alas."12Indeed,Vacherwentontopresenthiscrimesasasortofprovidentialmissionagainstpsychiatry.Why
hadmurdersbeencommitted?"Inordertoprovideawarningofwhathappensinthelunaticasylums."13HecomparedhimselftoJoanofArc,"unemartyrcomme
moi."''Yes,inreadingabook,IunderstoodmymissionJoanofArcislikemeshewaslockedupinanironcageshehadtodefendherselfagainstthedoctors."14
AndJoanlikehimandhisvictimshadbeenashepherd.

Thepublic,thoughcallingforVacher'sdeath"l'eau!l'eau!"assumedthathewasinsane.15Journalistscoveringthetrialweremesmerizedbyhiscurious
behavior.Hewasaphysicalandmentaloddity.Helistenedimpatientlytothetestimonyofwitnesses,raisinghishandstotheheavens,coveringhisface.Hewascalm
atsomemoments,menacingthenext.He,whomthespectatorspresumedwouldlooklikethepersonificationofevil,was,withhisnervousticsandoutbursts,
unexpectedlymorelikeacomicmonkey.16Hehadamagpielikememoryandincludedoddpassagesofwhathehadreadinhisdefensestatement.Heexpected
responsesfromtheaudiencetohishodgepodgeofassertionsandwasnotdisappointed.ThecorrespondentofLeMatinreportedthat"cesinistremlo,"withthe
accused'seccentriclanguage,causedhilarity.HiscomparinghimselftoJoanofArcandotherpreposterouscomments,ledtorepeatedoutburstsoflaughter.But
reporterswerealsoawedbytheaccused'sincrediblestrengthhehadlongavoidedcapturebywalkingamazingdistancesofsixtytoeightykilometersaday.

Vacherneverdeniedanyofhiscrimeshisbasicargumentwasthattheywerenotpremeditated.Heinsistedthatthedoctorswhoclaimedhewassanewereliars.
Howdidtheyknowwhathefeltorthought?Heinvokedtheverynumberofhisattacksasthefinalconfirmationofhisselfproclaimedmadness:"Doyoubelievethata
manwhodidwhatIdidisnotmad?TosaythatIamresponsible,istobemorecriminalthanme."17ButthecourtwasnotimpressedbyVacher'srailings.The
presidentchidedVacherfornotbeingagoodliar.Theaccused,warnedthejudge,hadtogiveuphismeanderingargumentsanddecidewhetherhisdogbiteorhis
providentialmissionwereresponsibleforhisdeeds.Themedicalexpertsdeclaredhimtobesane.Intheendhewasfoundguilty,andon31Decem

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ber1898ontheChampsdeMarsatBourgbeforeanimmenseclamorouscrowd,whichbayedforhisblood,hewaspubliclyguillotined.18

Vacher'sfearfulreputationenteredthecanonofpeasantfolkloreinsongssuchas"LagrandecomplaintesurVacherletueurdebergers."

Petitsbergerspleinedepeines
Lesoir,prenezgardevous
Ilestdesbteshumaines,
Inhumaines,inhumaines
Lchesassassinsoufous
Plusterriblesquelesloups.19

Butthebourgeoisreadingpublicquicklylostinterestinthecase.Thesameweekthathewastried,theFrenchnewspaperswerefilledwithaccountsoftheattempted
revisionoftheDreyfusaffair.ThencamereportsofMarchand'salarmingclashwiththeBritishatFashodaintheSudanandKaiserWilhelmII'sprovocativevisitto
Jerusalem.YetifpublicattentionwasturnedawayfromtheprovincesandbacktoParis,themedicalcommunitywasfarfromfinishedwithVacherandthelessons
thatcouldbedrawnfromhiscase.20

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

OnemighthaveexpectedthedoctorstohavebeenreceptivetoVacher'sclaimstobeamadman.Agooddealhasrecentlybeenwrittenaboutthewayinwhich
psychiatristsinlatenineteenthcenturytrials,forbothhumanitarianreasonsandinordertoexalttheirprofession'sexpertise,advancedtheconceptofmental
irresponsibility.21PatriziaGuarnieri,forexample,inACaseofChildMurder:LawandScienceinNineteenthcenturyTuscanyprovidesacarefulanalysisofsuch
medicalinvolvementinthe1876trialoftheItalianmultiplemurdererCallisto(Carlino)Grandi.Histrial,likeVacher's,wasascientificspectaclenotGrandi'sguiltbut
hissanitybecametheissue.Thedefensestatedthathewasanimbecilewholackedthecunningofthecriminalandbehavedlikeachild.22Hemust,thedoctors
argued,haveinternallesionstheycitedhisphysicaldeformitiesandatavisms,includinghisextratoeandimmaturesexorgansasevidenceofhisdegeneratestate."The
appearanceoftheaccused,"arguesGuarnieri,"providedaperfectopportunitytoprovehowmodern,objectivepsychiatrycouldaloneprovidesuperiorexpertiseto
theadvantageofsocietyingeneral."23Themembersofthepositivistcriminologicalschooldidnotreallyexplaintheaccused'smotiveindeedtheyweremore
interestedinthecriminalthantheactbutstillenjoyedagooddealofpublicsupport.

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"Notonlywasit[crimonolgy]populardespiteitstheoreticalweaknesses,butthatpopularityactuallydependedonthem.Itwasrootedintheabilityorrefusaltocollect
andexplainthemeaningofsicknessandviolencewithinalivingcontext.Bydepictingadangeroustype,eithercriminalormad,withanaberrationwhichwas
unavoidableandmotiveless,itremovedallresponsibilityforthesetragediesfromthedeprivationsofpovertyandsuffering."24Suchanalysesreflectedthegeneral
tendencyamongnineteenthcenturysocialandmedicalscientiststoexploitthefindingsofphrenology,physiognomy,andcranialcapacitytoprovideaphysicalbasis
forcharactertraitsandracialdifferences.

InFrancepsychiatristsadoptedsimilartacticstoincreasetheirprofessionalpower.AfterP,convictedofmurderandnecrophilia,wasexecutedatBeauvaison13
November1879,doctorsattheautopsyrevealedhispronouncedbrainlesions.Amadmanhadbeenputtodeath.V.A.CornilandM.V.Galippesarcastically
commented,"Ifguillotininghastobeincludedinthetreatmentofmentalillness,letitbesostated."25Dr.Madeuf,whoappearedforVacher'sdefense,remindedthe
courtthatsimilarlyafterMenesclouwasguillotinedin1880evidenceofhisdamagedbraininparticularthedegenerationofhisfrontallobeshadbeendiscovered.
"PreviouslyMenesclou,althoughavictimofsuchasofteningofthebrainthatafterhisexecutionitwasimpossibletomakeamoldofhisbrain,hadneverthelessbeen
guillotinedsuchathingshouldneverhappenagain."26Butin1898theleadingFrenchpsychiatristschose,despitealltheevidencetothecontrary,toregardVacheras
sane.27Thisreflectedinpartthatinthecriminologicalworldofthe1890stheItalianstressonbiologicaldeterminismwasbeingusurpedbytheFrenchfocuson
pathologicalsocialforces.28Nevertheless,themedicalwitnesses'stanceintheVachertrialwasstillrathercuriousinasmuchaspsychiatristsweresayingthataman
whohadbeentwiceinstitutionalizedandwhoaftertherepeatedassaultsinhisregimentandtheeventsofBaumelesDameswasdescribedbydoctorsascrazywas
actuallysane.ThethreemedicalexpertscalledbythecourtinsistedthatVacherwasneitheranepilepticnoran"impulsif"butan"immoralviolent''occasionallyplagued
bymelancholydelirium,paranoia,andthoughtsofsuicide.WhatmadethediagnosisofVacher'smentalstateallthemoreimportantwasthatitwaschieflyestablished
byFrance'sleadingexpertincriminology,ProfessorAlexandreLacassagne.29

LacassagneisbestknowntodayastheleaderoflatenineteenthcenturyFrenchlegalmedicinewhofoughtagainstCesareLombrosoandthepositivistschoolof
criminalanthropology,whichheldthattreatmentratherthanpunishmentwasneededforthe"borncriminals"whocouldnothelp

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themselves.30Lacassagne,astaunchdefenderofthedeathpenalty,soughttoshifttheemphasisincriminalpsychiatryfromthebiologicaltothesocialdeterminantsof
crime.Twoofhisepigramsweretobecomefamous:"Thesocialmilieuisthemothercultureofcriminalitythemicrobeisthecriminal,anelementwhichgains
significanceonlyatthemomentwhenitfindsthebrothwhichmakesitferment"and"Societieshavethecriminalstheydeserve."31TheFrenchschoolattributedmost
criminalbehaviortopathologicalsocialinfluencessuchaspoverty,alcoholism,poorhousing,andbadcompanions.Theyadvancedapositivisticmessage,butone
sufficientlyclosetojurists'orthodoxstressonindividualresponsibilitytobewelcomedbythecourts.32

LacassagnefollowedsuchatackintheVachercase.WhileVacherscreamedthatthedoctorswerelying,Lacassagnearguedthattheaccusedwassane,thathehad
alwaysbeenplayingaroleandwasinfactarathermaladroitsimulator.Tomakehiscase,LacassagneassertedthatVacherhada"system."Vacherhadtoldsome
witnesses,includinga"mouton"placedinhiscellthatheonlyplayedthefooltogetaroundthedoctors.Realizingearlyonthathemightpassasamadman,heonly
admittedtocrimesthatappearedtobemotivelessandclaimedtoactwithoutthinking.Butinfact,Lacassagneargued,proofthatVacherwasnotpushedsolelyby
pervertedsexualpassionswasindicatedbyevidencethatherationallytookprecautions,hidhisbodies,robbedhisvictims,andsuccessfullyeludedcapture.Though
offeringnoevidence,LacassagnefurtherassertedthatVacherworkedwithabandof"chemineaux''andattributedtohimuptotwentyeightothermurders.Andfinally
LacassagneaskedhowVachercouldclaimtobemadwhenhehadbeenpromotedbythearmytotherankofsergeant?33HereLacassagneblunderednomilitary
witnessesimaginedthatmadnessmightdisqualifyonefrompromotion.

WhyhadVachercommittedhiscrimes?Vacher'sargumentwasthattheenormityofhiscrimesprovedthathewasamadman.Thisclaimwasacceptedbysome.Dr.
MaximedeFleurydeclared:
Vacher,thekillerofshepherds,aconsciousimpulsive,isreallyasortofmadman,thoughaboutthedaytodaythingsoflifehereasonswithouttoomuchdifficulty.Thevery
excessesofhisheinouscrimesshouldsavehimfromthehandoftheexecutionerifhewaschargedwithonlyonemurderonewouldcondemnhimtodeathwithouteven
subjectinghimtoamedicolegalexaminationbuthesomanytimessatedhisdreadfulcraving,andfornopossiblemotive,fornothing,forpleasure,thatitisreallynecessaryto
dealwithhimaswithabrutelackingfullconsciousness.34

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EnricoFerri,theItaliancriminologist,agreedthatVacherwasclearlymadandthattheFrenchexpertssimplylackedthecouragetodefendhim."Vacher,theysay,
pretendedtobemad.Now,itiswellknownthatthefeigningofmadnessisalwaysapsychopathologicalsymptom."35MagnusHirschfeld,thepioneeringGermansex
reformer,concurredthattruesadistswerepsychopathswhodidnotknowwhattheyweredoingandthat,ashorribleaswerethecrimesoflustmurderers,onlysevere
psychopathiccaseswerecapableofcommittingthem.ThecourthaddeclaredthatVacher'scrimeswere"thoseofanantisocial,bloodthirsty,andsadisticpersonwho
believesthatbecauseofhisearliermadnessandthefactthathewasnotthenpunished,hehasapermitfortheperpetrationofhishorribledeeds."Hirschfeld's
responseswasthat"thisreport,assomanyothers,isbasedmoreuponmoralisticthanuponpsychologicalandpsychiatricprinciples."36

ThequestionofwhetherVacherwasinsaneornotcannotbeansweredhere.Whatwecantrytotracearethesocial,cultural,andpoliticalpreoccupationsthat
coloredthefindingsofLacassagneandhisfollowers.Inthefirstplace,professionalsolidaritynodoubtplayedaroleinthedoctors'refutationofVacher'sclaimtobe
mad.Vacherhadbeendeclaredsanebyanesteemedcolleague,Dr.DufouroftheasylumatSt.Robert.Vacherwasnowarguingthatthepsychiatrists,inreleasinga
madman,wereresponsibleforhisatrociousdeeds.37Theexpertsmayhavefeltsomeminorembarrassmentinnotingthatthemilitarydoctorshadbeenwrongin
thinkingVachercrazy,butthepsychiatristssawthattosupporttheaccused'sclaimthathewasinsanewouldputthemintheimpossiblepositionofattackingtheirown
professionandadmittingtobeingaccomplicestomurder.Drs.Lacassagne,Rebatel,andPierretaccordinglyconcurredthatVacherwasnotmadheonlypretended
tobe.38

ThesecondmotivethattheFrenchprofessorsoflegalmedicinehadindemolishingVacher'sclaimwasthatindoingsotheycoulddemonstratehowsophisticatedthe
scienceofcriminologyhadbecome.AnthropometricmeasurementsweretakenofallofVacher'slimbshisscars,weight,height,andeyecoloringwerenotedanda
radiographicanalysismadeofhishead.Investigationswerecarriedouttodeterminethatheborenosignsofphysicaldegeneration,thathesufferedfromnodebilitating
childhoodsickness,thathisfamilycontainednomad,epileptic,oridioticmembers.TheexpertsconcededthatthebulletinVacher'sheadthewoundstill
suppuratingdidcausefacialparalysisontherightsideofhisfaceanddeafnessinoneear,buttheycheerfullynotedthatVacherhadnohistoryofhallucinations.39
ThankstotheautopsycarriedoutafterVacher'sexecution,thevoy

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euristicpublicfurtherlearnedthathehadalargepenisandanatrophiedlefttesticlebutanormalanusandthereforehadnotbeenapassivepederast.Hisbrain,which
weighedfifteenhundredgrams,wasslicedopenbythedoctors,whodeclaredittobenormal.Itwasphotographedandamoldtakenofit.Noonefounditironicthat
themedicalexperts,whocondemnedVacherformutilatinghisvictims,proceededafterhisexecutiontosubjecthisbodytosuchameticulousdissection.40Inshortall
thesortsofeffortsbycriminalanthropologistsinparticulartheItalianstodetectthestigmataoftheborncriminalweremadeandthefindingsdeclaredbythe
Frenchtobeofnogreatimportance.LacassagneauthoritativelyassertedthatthosewhomightclaimthatabloodthirstykillerlikeVacherwouldhavetohavebeen
sufferingfromsomemajorphysicalorpsychologicalhandicapwereprovenwrongtherewasnothingirresistibleorimpulsiveinVacher'sacts.41

Thethirdand,forthepurposesofthischapter,mostimportantpreoccupationthatcoloredLacassagne'sviewoftheVachercasewashisinterestinthenewconcept
ofsadism.Vacher'strialwasnotresponsibleforspawningtheconcept,butitprovidedtheoccasionfornineteenthcenturyFrenchpsychiatrists'mostextensive
discussionoftheterm.WhydidVachercommithisbloodydeeds?LacassagnequotedextensivelyfromthepsychiatricreportonMenesclou,the1880murderer,
whichhelpfullycontrasted"imbcilesdel'intelligence"to"dbilesdusentiment."Thelatter,thoughreasoningbeings,claimedLacassagne,didnothavethemoral
repugnancesofthenormal.42Vachermanifestedjustsuchfailingsbyhisdabblinginanarchism,vagabondism,andhomosexuality.43Lacassagne'spointwasthat
Vacherwasnotinsanebutanantisocialsadist.Hisactsweretheworkofa"monstrouscriminal"notthoseofamadman.44Andashorrificassadistsmightbe,many
werecompletelysane.Vacherwasasadistwhowasarousedbythesightoffleshbutthatdidnotmakehimirresponsible.45

WhatdidLacassagnemeanbysadism?Dr.Marciat,whocontributedadiscussionofsadismtoLacassagne'svolumeonVacher,beganwithThoinot'sdefinition.46
Theperversionofthegenitalinstinctthatisknowntodaybythenameofsadismconsistsinfindingsufferinginahumanbeingaconditionalwaysnecessaryandattimes
sufficientforsexualenjoymentthissufferingisofaveryvariabledegree,attimesslight,attimessevereorofadegreeofatrociousrefinement,andthesubjecteithercausesit
tobeinflicted,orseesitinflicted,orfinallyinflictsithimselfonsomehumanbeing.47

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Yetwhatsadismwasfromthepointofviewoflegalmedicinewasleftrathervaguenospecificactwasrequired.Lacassagneandhiscolleaguesusedthetermasa
sortofmorallabeltodesignatethosewhoweremonstersbutnotmad.

Theterm"sadism"hadfirstbeenusedonrareoccasionsbycriticsinthe1850stodescribethedecadentthemesfoundinthewritingsofFlaubertandBaudelaire.48
Thewordonlybegantobewidelyemployedinthe1880s.DeSade,whohadbeenalmostforgottenformuchofthenineteenthcentury,wassimultaneously
rediscoveredinthe1880sbybothpsychiatristsandnovelists.IsidoreLiseuxrepublishedJustine,JulietteandLaPhilosophiedansleboudoir,andseveral
biographiesofthemarquissoonfollowed.49FewmayhaveactuallyreaddeSade'sworksveryclosely,butaninterestinhisideasquicklymushroomed.Theydrew
theattentioninEnglandofSwinburneandWildeandinGermanyofHerbst,Eulenberg,Rutter,andBlaubert,buthisfirstandgreatestappealwasinFrance.50Those
decadentswhodabbledinsadisticthemesofblackmasses,theoccult,demonicpederasty,andflagellation,whodeclaredselfconsciousevilbetterthanignorance,
andwhoenvisagedsocietyculminatinginsacrificeanddeath,includedtheGoncourts,GuillaumeApollinaire,Barbeyd'Aurevilly,LonBloy,PaulBourget,Villiersde
l'IsleAdam,Rachilde(MarguriteVallette),JeanLorraine,andPierreLouys.51MostoftheliteraryacolytesofdeSade,thoughtheyparadedtheirirreverenceand
atheism,wereonthepoliticalright,avowedenemiesofmasssociety.52

J.K.Huysmans'sRebours(1884)wasthedecedents'keywork,fullofreferencestoeroticexperimentsandcelebrationsof"demoniacerotomania."Theauthor
toyedselfconsciouslywithsubjectssuchasabortionandhomosexuality,transgressingpowerfultaboosinthesearchforforbiddenfruit.InLbas(1891)he
demonstratedthesamestrivingforeffectinlovinglydevotinganentirechaptertohorrificscenesofthefifteenthcenturynoblemanGillesdeRais'sdisemboweling
childrenandmasturbatingontheirintestines,exactlytheoutragesofwhichVacherwouldlaterbeaccused.53Huysmanssostrainedtoshockbyoverturningall
contemporaryviewsthathisworksquicklydated.LikeBarbeyd'Aurevilly,heneverfreedhimselffromhispreoccupationwithCatholicismandthefocusofhisformof
sadismlaynotsomuchinsexualcrueltyasinsacrilege.54ArmanddePontmartinreferredtosuchwritersasthinkinglikedeMaistreandwritinglikedeSade.55A
similaranticlericalismwasreflectedinthesadistictableauxofpriestsflagellatingwomenproducedbywritersontheleft,suchasLoTaxilandOctaveMirbeau.56
Mirbeau,incastigating

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theantiDreyfusardsas"sadists"providesausefulreminderthat,thoughwriterswhoharboredsadisticfantasiesweredrawnfromthepoliticalleftaswellastheright,
bothfactionssharedapenchantforpronouncedmisogynisticthemes.57

ThebirthoftheliterarycultofsadismwasinpartprecipitatedbytheconservativesocialreactiontothedefeatofFrancebyGermanyin1870andtheParisCommune
of1871.58Pessimists,disgustedbytheencroachmentsofmasssociety,retreatedintoelitistdaydreams.59Suchnovelistspanderedtoandexploitedthemiddleclass's
fearofdisorderandchaosassociatedwithapurportedlyrevolutionaryworkingclass.Andbythe1890sanewthreatemergedwiththeappearanceofthe"nouvelle
femme."Decadenceoffered"imaginarysolutionstorealproblems"inasmuchasitplayedwiththepossibilityoffindingfreedomfromthefettersofmasssocietyby
losingones'selfinsadisticfantasies.60Fictionalandmedicalportrayalsofsadismfedoffeachother.LacassagnenotedthatDostoievskiremarkedonthewellknown
correlationbetweenbeatingsandsexualarousalandwentontosayofZola'sLaBtehumaineinspiredinpartbyaccountsofJacktheRipper'smurdersthatit"is
awonderfulconfirmationofthenotionoftherelationswhichlinksexandviolence."61AlfredBinetsimilarlydrewmanyofhisreferencestofetishesfromfiction.And
thesexuallytroubledlearnedtobeasmuchinfluencedbyliteratureasweredoctors.SergePaulreportedthatpatientsbythe1890swerealreadycitingintheirdefense
theworksofdeSade,JeanJacquesRousseau,andSacherMasoch.62

Theliterarynotionofsadismpopularizedinthe1880sand1890swasprimarilyamanifestationofanelitistdisdainfortheconventionsofmiddleclassandmass
society.TheperversewaspersonifiedbylibertinenoblemenlikeGillesdeRais,deSade,andDesEsseintes.Butironicallytherealmenofthefindesiclewhose
actualactsledpsychiatriststolabelthemassadistswereforthemostpart,likeVacher,crudeandviolentmembersoftheverylowerclasses,whomthedecadent
novelistsmostfeared.The"real"sadists,farfrombeingpowerful,sexualsupermen,wereslavestotheirowncompulsivebehaviors.63

Yetwhenoneturnsfromtheliteraryworldtothesexologicalwritingsofthelatenineteenthcentury,onediscoversmuchthesamemorbidfascinationwithperversions.
Thetabloids,policefiles,decadentnovels,andpsychiatricjournalssharedsimilarvocabulariesandconcerns.TheEuropeanpresseschurnedoutpopularbestiariesof
sadistsorlustmurderers,boththemedicalaccountsandliterarychroniclesofbehavioralaberrations

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producingthesamesortoffetishisticliteraturethatblendedbiographyandclinicalcasehistoriesofexemplaryperverts.64TheworkofoneofLacassagne's
colleagues,Dr.AlexisLepaulard'sVampirisme:Ncrophilie,ncrosadisme,ncrophage(Lyon:Stock,1901),wasatypicalcompilation.Suchmedicalstudies
containedmuchmoralizingandlittleanalysis.Theirauthorsusuallyadoptedascattergunapproach,beginningwithGillesdeRais,thefourteenthcenturykillerof
children,andthenhoppingfourcenturiestothemarquisdeSadehimself.Forthenineteenthcentury,theycouldbecountedontoincludeLeger,Menesclou,Jackthe
Ripper,andahostoflesservillains.65

Whatmoststrikesthehistorianishowscientificallyuninformativethesecataloguesofsexmurdersandsadistswere.Thesadistsrangedinsocialclassfromaristocrats
tovagrantstheircrimesranfromGillesdeRais'purportedhundredsofmurdersandLeger'scannibalismandvampirismtoCharlesBertle,whoprickedorstabbed
women'sbottomsorbreasts,tothosewhocutboys'ears.Somenevermasturbated(Bertle)otherswerecompulsiveselfabusers(Xavier)somewereexcitedby
flagellationsotherswereepilepticsomesufferedfromgeneralparalysis(Leger)otherscarriedthestigmataofdegenerationsomehadbrainsthatwereobviously
damaged(P.executedatBeauvais1879,Menesclou)someborehereditarytaints(Menesclou),orhadalcoholicorneuropathicparents(Garayo).Somewere
bizarreotherswereapparentlynormal.Thismotleycollectionwasroundedupbytheclassifiersandlabeledsadists.Thegroupingsproceedednotfromaclassification
oftheperpetratorsbutfromthesimilarityoftheircrimes.Thesemedicaldystopiasprovidednoguidanceonhowtocatchorcurethecriminal.Theirchieffunctionwas
toserveasacautionaryliteraturethatcouldbebrandishedagainstwhatwereregardedasthesocialorpsychicvicesthatthreatenedsociety.66

Whatsortsofthreatsprecipitatedtheconstructionofsadism?Onemightimaginethatthesadistrepresentedthedangerposedbyahypermasculinity.Certainlythe
creationoftheconceptof"sadism"spoketoacontemporaryconcernforgenderrelations.Sadism,likealltheperversionscataloguedinthelatenineteenthcentury,
wasagenderednotionthatcouldonlybefullyunderstoodinthecontextofwhatcontemporariessawasappropriatemaleorfemalebehaviorthatmenwere
supposedtobeaggressiveandwomenpassive.67Aggressivenesshadbothitscostsandbenefits.Becausemalesweresupposedtobethesexuallyaggressiveand
adventuroussex,doctorsassumedthatonlymalescouldbeperverts.Asthemalewasmorecerebralthanthefemale,hismindwasmorelikelytoovercomehis

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body.Hisdesirescouldbedegradedanddeclinefromtheactivetothepassive,fromthegenitaltotheoral,fromthemasculinetotheeffeminate.Muchifnotall
homosexuality,forexample,wassaidtoresultfromsexualexcessesandexhaustion.68ImpotencywaspresentedbyphysicianssuchasTardieuastherevengeofthe
bodythathadgivenwaytodeviantdesires.Nineteenthcenturyexpertsnowpresentedavarietyofcorruptpracticesincludingmasturbationandsodomywhich
wereonceseenaschoices,assymptomsoftheentirepersonalityofdangerous"others."69Maledoctorsdisciplinedothermenininventingandbrandishingsuchlabels
asmasochist,exhibitionist,andsadistwhatpreviouslyhadbeenregardedasmomentarysexualpreferenceswereincreasinglytakenasrevelationsofthewholeofa
person'sbeing.70

Doctorsclaimedthatfemales,despiteevidencetothecontrary,werelargelyinhibitedbytheirinnatepassivityfromactivelyindulginginsuchvices.Hencethe
assumptionthatifamanstoodnakedinawindowandwasobservedbyawomanhewasanexhibitionistifawomanstoodnakedinawindowandwasobservedby
amanhewasavoyeur.AlfredBinet'sfamousaccountofthefetishesaccordinglydescribedonlymen'sfixationsonlips,hair,hands,boots.71Giventhegeneral
assumptionofsexualasymmetry,itfollowedthatBinettookaman'sbeingattractedtoanold,uglywomanasanindicationofsomefetishisticappeal,whilehefound
nothingpuzzlingaboutayoungwoman'smarriagetoanold,uglyman.Money,despitewhatMarxhadsaid,wasnotregardedbydoctorsasafetish.

Sadismhastobeunderstoodasjustsuchagenderedperversion,whichFrenchdoctorsemployedforbothdescriptiveandprescriptivepurposes.72Richardvon
KrafftEbing,theGermansexologist,hasoftenbeencreditedwithcoiningtheterm,butashehimselfmadeclear,itwasalreadybeingemployedinFrancewhen
PsychopathiaSexualisappearedin1886,andhisboastwassimplythathecoinedassadism'sanaloguetheconceptof"masochism."73Doctors,inspeakingof
"sadism,"weretakingoveraconceptpopularizedbywritersoffiction,andaccordinglyahistoricalanalysisoftheconcepthastotakeintoaccountwhy,inthecultural
contextofthe1880sand1890s,suchanideawas"goodtothinkwith."74

Howdiddoctorsemploytheconcept?Sadismwasfirstturnedtobysexologistsnottocurb,buttoincitemaleaggressiveness.KrafftEbing,whomLacassagne
frequentlycited,statedtherewerewidegradationsofsadism.Atthemostinnocentlevelstoodthehusbandwho,inaskingforsexinunusuallocalesorinemploying
forceintheconjugalact,exhibitedsadistictendencies.

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Itseemsprobablethatthissadisticforceisdevelopedbythenaturalshynessandmodestyofwomantowardstheaggressivemannersofthemale,especiallyduringtheearlier
periodsofmarriedlifeandparticularlywhenthehusbandishypersexual.Womannodoubtderivespleasurefromherinnatecoynessandthefinalvictoryofthemanaffordsher
intenseandrefinedgratification.Hencethefrequentrecurrenceoftheselittlelovecomedies.75

TheatavisticnotionthatintimespastsexfollowedassaultwascarriedonbytheaptlynamedAndrLamoureux,whosawsadismasahereditarytraitofthemale
seizingthefemale.76Suchatavismsresurfacedoccasionally.KrafftEbingcitedthecaseofamanwhocouldonlymakelovetohiswifeafterhavingmadehimself
angry,andMollthatofaboywhocouldonlygetanerectionwhenresisted.77Evenin"normal"sexualrelations,sexologistsdetectedinthedesiretoteaseormocka
lovedonearemnantofcruelty.

InEnglandHavelockEllisinhisdiscussionof"LoveandPain"followedthesamelineinpresentingwooingasadomesticatedformoftheearlierviolentmalepursuitof
thefemale.Malesdelightedindisplayingforceandinthe"simulacrumofpain"their"arousal"dependedonadegreeoffemaleresistance.Womendelightedin
submitting,andastheyhadtobepenetratedtheideasofpainandpleasurewerenecessarilymingledinthefemalemind.Accordinglythereexistedabiological
justificationforadegreeofmalesexualviolence.78Normalmenhadanimpulsetogivepainandnormalwomenanimpulsetoreceiveit:"Sothatweneednotunduly
deprecatethe'cruelty'ofmenwithintheselimits,norundulycommiseratethewomenwhoaresubjectedtoit."79Inotherwordsanormalmanwasinasense
''naturally"sadisticandanormalwoman"naturally"masochistic.80Atthesametime,doctorswerewarningtheirmalereadersthatmasculinitywasnotthefundamental
andunalterableelementtheymighthaveimaginedbutrathersomethingfragile.Withoutaconsciouseffortofthewilltospurnvice,onecouldpotentiallyspinoffintothe
perversions.81

Some,likeDimitryStefanowskyinan1892articleintheArchivesd'anthropologiecriminelle,confusinglyspokeofmale"sadisticpassivity"whatKrafftEbingmore
clearlycalledmasochism.82Butallcommentatorsagreedthatmasochism,beinganinherentfemaletrait,wasonlya"trueperversion"inamancommentators
specificallydefinedthesyndromeasthesexualpleasureamanassociatedwiththeideaofbeinghumiliatedbyawoman.Thevice,accordingtoLaurent,wasa
manifestationofamale'sabdicationofhislegitimatedominations.83ForFrenchreadersthemostfamousdescriptionofayouth'sdiscoveryofhismasochisticfeelings
wasthat

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whichRousseauconfidedtohisConfessions."Tobeonmykneesbeforeanimperiousmistress,toobeyherorders,tohavetoaskherforgiveness,wereformethe
sweetestpleasuresthemoremylivelyimaginationinflamedmyblood,themoreIfeltlikeanoverwhelmedlover."84Stefanowskydescribedthemanwhogaveoral
sextoawomanasapassivistwhowassubjectinghimselftoa"femmesadiste."Suchpassivity,ifunchecked,couldleadontothevictim'ssexualinversionandthe
ultimatedegradationthatofbecomingafellatorofothermen.

Ifmenhadasadisticstreak,women'smasochismwas,doctorsagreed,sonaturalasnottocountasaperversion.TheythusfollowedtheoldideapositedbyMichelet
andComtethatwomenweremore"alivetothechainofselfsacrifice."85IndeedSergePaulnotedthatsinceawomanwasmeanttoserveitwashardtonoticea
masochisticfemale.InRussia,heclaimed,theblowsawomanreceivedweretakenasproofofherspouse'slove."86InAmericaitwasbelieved,wroteG.Stanley
Hallinhisclassictextonadolescence,thattherewassomethingwrongwiththeyoungmanwhowasnotaggressive.87Inshorttheconceptof"sadism"wasfirst
employedbydoctorstofostercertainformsofmalesexuality.They,likemanyotherlatenineteenthcenturycommentators,believedthatcivilizedmenweremost
threatenednotbyexcesspassionbutbytheenervationspawnedbyurbanlife.

Sadism'ssecondfunctionwastocensorcertainformsofsexualbehavior.Althoughthesexologiststoldmenthattheyweresupposedtobesexuallyaggressive,there
werelimits.AccordingtoBinetthelinebetweenhealthysexualexcitationandperversionwascrossedwhenthefetishisticactbecamemoreimportantthanthe
heterosexualintercoursetowhichitwassupposedtolead.Whenthepaininflictedbecamethechiefsourceofaman'ssexualpleasure,hebecameapervert.Exactly
thesamepractice,ifitabettedheterosexualintercourse,couldbedeemedhealthy.Doctorsdescribedthelustmurderofthesadistnotasanactthatcouldbelocated
attheaggressiveextremeonthecontinuumofnormalmaleviolencebutasanaberrantcrimethathadnothingtodowithheterosexuality.Healthymasculinityemerged
unscathedifnotreinvigoratedfromsuchanalyses,whichbeganwiththepremisethatsexcrimeswereindividualdeviantacts,notdistortedreflectionsofnormalgender
relations.Increatingthe"sadist,"doctorsconstructedacreaturewhoroamedsomewherebeyondthenormsofmasculinesexualaggressiveness.88

Wassadismaresultofunleashedprimitivepassionsortheproductofoverrefinementasignofhypermasculinityoranevidenceofeffeminacy

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andimpotency?ThemostseriousversionofsadismlustmurderKrafftEbingdesignateda"primitiveanomaly.""Itisadisturbance(adeviation)intheevolutionof
psychosexualprocessessproutingfromthesoilofpsychicaldegeneration."89Males,needingtowinandconquerwomen,werenecessarilyaggressive,butunder
pathologicalconditionssuchadrivecould"likewisebeexcessivelydeveloped,andexpressitselfinanimpulsetosubdueabsolutelytheobjectofdesire,evento
destroyorkillit."90Lustawakenedcrueltyandcrueltyawakenedlust.Lustandangerwereoftenlinked,andintheabnormalthecustomaryinhibitorycheckswere
absent.Yetsomeinwhomthesadisticinstinctexistedfrombirthmanaged,accordingtoKrafftEbing,tofightoffsuchurges.

InFrancethemorecommonviewwasthatperversionswerenotsimplyinheritedbutacquiredasaresultofbeingovercivilized.AccordingtoSergePaulandValentin
Magnan,civilizationneededboundaries.91Buttheluxurious,feverishlifeofthecityledtoexcesses,alcoholism,menstrualproblems,tuberculosis,andpsychiatric
troubles.Sexualperversionsfollowed.Oncetheirsenseswerejaded,theblasturnedtosadism.92KrafftEbingdeclaredsadismtobecongenitaltheFrench,though
theyconcededthatthedegeneratewereparticularlysusceptible,assertedittobeanacquiredvice.SadismaccordinglywaspresentedbyFrenchpsychiatristsasa
productofinsufficientratherthanexcessivemasculinity.Lacassagneenvisagedthebrainhavingspecialorgansthatpresidedoverthefunctioningofthetwoinstinctsof
reproductionanddestruction.Thegenitalinstinctwas,asidefromtheinstinctforselfpreservation,thestrongestandshouldnormallypredominate.93Signsof
effeminacyorhomosexualityprovidedevidencethatthereproductivedrivewasincapacitatedifthathappenedtheinstinctfordestructioncouldtakeoverandsadism
result.

Thethirdwayinwhichdoctorsemployedtheconceptofsadismwastoalertthepublictothedangersofamalemanifestingfemininetraits.Tounderstandwhyaman's
effeminacywouldbeconsidereddangerous,ithastoberememberedthatnineteenthcenturymedicalscientistswereintheprocessofdrawingasharplinebetween
whatwerecalledthe"opposite"sexes.Thefactofsexualincommensurabilityandthedemandsofreproduction,theyasserted,governedallaspectsoflifeandany
blurringofthegenderrolessmackedoftheperverse.Accordingly,thetermfminismefirstcameintocommonusageinFranceaboutthesametimeastheterm
sadismeandforrelatedreasons.Fminismewasoriginallyusedbydoctorsinthe1870sinthepathologicalsensetodescribethephysicalandpsychologicalwaysin
whichamanmightmanifestcertainfemalecharacteris

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tics.94PierreGarnier,forexample,referredtohomosexualityandneurastheniaasbeingengenderedbyaman'sfeminism.CharlesFrassertedthatfeminine
characteristics(fminisme,gyncomstie)weremanifestedbythemanwhosufferedthe"sexualdeath"oflosinghisgenitals.95Womenwriterswereonlytoappropriate
thetermandemployitinapositivesensefromthe1890sonward.Doctorswhoemployedfminismeinthepathologicalsensewerenotsomuchattackingthe
"nouvellefemme"asthepossibilityoftheemergenceofa"nouvelhomme."Bothsadismandfeminism,theyasserted,weremanifestationsofadangerouslackofvirility.
Lacassagnearguedthatthesexualpassionsofthesadistwerenotmasculinebutessentiallyfeminine.Accordingtohiscaptors,Vacher,wasalwaysinsearchofflesh,
wasalwayslikeawomaninrut."Thesadist,''declaredLacassagne,"hassomethingofthecerebrallicentiousnessofthewoman."96Suchassertionslinkedupwiththe
oldideathatthewomanwaspreoccupiedbysexallthetimethenormalmanonlyoccasionally.

Thefourthfunctionoftheconceptofsadismwasitsusebymedicalmenasastickwithwhichtobeatbackthethreatofinversion(ashomosexualitywascalledinthe
latenineteenthcentury).Ifnormalwomenwerepreoccupiedbysexallthetime,sotoo,accordingtothepsychiatrists,weresomeabnormalmenhomosexuals.
Accordingly,atVacher'strialgreatstresswasplacedontheaccused'sinversiontendencies.Fourquet,theinvestigatingmagistrate,expressedsurprisethatVacher,
whoamonghisfellowtrampshadthereputationofbeingapederast,shouldhavewooedLouiseBarrant."Untilhisarrivalinthearmy,Vacherappearedtohavenever
beenattractedtoanywoman.Noromanticadventureswerefoundinhispast.Besides,hewasapederastandnoonehadevernoticedhimlookingforwomenuntil
hisinductionintothe60thartilleryregiment."97ThepresidingjudgeremindedVacherofthedisparagingreportsthathiscomradesmadeofhispassions.98
Lacassagne,indescribingVacher'smurderingandsodomizingofPierreMassotPellet,VictorPortalier,andtheshepherdsatCourzieuandTassinLaDemiLune,
concludedthattheseyoungherdsmeninflamedVacherwithalubriciouspassion.Whenwomenintheaudienceexpressedtheirshockathearingsuchaccounts,the
judgetookobviouspleasureinretorting,"Toobadforyouladies,youwerewarnedyoushouldnotbehere."99Thedoctor,infurtherreportingthatinoneofthe
interrogationsVacheradmittedthatyoungmenhadapowerofattractionoverhim,concluded:"Yes,thereisthetruthVacherhadalwaysbeenapederast,laterhe
becameamurdererandsadist."100Suchlinkageswereevenmadebythosewhotriedtoavoidtarringallhomosexualswiththe

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samebrushAndrRaffalovich,forexample,assertedthatinEuropesodomywasthedelightofonly"theignorant,theviolent,thecriminal,thecruel,themasochistic,
thesadistic."101

Thetermhomosexual,coinedin1869bytheSwissdoctorKarolyMariaBenkert,wasnotincommonuseuntilthe1890s.Invert,whichoriginallywasutilizedasa
verbmeaningtoturnupsidedownwasemployedbydoctorsinthelatterdecadesofthenineteenthcenturyasanountorefertoamanwhowasattractedtoother
men.Thetermpervertwentthroughasimilartransformation.Whereasitoncemeanttoturnfromcorrecttoerroneousreligiousbeliefs,inthenineteenthcenturyit
tookonanewsexualandpsychologicalcoloring.Lacassagne,inanearlierstudydevotedtopederasty,hadfollowedBrouardelandTardieuinattributing"sexual
inversion"toapoorlybalancednervoussystemmarkedbyinfantilismandlackofmasculineenergy.102Somewere"native,"orcongenitalhomosexualsothersdrifted
intotheviceasaresultofimpotence,onanism,orafearofwomen.Whetherhomosexualitywasinnateoracquired,Lacassagneinsistedonreferringtoitasa"school
forcrime"andlistedastringofmurderswithwhichtheperversionwasassociated.HenriJolyandBenjaminBallprovidedsimilarluridaccountsofthedangersposed
bypervertswhorapedandkilledchildren.103OctaveUzannenotedwithsomesurprisethatby1900sadism,whichfifteenyearspreviouslyhadbeenverymuchin
vogueamongtheadvancedliteraryset,hadbecomeacentralpreoccupationofthosewhostudiedmaleprostitutionandsexualinversions.104

Intheearlytwentiethcentury,thislineofargumentassociatingsadismwitheffeminacywaspursuedinEngland,theUnitedStates,andGermany.HavelockEllis
recognizedthatsomethinglikethelovebitecouldslipoffintothe"regionofthemorbid"andartificialexcesses.105Whensuchpracticesreachedthepathologicalstage,
theynolongercouldbeviewedassimplyanextensionofnormalmasculineaggressiveness.Whatwaswrongwiththesadisticman,claimedEllis,wasthathewasnot
masculineenough.106
It[sadism]isnot,aswemightinfer,bothfromthedefinitionusuallygivenandfromitsprobablebiologicalheredityfromprimitivetimes,aperversionduetoexcessivemasculinity.
Thestrongmanismoreapttobetenderthancruel,oratalleventsknowshowtorestrainwithinboundsanyimpulsetocrueltythemostextremeandelaborateformsofsadism
(puttingasidesuchasareassociatedwithaconsiderabledegreeofimbecility)aremoreapttobealliedwithasomewhatfeminineorganizational.107

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AsevidenceEllisclaimedthataSt.LouismanwhostabbedwomenhadaboyishappearanceandahighpitchedvoicewhileReidel,themurderer,was"timid,modest
anddelicate."108Elliswasarguingthatsuchmenweretryingtoproveamasculinitytheylackedwiththepenetratingphallicinstrumentoftheknife.

IntheUnitedStates,G.FrankLydstonclaimedthatinacitylikeChicagomalesexpervertshadbythe1890s"soincreasedinnumbersthattheyformlargecolonies
withwellknownresorts."109Theirdegeneracywasmadeobviousbytheireffeminatetraits,thoughLydstonwasdidnotmakeitclearwhethertheirtaintedpassions
wereacquiredorinherited.Whateverthecaseitwasinsuchmilieusthatoneexpectedtofindsexmurderers.ArthurMacDonald,whospentyearstryingtoobtain
fundsfromtheUnitedStatesCongresstoestablishalaboratoryforthestudyofthe"criminal,pauperanddefectiveclasses,"predictablyreportedthatthetypicalserial
killerheinterviewedwas"effeminate"inasmuchasheusedthe"effeminatemethod''ofpoisoning.110

AmongthepsychoanalystsWilhelmStekelprovidedthefullestearlytwentiethcenturyaccountofsadismorwhathecalledthe"needtohate."111Stekel,following
EllisandKrafftEbing,agreedthatthe"normalseximpulseisalwaysboundwithamoreorlessprominentbrutalelement."112Sadismwasanatavism,areversionto
theinfantilestageinwhichthesadistsoughttoovercomeresistancekillingwastheultimatewaytoobliterateallresistance.113ForStekelrealsadistsbydefinition
couldnotbenormalheterosexualmales.Theyhadtobeonanistssincemasturbation,likekilling,excludedallresistance.Homosexualurgeswerealsorelatedto
sadismbutinparticulartomasochism,asthesuppressionofanaturaldispositiontohomosexualitycouldleadtoaberrationsinone'slatersexuallife.114Masochists
founditeasiertoconfesstheirurgessadistsweremorelikelytorepressthem.AmonghispatientsStekelhadsomewhoadmittedtofantasiesofkillingprostitutes
otherswhoscreamed,"Die,youcanaille!"duringcoitusanofficerwhopurposelyinfectedadozenwomenwithgonorrheaas"revenge"forhisownillnessanda
patientwhousedweaponstoimposehimselfonwomen.115Inlustmurder,Stekelargued,"theactofmurderbecamethesymbolofpossession.Itisalsosexual
uniontherevolverorthedaggerrepresentsthephallus,thebloodthesemen.Murderisthereforethesexualactoftheimpotentman.Thereisnotafullypotentmanin
mygalleryofimaginary'JacktheRippers.'"116InshortStekel,forallhissophistication,broughthisstudytoanend,likeEllis,byexculpatingfullblooded
heterosexuality.

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Toconcludethischapter,letusreturntonineteenthcenturyFrance.Webeganthisinvestigationtoseehowtheconceptofsadismwasfirstemployed.Whatwefound
wasthatitwasused,nottodescribesimplythedeviant,buttoshoreupcertainpreconceivednotionsofmanliness.Thequestionremainswhysuchconcernswereso
stronglyfelt.WhywereFrenchdoctorspreoccupiedbymalesexualdeviancy?Whydidthepressattheturnofthecenturyassertthatthefamilywasthreatenedand
traditionalgenderrolesunderattack?OneansweristhattheFrench,withthelowestbirthrateinnineteenthcenturyEurope,wereparticularlypreoccupiedbythe
notionofincapacitatedreproductivedrives.From1850onwardbiologicalfearsofdegenerationwereextendedbyalarmiststoexplainbothfamilyandsocial
problems.AfterFrance'sdefeatbyGermanyin1870,afullblowndepopulationhysteriadeveloped,onlytobefollowedinneighboringcountriesinthe1890s.There
toothemoodofsomberdespairdeepenedinthecentury'slastdecadesasdoctorsbrandishedthethreatsthatdrugs,alcohol,andsyphilisalsoposedthefamily.

Thefallinfertilityattributedtoshortsightedegoismandthepronatalistrhetorictowhichitgaveriseplayedacentralroleinthe"discovery"inFranceofmale
sexualperversions.Thenation'ssenseofguilt,precipitatedbythedropinthebirthrate,obviouslyledtothehuntforscapegoatsonwhomanxietiescouldbe
projected.117Psychiatryexploitedsuchfearsalthoughthesciencewasperceivedbymanyasbeinganticlerical,ifanythingitoutstrippedtheCatholicchurchinits
condemnationsofthemoralegoismthatwassupposedlyweakeningthenation.118ThuswefindtienneMartin,professoroflegalmedicineatLyon,attributing
Vacher'ssadismtothefactthatasanisolatedindividualhehadnonaturalcurbonhisinsatiableneeds.Thenormalmanhadthe"dutiesandcharmsoffamily"toactas
brakeonhissexdrive,butrulesofloveweremissingfortheviolentandbrutal.Vacher'ssadisticassaults,thedoctorswarned,representedmerelytheultimate
manifestationofunbridledegoism.119

GabrielTarde,theconservativejuristandcrowdpsychologistknownforhisdevelopmentoftheconceptofcriminalsuggestion,followedasimilarlineinthechapterhe
contributedtoLacassagne'svolumeonVacher.Tardepessimisticallyarguedthatadvancesofcivilizationledtoincreasesincriminality.Inparticularheheldthepress
responsibleforexploitingsensationalcrimestoriesandsocontributingtoacontagionofmurder,blackmail,andpornography.120Thefallinfertilityrateshealso
attributedtotheforceof"imitation."121Whattheriseofthenew,nervous,suggestiblesocietyrepresentedinhiseyeswasthedeclineofthepatriarchalfamilywith

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its"serenity"and"majesticparticularism."Giventheintemperanceandtemptationsfindesiclesocietydangledbeforefreefloatingindividuals,onedidnothaveto
attributekillingtothepeculiaritiesofthe"born"criminal.Allmenwereplacedatriskandonlythestrongcouldresist."Thepsychologyofthemurderer,"Tarde
declaredgloomily,"isthepsychologyofeverybody.''122

Sadismwasaversatileconceptthatcouldbeturnedtoavarietyofpurposes.Intheliteraryworld,novelists,whoremainedtruetothestalestmisogynisticclichs,used
ittoparadeafreshirreverence.Inthepsychiatricworlditsdiscussionbeganwithwhatappearedtobeacritiqueofmasculinitybutconcludedwithitsdefense.Sexual
aggressivenesswaspartofthenormalmasculinepsycheonlywhenpushedbeyondthelimitsofthe"normal"wasitdescribedbydoctorsasasignofimpotencyrather
thanpotency,offemininityratherthanofmasculinity.Moresharplydemarcatednotionsofactivemasculinityandpassivefemininityaccordinglyemergedfromthefirst
discussionsofsadism.Thenewbiomedicalmodelsofmasculinityandfemininityservedideologicalfunctions.Doctorsclaimedthatitwas"natural"ora"timeless"
practiceformentouseforcetosubduefemales,yetweknowthatthenotionofthepassionlessfemalewasinfactanewnineteenthcenturycreation.Traditionally
womenwereseentobeasmuchinterestedinsexasmalesandindeedaspotentiallyinsatiable.Latenineteenthcenturydoctors,inadvancingcomplementary
psychologicalmodelsoftheaggressivemaleandthepassivefemale,wererespondingtoademand.Thereexistedareadingpublicthatwantedtobereassuredthat
despitethehostofsocialchangesthatappearedtoblurgenderdivisions,deeppsychiccleavagesnecessarilyseparatedthesexes.Inlocatingtheemergenceofthe
conceptofsadisminthecontextofthisreorderingofgenderroles,itbecomesclearthatdoctorswerereflectingsociety'sbeliefthatthethreatsmodernlifeposedthe
virilityofthemassofordinarymenwasfarmoreworryingthantheviolenceoftheisolatedpervert.123

Intheearlytwentiethcentury,mileLaurent,adiscipleofLacassagne,beganhisaccountofcriminalitybyacknowledgingthepublic'senormousinterestinthestories
ofinfamouscriminalslikeVacher,"lesinistretrimardeur."Laurentwentontostatethatcrimestorieslikethefabliauxofthemiddleagesappealedtomorethan
society'sneedtoknowaboutvillainyandprotectitselffromit.Thoughtheprudishmightthinksuchaccountsspawnedcrime,infact,byelicitingthereadingpublic's
revulsion,theyplayedanimportantroleinforgingthesocialsolidarityofthelawabiding.124Thediscussionofsadismwaslikewisesupposedlyaboutmonstrous

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criminals,butwasasmuchaboutwhatpsychiatristsbelievedshouldconstitutenormalcy,ornormalmaleness,whichtheaboveanalysissuggestswasnotstableor
fixedbutahistoricallyconstructedsocialcategory.Theproduct,alongwiththeothersexualperversions,ofaneraofconfusionaboutappropriatemalebehavior,
sadisminitscreationandexploitationhelpedgivebothpositiveandnegativedefinitiontofindesiclemasculinity.Itwasoneofaclusterofdefiningconcepts,its
unsavoryaspectsfosteredbythemorbidsexualobsessionsthatpermeateddecadentfictionandcriminalpsychiatryintheclosingdecadesofthecentury.

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Eight
Exhibitionists
Thelastthirdofthenineteenthcenturywitnessed,ifoneistojudgebythelegalandmedicalwritingsofthetime,anepidemicofmaleexhibitionism.Thefirstreports
camefromFrance.Soldiers,itwassaid,wavedtheirpenisesatwomenthroughwindows.Onefellowexposedhimselfoncitystreets,sayingtohisvictims,"Jevous
presenteMlleCocodette,elleestvotredisposition."Thecountrysidewasnotsparedsuchoutrages.Afarmlaborerreferredproudlytohis"inexpressible."Inthefirst
decadeofthetwentiethcentury,olderpeasantsreported,"ilm'amontrsanature,"theyoungerstated,''ilm'amontrsaflamme."1 Germanyexperiencedasimilar
phenomenon.HerrL,agedthirtyseven,KrafftEbingreported,rappedonpublichousewindowswithhispenissothatchildrenandservantgirlswouldseeit,while
Dr.S,aneuropathicsleepwalker,ranaroundtheBerlinZoologicalGardensexposinghimself.2 Todrawattentiontohisactandproducethemaximumshock,a
Strasbourgmanwasinthehabitatnightofthrowingoffhiscloakandexposinghimselfunderastreetlamporintheglowofanignitedmatch.3

Englishexhibitionists,thoughsomewhatlessdramatic,weremoremethodical.Theyincludedarecentlymarriedbusinessmanwhoregularlylefthisofficeatmidday
wearingalongmackintosh.Inapubliclavatoryhewouldremovehistrousersandplacetheminanattachcase.Withhisanklescoveredbyhisgaitersandhislegsby
hismachegavetheimpressionofstillbeingfullydressed.Someticulouslyprepared,hewentforthtoexposehimselftowomenontrainsbecause,asheexplained,"he
feltlikeit."Englishexhibitionistsincludedthe"parkpests"whoofferedsweetsormoneytochildren,thedelusionalwhosaidtheywereonlyfollowingtheordersofthe
Almighty,andtheobsessedwho,asoneclaimed,hadtocarryoutsuchanobjectionableactasit"easedhisnature."Doctorsfoundtherewaslittletheycoulddowith
mostofthem.Dr.East,medicalofficeratBrixtonprison,exasperatedlynotedthatafortyeightyearoldinmate,arrestedfor

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exposinghimselfonatubetrain,eventooktheopportunitywhileawaitingamedicalexamination,toexposehimselftothirtyotherprisoners.4

Therewerefewcrimesthatonecanimaginethatweremorecontrarytothemoresofrespectable,nineteenthcentury,middleclasssocietythanexhibitionism:yetwhat
isthehistoriantomakeofit?Attheturnofthecentury,oneFrenchdoctorstatedthathispatient'sexhibitionisticperformancesraisedbothlaughsandindignation.5
Thesetwoviews,whichdominatedtheinitialdiscussionsofsuchdisplays,likelyasnotholdtruetoday.Thefirst,theonethatmostdetersscholarsfrominvestigating
suchacts,isthattheywere,unlikemoreseriousformsofmaleperversity,sillyandinsignificant.Therecordsofmasochismandsadism,LantriLaurahasshrewdly
pointedout,"conservethedignityaccruingtoanarrativeofpain,"whereasaccountsoffetishismandexhibitionismoftenseemlittlemorethaneithersadorfunny."To
risksomuchforsolittleseemsgrotesqueandpitifulfetishisticclientsgiveofftheimpressionofbeinghad,ofpayingtoomuchforapaltryillusion."6 Whowasmost
harmedbysuchcompulsiveacts,ifnottheexhibitionisthimself,whoinaselflaceratingfashionrenderedhimselfridiculous?Thesecondviewisthatexhibitionismisnot
alaughingmatter.Suchactswere"naked"demonstrationsofmalepower.Attheveryleasttheywerecrudeinsultsdirectedatwomenandchildren,andsuchassaults
weremoreoverdangerousinasmuchastheycouldleadontomoreseriouscrimeslikerape.

Thereissometruthinbotharguments,yeteachmissestheessentialpointthatexhibitionismwas"discovered"or"invented"ataparticulartimeandplaceinlate
nineteenthcenturyEurope.Thisisnottosaythatinothertimesandplacesmen'sexposingoftheirgenitalswasnotcensored,butintheVictorianagethereemergeda
newsensitivitytomalenuditythatwascarriedonintothetwentiethcentury.Twosymptomsofthisnewviewwerethecreationandelaborationofthepsychiatric
syndromethatdoctorstermed"exhibitionism"andtheincreasedlevyingofchargesagainst"indecentexposure"wherebynineteenthcenturymedicineandlawplaced
unprecedentedrestraintsonthefreedomofmalestoexposetheirbodies.7 Thebody,anthropologiststellus,"hasaniconographyofsignsandsymbols.''The
regulationofthebodyinVictoriantimes,aprocessthatFoucaultlinkedinaslightlysimplisticfashiontothegrowthofsocialscientists'knowledgeandsurveillance,is
usuallyassociatedbyscholarswithrestrictionsappliedbymalestofemales.8 Whathasnotreceivedattentionandwhatananalysisofexhibitionismpromisesissome
understandingoftherestrictionsplacedbysocietyonthemalebody.

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Atthemostabstractlevel,theproblemthatthischapterwrestleswithisasfollows.Mostmalesenjoyedapositionofdominancevisvisfemalesinnineteenth
centurywesternEuropeandNorthAmerica,notbecauseofanyascribedstatusashadbeenthecaseundertheoldregime,butbecauseofbiologicaldifference.
Gender,JoanScotthaspointedout,hadbecomea"primarywayofsignifyingrelationshipsofpower."9 Awiderangeofpoliticalandculturalrightswereliterally
embodiedandonlyenjoyedbymembersofthemalesex.Yetamanwhorevealedhisgenitalsinpublicwascondemnedbyothermenasapervertorcriminal.Why?
Whowasthreatenedbyhisactions?Contemporariesassertedthatobviouslywomenandchildrenwereendangered,butonesuspectsthatthosemostinvolvedinthe
discussionofexhibitionismhadotherpreoccupations.Thischapterwillattempttodeterminewhatthesewere.WewilllargelyfollowFoucaultinarguingthatthosewho
gainedmostfromanelaborationoftheconceptof"exhibitionism"wereclearlynotvictimizedwomenandchildrenbutthelegalandmedicalexpertswhothereby
widenedtheirterrainofsurveillance,albeitatthepriceofothermen'sfreedom.Suchanapproachrequiresaskingadditionalquestions.Whowouldbelabeledan
exhibitionist?Towhatextentdidthetimeandplaceandpersoncount?Wasthelawemployedtoprotectanyoneorrathertosetstandards?

Toplaceexhibitionisminitshistoricalperspective,wewillbeginbyrecallingthatwhatisconsidered"indecent"isarelativeconceptrelatedtotimeandclass.Even
apparentlynakedtribesusuallyemployscarsortattoosasasocialcover.10Exhibitionismwassaidbynineteenthcenturydoctorstobecontrarytolaw,culture,and
rationality,butmalenuditywasnotrepressedinallsocieties.Insome"primitive"cultures,boyswereencouragedtoflaunttheirgenitalsandengageinanexhibitionism
forbiddentosisters.11UntilthePericleanage,theGreeksemployedrepresentationsoftheerectphallusasthedominantsymbolofpower.TheCynicPeregrinus
Proteussupposedlymasturbatedbeforeothersinthetownsquare.OrdinaryGreekmen,totheamazementofforeigners,openlydisplayedtheirgenitalstheirmale
childrenwerealwaysdepictedwiththeirpenisesexposedsotherewouldbenoconfusionastotheirsex.12InRome,asinGreece,enormousphalliwereborneby
womeninDionysiacprocessions.13Theforcefulremovalofone'sclothing,however,wasintheancientworldasinthemodernashamingtechniqueemployedin
degradationceremonies.

TherewasagreatgapbetweentheJewishandGreekviewsregardingnakednessthebiblicalfallturnedwhatwasasymbolofinnocenceintoa

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signofevilMoreover,nakednesswasintheJewishtraditionrelatedtotheorgiesofthepagansandtothepoverty,vulnerability,andshameofunbelievers.14Atthe
sametime,theJewishriteofcircumcisionfocusedthecommunity'sattentiononthegreatsymbolicimportanceofthemalegenitalia.Christianity,basedonthecredo
thatitsGodhadtakenonhumanflesh,necessarilyadoptedadualisticviewofthebody.Representationsoffemalenakednesswereusedbythechurchtosymbolize
sin,sex,anddeath.15YetanewrespectforthefleshwasalsoembracedbyChristianity.IndeedrepresentationsofChrist'snakednesswerecentraltotheChristian
mystery.LeoSteinberghasperceptivelyrevealedthat"inmanyhundredsofpious,religiousworks,frombefore1400topastthemid16thcentury,theostensive
unveilingoftheChild'ssex,orthetouching,protectingorpresentationofit,isthemainaction."16TheChristchild'sgenitalshadtobeseentoshowthathewasboth
manandGod.Socialpressuresandintellectualconcernsinshortalwaysinfluencedthewaysinwhichthenakedmalebodywasbothrepresentedandseen.17

UnliketheGreeks,Europeansdidnothavethefestivalsinwhichthemagicoftheexhibitionistritewasusedtobreaktaboos.Themedievalperioddoesofferusin
LadyGodiva'srideonelegendaryactoffemalenuditythestoryofwhichsomescholarsrelatetoanearlierfertilitycultbutinearlymoderntimesthereweremany
moredocumentedmaleactsofritualizednudity.18Forexample,infifteenthcenturyVenicefourFranciscanfriars,forthepurposeofdemonstratingFranciscan
poverty,walkednudethroughthestreetsofthecitywithcrossesintheirhands.Likewise,onGoodFridayin1438,agroupofVenetiannoblesbelongingtoa
confraternitystrippedoffandwerewhippedinpublicbytheirfellowmembers.Weknowofsuchnudemarchesbecausetheywerebeginningtobeconsidered
scandalousandtheirparticipantswereapprehendedandjailed.Thenewcrackdownwasasignofchangingpreoccupationsastheauthoritieshadpreviouslypermitted
othermalenudeprocessions.19DuringtheMiddleAgesandtheReformation,manymillenariansectsthatdescribedthemselvesasAdamitescontinuedtopractice
ritualnudityinimitationoftheoriginalman,usuallyintheprivacyoftheirmeetingplaces.20

InearlymodernEurope,exposureofthenudebodywasusedtosignifyreligioushumilityitwasalsoemployedforoffensivepurposes.MartinLuther,whoclaimedto
havemoonedthedevil,maintainedatleastonthesymboliclevelthelinkbetweenreligionandexposure.EricEricksonattributedtoLutherananalfixation,pointingout
thathesworeatthedevil,"Ihaveshitinthepantsandyoucanhangthemaroundyourneckandwipe

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yourmouthwithit"andhadprintsmadeshowingthechurchgivingrectalbirthtohordesofdevils,but"mooning"orexposingone'sasstoshameanenemy,farfrom
beinganindividualquirkofLuther's,hadalongpedigreeinpeasantculture.21MikhailBakhtinreferstomooning,whichwasincorporatedinthecharivaris,as"oneof
themostcommonuncrowninggesturesthroughouttheworld,''thoughthenakedbuttocks,asrevealedinapublicthrashing,couldalsobeasignofhumiliations.22To
bareone'sassatanotherwasaprovocativeinsulttobecaughtwithone'spantsdownwasshameful.IntheMiddleAges,adultererswereoccasionallycondemnedto
appearnudeinpublic.Popularwoodcutsofwitchesfrequentlyshowedwomenkissingthedevil'sassasasignoftheirsubjection.Albanianwomenliftedtheirskirtsat
theirMontenegrinenemies,thebuttocksbeingshownasamarkofcontempt.23ThesouthSlavpeasantsliftedtheirskirtswiththelefthandandslappedthenateswith
therightsaying,"Thisisforyou."InCornwallandWales,"Kissmyass"wasanoldinsultasitwasinFrance,whereDiderotincludedtheterm"baisserlecul"inLe
NevuedeRameauandmileZolahadMouquettemooningherneighborsinGerminal.Evenlocalpriestsemployedthesamegesturesofcontemptastheir
congregations.Inthe1830sacur,whohadbeenbooedduringmass,liftedhissoutaneandmoonedhisentirecongregation.24Thebareassinsultwasclearlynot
restrictedtothepeasantry.ThemotifwasrepeatedlyexploitedintheeighteenthcenturycartoonsproducedbysuchEnglishartistsasGeorgeCruikshank,James
Gillray,andThomasRowlandsoninthepopularprintsofRevolutionaryFranceitenjoyedasurgeinpopularity.DepictionsofmooningdisappearedfromBritish
publicationsbythe1830s,butwereretainedbythemoredaringnineteenthcenturyFrenchjournals.25

Thoughthereisobviouslyadifferencebetweenamanexposinghisassandhispenis,thefactthatamanhadexhibitedhisgenitalswasinearlymodernEuropenot
takenallthatseriously.Europeanmenoffashion,ithastoberecalled,thoughnotactualexhibitionists,forcenturiesdressedinsuchawayastoaccentuateifnot
exaggeratethesizeoftheirpenises.Thecodpieceactedasasortofsartorialflyingbuttress.26Montaignearguedinthemidsixteenthcenturythattheflauntingofthe
loinswasanobviouscontinuationofthephallicceremoniesoftheGreeks.
AndIknownotwhetherIhavenotinmytimeseensomeairoflikedevotion.Whatwasthemeaningofthatridiculousthingourforefathersworeontheforepartoftheirbreeches,
andthatisstillwornbytheSwiss?Towhatenddowemakeashowofourimplementsinfigureunderourgaskins,andoften,whichisworse,above

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theirnaturalsize,byfalsehoodandimposture?Ihavehalfamindtobelievethatthissortofvestmentwasinventedinthebetterandmoreconscientiousages,thattheworldmight
notbedeceived,andthateveryoneshouldgiveapublicaccountofhisproportions:thesimplenationswearthemyet,andnearabouttherealsize.27

Evenwhenthe"publicaccount"involvedtheactualexposureofthepenis,theactseemsnottohavebeenregardedbytheauthoritiesastooworrying.InRenaissance
Venice,forexample,moralitylawsfocusedratheronsuchissuesasfornication,marriage,rape,andadultery.Sincetheconcernofthecommunitywaswithmarriage
anditsaccompanyingpropertyarrangements,littleattentionwaspaidtoobsceneactsthatdidnotputthematrisk.In1474aVenetiannoble,AndreaCoppo,was
accused"ofagitatinghisvirilemembermostevillyinthepresenceofMarino,agoldworker."Sincetherewasnocontact,butonlyexhibitionismnochargewaslaid.28
MasturbationwastoleratedbyVenetianssodomytheypunishedbydeath.AmanconvictedofthiscrimeintheexcessivelymoralisticcitystateofSienawashanged
byhistesticlesinpublicforanentireday.

Womenranthegreaterriskofhavingmenexposethemselvestothem."MasterThomasYsakyr,"reportedaLondonchurchofficialin1476,"showedhisprivateparts
tomanywomenintheparish."OnemilkmaidinearlyseventeenthcenturyEnglandreportedbeingcalledtobyamanoverthehedge:"Agnes,myprickdothstand
andhathagreatwhilesforthee:"29Thesecaseswereregardedasindecentbytheecclesiasticalcourtsthatreprimandedtheculprits,yetsomegenitalexhibitionswere,
aslateasthenineteenthcenturyinareassuchasNorthWales,apparentlypartofacourtshipritualbywhichamansoughttoprovehisvirility.Takinghispartnertoan
isolatedspothewouldask:"'Doyouwishto...(rhythu)'Ifshesaid'yes,'hewouldholdthebrimofherhatbetweenhisteeth,thenopenthefrontpartofhistrousers
andurinateonherdress.Byexposinghimself,hewasprovinghisvirilitytothewoman.''30IntheearlytwentiethcenturyaFrenchsexologistreportedthatamongst
peasantsandworkers,wheretherewasless"sexualcensorship"itwasstillnotuncommonforayoungmantojokinglyexposehimselftoagroupofyoungwomen.31

Moreseriouspublicdisplaysofvirilityalsotookplaceonthecontinent.MeninsixteenthcenturyItaly,asinseventeenthandeighteenthcenturyFrance,mightformally
counterrumorsofimpotencythatcouldleadtotheannulmentoftheirmarriages,bydemonstratingbeforeassembliesofpriests,physicians,andjuriststheirerections
andonoccasionevenproofofejaculation.32Intheearlymodernperiod,thepurposefulexposureofthegenitalsinandofitself,thoughnotconsideredan"innocent"
act,was

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inshortnotonethatthecommunityfeltwarrantedundueattention.Suchadeedcouldbelocatedwithinafamiliarrepertoireofobscenegesturesthesenseofshame
thatwastobecomeassociatedwiththisactioninmoderntimeshadyettobeinstilled.33Theusualassumptionwasthatamanexposedhimselfforareasontoeither
insultorseducehisvictim.

Intheeighteenthcentury,anewnotionbegantoemerge,theideathatthegenitaldisplaycould,inprovidingsexualpleasuretotheexhibitionist,bean"irrational"endin
itself.Thoughsuchasyndromemightwellhaveexistedearlier,itappearstohavebeenfirstreportedbyJeanJacquesRousseau.TheyoungRousseau,timidbut
sexuallyaroused,admittedtohavingexposedhimselftosomewomenin1728hewasapprehendedbutletloose.Hewasnottryingtoinsultorseducethewomenin
hisConfessionshespokewithhiscustomarycandorofsimplythefoolishpleasureheexperiencedindisplayinghis"ridiculousobject."34ItWasfittingthattheman
mostassociatedwithpopularizingnewnotionsofchasteromanticlovebasedonarigiddemarcationofmaleandfemalegenderrolesshouldalsochroniclethebirthof
anewperversion.Onecouldnotexistwithouttheother.

Thetitillationamanmighthaveexperiencedinexposingthebodycouldonlyhavebeenheightenedasagreaterstresswasplacedbysocietyoncoveringit.Fromthe
sixteenthcenturyonward,allformsofexposingthemalebodycametoberegardedbythesocialeliteasinincreasinglybadtaste.NorbertEliashaschartedthis
"civilizingprocess"bywhichtheissueofhowoneappropriatelyexpressedoneselfwasworkedout.35Heattributesthegrowingconstraintandrepugnanceforold
uncouthmannersandthestressonnewformsofsociallyacceptablebehaviorineating,speaking,andattendingtonaturalfunctionstonewsocialelites'desiretomark
thedistancethatseparatedtheirculturefromthatofignorantrustics.WelloffmenweretaughtbyErasmusandotherstobeembarrassediftheymanifestedthe
indifferenceofpeasantstobodilypropriety.

Awellbredpersonshouldalwaysavoidexposingwithoutnecessitythepartstowhichnaturehasattachedmodesty.Ifnecessitycompelsthis,itshouldbedonewithdecency
andreserve,evenifnowitnessispresent.Forangelsarealwayspresent,andnothingismorewelcometotheminaboythanmodesty,thecompanionandguardianofdecency.If
itarousesshametoshowthemtotheeyesofothers,stilllessshouldtheybeexposedtotheirtouch.36

Tothequestion"Whichisthemoreshamefulpart:thepartinfrontortheholeinthearse?"theSpanishhumanisteducatorLuisVivesreplied,"Both

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partsareextremelyimproper,thebehindbecauseofitsunpleasantness,andtheotherpartbecauseoflecheryanddishonor."37RichardWeste,inTheBookof
DemeanorandtheAllowanceandDisallowanceofCertaineMisdemeanorsinCompanie(1619),advisedhisreaders:

Letnotthyprivymembersbe
laydopentobeview'd
itismostshamefulandabhorred,
detestableandrude.38

AccordinglyGermanCourtregulationsforbadgentlementorelievethemselvesinfrontofladiesoronstairs.

Bythelateeighteenthcentury,itwasnotnecessaryforwritersofbooksonmannerstogoonatlengthaboutthebadtasteofscratchingandtouchingoneself.Stricter
controlsontheimpulsesandemotionshadbeenlargelyingrainedintheupperclasses,yetthestatusoftheobserverandtheobservedstilldeterminedwhethershame
wasexperiencedornot.Itwascommonlyacknowledgedthattherewerepeopleone'sequalsorsuperiorsbeforewhomonewasashamedtoexposeone's
nakedness,butthatbeforeone'sinferiorsonewasnot.Voltaire'smistress,theMarquisedeChtelet,itwasreported,"showsherselfnakedtoherservantwhile
bathinginawaythatcastshimintoconfusion,andthenwithatotalunconcernscoldshimbecauseheisnotpouringinthehotwaterproperly."39Maleandfemale
membersoftheupperclasseswhocontinuedwellonintothenineteenthcenturytodisrobeinfrontoftheirdomesticswereaccordinglynevertobelabeled
exhibitionists.

Nevertheless,ingeneral,new,higherstandardsofbodycoveragesustainedbysuchtechnologicalchangesasthewaterclosetandthebelts,buttons,buckles,lighter
textilesandunderclothingaccessibletothemiddleclasswereestablishedbythenineteenthcentury.Inafewshortyears,wellbroughtupVictorianchildrenwent
throughtheevolutionfromnakednessfirstelicitingtheircuriosityandthentheirshamethathadtakentheirsocietycenturiestocomplete.Moreover,astheWestern
worldbecamemoredemocratic,arguesElias,suchbodilytabooswereequalized.Thoughexposureofthebodywasinitiallyassociatedwiththepovertyofthelower
orders,thesocialreferencesofthetaboosagainstthedisclosureofthenaturalfunctionswereslowlyforgotten.40Bythenineteenthcentury,thebourgeoisiecouldonly
taketheinabilitytocontroloneselfandkeepone'sprivatescoveredasevidenceofeithermentalillnessorcriminality.

Thelivingconditionsofthegreatmassofthenineteenthcenturypopulationweresuchthattheycouldnothavebeenasprudishasoncewas

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claimed,butforthemiddleclassatleastmostformsofpublicexposureofthebodybecameshameful.Forexample,aFrenchwomancouldnolongerseektohaveher
marriageendedbyrecoursetothe"impotencetrials,"whichrequiredherhusband'sgenitalstobeexamined."Ifprivateinterestsmustsuffer,"declaredan1858decree,
''itisjustifiabletoimposesuchasacrificeinthebroaderinterestsofpublicorderandmorals."41Forsomenakedness,evenintheprivacyofthemaritalbed,wasno
longeracceptable.ThenightdressforbothmenandwomenemergedintheVictorianworldandthenformenthemoresociallypresentablepajamas.42Sleepitself
becameamoreprivateaffair,withservantsandchildrenbanishedfromthemasterbedroom.Indeedevenpublicreferencestothebedwereconsideredbytheprudish
tobeshamefulinthenineteenthcenturytherespectable"retired"forthenight.

Daytimemaledressalsochanged.Nineteenthcenturywomen'sfashions,dominatedbythecorsetandbustle,accentuatedthefemale'sbosomandbackside.Inshort
hersexualitywasmagnified,butatthesametimemen'ssexualitywashidden.Malefashionsnolongerdrewattentiontothelegsandthighs.Thetightbreechesand
stockingswerereplacedbythe1830sinEnglandbylooserfittingtrousers.Andthe"fullfall"ofthebreecheswasreplacedbythe1860swiththemorediscreet
buttonedflyfront.Forformaloccasionsthemiddleclassmaledonnedablackthreepiecesuit.Foreverydaydress,drabgrays,blues,andbrownsreplacedlighter
colorsandcoarserwoolsthefinerfabrics.Recoursebymentocorsetsandcosmeticsbecamealaughingmatter.Swordswerereplacedbywalkingsticks
ostentatiousjewelrybyutilitarianwatchesandfobs.Bythetwentiethcentury,theonlyhintsofcolorwerefoundinthetieorcravat,whichledtheeyeawayfromthe
genitalsuptotheman'shead.43AglanceataportraitofMarxorEngelsremindsusthatevenpoliticalradicalsdonnedthenewuniformofthebourgeoisie.Thetone
hadbeensetbytheAmericanrevolutionaries'contemptfor"YankeeDoodleDandy"andtheFrenchsansculottesof1789,whoattackedasreactionaryand
pretentiousfopsmenwhoaffectedtoomuchattentiontotheirdress.Inresponsetheposeofthedandywastakenupbysuchdecadentartistsandbohemiansas
Baudelaire,Barbeyd'Aurevilly,Wilde,Swinburne,andBeardsleywhowishedtoparadetheirdisdainformiddleclassproprieties.44TheextenttowhichWestern
societysoughttohidethemalebodywasperhapsbestevidencedinnineteenthcenturyartisticrepresentations.Femalenudeswerefoundinlibrariesandtownhalls,
representingeverythingfrom"Liberty"and"Electricity"to"Slavery"and"Morphine."Thenudemalevirtu

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allydisappearedfromthepainter'scanvas.Visitorstogalleriescouldimagineanomoreshockingideathanthatofanakedmanasasubjectforartistic
representations.45

AnexaminationoftheEnglishcaselawonindecentexposuredemonstrateshowthenewrestrictionsonmalenuditywereimposed.RexversusSedley(1663)first
establishedtheprinciplethatatcommonlawitwasamisdemeanortocommitanoutragingofpublicdecencyinsuchawaythatmorethanonepersonseestheact.46
SirCharlesSedley,afriendofCharlesII,wasindictedforexposinghimselfnakedwithtwodrunkenfriendsonthebalconyoftheaptlynamedCockTaverninCovent
Gardenandurinatingonthelargecrowdbelow.Allthreestrippedoff,andSedleypreachedamocksermonbeforeoveronethousandspectators.Sedley,Pepys
notedinhisdiaryfor1July1663,actedoutalltheposturesof"lustandbuggery,"gaveaMountebanksermon,andwhileridiculingdoctorsclaimedtohaveapowder
"asshouldmakeallthecuntsintownrunafterhim....Andthatbeingdone,hetookaglassofwineandwashedhisprickinitandthendrankitoffandthentook
anotheranddranktheKing'shealth."47

Itappearstohavebeennotuncommonforseventeenthcenturyrevelers,whendeepintheircups,tostripnaked,butSedleywithhismocksermonhadgonetoofar.
Hewasapprehendedbytheoutragedcrowdandforcedtoappearincourt,wherethequestionwasposedastowhatlawhehadbroken.TheStarChamber,which
previouslyhadbeenresponsibleformoralcharges(whichitinturnhadtakenoverfromtheecclesiasticalcourts)hadbeenabolishedasaresultoftheEnglishCivil
War.TherewasaccordinglynospecificlawagainstwhatSedleyhaddone,andbeingagentleman,hewasmerelyfinedtwothousandmarksandboundtokeepthe
peace.48Sedley'sblasphemywaswhatappearstohavemostpreoccupiedtheseventeenthcenturyauthoritieshistwofriendswhohadmerelystrippedoffwerenot
charged.Butbythenextcentury,itwasSedley'sindecency,nothisirreligion,thatwasremembered.HenryFieldingreferredtothecaseastypicalofan"openactof
lewdnessandindecencyinpublic,tothescandalofgoodmanners."49Pornographywaslikewiseinitiallyregardedbytherespectableasdangerousinasmuchasit
critiquedreligionandpolitics.Decencyonlybecameacentralconcerninthelateeighteenthandearlynineteenthcenturies.50

Theclashbetweennewstandardsofproprietyandthetraditionalrightsofmaleswasfirstplayedoutinnineteenthcenturycourtcasesoverbansonmalenudebathing.
In1809aMr.Crundenattemptedtocountersuchrestrictionsbyarguingthatnudemaleswimmingwasnotindecent.Whole

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regimentsofmenhadtraditionallyswumnakednearBrighton.Theyhadnocriminalintentandsoughtonlytoimprovetheirhealthifsuchnuditywasa"nuisance,"he
argued,itwasonetowhichthenewhomebuildershadcome.Mr.JusticeMcDonaldterselyrepliedthatthisappealtotraditionallibertieswaspointlessbecausesuch
actswerenowobviouslyindecentandoutrageous.
Norisitanyjustificationthatbathingatthisspotmightafewyearsagobeinnocent.ForanythingthatIknow,amanmightafewyearsagohaveharmlesslydancednakedinthe
fieldsbeyondMontagueHousebutitwillscarcelybesaidbythelearnedcounselforthedefendant,thatanyonemightnowdosowithimpunityinRussellSquare.Whatever
placebecomesthehabitationofcivilizedmen,therethelawsofdecencymustbeenforced.51

SimilarlytheSussexSpringAssizesmeetingatLeweson25March1871heardthecaseofReginaversusReedandOthers,inwhichaMr.Stamford,aman
apparentlygiftedwithremarkableeyesight,claimedhecouldseestarknakedmenswimminghalfamilefromhishouseontheoutskirtsofChichester.Themenreplied
onceagainthattherewasalongtraditionofbathingatthatparticularspot.Theprosecutioncounteredthatitwasunjustthatfemaleshadtoshunapleasantwalk,and
thecourttookthesideoftheladies,concludingthatconcernsforindecencyoverrodeany"usagetosobathe,howeverlongitmighthaveexisted:"52

Despitethefactthatsomegentlemencameintoconflictwiththelawovertheirrighttoswiminthenude,Englishlawprimarilyassociatedindecencywithlowerclass
males.SectionFouroftheVagrancyActof1824heldasliable"everyPersonwillfully,openly,lewdlyandobscenelyexposinghispersoninanyStreet,Roador
publicHighway,orintheViewthereof,orinanyPlaceofpublicResort,withIntenttoinsultanyFemale."Thecrimecouldonlybecommittedbyamanexposinghis
penis,presumablyapoorman,astheindecencyprovisionwaslumpedinwithreferencestotheidleanddisorderly,includingfortunetellers,readersofpalms,
wanderersandthosesleepinginbarnsandouthouseswithoutobviousmeansofsubsistence,thoseexposingwoundsordeformitiestogatheralms,menwhoranaway
andleftawifeandchildrenontheparish,thosebettinginthestreet,anyonehavingburglarytoolsoragunorcutlasswithintent,andanysuspectpersonloiteringon
dock,wharf,canal,orstreet.ThosefoundguiltyofsuchcrimescouldbecommittedasroguesandvagabondstotheHouseofCorrectionforthreemonthshard
labor.53Menwerealsospecifi

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callytargetedbythePoliceofTownsActof1847,whichheldtobecommittinganoffense"EverypersonwhowillfullyandindecentlyexposeshisPerson."54

Englishcommonlawheldthatforanacttobeindecentithadtobemadeinpublicthatis,morethanonepersonhadtoseeitoccur.55Earlynineteenthcentury
judgeswerefairlycautiousindefiningwhatwas"public,"evenifitmeantmoralitywasonoccasionoutraged.Inthe1840sonejudgestoicallyopinedthatalthoughthe
lawcouldnotbeappliedtocaseswhereamanexposedhimselftoonewoman,therewereinanyeventmanyoffensesagainstmoralitythatthelawcouldnothopeto
reach.56ThusJamesWebb,whoon2October1848exposedhimselftoMaryAnnCherrill,whowastendingthebaratavictualinghouse,hadhisconviction
overturnedonthegroundsthatmorethanonepersonhadtowitnesstheact.57However,GeorgeThallman,aservant,failedwhenemployingthesamedefense.On
thenightof31July1863,heexposedhimselffortwentyminutesfromtheroofofahouseonAlbermarleStreet,HanoverSquare,tothefemaleservantsacrossthe
way.Herepeatedhisperformancethesubsequenteveningandwasapprehended.Hisingeniousargumentthat,sincehecouldnotbeseenfromthestreetbelowhe
hadnotexposedhimselfina"public"place,wasrejected.Allthatwasnecessarytomakeanactpublic,concludedthejudges,wasthatseveralpeoplecouldseeit.58

EquallyunsuccessfulwasFrederickWellard,anexconvictwho,inthesummerof1884inamarshnearMaidstone,Kent,paidsevenoreightgirlsbetweentheages
ofeightandelevenafewpenniestoobservehimexposinghimself.Someboysswimminginthenudenearby,wonderingwhatthegirlswereupto,dressedand
followedthem.Theboyswhosenuditywaspassedoverbythecourtinsilencereportedwhattheysaw,andWellardwastriedandconvictedforhavingindecently
exposedhispersonina"publicplace."Hisappealwasbasedonthefactthathecarriedouthisactonprivateproperty,butthecourtheldthatthe"offencemaybe
indictableifcommittedbeforediverssubjectsoftherealm,eveniftheplacebenotpublic."IndeedMr.JusticeHuddlestonarguedthatevenindecenciescommittedin
aprivateplaceshouldbepunishable.59

AnexaminationofthedevelopmentofEnglishcaselawrevealsthattheEnglishauthoritiesemployedincreasinglyrepressiveinterpretationsofthestatutestobanmale
genitaldisplays.Suchinterpretationswerepurportedlydesignedtoprotectwomenfrommen,butmanywereturnedtothepurposesofcriminalizinghomosexualacts.
AttheWestminsterSessionsof7May1842,MichaelRowedandafriendwerechargedwithhavingmet

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"forthepurposeandwiththeintentofcommittingwitheachother,openly,lewdlyandindecently,inthesaidpublicplace,diversnasty,wicked,filthy,lewd,beastly,
unnaturalandsodomiticalpractices."Rowedwasfoundguiltyhiscounselsappealedthatnospecificoffensewaschargedwithanycertainty.Perhapsexposureand
sodomywereinvolvedinwhatthetwomenhadbeenuptoinKensingtonGardens,butonlyvagueepithetshadbeenemployedbytheprosecution.Thejudgesagreed
andheldthatthejudgmenthadtobearrested.60

SimilarlytheCentralCriminalCourtinApril1848heardthatthepreviousFebruaryJamesThurtlemetJamesOrchardintheFarringdonMarketurinal.Therethey"did
exhibitandexposetheirpersonsandprivatepartstoeachotherinindecentposturesandsituations,withintentthenandtheretostirupandexciteintheirownminds,
andinthemindsofeachotherfilthy,wicked,lewd,beastly,unnaturalandsodomiticaldesiresandinclinations."Each,moreover,thechargeread,"didlayhishandson
thepersonandprivateparts"oftheother.Thedefensearguedthattheurinalwasnotapublicplaceandmoreimportantlythatnospecificacthadbeencharged.The
judgesagainagreedthatforindecentexposuretotakeplacemorethanonepersonneededtoseeandthatanact,ratherthananintention,hadtobespecifiedina
charge.61

By1870,however,aurinal,whichwasthecentralconcerninReginaversusSamuelHarrisandHenryCocks,wasdeclaredbytheappealcourttobeapublic
place.62Twoplainclothesofficers,claimingtheyhadreceivedcomplaints,keptwatchthroughanopeningintothecompartmentofaurinalinHydePark.On10
October1870theyreportedfindingHarrisandCocksfacingeachother."Cocksturnedround,andtheprisonersexposedtheirpersonsandcommittedactsof
lewdness."Thedefenseheldthattheactsdidnottakeplaceinanopenandpublicplacebutinaurinalfourteenfeetfromthefootpathandpastagate.Moreover,a
urinal,necessarilyrequiringexposureoftheperson,wasbydefinitionnotpublic.Theappealjudgesinthisinstanceheldthataurinalwasapublicplaceandsustained
theconvictionsoftheaccused.

InVictorianEnglandindecentexposurewastreatedbythecourtsmoreandmoreseverely,theauthoritiesregardingitasalegalratherthanamedicalproblem.
Magistratesrarelycalledondoctorstothrowlightonthementalconditionoftheaccused.Thefewprisonersexaminedwere,theunsympatheticAlfredSwainTaylor
informedthereadersofhisclassictextonlegalmedicine,"almostinvariablyfoundtobelunatics."63Andifexposingoneselfwasnotattributedtomadness,itwas
takenasasymptomof

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workingclassimmorality.HavelockEllisstatedthatsomeignorantmalesactuallythoughtexposingoneselfwasagoodwaytoattracttheattentionoffemales.Dr.East
gavetheexampleofayouthofeighteenwhoseroomoverlookedanorphanschool.Afterseveralfourteenyearoldgirlsliftedtheirskirtsathim,heexposedhimself,
wasseenandarrested.Anothersixteenyearoldboyexposedhimselfthreetimesfromhisownwindowasfriendshadtoldhimthatitwas"anefficientmeansof
excitingagirl."SuchrepellentcasesconjuredupintheimaginationofobserverslikeDr.Eastthe"courtshipsofthefarmyard."64Dr.Booth,indescribingapatient
whoexposedhimselfsofrequentlythatthenewspapersreportedhisactivitiesandthepolicehuntedhimdown,wasoneofthefirstEnglishdoctorstousetheterm
exhibitionist.Hispatientclaimedtofeela"wave"passingoverhimandtorememberneitherthedeednoranyfeelingsofsexualdesire.Indeedhecarriedouttheact
witha''sillygrin"onhisface.Theaccused,whomBooththoughtwassufferingfromoverwork,wasacquittedongroundsofinsanity.65

Thisideathatacertainsortofotherwisesanemantheexhibitionistmighthaveanoverwhelmingneedtoexposehimself,whichwasonlytakenupinEnglandatthe
turnofthecentury,hadbeenfirstadvancedbyFrenchpsychiatrists.AccordingtoPaulGarnier,amedicalexpertattachedtotheParisprefectureofpolice,casesof
suchmenexposingthemselvesbecamesocommononthecontinentinthelastthirdofthenineteenthcenturythatmagistratesfinallyturnedforhelptothedoctors.The
resultwastheelaborationbyFrenchphysiciansofanewpsychiatricsyndrome.AtypicalcasewasthatofD,afortyfiveyearoldtypographerarrestedin1893.
Since1877Dhadbeenarrestedfivetimesforexposinghimself.Hewasadreamerwhoseunspecifiedhereditaryweakness,whichsurfacedinchildhood,ledtohis
beingreleasedfromthearmy.Heclaimedtohavenoknowledgeofhisacts,butlittlegirlstoldtheirparents,"Cethommem'amontrsondevant."Ashesufferedon
occasionsfromamysterious"mal,"somethinglikeepilepsy,thecourtagreedwiththemedicalexpertthatDwassickandsenthimtotheasileofSainteAnne.66

Asimilarcaserequiringtreatmentwasthatofayoung,marriedworkerpreviouslyarrestedtwiceformasturbatinginfrontofagirlsschool.Thedoctorsattributedthe
man'spernicioushabittohis"badheredity,"hisaddictiontoonanism,andhishavingbeenledastrayatanearlyagebyayoungwoman.Thoughmarriedthissmall,
weak,naiveindividualexperiencedtheneedto"sedboutonneretd'talersesorganesgnitales."Itwasclearlyanobsession.Heknewothersdidnotdoit,andhe
struggledagainst

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it.67AfinalexamplewasthatofE,atimidthirtytwoyearoldknifegrinder,whothoughilliterateandburdenedwithanasymmetricalhead,hadprovenhimselfa
goodworkerandsoldier.Anorphan,hehadbeenfirstcaughtattheageofthirteenmasturbatingnearsomewomen.Asanadultheexposedhimselftowomenand
children.Occasionallyhepaidthelatterafewsoustotouchhispenis.Theideaofexposinghimself,sometimesinspiredbythepresenceoflittlegirls,wouldcometo
himwhileworking.Hiswifecouldnoticethechangeinhisexpression.Heclaimednottoknowwhathewasdoingbutafterwardexperiencedfeelingsoffearandguilt.
Usuallyhedidnothaveanerectionandwasalwaysrepentant.Hispunishments,whichescalatedfromatwentyfivefrancfinetoeightdaysinjailtothreemonthsin
prison,hadnoeffect.In1895hewascondemnedtofourmonthsinprisonforhavingshownhis"verge"tosomelittlegirlsonthemainstreetofP,atownoftwo
thousandinhabitants.Itwashisfourthoffense.Heleftprisonon14January1896on3Februaryheagainexposedhimselfandwasrearrested.68Suchmanias,
arguedthedoctors,provedtheimpotencyofattemptingtodealwithpervertsviatheCriminalCode.Thesemenwerenotcriminalstheywerevictimsofan
exhibitionisticobsession.69

Whatdidtheexpertsmeanbythetermexhibitionisme?PaulGarnierdefineditas"asexualpervertobsessionandimpulsecharacterizedbyanirresistibletendencyto
exhibitinpublic,generallywithasortoffixityofhoursandplace,thegenitaliainastateofflacciditywithoutanylasciviousprovocationanactinwhichthesexual
appetiteexpressesitself,andtheaccomplishmentofwhich,closingtheagonizingstruggle,finishestheattack."70Dr.CharlesLasgue(whoin1873hadalsocreated
theconceptofthehystericalsyndromeofanorexianervosa)coinedthetermexhibitionistein1877.71Theconceptwasquicklypickedup.72ValentinMagnan
stressedtheimportancetothepatientoftheparticulartimeandplaceoftheact,hisstruggletofightagainstit,andhislimitedgoal.73

Whowasanexhibitionist?Thefirstpointthatthedoctorsstressedwasthatonlymenwereexhibitionists,anissuetowhichwewillreturn.Thesecondpointwasthat
the"true"exhibitionistcouldnothelphimself.74KrafftEbing,theleadingGermansexologist,labeledexhibitionistspsychopaths,themajorityofwhomheclaimedwere
senile,epileptic,andimpotent.Modestyanddecencywereexpectedofthenormal.Hewhoviolateddecencywaseitheranidiotincapableofmoralfeelingsora
neuroticsufferingalossofconsciousness.75Onthecontrary,mostexpertscametoexcludetheweakmindedandimbecilesincludingsomewhowhistledto

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drawattentiontothemselves.Alsoexcludedweregeneralparalytics,thesenile,andepileptics.76Thedoctorsstressedthatthosewhofeltacompulsiontoexpose
themselvesandachievedsexualpleasuretherebywerenotjusttheoldandthedebauched,thedrunkandthemadtheyincludedthemarriedandotherswhowere
otherwise"normal."Thetrueexhibitionistwassilentandrepetitive.Hewasconsciousandstruggledagainsthisdesiresbutknewhewouldsuccumbdespitehisbest
intentions.

Thethirdpointnotedbydoctorswasthatthetrueexhibitionistwasnotseekingtoseduceorinsulthisvictim.Someofthesemenweremarried,andtheirdeviancy
provedtothesurpriseofconservativeswhooftenprescribedmarriageasacurefordeviancythatonesexactdidnotcompensateforanother.Suchirresponsible
pervertswereusuallytimidandsolitaryandsoughtnodirectcontactwiththeirprey.Sexualreleasecametothemfromtheexhibitionisticdisplayitself.Dr.East
imaginativelydescribedas"visionaries"themeninhissamplewhoreceivedpleasure,evencompleteorgasmfrommereexposure.77Somedoctorsarguedthat
exhibitionists'finerfeelingsmusthavebeenbluntedfortheyoftenselectedchildrenastheirvictims.78Otherexpertspointedoutthatsincetheexhibitionist'sintentwas
nottoestablishanysortofrelationshiphisfavoredpreywerechildrenandyoungfemales,whomhecouldmostcountontoberepelledratherthanattractedbygenital
displays.Exhibitionismfollowedaritualcharacterthemansoughtareaction,evensignsofdisgustratherthanhisvictims'positiveresponse.

Whydidonebecomeanexhibitionist?ExhibitionismwasattributedbymostFrenchphysiciansinthefirstinstancetothetaintofdegeneration.PaulGarniertracedthe
powerofexhibitionistobsessionsandimpulses,liketheothersexualperversions,backtothedegeneratestateofthepatient,whocarried"stigmatesmoraux."Paul
Moreau(deTours),concurred,listingascontributingcausesthepatient'sage,constitution,physicalandpsychologicalproblems,andweaknessforliquorand
debauchery.79AlfredBinetstressedthemoremodernnotionthatearlyshocksandunhealthyassociationswereresponsibleforplantingtheseedsofanexhibitionist
passion.Perhapsthepatient'sfirstsexualexperienceoccurredwhenhewascaughtnakedhelatersoughttorecapturetheexperienceandwasseducedintothe
habit.80ButGarniercounteredthatonlythosealreadydegeneratewouldbesusceptibletosuchavice.81

Thedoctorsargued,inacircularfashion,thattheproofthatanexhibitionistwasadegeneratewasthathedidnotbehaveinamaturesexualmannerandtheproofof
hisdegeneracywashisexhibitionism.Thefetish

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ist,arguedGarnier,focusedunhealthilyonapartofaperson,notthewhole.Exhibitionismwasasimilartypeofincompletedcourtshipa"sorted'ectopie
amoureuse"orpsychiconanism.InEnglandHavelockEllisagreedthatexhibitionistswerecongenitallyabnormalandsufferedfroma"pseudoatavism"duetoa
paralysisof"higherfeelings.''Exhibitionistswerefeeble,usuallydegenerate,andoftenalcoholic.Intheearlytwentiethcentury,Dr.East,wholikenedexhibitionismto
otherinfantilehabitssuchasstickingoutone'stongue,claimedhewasunhappyusingthetermdegeneratesince,asheperceptivelypointedout,itdenotednoprecise
clinicalentityandtended"tothwartclearthinkingorpsychologicalinvestigation."YetEastingeneralalsoattributedsexualoffensesto"pathologicalheredity."82He
actuallyfoundmentalabnormalityinonlynineteenof150casesofexhibitionismbutinsistedonattributingthis"disappointingresult"tocriminals'ignoranceoftheir
familiesandtheirreluctancetoadmitdefects.83

Weknowwho,accordingtothedoctors,exposedthemselvesandwhy.Wheredidtheyexposethemselvesandtowhom?Suchquestionsareimportantbecause,as
Goffmanhaspointedout,evenprofaneactsthatseemtobedrivenby"blindimpulse"havesymbolicmeaning.Dr.SergePaulperceptivelynotedthattheexhibitionist
followedanunconsciousscript.Hedidnotflashothermenbuttargetedwomenandchildren.Somesawexhibitionismassimilartomasochisminasmuchastheman
soughthumiliationnotcoitusasthesourceofhispleasure.Buttheexhibitionistmoreoversoughtthehumiliationofthechildorwomen,especiallytheelegant
female.ThisfastidiousnesswasmanifestedbyoneofDr.Paul'spatientshaughtilyreportingthatheneverwenttotheBoisdeBoulogneonSundaybecausethatwas
"workersday."Itfollowedaswellthattheexhibitionistshunnedprostitutes,whoweresubjectedtotheattentionofsomanyotherperverts,knowingtheywouldbethe
leastlikelytobeshocked.84

Churches,withtheirdarkenednavesandopportunitiesforoneononeconfrontations,seemtohaveheldaparticularappealfortheFrenchexhibitionist.85Magnan
citedthecasesofatwentynineyearoldwaiterwhoflashedfromunderachurchportal,atwentysevenyearoldexsoldierwhoshiftedhislocalefromstreeturinals
tochapels,andamanwhoexhibitedhimselftogirlsinachurchyard.86Thosedeviantswhoenteredchurchesusuallysoughtonlyoneortwovictimsandcarefully
avoidedthebusyhours.Garnierprovidedthe1900CongressofMedicineinPariswithanextensivereportofapatientwhowasinthehabitofexposinghimselfinthe
churchofSaintRocheinParis."Iknowwhatrepulsionmyconduct

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mustinspire,"heconfessed,yetifhehadtocarryouthisactinachurchhedidnotseeitasanactofprofanation.87Awomaninchurch,heimagined,would
appreciatethegravityoftheactandnottakeitasajoke.Thedoctorconcludedthatsomeexhibitionismwasnotlubriciousorprovocativebutindeed"platonic"!88He
wonderedifthevicewasnotlinkedtosomephallicculttradition.TheFrenchpreferencesinlocalescanbeinterestinglycontrastedwiththoseoftheEnglish.In
Englandexhibitionistswerereportedlyfoundinthestreets,ontrains,andintrams,butthearchetypalflasherwasthe"parkpest"foundlurkingnearthelocalpublic
greenorcommon.Churcheswererarelythesiteoftheiractivities,whichleadsonetospeculatethattheparkwaschosennotsimplyduetoconveniencebutbecauseit
enjoyedinlatenineteenthcenturyEnglishcultureasacrosanctqualityequivalenttothatofthechurchinFrance.

Thefactthatthemenwhomtheexpertslabeledexhibitionistsweremainlydrawnfromthelowerclassesappearedtosustainthedegenerationhypothesis.YetHpital
notedthattherewasnopredictingwhomightbecomeanexhibitionistsomewereintelligent.89Iflittlewasknownofthedeviantsexualbehaviorofthesocialelite,it
wasbecausetheirfoibleswererarelybroughttotheattentionofpoliceormagistrates.Themiddleclassmanwhoflashedhisservants,forexample,wouldnotbe
arrestedbecausetheywouldnotcomplain.Doctorsobviouslyknewmoreaboutexhibitionismthandidthepolice.HavelockEllisgavethecaseofaLondonactorof
highstandingwhowentthroughsuchanexhibitioniststage,yet"theattentionofthepolicewasneverattractedtothematter,andsofaraspossiblehewasquietly
supervisedbyhisfriends."90Dr.Voisinreportedthathehadsimilarcases,includingacomposerwho"s'estdculott"severaltimesingoodcompanyandapainter
who"baissaitaussisonpantalon."91Such"eccentrics"couldbefoundatthehighestlevelsofsociety.LewisHarcourt,theonetimeBritishcolonialsecretary,wasin
thehabitofexposinghimselfathisestatetochildren,includingonewhosecousinlaterrecalled:"Heaskedherifshewouldliketoseethegrotto,tookherthereand
said,'I'llshowyoumystalactite.'Thepoorgirlgotsuchashockshebecamedeaf.''92ThegirldidnotinformthepoliceanEtonschoolboydidcomplaintohis
mother,andHarcourt,whohadmadethemistakeofpreyingonhissocialequals,onlyavoidedapublicscandalbycommittingsuicide.

Doctorsappearedtofeeldutyboundtocoverupthemoralfailingsofthepropertied.Attheveryleast,theyacknowledgedthatcarehadtobetakenthatinnocent
middleclassmennotbecarelesslybrandedasexhibitionists.93Dr.Laugierassertedthatrespectablegentlemenplaguedwithuri

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naryproblems,havingfailedtoreachthenearestvespasienneorlavatory,weresometimesmistakenlyarrestedwhileurinatinginpublic.94Andeverysmalltown,Dr.
Hpitalnoted,hadsomeold,richbachelorwhosoonerorlaterwouldbeattackedasanexhibitionist.Theauthoritieshadtobealertinsuchcases,asinallsexcrimes,
thatanattemptatblackmaildidnotliebehindatrumpedupcharge.95Whentherewasirrefutableevidencethatotherwiseupstandingmembersofthecommunitywere
exposingthemselves,doctorscouldnothidetheirastonishmentthatforaridiculouspleasurewellplacedmenwouldrisktheirreputation,honor,andinterests.96
Observersnotedthattheyafterwardnecessarilyfeltlikefools.97Suchindignantdoctorsexpressedacuriosityborderingonsympathyforcompulsivemiddleclass
deviantswhosemonomanias,inalternatingsexualexcitationsandoppressivefears,pushedthemtotheedgeofinsanity.

Thedoctorsattributedtheexhibitionismoftheotherwiserespectabletoavarietyofextenuatingcircumstances.Firstwasstress.Middleclassmen,itwasargued,
"overworkedandbrainworn"couldbecomevictimsofsuchobsessions.Lasgueattributedexhibitionismtoamorbidanxietyassociatedwiththepressuresofmodern
life.FromAmericaHughesgavethecaseofan"overbrainstrainedministerofthegospel,"whoseautomaticactswereendedbyrest,restoratives,andavacation.
LessfortunatewasCharlesK.Cannon,awealthyJerseyCitylawyer,whowassentencedtofifteenyearsinprisonafterseventeengirlsbetweentheagesofeightand
fourteentestifiedagainsthim.Hughesarguedthatmentaldecaynotmoralguiltwastheissueinsuchcases.Doctorshadtousepsychopathologytoseparatetheactsof
themoralandwellorderedfromthoseofthe"voluntarilyvulgaranddepravedsensualist."98ItshouldberecalledthatLasgue,whocoinedthetermexhibitionist,to
explaintheirrationalactsofotherwisevirileandhonorablemenalsopopularizedtheconceptofkleptomaniatoexplainthedepartmentstoretheftsofwelloffwomen.
Thesewomen,heargued,fellvictimtothecalculatedprovocation,theseduction,thesolicitationofmodernmerchandising.Andjustastheirtheftswereabsurdand
uncalculating,sotooweretheactionsofexhibitionists.Inbothcases,heasserted,theactswerecarriedout"notbecauseofthepowerfulnessoftheexcitation,but
becauseoftheinsufficiencyoftheresistancetoatemptation."99

Asecondattenuatingcircumstancewassexualfrustration.Dr.Eastprovidedtwosuchcases.Thefirstwasthatofathirtytwoyearoldmanwhohadservedinthe
armyinIndia.EastclearlythoughtitsignificantthatthemanhadindulgedinsexualrelationswithnativewomenbutwhenmarriedinEnglandwasforcedbyeconomic
necessitytopracticecoitusinterruptuswithhiswife.Walkingacrossacommon,hepickedupa"continental

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book,"whichexcitedhim,andsoheexposedhimselftochildren.100Thedoctor'ssecondcasewasthatofaneuroticmiddleagedmanwhosewiferefusedhimall
sexualrelations.Hewasfoundguiltyofexposinghimselfonthreeoccasions,despitethefactthat,asEastsadlynoted,"anenormouspendulousabdomenmusthave
partially,ifnotentirely,concealedhisgenitals."101

Presentedwithmiddleclassexhibitionistpatients,doctorsattheturnofcenturyshiftedfromadegenerationtoamorepsychodynamicexplanationofthemalady.
Exhibitionistictemptations,researchersadmitted,werenotrestrictedsimplytothedegenerate.EventhedourKrafftEbingspokeofgraffitiartistswhodrewgenitalsas
practicingasortof"idealexhibitionism."102Thetellingofoffcolorstories,Ellispointedout,wasasortof"psychicexhibitionism"inwhichtheenjoymentcamefrom
theconfusioncaused.Tothelistof"verbalexhibitionists,"whomakeobsceneremarks,and"idealexhibitionists,"wholookedatsmuttypictures,GeorgeJacoby
addedpeepersandvoyeurswhosimplystaredatclothedwomenandundressedthemintheirmind,toobtain''illusionarycohabitation."103Dreamsaboutbeing
"insufficientlydressed,"J.J.Putnamasserted,revealedthefactthatnearlyeveryoneatsometimehadexhibitionistpreoccupations.104SexreformerssuchasPaolo
MantegazzaandIwanBlochadoptedarelativist,ethnographicapproachincallingforagreaterunderstandingofvariationsinsexualpractices.105Theword
exhibitionismwasnewtothenineteenthcentury,but,Dr.Hpitalnotedin1905,theobscenerelicsoftheclassicalworldfoundinrepositoriessuchasthemuseumat
Naplesrevealedthattheactwasnot.106

Exhibitionismwasrecognizedintheearlytwentiethcenturybytheprogressiveaspartofthenormal"exploratorybehavior"oftheyoung.Theproblemwiththeadult
exhibitionist,accordingtosuchexperts,wasthathehadnotmovedontocompletehispursuitofthefemale.HavelockEllisdeclaredthattheexhibitionistwas
preventedfromphysicallytakingthefemaleandonlyprovidedasymbolicdeclarationoflove,a"psychicaldefloration.""Wemayprobablybestapproach
exhibitionismbyregardingitasfundamentallyasymbolicactbasedonaperversionofcourtship.Theexhibitionistdisplaystheorganofsextoafemininewitness,and
intheshockofmodestsexualshamebywhichshereactstothatspectacle,hefindsagratifyingsimilitudeofthenormalemotionsofcoitus.Hefeelshehaseffecteda
psychicdefloration."107Eastsuggestedthatonanismledtosuchexhibitionismbothwereproductsoffantasyoneimpulsivehabitledtothenext.108

Freudmadethecuriousassertionthat"thegenitalsthemselveshavenot

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takenpartinthedevelopmentofthehumanbodyinthedirectionofbeauty."109Beautyherewasverymuchintheeyeofthebeholder.Freud,inimplyingthatelbows,
toes,earsandnoseshadsomehowoverthemillenniagainedanattractivenessthatpenisesandvaginashadmysteriouslyfailedtoattain,wassimplyfallingbackon
popularnotionsofDarwinianevolutiontojustifycommonprudery.Moreinsightfulwashisobservationthateveryexhibitionistwasalsoavoyeurinbothcasestheeye
correspondedtoan"erotogeniczone."Touchingandlooking,accordingtoFreud,werenotperversions,"providedthatinthelongrunthesexualactiscarried
further."110Justaschildren'sinterestingenitalswasrepressedwiththedevelopmentofasenseofshame,soFreudargued,forthepurposeofkeepingsexualcuriosity
aliveadultshadpracticed,ascivilizationadvanced,aprogressiveconcealmentofthebody.Thenormalprocessofrepressionwasinthecaseoftheexhibitionisteither
exaggeratedorincomplete.Heexhibitedhisowngenitalsinhopesofreciprocationandtherebyprovidedevidenceofhispsychosexualinfantilism.TheSpanish
biologistGregorioMaraonmademuchthesamepointinarguingthatCasanova,inexposinghimself,wasmanifestinghissexualdeficiencies.Accordingtotheold
proverb,"labonnemerchandisen'apasbesoind'tretale."111

WilhelmStekelsimilarlyregardedexhibitionismasachildliketendencytoshowratherthantocommunicatehecuriouslylikenedthecompulsion,whichherelatedto
theoralstageofdevelopment,toadesirefor"eternalsuckling."112Somepsychoanalystsbelieveexhibitionismexpressedthepatient'sfearofcastrationtheself
exposurefoundinthevictim'sshockprovedthatthegenitalswerealiveandwell.Othersblamedthesyndromeonthepatientattemptingtobreakfromhisnarcissistic,
penisenvyingmother.113Howhelpfulallthesetheorieswereisamootpoint.Eastreportedthatatleastonesubjectblamedhispsychoanalystratherthanhismother
forfailingtocurehimofhisexhibitionisttendencies.Theseturnofthecenturyviewsofexhibitionismwereliberalinasmuchastheyacknowledgedthateveryonewas
pronetoexhibitionistictemptations,buttheystilldamnedthepatientasinfantilewhodidnothavethewillpowertofightoffhisdesires.Thevoiceofthepatientis
rarelyheardinsuchaccounts.Possiblytheexhibitionistwasnotaninfantileslavetobutactuallya"friend"ofhisinstinct,somethinghecouldneveradmitincourt.114
Themagistratesanddoctorsinsistedoneithera"cure"orapunishmenttheaccusedwhosoughttoavoidjailnecessarilyhadtosaythathewasavictimofan
irresistibleurgeorcompulsion.

Bywayofconcludingthisexaminationofexhibitionism,letusreturn

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toMichelFoucault,whocitesthearrestin1867inthevillageofLapcourtofasimplemindedfarmhandwhohadexposedhimselftoalittlegirl.Theparents
complainedtotheMayor,whointurncalledinthegendarmes.TheaccusedwasexaminedbydoctorsandeventuallylockedupintheasylumatMarville.115
Foucault'sexasperatedreadingofthecasewasthatasimpletonwhohad"obtainedafewcaressesfromalittlegirl"forapennyortwohadbeenmadethesubjectofa
medicaldiscourse."Thepettinessofitallthefactthatthiseverydayoccurrenceinthelifeofvillagesexuality,theseinconsequentialbucolicpleasures,couldbecome
fromacertaintime,theobjectnotonlyofcollectiveintolerancebutofajudicialaction,amedicalintervention,acarefulclinicalexamination,andanentiretheoretical
elaboration."116Foucault'smainpointiswelltaken.Sexologistsandpsychologistsadvancedtheirprofessions'fortunesbymedicalizingvariationsinsexualpractices.It
wouldbewrong,however,toimaginethatnineteenthcenturyexpertswerefree,forthepurposesofincreasingtheirprofessionalpower,to"invent"perversionsatwill.
Theexperts,wemightparaphrase,madethepervertbutnotunderconditionsoftheirownchoosing.Theseconditionsinthenineteenthcenturyweredominatedby
shiftinggenderrelationshipsthatfocusedtheattentionofallmembersofsocietyonrelativelynewnotionsofsexualincommensurability.Itispossible,thoughwecan
neverreallyknow,thatthisnewstressonmalesbeingbiologicallythe"opposite"offemalesledtoanactualriseinthenumberofmenwhoexposedthemselves.Atthe
veryleast,thenewrangeof''bodytechniques"employedbysomemeninthelastcenturytocloaktheirphysicalityinadecentwaypresumablyincitedandtaught
othershowtoexposetheirsinanindecentfashion.117Inaddition,worriesaboutlowerclasssexualpredators,greaterconcernsaboutjuvenilesexuality,andafearof
actionsthatinanurbanmilieuwerenotgiventheinnocentglosstheymighthavebeenawardedinaruralsettingforcedatimelesspracticeontotheattentionoflegal
andmedicalauthorities.Ourchiefinteresthasbeeninthedemonstrableincreaseinthe"reportage"ofexhibitionism.Maleshadnodoubtlongexposedthemselves,but
doctorsindiscoveringanddiagnosingsuchactsaspsychoticcompulsionsgrantedthemanunprecedentedsignificance.118

Thenotionthatthesurveillanceofsexualityshouldbeentrustedtodoctorsbenefitedthemedicalprofessionwhatoftheexhibitionists?Typicallyshy,impulsive,and
obsessional,theywere"eccentric"ratherthanpsychopathic.Theyrepresentedabroadcrosssectionofthepopulationbyageandprofession,thoughtheyweremore
timidandinhibitedthanmost.One

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commentatorhaslikenedtheirvicetostammering,notcommunicatingbutmakingoneselfconspicuous.119Thoughtheywererarelyviolentorotherwisecriminal,
exhibitionistsweretreatedseverely.120Inthetwentiethcentury,moremenwerejailedforexhibitionismthananyothersexcrime.Whywastheirformoferotic
enjoymentregardedassodangerous?Acommonargumentwasthatexhibitionistsmightgoontorapetheirvictims.Thisonoccasiondidhappened,butitwasmost
unusualforaminoroffensetoprogresstoamoreseriousone.Inanyeventtherapistwasregardedbydoctorsasbeingamorehealthyheterosexualthanthe
exhibitionist.Theactionsoftheformermadesensethoseofthelatterdidnot.Indeedthefactthatsuchmendidnotseekcompleteintercoursecalledallmen'svirility
intoquestionandwaswhatledtheexpertstolabelexhibitionisma"silly"act.Accordinglythemanwhoexposedhimselfwaslabeledaperverttherapistwasnot.In
Englandexhibitionists,alongwithpimpsandtransvestites,werefloggedasbeinglessthanmen.Thosewhosexuallyassaultedwomen,thoughtheyweresubjectedto
longerjailterms,weresparedsuchhumiliatingpunishments.

Whichbringsusfinallytothegenderquestionraisedbythedoctors'discussionofexhibitionism,anissuethatFoucaultinhisinsistenceontheinnocenceof"bucolic
pleasures"completelyoverlooks.Doctorsandmagistratesassertedthatonlymencouldbelegitimatelylabeledexhibitionists.ErichWulffen,theGermanexpertinsex
crimes,statedinthe1930sthathehadneverfoundacaseofawomanbeingtriedforsuchacrime.121Butthisdidnotmeanthattheexpertsbelievedthatwomen
wereinherentlymoremodestthanmen.Onthecontrary,asAlfredSwainTaylorcomplainedinhisrecountingoftheEnglishlawonindecentexposure,thelegislation
onlytargetedmales."Itisstrangethatthelawshouldhaveconfinedtheoffensetopersonsofthemalesexonly,forthereareplentyofwomensodepravedthatthey
couldeasilybecapableofcommittingthisoffense."122Somedoctorsalsogrumbledthatitwasnotfairthatonlymenwerelabeledasvoyeursandexhibitionists.mile
Laurentassertedthatitwaswellknownthatmenopausalwomenpursuedpriestsandbachelordoctors.123Maidsandotherfemaledomestics,reportedHpital,
traditionallytriedtoexciteyoungboys.124Voisininformedhiscolleaguesthatheevenhadapatient,a"damedumeilleurmonde,"whoinepilepticfitsshowedher
breaststopassersby.125

Ifdoctorsdidnotlabelsuchwomenasexhibitionists,itwasbecausefemales,comparedtomales,wereregardedashavinglowerratherthanhigherstandardsof
modesty.Women,arguedthepsychoanalystsofthe

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1920s,hadintheirrevealingfashions"acceptablesocialchannels"bywhichtheycouldsublimatedtheirexhibitionisticurges.126Makeup,accordingtootherexperts,
wasyetanothertoleratedmeansbywhichwomen'snarcissisticandegocentricdesirestoflaunttheirbodieswasmanifested.
Byamechanismoftransferenceknowntopsychoanalystsasashiftofbehaviorfrom"belowtoabove,"ourexhibitionisticfemales,incorrigiblyinfantileemotionally(thebetterto
serveNature'sdivinepurposes),havecarriedthepaintingofthelipsandtheredadornmentofthemouthtoapointofadvertisingattractivenessthatisarevealingstudyinoral
eroticism,thevisiblecounterpartofaconventionallyconcealedsexuality.IfnicegirlsunderstoodthetruemeaningoftheirExhibitionism!Nuditywere,forsooth,moresaneand
sweetandmoral.Thegenitalizingofthelipstellsuseloquentlywhatweneedtoknowaboutwoman'snaturalmodesty!127

Whenitcametoapplyingthetermexhibitionisminthepathologicalsense,doctorsreservedthelabelformen.Exhibitionismbyamanwasviewedbysexologistsasa
perversioninasmuchasthemanwhowassupposedtobesexuallyactivewastherebyrenderinghimselfapassivespectacleforthefemalegaze.Women's
exhibitionism,however,posednochallengetogendernorms.Theyweresupposedtobesexuallypassiveandmakethemselvesaccessibletothemalegaze.Like
childrentheywere"naturally"butnotperverselyexhibitionistic.Forexample,inrevealingtheirbreasts,arguedPaul,womenwerebeingtruetotheirroleofinnocently
offeringthemselvestomales.Suchexposurewasnotperversesinceitwaswhatwomenweresupposedtodo.128Ironicallythisgenderingoftheperversionsresulted
indoctorsdeclaringthatamanwhoexposedhispenispresumablythemostmasculineofactswasbehavinglikeawoman.Incitingthecaseoftheexhibitionismof
anAmericanministersufferingfrommentaldecay,aconsultingphysiciancouldaccordinglyconcludewithastraightfacethatthevicewastobetakenasevidenceof
theman's"femininemorbiderotism."129Whatsuchcommentatorswereunconsciouslyadmittingwasthatthepurposeofclothingwastoaccentuateratherthanhide
sexualdifferentiation.AsBalzacnoted,inrelatingastoryofchildrenwhocouldnottellthesexofthecharactersinapaintingbecausetheyhadnoclotheson,nudity
couldblurratherthanclarifygenderboundaries.130

Newnotionsofcivilizedandrestrainedmasculinityplacednewrestrictionsonmen'sfreedomtoexposetheirbodies.Bytheendofthenineteenth

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century,amanwhoswaminthenudeofurinatedfromtheopendoorofamovingtrainriskedbeingchargedwithoutragingpublicdecency.131Yetthischapter's
attempttounderstandobsessionalexhibitionismwasnotfueledbyanygreatsympathyforexhibitionists.Suchmenundoubtedlyposedadangertomany,chiefof
whomwerethewomenandchildrentheyfrightenedandterrorized.Thesemen'sactscouldonlyberegardedbytheirvictimsasthreateningandaggressive.However,
ascanbeseenbythewayinwhichdoctorsdrewsimilaritiesbetweenexhibitionistsandwomen,thedangertowhichthemedicalexpertsweremostsensitivewasthe
wayinwhichexhibitionismjeopardizednotionsofmalevirility.Womenwereexpectedtobepreoccupiedbytheirbodieswhereasmodernmenweresupposedto
pridethemselvesontheirwellregulatedminds.132Thosewhoexposedthemselvesdemonstratedthatthereweremaleswhoweresosexuallytimid,inhibited,and
uncertainoftheirmasculinitythattheyhadtoprovetothemselvesandothersinthecrudestpossiblewaythattheyweremen.Incastigatingexhibitionistsdoctorsseized
yetanotheropportunitytoshoreupthedominantdiscoursethatheldthattheparadingofone'ssexualitywasaninfantilepreoccupationembracedbywomen,children,
andperverts,butspurnedbymaturemales.133Thethreatexhibitionistsposedwasinunintentionallydevaluingmasculinity,orratherthenotionthatmasculinitycould
onlybemanifestedbyaggressive,heterosexualdeeds.

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Nine
Transvestites
"Clothesmaketheman"runstheoldproverb,whichcouldbetakentoimplythatmasculinitycanbeaseasilyappropriatedordiscardedasanycostumeordisguise.
Suchasubversivenotionrancompletelycountertothelatenineteenthcenturycommonplaceassumptionthatsexandgenderthebiologicalapparatusandthe
appropriatesocialbehaviorwereineffectinseparable.Menweremasculineandwomenwerefeminine.1 Yetthosewhoweremoststrenuousintheirclaimsthat
these"natural"couplingswerepowerfulandpredeterminedoftenexpressedinthesamebreaththecontradictoryfearthatthelinkagesweresofragilethattheyhadto
becloselypolicedandenforced.Theoccasionalobservationmadebyadventurousthinkersthatcultural,biological,andpsychologicalevidenceindicatedthatsuch
relationswereinherentlyunstableledtheanxioustobeevenmorevehementinassertingthattherehadtobeaclearpolarityinsexroles.OscarWilde'stragicfate
dramaticallydemonstratedthatthosewhofailedtoconformtosexualnorms,ifcaughtout,facedpersecutionandsocialostracism.

Itwashardlysurprisingthatasocietythathadinvestedheavilyinacleardivisionbetweensexrolesfeltthenecessitytocounterthethreatsofconfusionanddisorder
posedbythe"transgressive"bodiesofmasculinewomenandfemininemenwhodidnotembraceappropriategenderroles.2 Firstamongthesewerethecountless
homosexualmales,whowereharassedbythepolice.ButaftertheFirstWorldWar,importantsegmentsofthepublicbegantoaccepttheclaimsofsexologistssuch
asHavelockEllisthatpsychiatristswerebetterqualifiedthanpolicementodealwithcasesofsexualdeviancy.Anumberofsensationalcourtcasesinthe1920sand
1930s,inrevealingtheplasticityandinstabilityofsexandgenderroles,providedsuchsexreformerswiththeoccasiontocallforareappraisalofthe"threat"posedby
thedeviant.Suchinterventions,accordingtooneobserver,representedashiftinexperts'responsestosexualoffensesfrom

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"disgusttocompassion."3 However,morewasatPlayherethanasimplequestforunderstanding.Inthefollowinganalysis,wearestretchingourtimeframe
somewhattoanalyzethetrialofamaletransvestiteinwhatwasregardedasperhapsthemostsensationalBritishsextrialoftheinterwarperiod.Aretellingofthestory
servesseveralpurposes.First,thecaseprovidesa"hook"onwhichwecanhangahistoryofcrossdressing,anunderstandingofwhichisessentialtoanyaccountof
gender.Second,anexaminationofthedebatebothinandoutsideofthecourtrevealstheextenttowhichthosewhoarguedoverthepropertreatmentoftransvestites
advancedselfservingclaimsthatonlywiththeemergenceofsexexpertscouldboth"normal"and"abnormal"sexualitybeefficientlypoliced.Thethirdandmost
importantpurposeoflookingattransvestismisthatnootherformofsexualdeviancysochallengedthedefendersofthenotionthatmasculinityhadanatural,biological
basis.Thequestionstillhastobeasked,however,iftransvestism,evenwhileitdemonstratedtheextenttowhichgenderrolesweresociallydefinedandimpermanent,
mockedorsimplymirroredthepowerofstereotypicalnotionsofmasculinityandfemininity.Thefactthatincreasingnumbersofmenfeltthattobe''true"totheir
naturestheyhadtodressaswomenwas,itwillbesuggested,notduetoanyseriousunderminingofthemasculineidealonthecontrarysuchmenwere
acknowledging,thoughinanunanticipatedfashion,theunprecedentedimportanceattributedbysocietyattheturnofthecenturytothenotionthatonlyanarrowly
defined,aggressiveformofmasculinitywasthemarkofarealman.

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

OnSaturday,14November1931,GeorgeBurrows,anunemployedlaborerofSuttonManorgavethefollowingtestimonyattheLiverpoolAssizes.Tenmonths
previouslyonthenightof6Januaryhehadmet,whenbicyclingtoadance,ayoungwomandressedinblackstrikingupaconversation,theywentofftogethertothe
pictures.Theeveningwentsowelltheyarrangedtomeettogooutwalkingagainthenextnight.Theyoungwoman,whocalledherselfNormaJackson,confessedto
havingledanunhappylife.Herparentsweredead,andshelivedwithamarriedsisterwhotreatedher"likeadog."Onasubsequenteveningouting,aftershesaidshe
wasonlyallowedfiveshillingsaweek,Burrowsgavehermoneywithwhichtobuyfood,andfollowingthisconversation"certainactstookplace."4

LaterNormacomplainedshewastiredoflivingwithhersisterandsuggestedthatsheandBurrowsrunoffandmarry.WhenBurrowsresponded

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that,beingunemployedandhavingbeenthroughanumberofoperationsonhisnoseandhead,hewasnotinapositiontotakeawife,thehighstrungNorma
threatenedsuicide.InmidFebruarytheinfatuatedBurrowsfinallyagreedtogoawaywithher.Aweeklater,havingtoldhismotherhehadmarried,hemovedintoa
bedsittingroominSt.HelenswithNorma,wheretheylivedhappilyas"manandwife."Theyappearedtootherstobeanotuntypicalworkingclasscouple.Burrows,
obtainingajobatthebreweryoppositetheirrentedaccommodations,handedoverhisweeklypaypackettoNorma,whosharedhisbedandcarriedoutthe
householdduties.TheyledotherstobelievethattheyweremarriedNormacalledherselfMrs.Burrowsandworeaweddingring.Theybegantosavemoneyfora
realwedding,butNormasooninformedBurrowsthatasshewasgoingtocomeintoaninheritanceoffivethousandpoundswhensheturnedtwentyfive,theyshould
holdoffmarryinguntilthen.

SolifeproceededforafewmonthsuntilJune,whenNorma,shortlyafterreportinghersister'ssuicidedrowning,suddenlyannouncedtoBurrowsthat,asherfurious
unclehadfoundoutthattheywerenotmarried,theywouldhavetoleavetown.TheysetoffforLondon,wheretheyarrivedapparentlypenniless.Burrowsstayedat
theChurchArmyHostelandNormaattheLadies'ChurchArmyHeadquarters.ThemovetoLondonwasnotasuccess.ToBurrow'sdisappointment,Norma's
assertionthatshemightobtainanadvanceonherinheritanceprovedunfounded.Amoretroublingconfrontationfollowed.Normaclaimedthatshehadfounda
positionasalady'scompanion,butBurrows,discoveringthatshewassimplyscrubbingfloorsfortenshillingsaweek(mostofwhichshehandedovertohim),coldly
calledheraliar."Whathappened?WestoodinTrafalgarSquareandshenearlybrokeherheart.ItoldherIwasgoingstraightbacktoSt.Helens.Shereplied:
'Let'sgetfriendly.It'sthefirstlieIhaveevertoldyou.'WitnessWemadeitupanddecidedtocomenorthagainthenextmorningatnineo'clock."ButNorma,
havingagreedtoreturntoSt.Helenstomarry,disappeared.Burrows,afterspendingtwodayslookingforherinLondon,returnedhome.

NormawentnorthtoEdinburgh,fromwhere,duringaremorsefulmoment,shewroteBurrowsinlateAugustcareofhisSt.Helensfriends.

DearLove,Iamsorryabouthowwelefteachother,butGeorge,love,youthoughtIwasnotplayingyoustraightand,dear,ifyouonlycouldseemenowatinmydigswith
nobodytotalktobutonlyyourphotograph.Iamkillingmyself.Iamsevenstonefourpoundsnow.NextweekIamgoingtoBelgiumtoOstend,thenfromthere,loveIamgoingto
Spain.Furtherandfurtheron.Idon't

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carewhatbecomesofme,love,forIdeserveit.Ihopeyourheadiskeepingfit,dear,andyouarewell.George,dear,justthinkofmealittle,dear.Ihaveabrokenankle,andIjust
picturetomyselfwhatyoumustbegoingthrough.Thatisall,love,now.Goodbyedear.Keepsmiling.Withheapsoflove,NormaXXX.5

EventhesomewhatslowwittedBurrowsmusthavebeenmadeawarebythisselfdramatizingcorrespondencethathewasdealingwithadifficultperson.Hisinquiries
inSt.Helensledtoanumberofunexpectedandstartlingdiscoveries.TheyjoltedhimintorealizingthatNormahadliedrepeatedlytohim.Tohisconsternationhe
foundthatNorma'spurportedlydeceasedparentswerealive,thathersisterhadnotdrowned,andmostshatteringofallthatNormaJackson,withwhomhehad
livedasaspouseforsixmonths,wasinfactnotawomanbutamaletransvestitebythenameofAustinHull.Burrowstookhisincrediblestorytothepolicewiththe
resultthatHullwastrackeddownandarrestedinBlackpoolon24SeptemberandnowinNovemberstoodinthedockchargedwithinducinganothertocommita
"grossindecency."

Thetrialwasamediasensation,receivingmuchnewspapercoverageundersuchheadlinesas"ManwithaFeminineMind,""MasqueradedasGirl,"''Posingasa
Woman,""AstonishingDeceptionofa'Husband,'"and"ManWomanSentenced."6 Thecase,unusualtosaytheleast,wasfurthersensationalizedbytheactionsofthe
presidingjudge.Mr.JusticeTalbot,despitethedefense'sprotests,andafterorderingthatallwomenspectatorsberemovedfromthecourt,cruellyinsistedthatthe
distraughttwentyoneyearoldAugustineJosephHullappearincourtdressedinwomen'sclothes.7 Thepresshadafielddayinmeticulouslynotingtheaccused's
anklelengthblacklacefrock,imitationleopardskincoat,bluesilkunderslip,pinkknickers,gunmetalstockings,ladiessizethreehighheeledshoes,blackfelthat,and
handbagcontainingrougeandpowderpuff.8 Prisonregulationsclearlystipulatedthattheaccusedbeallowedtoappearinhisorherownclothes.Mr.JusticeTalbot
agreedthatitwas"unseemly"toproduceamanincourtinwomen'sclothesyetclaimedhedidnotthinkhisinsistenceonHullwearinghis"disguise"wouldprejudice
thecase.Thejudgeonlyrelentedtotheextentofagreeingtothedefense'srequestthatHullbeallowedtochangeintomaleattireoncethecasefortheprosecutionhad
beenmade.

Hullwaschargednotwithcrossdressingperse,butwithprocuringanothertocommita"grossindecency"thatis,toengageinahomosexualact.Theprosecution's
chiefwitnesswasBurrows,whoseaccounthas

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beengivenabove.ThemostamazingaspectofthecasewasthatheclaimedthatthoughhehadcommittedcertainsexualactswithHulloverthecourseofseveral
months,heneverdoubtedhewaswithawoman.Burrowswasadepressednotterriblyintelligentyoungman.Inthepolicecourt,hehadadmitted,"Icannot
rememberthingsverywell,becauseoftroubleinmyhead."9 AskedrepeatedlybythejudgeanddefensecounselifhehadtrulybelievedthatHullwasawoman,he
doggedlyinsistedthathehad.Onesuchresponse,precipitatinganoutburstoflaughteramongthemalespectators,ledthejudgetothreatentoclearthecourt.Itisonly
fairtonotethatBurrowswasnotaloneinbeingconfusedbyHull'scrossdressingeventhecrowncounselscontinuedtorefertoHullas"she."Andnoneofthe
landlordsfromwhomBurrowsandHullrentedincludingonewhoboastedofthirtyfiveyears'experienceinthetheatricalbusinesseversuspectedthatHullwas
notawoman.Thenewspaperreporterscoveringthecasewereequallypronetomixtheirpronouns.TheLiverpoolEcho,forexample,providedthefollowing
confusedaccount."Burrowsmadecertainsuggestions.Sheacquiesced.Afterthattheymetonaboutfiveotheroccasions,andprisonerkeptsayinghewanted
Burrowsandhertogoawaytogether."10

Hull,oncethecasefortheprosecutionwasmade,waspermittedtoslipintomaleattireofpinkshirt,darkgraysuit,anddarktie.Herebuttedthecrownsaccusations
ofindecencyinacoolandemphaticmanner.Hestatedthatuntiltheageofsix,thoughheneverdressedasagirl,hedidplaywith"girlish"toys.Athomehisparents
treatedhimuptotheageofsixteenverymuchasadaughter.Hedidthehouseworkandtookgirls'partsintheatricals.11Hebegancrossdressingsometimeinhis
teens.Atthetimeofhisarrest,hislonghairwastrimmedand"marcel'wavedhespokeinalight,femininevoice.

Whenaskedwhyhedressedasawoman,Hullrepliedthatevenwhendressedasamanhewasoftentakenforawoman.Whenattiredinmaleclothespeople
followedandstaredathim.12"IhavenopeaceinSt.HelenswiththepolicewhicheverwayIdress.IwastakentotheTownHallwhendressedasamanbecause
theythoughtIwasawomanandwhenIwasinaconvalescenthomeatGrangeoverSands,thenursesbecamesuspicious,thoughtIwasawomanandtookmetothe
doctors."13ButHulladmittedthatheenjoyedwearingwomen'sclothesandthathewantedtopassasawoman.Inresponsetohiscounsel'squery,heagreedthathe
hadthedesiresofawoman,"tobepassiveandnotactive"inaffection.HullaccordinglyassertedthatitwastheaggressiveBurrowswhowastheonewhomadethe

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initialadvances,wantedtomarry,andthreatenedsuicideiftheydidnotgoofftogether.

Thetestimonyofmedicalexpertstendedtosupportthedefense'sclaims.Dr.McLarenFerris,thelocalpolicesurgeon,havingexaminedHull,declared:"Toall
externalappearances,Hullisanormallymademaleperson,andthereisnoevidencetoshowthatthismanhadrecentlybeenanaddicttocertainindecentacts."Dr.
W.D.Higson,theresidentmedicalofficeroftheWaltonPrison,concurredthatHullwasanasexual"livinginastateofmakebelieforfantasy.""ItwasnotHull's
intentionsinposingasawomantoperpetratebeastliness.IfsuchindecentactsasBurrowshaddescribedtothecourthadoccurred,thenhecouldhardlyseehow
Burrowshadnotdiscoveredhewasaman."14

Dr.CharlesRankin,visitingpsychiatristtotheWaltonHospital,describedHullasa"medicalcuriosity.Hewasamanwithafemininemind.Thisconditionwasa
congenitalone,recognizedinmedicallawandpractice."RankinwentontoassertthatHullwasonlyamaninappearance,butsomeonewhowasfeminineinoutlook
andmentalityseekinganidealizedPlatonicsortoflove."Heisnotadegenerate.Heiscarriedawayentirelybyhisemotions.Hull,inmyopinion,isaninvertandnota
pervert."15Thetermpervertwasusedatthetimebydoctorstorefertothosewhowillfullyandforcommercialgainlikemaleandfemaleprostitutesengagedin
deviantsexualpractices.BydescribingHullasaninvert,thedoctorsweresupportinghisclaimthathecouldnothelphisoutlook.

Hull'sdefensecounsel,inhisconcludingstatement,expressedawillingnesstoadmitthatHull,inmasqueradingasawoman,hadactedinafoolishandunseemlyway,
butinsistedthatthechargeofgrossindecencyagainsthimhadnotbeenproven.TheonlyevidencecamefromtheconfusedBurrows,whowouldhavehadtohave
beenawareofHull'struesexifthepurportedindecentactshadoccurred.TheprosecutionskirtedthislogicaldifficultybycounteringthatHulladmittedthatitgratified
himtodressasawoman.Thecourthadbeensatisfiedastotheaccused'sguiltnotjustbyBurrows'stestimonybutbythe"corroborationfromtheprisonerandthe
witnesses,astotheprisoner'sdesiresandwants."Inotherwords,thecrownwasarguingthatHull'sdesiresratherthanhisactionswerebeingjudgedtowanttobea
womanmeanttowanttobeusedsexuallyasawoman."Ithad"theprosecutorconcluded,"beenamostdisgustingcaseanditwasthedutyofthejurytosimplyapply
themedicineofthelaw."

Thejudge,inhissummation,madeitcleartothejurythattohismindthechargehadbeenclearlyproven."Youmaythink,"heinformedthem,

Page213

"thatevidencesopalpablytrueisnotoftenheard."16Neverthelessitwasonlyafterthreequartersofanhourthatthejuryreturnedwithaguiltyverdict.Thejudgein
passinguponHullalmosttheharshestsentenceavailableforgrossindecencyeighteenmonths'imprisonmentwithhardlaborrationalizedthecourt'ssevereactions
byexpressionsofsympathyforthebewilderedBurrows."Youhavedoneacruelwrongtothisyoungman,"heinformedHull,"andyoumadeitworsebytellingliesin
thewitnessboxagainsthim."

Whatexactlydidthejudgemeaninreferringtoa"cruelwrong"committedbyHull?PresumablyitwassomesexactthatthejudgebelievedHullhaddupedthegullible
Burrowsintocommitting.ButBurrowsneverthoughtthatanythingtheydidtogetherwasdisgusting.HiscomplaintwasthatHullhadlefthim.Thismayhavebeenthe
mainreasonhewenttothepolice.Itwastheendingoftherelationship,notitsmaintenance,thatheobjectedto."IalwayssaidIwouldsticktoher,nomatterwhat
happened.Iwasdevotedtoherandstillwouldbeifshehadn'tturnedouttobeaman.Iwouldhavedoneanythingforher,andsheknowsit."17Hullmadesimilar
assertionsconcerninghisdevotiontoBurrows.Theunexpectedlyharshsentencehereceivedwastraumatic."Onhearingthesentence,Hullburstintotearsandthen
fainted.Hehadtobeassistedfromthedock."18

Muchofthepublicmusthavebeenconfusedbytheoutcomeofthetrial.Hull'soffense,onecommentatornoted,"seemstohavebeensimplythegratificationofa
phantasythathedesired,andheranawaywhenitthreatenedtobecomereal.Thereisnodefiniteevidenceofhomosexuality.Thechargewas'indecency,'butthe
judgebasedhissentenceoncruelty.Whichwasit?"19Neverthelesson14December1931,Hullsappealwasdismissedafterafewminutes'discussionbytheCourt
ofCriminalAppeal.Mr.JusticeAvorywentsofarastodeclarethathe"didnotconsiderthesentenceadaytoomuch."20

<><><><><><><><><><><><>

ForcontemporariestheHullcasewasaremarkablestory.Todaythechiefimportanceofthetrialanditsaftermathisthattheyprovideavantagepointfromwhichto
viewsomekeyaspectsoftheearlytwentiethcenturypublicdiscussionofsexandgender.Whywascrossdressingviewedbysomeassoalarming?Whywereothers
beginningtodiscountitsimport?Byexaminingtheresponsemadetothecasebymagistrates,medicalscientists,andsexologists,oneisprovidedwithfirstaninsight
intothecomplexitiesoftransvestismandsecondlysomesenseofhowthediscus

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sionofsexualabnormalityintheinterwarperiodservedparticularprofessionalinterests.Thethirdandmostimportantaspectofthecaseisthatitrevealstheenormous
importanceofthenotionthatthesexeswere"opposite"thatifonewasnotmasculineonewasnecessarilyfeminine.

TounderstandtheramificationsoftheHullcase,itisnecessarytoplaceitincontext.Beginningwiththelegalside,thefirstquestiontobeaskediswhatwasHullfound
guiltyof?Muchofthepublicassumedthathiscrimewascrossdressing,sincethatwasthefocusofthenewsreportsandheadlines.Inalater,similarcase,aLondon
tabloidreportedthat"ayoungmaninreddancedressandsilvershoesaccostedtwopoliceofficerswhowerepatrollinginamotorcarontheGreatWestRoad."The
pressletitbeunderstoodthatthemaninquestionwaschargedwith"masquerading,"wheninfacthe,likemosttransvestites,wasactuallychargedwithcommittinga
homosexualoffense.Suchconfusionswereduetothereluctanceofnewspaperstodiscussopenlyhomosexuality.

Trialsinvolvingtransvestismwerealwaysgivenmorecoveragethansimplecasesofhomosexuality,butfewreadersunderstoodthelegalstatusofcrossdressing.
Hull'strialjudgedescribedthecaseas"exceedinglypeculiar"andtoldthejurythattheywouldhavetosearchlongandhardtofindaparallel.21Thiswasobviously
true,thoughoneshouldnotforgetthatinwesternEuropetherewasalongtraditionofcrossdressingforpurposesofdisguises,masquerades,rituals,andtheater.22
Englishpriests,likeshamanselsewhere,customarilyworegowns.InearliercenturiescrossdressingwasemployedattheFeastofFools,bymummers,andfrequently
bymaleprotestersinskimmingtons,enclosureprotests,andlargescaleconfrontationswiththeauthorities,asintheRebeccariotsofthe1840s.InShakespeare's
playsthefemaleroleswerefirstplayedbymen,andbythenineteenthcenturycomicdragartistsemergedandfemaleimpersonatorshadbecomeapopularstapleat
navalandmilitarycelebrations.23IndeedthesamenewspapersthatreportedtheshockingandpuzzlingeventsoftheHullcasecarriedthereviewsofthetraditional
EnglishChristmaspantomimesinwhichPeterPanwasplayedbyawomanandCinderella'suglysistersbymen.24DameEdnaEverageandDannyLarueinthelate
twentiethcenturywouldembody,eachintheirownway,longdragqueentraditions.Suchsociallyacceptedformsofcrossdressingwerelegitimatedbecauseby
beingdramatized,ritualized,andcontrolledtheyprovidedthecommunitywithsafeentertainmentfreeofsexualinvolvementordanger.25

Butcrossdressinghadanequallylongsubversivetradition,particularlywhenemployedbywomen.Peopledisguisedthemselvestoplayrolesother

Page215

wiseforbiddentothem.Inthereligiousrealm,inadditiontotheacceptable"manly"femalesaints,therewerepopularmemoriesofthemythicalusurperPopeJoan.26
Themostfamousfemalecrossdresser,JoanofArc,wasburnedasawitch.Mostwomen,however,hadpractical,"external"reasonsfordonningmen'sgarb,the
pursuitofemploymentopportunities.IneightythreeoftheninetythreecasesoffemaletransvestismtracedinseventeenthandeighteenthcenturyHolland,thewoman
hadpassedasasoldierorsailor.27Theideathatwomenwouldseekmalepowersbydonningmaleattiremadesufficientsensetobeusuallyviewedbythepublicas
presumptuousratherthanperverse.Crossdressingwomenweresometimespunished,butonoccasionthevaliantNancysandPollyswhowerediscoveredservingas
soldiersorsailorswerefetedasheroines.28Ineighteenthcenturypopularballads,suchmasqueradeswereportrayedasmomentarilysubvertinggenderorder,a
themethatwastoresurfaceintwentiethcenturyfilms.29InnineteenthcenturyFranceandGermany,thelawforbadwomentowearmaleclothing,yetpermitscould
beacquiredtocircumventsuchrestrictions.30IntheVictorianage,anumberoffamouswomenwritersassumedmen'snamesincludingGeorgeEliot,GeorgeSand,
DanielSternforreasonsofprofessionalbenefit.31Femaletransvestismamongthelowerclassesdeclined,ithasbeensuggested,becausethenewmedical
inspectionsofthearmyandnavymadepassingmoredifficult.Itmayhavebeenalsorelatedtoclothesbecominglessbulkyandformconcealing.Crossdressing
presumablypermittedtheexpressionoflesbiansexualfeelings.Somehaveadvancedtheunlikelyideathatsuchfeelingsweremoreeasilyexpressedinthenineteenth
centuryandthereforefemalecrossdressingbecamelessnecessary.

Inthetwentiethcentury,themostnotoriousfemaletransvestitewas"ColonelBarker"actuallyanEnglishwomanbythenameofValerieArkellSmithwhopassed
formanyyearsasaretiredmilitaryofficer.NotonlydidshesuccessfullypassherselfoffasablimpishmilitaryheroandsometimememberoftheBritishFascistparty,
shemarriedanunsuspectingwomanwhomsheabandonedthreeyearslater.Onlythecolonel'sbankruptcyin1929broughtthescandaltolight.32RadclyffeHall,
authoroftheclassiclesbiannovelTheWellofLoneliness,whichcameoutthepreviousyear,wasappalledbytherevelationsofBarker'sactivities,whichHall
believedwouldsetbackthemovementforhomosexualrights.Shewrotethatshewouldliketoseethecoloneldrawnandquartered."Amadpervertofthemost
undesirabletype,withhermockwarmedals,wounds,etc.andthenafterhavingmarriedthewomanifshedoesn'tgoanddeserther!Her

Page216

exposureatthemomentisunfortunateindeedandwillgiveahandletoendlesspeoplethemoresoaswhatIlongforissomesortofmarriagefortheinvert."33Hall,
seeingherselfashavingamasculinepsyche,woremaleattireandcalledherselfJohn.ColonelBarkeroffendedhernotforcrossdressingbutforonlyhaving
"pretended"tobeamale.34MagnusHirschfeld,theWeimarsexreformer,describedthesimilarcaseofaGermanpainterchargedwithadultery.Thepainter,a
determinedandintelligentwoman,hadrunawayfromhomeattheageoffourteen,passedasaman,andfinallysettleddownand"married."Thepainter'swanderlust
ledtothechargeofadulterybeingpressedagainst"him,"whichinturnledtothewife'sdiscoverythatherpainter''husband"wasawoman.35

ObserverssuchasLombrosofrettedthatthereweresomeyoungwomenwhobeganintheirschoolyearsbyshowinganexcessiveinterestinmathematicsand
chemistryandendedupbyoptingforshorthairandmaleclothes.Manymoremen,helamented,asmalespotentiallymoreexcitable,variableandperversethan
females,wereledtodonfemaleapparel.36Women'scrossdressingcouldberationalizedasapracticalmatter,butmostcommentatorsassumedthatcasesofmale
transvestismcouldnotbecauseitmadenosenseforamantodresslikeawoman.Onlythementallyunbalancedwouldembracearolethatofferednopractical
advantages.Neverthelesscasesofmaletransvestism,regardedbydoctorsasprecipitatedbyirrational"inner"drives,wereincreasinglyreportedafterthe1850s.37
Thefewcasesofmaletransvestismthatcametolightinthenineteenthcenturywereregardedbydoctorsasmorbidlydangerousandnecessarilylinkedto
homosexuality.Taylor'sPrinciplesandPracticesofMedicalJurisprudencecontainedonereportofan"ElizaEdwards,"whoseunclaimeddeadbodywassentto
Guy'sHospital.Edwards,tothesurpriseofall,includingherpersonalphysician,turnedouttobeaman.Sincetheageoffourteen,hehadplayedtheroleofan
actress.Hismaleorganswereperfect,but,notedthedoctorswithapparentsatisfaction,"TheStateofhisrectumleftnodoubtoftheabominablepracticestowhich
thisindividualhadbeenaddicted."38

Sodomyandsolicitingbymaleprostituteswereassociatedinthepublicmindwithtransvestism,butthepointthatcrossdressingwasnotinitselfacrimewasmade
clearinthemostfamousnineteenthcenturyexposofmaletransvestites,thetrialofBoultonandPark.39ErnestBoulton,thetwentytwoyearoldsonofa
stockbroker,andFrederickWilliamPark,sonofaMasterintheCourtofCommonPleas,playedwomen'srolesinamateurtheatricalsandoftenwentaboutinpublic
infemaleattire.Theywere

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arrestedoutsidetheStrandTheaterinApril1870andchargedwithintenttocommitafelony.Thefelonyinquestionwasbuggery.Thecrownproducedasevidence
manylettersinwhichBoultonandParkannouncedtheiraffectionsformalefriendsbutfailedtoprovideanyevidenceofsexualrelations.Thedefensereiteratedthatin
Englandgoingaboutdressedasamemberoftheoppositesexwasnotacrime.40Thejudgesummedupintheaccused'sfavorandthejuryfoundthemnotguilty.
Neverthelessthepopularbeliefthathomosexualityandtransvestismwereinseparablewascapturedinacontemporarylimerick.

TherewasanoldpersonofSark
Whobuggeredapiginthedark
Theswineinsurprise
Murmured:"Godblastyoureyes
DoyoutakemeforBoultonorPark?"41

Suchsuspicionswereapparentlyconfirmedbyoccasionaltrialaccountsofindividualswhocrossdressedtoentraphomosexualclients.JuliusWalters,anAustrian
(alsoknownasKlaraMyer),wason13November1908,sentencedtofivemonthsinjailfor"masqueradingasafemale."Waltershadbeensimilarlyconvictedin
1896,1899,1900,1904,1906,and1907.42Walterswas,accordingtothepolice,awellknownassociateofblackmailerswhoregularlyaccostedgentlemenin
Bloomsbury.Athis1904trial,thejudgecastigatedhimasanincorrigiblerogueandsentencedhimtotwelvemonthsofhardlaborandtwelvestrokesofthecat.43
Masqueradingwasnotacrimeaslongasnocriminaldeceptionwasinvolved,butbylawanydisguisecouldbecitedasevidenceofanintentiontocommitacrime.44
Thecrimeinthecaseofamandressedasawomanwouldusuallybesoliciting.Transvestitesweremostlikelytobechargedwithimportuningforimmoralpurposes
undersectiononeoftheVagrancyActof1898,alawappliedexclusivelytohomosexualmen.45

Asidefromfemaleimpersonatorsandmaleprostitutes,menrarelyevercrossdressed,aswomendid,togainemployment,buta1930scasereadsremarkablylikea
crossbetweenthescriptsoftheAmericanfilmsSomeLikeItHotandTootsie.ABirminghammalesaxophonist,unabletogetworkinanorchestraasaman,thought
hemighthavebetterluckif,dressedasawoman,heappliedtoa"ladiesorchestra,"Heaccordinglyborrowedanoutfitfromhiswife,butbeforehecouldauditionwas
arrestedandchargedundersectionfouroftheVagrancyActof1824withbeingan"idleanddisorderlypersonfoundinfemaleattireatthehotelforan

Page218

unlawfulpurpose."Sincehehadnotcommittedalarceny,hewasacquitted.Alegalexpertobservedthatthesituationwouldhavebeendifferentifthepositioninthe
orchestrahadbeenobtained."HadtheBirminghamsaxophonistsucceededingettingmoneyforplayingina'ladiesorchestra'anddonenothingexceptwearhisfrock
andblowhisinstrument,hewouldpresumablyhavebeenconvictedofobtaininghiswagesorsalarybyfalsepretences."46Inasimilarcase,anexofficerwho
obtainedworkinthe1930sasaparlormaidwasjailedthoughnotforcrossdressinghavingprovidedafalsecharacter,hewasconvictedundertheServants
CharacterActof1792.

Sincecrossdressingwasnotacrime,towhatwasthecrowncounselintheHullcasereferringwhenspeakingofthe"disgustingstory"thatthejuryhadheard?
PresumablyitwasHull'spurportedhomosexuality.Hullwaschargedwith"procuringamantodoanactofgrossindecencywithhim."TheexactactthatHullhad
committed,whichconstituteda"grossindecency,"wasnevermadecleartothenewspaperreadingpublicbecausethepressfeltitcouldnotreportBurrows's
descriptionof"theintimateactsthathadtakenplace.''47Thedefenseinsistedthatnothingindecenthadoccurred.HullcogentlypointedoutthatsinceheandBurrows
hadslepttogetherforoversixmonths,"ifanythinghadhappenedhewouldhavefoundoutmysex."Despitehispleaandthemedicalexpert'sevidence,whichtended
tosupporthim,Hullwasfoundguilty.

Whenitcametotheprosecutionofhomosexuals,suchapparentinjusticesweretheruleratherthantheexception.IntheBoultonandParkcase,LordChiefJustice
Cockburnnotedthatwhilethecrownarguedthatthecrimewas"conspiracytocommitafelony"thefelonybeingbuggeryitcouldonlyproveitbylabelingthe
accuseds'friendshipa"conspiracy."Moreovertheconspiracychargeallowedtheprosecutortousetheevidenceofeachoftheaccusedagainsttheother.Howwas
onetoprovethatonedidnotsoconspire?Underthislawonthebooksuntil1967,whenhomosexualoffensesbetweenconsentingadultsinprivatewere
abolishedmanyhomosexualswereensnared.

Certainsexualactsassociatedwithhomosexualitysuchassodomyhad,ofcourse,alwaysbeenprosecuted,butafter1885homosexualityitselfwascriminalized.The
LabouchreAmendmenttotheCriminalLawAmendmentActof1885(48and49Vict.c.69,s.II)madeactsofgrossindecencybetweenmenmisdemeanors
punishablebyuptotwoyearsofhardlabor.Thelaw,innotdefininga"grossindecency,"providedthepolicewithenormouspowersofdiscretion.Forexample,in
1896JonesandBowerbank

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werebothchargedundertheact,butatthetrialBowerbankactedasthecrown'sonlywitnessandJoneswasfoundguiltyandsentencedtoninemonthsofhardlabor.
Onappealthedefenseaskedtwoobviousquestions:howcouldJonesbealoneguiltyofanactthatbothheandBowerbankcommittedandhowcouldJonesprocure
thecommissionofaacrimeinwhichheparticipated?48Thejudgesremainedindifferenttosuchlogic,andtheconvictionstood.

Whyattheturnoftheurywasitfeltnecessarytocriminalizeatypeofpersonthehomosexualratherthanspecificactsthatanyonemightcommit?Inpartbecausea
hostofcommentators,fearfulofthesocialchangesassociatedwithanincreasinglyurbanized,bureaucratizedworld,hadraisedthecrythatmasculinitywasatrisk.
Viewingtheirovercivilized,increasingly"feminized"worldasunhealthy,suchobserversviewedmenwith"femininetendecies"withunprecedentedloathing.49Self
doubtsratherthanconfidenceinshortfueledthestridentVictorianclaimsthatthereexistedclearcutmaleandfemaleroles.Tobemalewastobeassertivetobe
female,passive.Inversionwasdeterminedtoconsistofareversalofsuchroles.Thereforethehomosexual,itwasbelieved,wouldnecessarilybeeffeminateandgiven
towearingwomen'sclothesthelesbianwouldbemannish.

Therisingconcernaboutthepurportedthreatposedbyhomosexualitywasalsopartlyareactiontochangingwomen'sroles.Withdecliningfertilityratesandwomen's
demandforaccesstomaleeducationalandprofessionalpreservesbeingreadassignsofarepudiationofmotherhood,socialcommentatorsfeltobligedtoreassert
whatsexualitywasallabout.Doctorsinthelastdecadesofthenineteenthcenturyaccordinglyinsistedwithunprecedentedvigorthathealthyindividualsdemonstrate
theirheterosexualitybycleavingtoanapropriategenderrole.Thosewhofailedweredeemedtobesick.ThesexologistRichardvonKrafftEbingaccordinglyfirstfell
backondegenerationtheorytoexplainthespreadofhomosexuality,andmostlatenineteenthcenturycommentatorsagreedthatitwasasortofinsanity.

Eventhefirstdefendersofhomosexualitywhoappearedattheturnofthecenturyfeltcompelled,giventheprestigeofbiology,tobasetheirargumentsontheoriesof
physicalandpsychichermaphroditism.EdwardCarpentesandMagnusHirschfeldpresentedthehomosexualasan"intermediatesex"carryingspecificsomaticor
psychologicalanomalies.HavelockEllisbelievedinversionhad,likecolorblindness,somecongenitalbasisbutwasaharmlessanomaly.Freud'soriginalitylayin
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argumentsandinsuggestingthatthehopeofattainingafullunderstandingofheterosexualitywasjustasproblematicalasdecipheringthecausesofhomosexuality.
Heterosexualitywasaccordingtohimsomethingthathadtobeattained,andinsuchacontextheviewedhomosexualitysimplyasdevelopmentalfailure.50

Thecentralthrustofthenewsexualanalysesoftheearlytwentiethcenturywastosplitsexualaimsandobjects.Expertsincreasinglyacceptedthattherewasno
necessarylinkbetweenappearanceanddesireandthereexistedamultiplicityofroles,includingthemasculinetypewhowashomosexualandthetransvestitewhowas
heterosexual.51Thoughdoctorsmightstilldescribehomosexualityas"abnormal"theynowtendedtoviewitasamedicalratherthanamoralproblem.Medical
hegemonywasacceptedandthe"sickness"explanationembracedbymanyhomosexualsincludingOscarWilde,SirRogerCasement,andGoldsworthyLowes
Dickinson.The"cures"doctorstrottedoutrangedfromhypnotismtoaversiontherapy.52

Thediscussionoftransvestismfollowedasimilarpattern.TheclassicaccountoftransvestismandthecoiningofthetermwasprovidedbythepioneeringGermansex
reformerMagnusHirschfeld(18681935)inDieTransvestiten(1910).Inthelatenineteenthcentury,hisfellowcountrymanCarlWestphalandKrafftEbinghad
presentedthefirstscientificdescriptionsofcrossdressing.ThepessimisticKrafftEbingvieweditasthefirststageontheroadtoinsanity.Theevercuriousand
optimisticHirschfeldbecameinterestedintransvestismwhenassistingtwoarmymenwhohadbeenarrestedfordressingaswomen.53Crossdressers,hefound,were
overrepresentedintheranksofthemilitary.

Hirschfeld,ahomosexualhimself,counteredtheclaimsofbothpioneeringsexologistssuchasKrafftEbingandtheFreudianssuchasWilhelmStekelthattransvestism
wasnecessarilylinkedtohomosexuality.Onlyabout35percentofHirschfeld'ssamplewerehomosexual,asmanywereheterosexual,15percentwerebisexual,and
therestwere"automonosexual."OfthefourteenfemaleimpersonatorsHirschfeldinterviewed,eightweremarried,andofthesefivewereheterosexual.Transvestism
was,accordingtoHirschfeld,asexualvariationinitselfthatdemandedproperinvestigation.Heviewedthetransvestiteasasortofandrogynewhoincrossdressing
displayedhis"true"personality.Effeminacydidnotmeanhomosexuality.Hirschfeldsuggestedthatmaleclothinghadsimplylostmuchoftheindividualismand
expressivenessthatitoncepossessed.Femaleclothingofferedsomemalesalongedforformofexpression.Theirmothersandwivestendedtobeunderstandings.54

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Hirschfeldalsogaveexamplesofindividualswho,likeHull,werealmostforcedbysocietyintocrossdressing.Ontheonehand,aPolishmanwholivedinBerlinwas
constantlystaredatwhenheworemen'sclothing.Ontheother,thepolicearrestedamasculinewomanonsevendifferentoccasionsonsuspicionofherbeingacross
dressedman.Suchharassmentoccurreddespitethefactthatpoliceonoccasionactuallyprovidedpermitstoallowcrossdressing(whichtechnicallyviolatedthelawin
Germany).55Sinceweinheritedtraitsfrombothmaleandfemaleparents,Hirschfeldfeltithardlysurprisingthattheboundariesbetweenthesexeswerenotasfirmas
respectablesocietyimagined.Transvestismwasforhimsimplyavividdemonstrationthatineachindividual"therereststhesexthatdoesnotbelongtoit."56Thiswas
asympatheticthoughobviouslynotafullheartedendorsementofsuchapersona.Hirschfeld,asliberalashewas,harboredthefearthattransvestiteswouldproduce
"degenerate"offspring.57

TheFrenchdidverylittleworkonthesubjectoftransvestism.58ThefirstshortthoughsympatheticaccountofcrossdressinginEnglishwaswrittenbyEdward
Carpenter,whileintheprocessofdefendinghomosexualsasnormalandhealthy.59In"IntermediateTypesamongPrimitiveFolk,"whichfirstappearedinthe
AmericanJournalofReligiousPsychologyinJuly1911,Carpenterdrewonanthropologicalaccountsofpriestsandwitchesadoptingtheclothingoftheopposite
sex.Hewentontonotethatthe"enormousdelight"thatmanypeopleexperiencedthroughcrossdressingwasduetomorethaneitherreligiousinspirationor
homosexuality."Itmustalsonotbeoverlooked,indealingwiththiscomplexanddifficultsubject,thatthemerefactofapersondelightingtoadoptthegarbofthe
oppositesexdoesnotinitselfprovethathisorherlovetendencyisabnormali.e.crossdressingdoesnotprovehomosexuality."60

HavelockEllis,theBritishsexologistwhodevotedhislifetothecollectingandclassifyingofvariantsofsexualbehavior,onlygotaroundtodealingwithtransvestismin
thelate1920s.61Ellis,likeothers,beganbyassumingthattransvestismwasanannexofhomosexualityheconcludedthatitwasnotnecessarilyanaspectofsexual
inversionnorafetishorreplacementofthesexualobject.ThoughhenotedthatHirschfeldwasofthesameopinion,ElliswentontocritiquetheGerman'sstressonthe
significanceofthesubject'sdressorasHirschfeldcalledit,his"disguise."Clothingwasonlypartofthesyndrome,arguedEllis,andtheterm"disguise"washardly
appropriatebecauseitwasonlywhenwearingtheattireoftheoppositesexthatthesubjectreallyfeltnotdisguised.AsanexampleEllis

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provided,amonghismanyfirstpersonaccounts,thatof"R.L"whopoignantlydescribedtheunpleasantsensationsofreturningtomaleattire."Islippedoutintoa
worldthatwasparticularlydistastefultome,mycollarchokedme,mytrousersoppressedmelikebandages,mybootsfeltclumsy,andImissedtheclaspofcorsets,
andthebeautifulfeelofunderwear."62Ellisdidnotlikeeitherthetermscrossdressingortransvestism,bothofwhichhefeltpaidtoomuchattentiontoexternal
trappings.IntheirplaceEllispreferredtousethetermeonismaftertheremarkableeighteenthcenturyFrenchdiplomat,thechevalierd'Eon,anintellectuallygiftedman
whothoughnotaninvertdesiredtowearwomen'sclothing.63

EllisdevotedthelongopeningchapteroftheseventhandfinalvolumeofStudiesinthePsychologyofSextoadiscussionof"eonism."Allperversionswere,forEllis,
simpledistortionsofhealthyfeelings.Sadism,forexample,heviewedasanexaggerationoftheenjoymentoftheelementofpaininherentinthesexualact.
Transvestismhesimilarlypresentedasduetoanexaggeratedidentificationoftheyoungmalewithhisfirstobjectofattractionthemother.Ellis,inseekingtowinthe
public'sunderstandingforthetransvestiteshrewdlymadethemotherEngland'siconofrespectabilitycentraltohisexplanation.Thesubjectwaspresentedas
motivatednotbysomebaseinstinctbutbyaninflatedsympathyforandidentificationwithhismother,whomheineffectwas"courting.""Itisnormalforamanto
identifyhimselfwiththewomenheloves,Theeonistcarriesthatidentificationtoofar,stimulatedbyasensitiveandfeminineelementinhimselfwhichisassociatedwith
aratherdefectivevirilesexualityonwhatmaybeaneuroticbasis."64EllisnotedthattheFreudiansalsoviewedcrossdressingasanaspectofthe"persistenceof
infantiletraits."WilhelmStekelinparticularattackedHirschfeld'snotionthattherewasanybiologicalbasistothesyndrome.ButEllisobservedthattheblanketclaim
oftheFreudiansthatalltransvestiteseventheheterosexualwerelatenthomosexualswasnotveryhelpful.65

FreudinThreeEssays(1905)hadgivenapartialaccountoftransvestismaccordingtowhichtheurgewaslocatedininfancy.Thechildfixatedatacertainstageof
developmentonthemother.Fearingherlossthechildrefusedtomoveon.66Transvestiteslikehomosexuals,accordingtotheEnglishpsychoanalysts,sufferedfroma
"lackofdevelopment."BernardHollanderopposedjailinghomosexualsexceptforthose"culprits"whohadledothersastray.Buthedeclaredthatnopunishment
wouldcureeitherpassiveoractivehomosexuals,bothofwhomwereneurotics.67TheodoreJ.Faithfulagreedthatonlytherapywouldbringa"finalsurrenderto
normality.68

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InadditiontochildhoodexperiencesEllisbelievedhormonalinfluencesorwhathecalled"secretions"wereimportant.Crossdressing'sbasiscouldbeduetoboth
acquiredandinnatecauses.Thetransvestitemighthavean"eroticempathy"formembersofhisownsex,butthatwasnotthesameasahomosexualpassion.Indeed
Ellispointedoutthatsometransvestitesfoundhomosexualityasdistastefulasanyotheraspectofmasculinity.69AlthoughEllisregardedthesyndromeasshadedby
tonesofmasochismandautoeroticismhefoundhissubjectstobeusuallyhighlymoralindividualswhoidentifiedwithothers."It[transvestism]tendstooccuramong
peoplewhoareofteneducated,refined,sensitiveandreserved."70Theywere,heclaimed,of"highcharacteranddistinguishedabilityandnormalinotherrespects."71

SuchnewviewsofsexualdeviancyformedthebackdropforthecampaignprecipitatedbytheHullcase,acampaigninfavornotsomuchforchangesinthelaw,as
forchangesinthewaysinwhichsexualdelinquentsweretreated.Thekeynotionadvancedbythereformerswasthatabnormalitiesliketransvestismwerebetterdealt
withbymedicinethanbythelaw.Itwasinthecontextofsuchappealsinthelegalandmedicalworldsforabetterunderstandingofsexualdeviancythatdemands
werevoicedforHull'srelease.ThecampaignforareviewofhiscasewasledbytheWeekEndReview,aprogressivepublicationthathaddevotedmanyofits
columnstodemandsforsexreform.Inthefallof1931,whentheHullcaseburstontothescene,itwascarryingdiscussionsofthelegitimacyofabortionandbirth
controlbysuchstalwartsofthesexreformmovementasStellaBrowne,NormanHaire,WinifredHoltby,andJohnHaldaneBlackie.ThefirsttocommentontheHull
trialwasJohnConnell,ajournalistworkingfortheEveningNews,whoselettertotheeditorof21November1931washeadlined"PsychoAnalysisorHard
Labour?"Inthissqualidtrial,accordingtoConnell,"thepathetic,puzzledvictimofanabnormalitywhichhecannotcontrolistreatedasareasonablemoralbeing,and
hastosufferfortransgressingacodehecannotrecognize....Theboyneededatrainedpsychopathologist,andprolongedclinicaltreatment:hegoteighteenmonths'
hardlabor."72

Thefollowingweeksbroughtasupportivefloodofletters.Hull'slegaldefendersincludedE.RoyCalvert,anactiveopponentofcapitalpunishment,andJ.Whitely
Nance,whodeclaredthatmostlawyerswouldagreethatcaseslikeHull's"arealtogetheroutsidetherealmofthecriminalcode,andareratherfortreatmentin
hospitalsthaninprisons."HerbertChorley,drawingonhisexperienceofyearsatthebartonotethateighteenmonthsofhardlaborwasaferocioussentence
calculatedtodestroythehealthof

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eventhehardenedcriminal,referredtoHullas"oneofNature'smistakes."73AnAssociationfortheScientificTreatmentofOffendershadjustbeencreated,wrote
anothercorrespondent,sparkedbyaHomeOfficereportbyDr.G.W.Pailthorpethatassertedthatmanycasesofcriminalitywereduetoan"underlyingpathological
stateofmind."74ThecaseforpsychoanalysiswasmadebyGraceBristow,whowrote"asonewhoatpresentisundergoingpsychologicaltreatment"toendorsethe
needformoreclinics.75ClaireMaddenprovidedperhapsthebestinterpretationofsuchtherapy."Inversionisneitheramentaldiseasenorsomethingthatcanbe
cured.Butsuchtreatmentwouldhavegivenhimalittleselfknowledge,helpedhimtogrowintoausefulcitizen,ifnotahappyone."76ThomasF.Lindsay,editorof
TheIsis,agreedcompletelywithMadden'sviewsofthelimitsoftherapy.77

HavelockEllis,havingafewyearsbeforeproducedthefullestaccountinEnglishoftransvestismor"eonism,"nowenteredthelistsindefenseofHullinbothaletterto
theWeekEndReviewandanarticledestinedforanAmericanjournal.Henotedthatonthecontinentcrossdressingwasnotregardedasathreataslongasno
publicdisturbanceresulted.TheUnitedKingdomandtheUnitedStateswerethemostbackwardnationsinthisregard.Ellis'smainconcern,however,wasthatthe
medicalevidenceofferedatthetrialhadbeenignored.HeconcludedbypresentingHullasvictimofhisbody."Sexdependsonthebalanceofthehormoneproducing
glands,andthatbalancesometimesresultsinstatesthatarenaturallyintersexual."78Somedayoldprejudiceswouldbesweptaway."Thesecasesdonotcallforthe
psychoanalyst,or,indeed,foranyformofpsychotherapeutics,andmedicalartcannotatpresentdealwiththem.Theynodoubtpresentanintersexualstatebased
onanunusualharmonicbalance."79ThesocialsideoftheissuewastouchedonbythelibertarianE.S.P.Haynes,who,innotingthatHullwouldnothavebeenin
legaltroubleifhehadnotbeenimpoverished,claimedthatifallthe"welltodoantitypes"wereconvictedhugenumbersofprisonswouldhavetobebuilt.Haynes
gloomilyassumedthatevenifHullwerepardonedhismiserieswouldnotend."Hewillalmostcertainly(byreasonofhispoverty)endurefurtherpolicetroubleunless
anduntilhecommitsanothercriminaloffence,towit,suicide.''80

TheHullcasewasdiscussedattheBritishSexologicalSocietyon15December1931andagainon5January1932,whenitsmemberscollectedmoneyforMrs.
Hull.81StellaBrowne,oneofthesociety'smostactivepropagandists,thoughbelievingthatmuchsexualdeviancyincludinghomo

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sexualitywasduetotherestrictionssocietyplacedonthefreeexpressionofheterosexualdesires,concededthattherewere"real"orcongenitalhomosexuals."We
arelearningtorecognizecongenitalinversionasavitalandveryoftenvaluablefactorincivilization,subjectofcourse,tothesamerestraintsastopublicorderand
propriety,freedomofconsent,andtheprotectionoftheimmature,asnormalheterosexualdesire."82ShereturnedtothisthemeinspeakingtoaManchesteraudience
inFebruary1932onthetopic"SomeMentalTypes."ArguingthattheHullcasedemonstratedtheimpactofendocrinesontemperament,sheconcludedthatitwas
"oneoftheproblemsofacivilizationbasedonscienceandfreedom,todevelopasenseofsocialresponsibilityinabnormalpersonsaswellastoceasesystematic
persecutionofsuchpeople."83

ClaireMaddennotedthatitwasimperativethatapetitionbegotuptoshowthattherewasanimportantsectionofpublicopinionopposedtosuchcruelinjustices,
andthelawyerJohnStevensonundertookthecampaignindefenseofHull.Stevensonprotestedthathewasno"mollycoddler"andbelievedthatonoccasioncertain
crimesevenwarrantedcorporalpunishment.ButincasessuchasHull's,hesawtheneedforlegislationthatwouldallowjudgestosendtheaccusedtoa"State
medicalhomeforobservationandtreatment."84StevensoncontactedtheBritishSexologicalSocietyandtheHowardLeagueforPenalReformandpersonally
approachedSirHerbertSamuel.85HealsooversawthedrawingupofapetitionbythesolicitorhiredwiththefundsraisedfromthereadersoftheWeekEnd
Review,whoalsoexertedpressurethroughindividualM.P.s.86ThepetitionwassubmittedinFebruary,butnoformalresponsewasmade,andStevensonhimselfwas
rebuffedinhisattemptstoseeHullinprison.87Yetthepublicoutcryfinallydidhavesomeeffect.InAprilHullwastransferredtoWormwoodScrubsand
arrangementsmadeforhimtoattendtheTavistockClinicfortreatment.88

WecanonlyspeculateaboutthesortoftreatmentHullwasgiven.TheTavistockClinichadbeenestablishedbyHughCrichtonMillerin1920toprovideoutpatient
psychotherapy.Theclinic'sgoal,accordingtoCrichtonMiller,was"theworkofcreatingharmonyintheunharmonized,adjustmentinthemaladjusted,independence
inthedependent,andsocialworthinthesociallyworthlessandwhenwespeakofthe'sociallyworthless'wearethinkingofouraveragepatientnotasheisbutashe
maybecomeifheisallowedtodrift."89CrichtonMiller,whohadworkedwithshellshockvictims,introducedagenerationofpsychologiststoFreudianformsof
therapy.Theclinicthoughpsychodynamicallyorientedwasopenmindedabout

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techniques.Thesortoftherapiesofferedrangedfromfullpsychoanalysistosuggestionandpersuasion.Between1920and1936,theTavistockdealtwith496cases
ofdelinquency,includingonecaseoftransvestism,Hull's.Thestafffoundthatsexualcasesseemedtobeespeciallysuitablefortreatmentbypsychotherapy.After
threeyears,outoftheseventythreesexualcases,twentyfive"remainedfreeofsymptoms."90Wearenot,however,toldifthelatterincludedAustinHull.Having
slippedfrompublicview,onecanonlyassumethathefinallysucceededinescapingtheclutchesofboththepoliceandthedoctors.

Havingdisentangledthevarioussexual,medical,andlegalthreadsthatwereentwinedinthestoryofAustinHull,what,inconclusion,arewetomakeofthiscase?
Firstandforemostitcastsarevealinglightonthemedicalizationofdeviancy.Hull'sjourneyfromWormwoodScrubstotheTavistockClinicrepresentedavictoryfor
psychiatry.ThedoctorsbyconvincingthepublicthatHull'ssyndromeaninvoluntarycompulsionwasamedicalproblemhadturnedhimfromaprisonerintoa
"patient"andsorescuedhimfromthepolice.AndwhatofHull?Thoughhemusthavebenefitedfrombeingsavedfromforcedlabor,hewasfarfrombeingfree.Once
declaredguiltyofacrime,hewasnowdiagnosedasvictimizedbyadelusion.Hullwassubjectedtotreatment,yetthediscomfortcausedbyhiscrossdressingwas
experiencedbythecommunitynotbyhim.Histransvestism,thoughnota"disease,"hadbeenmedicalized,theinterventionofdoctorshadbeenlegitimated,and
gendernormsstrengthened.

TheinherentconservativismofsuchapproacheswasnotedbytheFrenchsexradicalRenGuyon,whoattackedthosewholikeFreudtalkedof"illnesses"and
"aberrations"forwhich"cures"couldbeprovidedwhenwhatwasoftenrequiredwerepracticalsolutionsforsocialproblems.Why,Guyonwondered,didarelativist
likeFreudrefertothe"normal"andthe"abnormal''andtheideal"reasonableman"whenheknewhowsubjectivesuchviews,oftenamerematteroftaste,were.91
WithHull'scaseproblematizedasapathologicalcondition,thetherapist'staskwassimplytodeterminewhyhewas"sick."Sexologistsandpsychologists,whilecalling
foragreaterunderstandingofsexualdeviancy,wereinpracticeadoptingapathologicalapproachthatheldthatthetragediesresultingfromsexualconfusionswerethe
responsibilityofthepersecutedindividualnotanintolerantsociety.AccordinglyHull'swellmeaningdefendersintheWeekEndReviewreferredtohimpatronizingly
asa"boy"and"oneofnature'smistakes."ThefactthatonereaderwentsofarastoequateHull'scasewiththatofSylvestreMatuschka,anAustrianmadmanwhose
1931train

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derailmentcausedtwentytwodeaths,suggestshowdangerousdeviancywasregardedevenbyprogressives.

SomeofHull'sdefenders,likeStellaBrowne,weremotivatedbyaferventdesireforsexualdiversity.ButthesecondreasonthattheHullcasewarrantsinvestigationis
thatitremindsusthatmanysexreformerswereoftenaspreoccupiedbythepursuitofefficientsocialcontrolasbyconsiderationsforindividualhappiness.Everyone,
theybelieved,wasdeservingof"scientifictreatment,"andtheywereaccordinglyattractedtoanomaliesoutofadesiretocollectresearchmaterial.Theyhopeda
"cure"wouldresultinsociallystabilizing,maritalheterosexuality.Theideathatsexreformwouldresultinahealthier,moreefficientcitizenrywasperhapsbestcaptured
inabookpublishedin1934bytheBritishSexologicalSociety.Intercourse,accordingtotheauthor,wassomethingthatsignaleditsnecessitytothemalebyboutsof
sleeplessnessandforgetfulness.Afterindulging,themanhappilydiscoversthat"allsexualobsessionsvanish,"hishealthandwellbeingisrenewed,andheemerges
fromthebedroom"strongerandjollier,andmorekeenonhiswork.""Awomanthedayafterasuccessfulcoituswillbehappyandjolly,withsparklingeyesand
inclinedtosingoverherwork.''92

Asregardsdeviantsexualbehavior,moreknowledgewasneeded,wroteHavelockEllis,to"savepatientsmuchpersecutionandthepolicemuchbewilderment."The
concernfororderranthroughoutsuchdiscussions.JohnStevenson,forexample,whogotupHull'spetition,wasthesortofmaverickmagistratewhoalsorushedto
thedefenseofnudebathersandthoseseekingnoiseabatement.93Sexcrimes,Stevensonasserted,werecloggingupthecourts.Heclaimedtoknow,asalawyerand
magistrate,thatsomeoutrageslikeincestwereduenotsomuchtounnaturaldesiresasto"unnaturalhousingconditions."HesharedtheviewsofMr.Justice
McCardie,who,attheLeedsAssizesinDecember1931,refusedtoimprisontwowomenwhohadprocuredtheirownabortionsandprotestedthatmanyjudgesalso
opposedtheexistinglawsoneugenicsterilization,abortion,andbigamy."Whentheentiresetoflawsrelatingtosexarenotonlygenerallydisregardedbylarge
numbersofotherwisegoodcitizens,butcannotbeconscientiouslyenforcedbyagrowingnumberofjudgesappointedtoadministerthem,itissurelytimefora
Commissionwithfullpowerstofindacodemoreacceptabletoresponsiblecontemporaryopinion."94Stevenson,likeMcCardie,harboredtheeugenicnotionthatit
wouldhavebeenbetterifsomecriminalshadneverbeenallowedtobeborn.95Hesharedtheviewsofthehereditariansthatprisonsandasylums

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couldbeemptiedbytheemploymentofrationalscientificreformsandhappilynotedthatMr.JusticeMcCardiehadalso"awokenthepublicconsciencetotheresults
ofbreedinguncheckedandleavingatlargethousandsofmentaldefectives."96Suchtroublingenthusiasmsforrationalizationandefficiencyunderpinnedmuchofthe
interwarsexreformers'discussions.Sexualitywastobebetterunderstoodinordertobebettercontrolled.97

ThethirdinterestingaspectoftheHullcasestemsfromtheinsightsitoffersintothepublic'sresponsetohomosexualityinthe1930s.Wehavealreadyobservedthe
lackofunderstandingwhichevenexpertsdemonstratedwhendealingwithdeviancy.Thepresscoverageoftransvestitetrialsseemstohavereinforcedsuspicionof
sexualexperimentation.WhythendidHullsucceededingarneringsomuchpublicsympathywhilehundredsofjailedhomosexualsdidnot?Theanswerwouldappear
tobebecauseofthewayinwhichhiscasewascoveredbyjournalists.Ellisnotedthat,althoughtransvestismwashardtodefine,"itis,strangeasthatmayseem,the
commonestofallsexualanomaliestoattainprominenceinthepublicnewspapers."Notonlybecauseitwassostrikingandintriguing."Thereisthefurther
considerationthatsinceinitssimpleuncomplicatedformitconstitutesnoviolationofourmoralfeelingsandlaws,itisentirelypossibletodiscussitplainlyinthemost
reputablepublicpapers."98Hullwonsupport,asEllissuggests,becausehewaspresentedbyhissupportersasinfactnotahomosexual.Crossdressinghada
nonsexualhistoryandcouldbepresentedwithoutindecentconnotations.Effeminacyhadbeenpartoftheclichofthenineteenthcenturyhomosexual,butsympathy
forHullwasbasedfirmlyontheargumentthathewasnotsexuallyactive.Hewaspresentedasa"true"transvestite."Theyareapt,"reportedMaxHodann,aGerman
sexreformer,"tobeveryshyanddiffidentintheirgeneralandsocialattitude,quiteapartfromsexualmatters.Anothercomplexityintheirnaturesisthis:theyarebyno
meansalwayshomosexuals.''99

AnyhedonisticdesiresthatHullmayhaveactuallyharboredhadtobedeniedbyhisdefendersiftheyweretosucceed.Curiouslyenoughtheydefendedthis
transvestite'sreputationinmuchthesamechivalrousfashionthatgentlemenwereexpectedtoaccordtoladies.Hullcouldattractthepublicattentionofthesex
reformersbecausetheirsympathywentouttoafragileyoungmanwhomtheyviewedasvictimizedfirstbyhisownpsycheandthenbytheauthorities.Theimage
presentedofHullinthepresswasthatofatrappedbeing.Hewasquotedassaying,"IfIwearmaleclothesIamfrightenedIshallbetakentothepolicestationand
chargedwithposingasaman."100Ellisplayedupthesameepisode."Somuchishelikeagirl

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thatattheageofsixteen,whenreturningfromchurchoneSundaymorninginordinarymaleattire,hewasarrestedbythepolice,takentothestationandstripped,
becausehewassupposedtobeagirlmasqueradingasaman."101Onemighthavefirstexpectedthepublictohaveshownlesstolerationforatransvestiteevena
notterriblyflamboyantonethanforadiscreethomosexual.Butthehomosexualwhowillinglysoughtdeviantpleasureswasregardedbythepublicasathreat
whereasHullwonsupportbyallowinghimselftobeportrayedasa"victim"ofuncontrolleddesires.WhatHull'struefeelingwerewecannotknow.Thesexreformers
indefiningHullasanasexualtransvestitecreatedarolebywhichhewasbothprotectedandcontrolled.

ThefourthinterestthattheHullcaseholdsresultsfromwhatittellsusaboutheterosexuality.Suchcases,farfromunderminingsexandgenderroles,actuallyappearto
havereinforcedthem.Hullfulfilledthefantasyofthecompliantfemalehesuccessfully"passed"asawoman.Todaythiswouldmakehimalikelycandidateforasex
changeoperation.102Itisamootpointifsuchoperationserodesexrolestereotyping.Surgeonsinthelastyearsofthetwentiethcenturyprovideoperationsonlyto
thosewhoactinanappropriately"feminine"way.Suchoperations,ithasbeenargued,actuallyempowerdoctorsbyallowingthemto"create"womenandthepower
ofrealwomeniscorrespondinglydiminished.103

Whydidmaletransvestismappeartobeontheriseinthelatenineteenthcentury?Foucaulthasremindedusthatthedemandtoknowone's"true"sexisarecent
phenomenon.HermaphroditeswereforcenturiesacceptedintheWesternworldasmarvelousbeings.Bythenineteenthcentury,biology,law,andadministration
insistedthatonewaseithermaleorfemale.Medicineandthestatenotonlyrestrictedchoicesbut,intentonmakingsurethatsexandgendermatched,setabout
tearingoffdisguises,detectingerrors,andenforcing"legitimate"sexualconstitutions.Sex,onceahiddenattribute,wasinthetwentiethcenturyproclaimedbythe
expertstobethemostprofoundaspectofanindividual'sidentity.104Ironically,theriseofmalecrossdressingwasprobablyprecipitatedbytheunprecedented
attentionpaidtotheimportanceofknowingone's"true"sex.Theunintendedconsequenceofexperts'insistenceonsexualpolaritywasthedrivingofmen,whofelt
feminine,intowearingwomen'sclothing.

Hull'stransvestismwasnottimelessitwascreatedbythesexrolestereotypingofthe1920sand1930s.Theusefulnessoflookingatsuchacaseisthatitdirectsour
attentiontowhatearlytwentiethcenturypeopledidwhentheyperformedgenderroles.Transvestismprovidedevidencefor

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thesocialconstructionofgenderrolesanddemonstratedtherelativeeasewithwhichtheymaybeconvincinglyadopted.Suchfindingsshouldhavecounteredany
claimforthenatural,biologicalbasisofsexualdifferenceandseparatespheresandledtoafreshappreciationofhowpeople"worked"ofteninaconservative,
conformistfashionatpresentingthemselvesasmenorwomen.Topassasaman,onehadtobesexuallyaggressivetopassasawoman,onehadtobesexually
acquiescent.Ifsomecrossdressingwomenlike"ColonelBarker"weresuccessfulinmaintainingmarriageswithunsuspectingwomen,itwasbecausewhileactingasa
"man"theycoulddictatethesortsofsexualactivitiesthatwouldorwouldnottakeplace.

InthecaseofBurrowsandHull,theconfusedBurrowsdidnotpresshisdemandshencethemalespectators'hilarity.105Andyetitwasrepeatedlystatedthat
BurrowsandHull"livedasmanandwife."Howdidoneworkatbeingaworkingclassmanandwife?Itmeant,witnessestoldthecourt,thattheysharedthesame
bedand,moreimportantly,thattheyapportionedtheireconomicdutiesaccordingtoanunderstoodgendereddivisionoflabor.Burrowsworkedoutsidethehomeand
broughtbacktoHullhispaypacketHullwasresponsibleforfinancesandhouseholdchores."WhenyouweresharingtheroomwithBurrows,"Hullwasaskedby
thecrowncounsel,"didhegiveyouhiswages?Yes""Infacthetreatedyouinthesamewayasawife?Yes."106Heterosexualitywasintheeyesofthe
community,wearereminded,asmuchaneconomicasasexualrelationship.

WeareleftknowingagooddealaboutthesocietythatcreatedAustinHullthoughlittleofHullhimself.IntheofficialaccountoftheTavistockClinic'searlydays,we
catchalastfleetingglimpseofHullthepatient.
Amodestbeginning[by1931]hadbeenmadeinourtreatment,notonlyofneurotics,butalsoofbehaviordisorders,includingsomecriminals.Amongthemoresensationalevents
oftheweekforsomemonthswasthearrivalthreetimesweeklyofaprisonerservingsentenceforhomosexualoffenses,withtwouniformedwarders,tooneofwhomhewas
alwayshandcuffed.Inthecourseofthesevisitsthehandcuffscametobeleftoff.107

WhatdoestheHulltrialtellusaboutthepolicingofmasculinity?Accordingtothesexualdoublestandard,menwereexpectedtoenjoygreatersexuallibertiesthan
women.Yetthiswasnottobethecasewhenitcametocrossdressing.Awomanwhodressedasamanwasnotviewedaspar

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ticularlythreateningher"disguise,"whichcouldberegardedasfunctionalorprovocativeorerotic,didnotnecessarilyundermineherfemininity.SarahBernhardtand
MarleneDietrichwouldbelaudedforcrossdressinganymanwhodareddothesamewouldhavebeenderided.108Atworstdoctorsrecoiledfromtransvestites
withdisbeliefordisgustatbestphysicianspresentedthemaletransvestiteas"sick."Yetthosewhoconfessedtobeingmadenervousornauseousbycrossdressing
weretheselfproclaimed"normal."Theimageofmasculinitythatemergedfromsuchdiscussionswasthatofasurprisinglyfragileentitythathadtobecarefully
cossetedandprotected.109Theexpertswereonthelookoutforsissifiedmenagooddealofmasculineselfpolicingalsotookplace.InAmericamaleswereafraid
thatiftheyappearedtoosophisticateditcouldreflectadverselyontheirmanhood.SimilarlyinBritain,asQuentinCrisprecalled,"Themenofthetwentiessearched
themselvesforvestigesofeffeminacyasthoughforlice:"110

WesternsocietyappearedtoremainasshackledbystereotypedsexrolesasHullwasbyhishandcuffs.Thesensationaltransvestitetrialsofthe1920sand1930s
may,simplybythepublicitytheyproduced,haveledsometosympathizetoanextentwiththoseportrayedassufferingfromtheirsexualdeviancy.Thegeneral
impressiongivenbythenewspaperreportsoftheHulltrialandtheresponsesmadetoit,however,isthatonceagaintheauthoritieshadsucceededinturningapparent
violationsofsexandgenderrolestothepurposesofreinforcingheterosexualorder.Suchcases,farfromshakingthepublicoutofitssocialcomplacency,reinforced
suspicionsofanystrayingfromthehegemonicmodelofmasculinity.

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CONCLUSION
In1920theeminentAustrianpsychiatristDr.JuliusvonWagnerJauregglatertobewinnerofthe1928Nobelprizeforhismalariacureforgeneralparalysisofthe
insanehadtosubmithimselftoapublicinvestigation.Duringtherecentlyconcludedworldwar,hewasreportedtohaveharshlytreatedtheshellshockvictims
deliveredintohiscare.TheAustriansocialistswereparticularlyincensedbyhisuseofelectricshocktreatmentsonworkingclasssoldiers,whichthedeputies
describedaslittlemorethan"torture."InfactFrench,English,American,andGermandoctorshadalsorespondedtopatientswhofailedto"actlikemen"withthe
samesortsofpunitivetherapies.ThedebateoverthetreatmentofshellshockedsoldiersprecipitatedbothprofessionalandpublicdiscussionsacrossEuropeand
NorthAmericaofhowmilitarydoctorsshouldrespondtomassesofmaleinvalidswhomanifestedthehystericalbehaviorusuallyattributedtofemales.

Thewarhadbeeninitiallywelcomedonallsides,inparticularbythosemenwhohankeredafteranallmaleenvironment"uncomplicatedbywomen."1 Butthe
nostalgicnotionthatmodernwarmightconsistofdaringactsofindividualheroismwassoondisplacedbyfactualaccountsofthebarbarity,anonymity,and
technologicalhorrorsofactualtrenchwarfare.2 Someassertedthatthewar,inkillingoffthe"fittest"males,wasclearlydysgenic.3 Eventhemanhoodofthesurvivors
appearedtobeundermined.Thousandsofmeninregimentsacrossthewesternfront,afterbeingsubjectedtoweeksofterrifyingbombardments,brokedownand
werewrackedbytheboutsofweeping,depression,nightmares,andnervousfitscommonlyassociatedwithhystericalwomen."Theeffeminatehomosexualis
decidedlyunfitforthe,"wroteanAmericanpsychiatrist,"beingunabletostandwarstress."4 Tothehorrorofthehighcommand,thousandsof''normal"menappeared
todemonstrateasimilarlackof"willandcharacter."Manyfearednotsomuchthegasandshrapnelbutthe

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fearitselfthatwouldexposetheircowardice.Soldierswhohadvolunteeredactuallysurpassedordinaryconscriptsinmanifestinghigherlevelsofincapacitating
distress.Althoughnotphysicallyincapacitated,massesofmenfoundtheycouldnotfunctioninbattleandhadtoberelievedoftheirduties.

Themilitaryhighcommand,unpreparedtodealwithasurgeofpsychologicalcasualties,waspanickedbythenightmarishscenarioofacontagionofcowardiceand
indisciplineresultinginthecompletecollapseofwholearmies.5 Accordinglythefirstwaveofshellshockvictimswastreatedinaharshandhumiliatingfashion.
Doctorsdividedthosewhohad"real"cerebraldamagefromthosewithonlypsychologicaloremotionalproblems.Thecaregiverscastigatedthelatterascowards,
"moralinvalids,"and"poltroons."Expertsinthefieldadvisedtheircolleaguesnottomollycoddlesuchpatients,buttorespondquickly,briskly,andauthoritatively.
Electricalshocks,forexample,supposedlycalibratedsoasnottobesopainfulthatthepatientcouldmakehimselfouttobea"martyr,"weretobeusedto''snap"the
soldieroutofhislethargy.6 TheEnglishemployedthe"quickcure"and"Queen'ssquare"theFrenchthe"manireforte"and"torpillage"(electricshocks).Thesame
sortsofpeoplewhohadcalledforfloggingtodealwithpimpsandApachesincivilianlifebelievedthatsimilarlybrutalmethodscouldcurecowardiceinthemilitary.
Armiesonbothsidesofthelinerespondedtothespecterofmalingeringwithaconstantbarrageofhectoringappealsformentodemonstratetheirpluckand
manliness.

Theshort,sharptreatmentsdidnotwork.Inthecourseofthewar,thepsychologicalexpertsincreasinglycametotherealizationthatpunishingmenfortheirlackof
manlinesswasinfactcounterproductive.7 SigmundFreud,whowascalledasanexpertwitnessinthetrialofDr.vonWagnerJauregg,reportedthatinhisexperience
therewereamongtheshellshockedveryfewmalingerersmostpatientswereunconsciousoftheirfeelings.Neverthelessmanydoctorsfeltitwastheirdutytomake
therapysopainfulthatitwoulddrivethepatientbackintohealth."Thephysicianshadtoplayarolesomewhatlikethatofamachinegunbehindthefrontline,"Freud
notedinretrospect,"thatofdrivingbackthosewhofled."8 Suchdoctors,hewasforcedtoconclude,hadbetrayedmedicine.

Thehistoryoftheshellshockdebate,whichhasbeensowelltoldelsewhere,doesnothavetobereviewedinitsentiretyhere.9 Weonlytouchonitinconcludingthis
studybecauseFreud'sappearanceatthetrialofvonWagnerJaureggcouldwellserveasanappropriatewayinwhichtoturnthelastpageofachapterinthehistory
ofmasculinity.Itwillberecalled

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thatFreudandSandorFerenczionthecontinentandW.H.RiversinBritainfoundtheyhadahighersuccessrateindealingwiththeshellshockedpatientif,insteadof
belittlinghimwitholdfashionedchallengestoforgethistroubles,showastiffupperlip,andactlikeaman,theyallowedhimto"talkout"hisproblem.Inshortsuch
therapistshavebeenseenasmovingawayfromanineteenthcenturymodelofmasculinitythatemphasizedthecentralityofselfcontrolandwillpowerandtowarda
twentiethcenturymodelthattookintoaccounttheforcesofemotionandunconsciousmotivations.

WorldWarIhasbeenrepresentedasleadingtoareappraisaloftraditionalviewsonsexandgenderinotherwaysaswell.10Thewar,ingatheringtogetherhuge
massesofyoungmen,forceduponthepublicandmilitaryauthoritiestheextensivediscussionofsuchheretoforetabooedsubjectsasthetreatmentofvenerealdisease,
thepolicingofbrothels,andthedistributionofprophylactics.Thedemandsofthewartimeeconomynecessitatedtherecruitmentofthousandsofwomentotakeup
tasksheretoforecalled"men'swork."11Intellectuallytheconflict,whichhadbeenenteredintowithmuchmachotalkof"playingthegame,"gavebirthtoacultureof
resignationandintrospection.12Thebloodlettingwastakenbymanyasasignoftheendofanageofreason.Thosemaleculturalrebelsoftheprewarperiod,suchas
Wilde,Proust,andGide,whohadembracedhedonismandcastigatedtherepressivemoralityoftheVictorians,werehailedbytheProgressivesofthe1920sas
prophets.Andsophisticatedreaderslivinginatimeinwhichrepressionseemedoutoffashionandsexualexperimentationinvoguenecessarilyturnedforadviceto
seasonedexplorersoftheunconscioussuchasFreud.13

Evenbeforethewarbrokeout,reappraisalsofgenderhadbeenbegun.TheGermanfeministRoseMayrederassertedthatifonetookaggressivenessasthestandard,
thesavagewasthemostmasculineofmen.Unfortunately,notedMayreder,manyEuropeanmen'scontinuedfascinationwithduelingandwarfarerevealedthatthey
stillworshippedtheidolofprimitivemasculinity.14"Thefearofappearingunmanly,ofdisplayinganylackofthatvirilityattributedtotheprimitiveidealofthesex,
servestomaintainallthepreposterousatavisticprejudices,allthesenseless,incompatibletendenciesofwhichthelifeofthemodernmanissofull."15Theolderideal
masculinetypewasoutofstepwithmodernsocialconditions,concludedMayredermenwouldsoonhavetorecognizethepointlessnessofargumentsbasedon
physicalstrengthandcometotermswithlivinginanintellectualized,urbanizedworld.

Endingoursurveyofthemaleperversions,aswedid,withananalysis

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oftransvestitismandatracingoftheshiftintheattitudesoftheexpertstowarditfrom"disgusttocompassion,"temptsonetoconcludethatWorldWarIdidmarka
sharprelaxationoftheconstraintsassociatedwiththeoldermodelofaggressivemasculinity.16Suchaconclusionwouldmoreovercomplementtheworkofanumber
ofotherhistorianswhohavesketchedoutchangesinappropriatemalerolemodelsbetweentheeighteenthandtwentiethcenturies.Theyhavetracedthesubduingof
thedrinkingandgamblingaristocratandthestressonmalesensibilityespousedbyBurkeandRousseauandmanifestedintheAmericanWarofIndependenceandthe
FrenchRevolution.This,theysuggest,ledontotheVictorians'idealofselfrestrained,moralmanliness,whichgavewayinthelatternineteenthcenturytothe
aggressive,sexualizedmodelofmasculinity.Intheearlytwentiethcentury,thetrendwasawayfromruggedmasculinityandtoward"masculinedomesticity."17

Lesslinear,lessoptimistic,andmorecomplextrajectoriescanalsobetraced.Ifthewarblurredgenderlines,theauthoritieswereuponitsconclusionallthemore
insistentthatwomenberelegatedtotheir"traditional"tasks.18Ifafewcreativewritersembracedmodernism,thereweremanymorewhotrottedoutoldjingoistic
arguments.19Ifthemilitaryfinallyacceptedthediagnosisof"warneurosis"andallowedlesspunitivetreatmentsofshellshockedmen,itwasnotasymptomofasofter
attitudetowardmalingeringortheembracingofanewviewoftruemasculinity:themilitaryacceptedapsychologicaldiagnosisprimarilytoindividualizetheproblem
andtherebypreventmassmutinies.20AndifFreudwasassociatedwiththesubversivenotionthateachindividualwasoriginallybisexualinnature,hispostwar
popularityisbetterattributedtopsychoanalysis'susefulnessinreinvigoratingratherthaninunderminingwhatwerenowseenastraditionalmaleandfemaleroles.

Thepowerheldinthepostwarworldbyappealstoconservativemodelsofgenderthatstressedtheprimacyofmasculinevirilitywasmostdramaticallydemonstrated
inthewritingsofanotherproductofVienneseculture,AdolfHitler.InMeinKampf(1923)onefindsnotonlytheassertionthatAryansare"men"andJewsarenot,
butarehashoffamiliarlatenineteenthcenturyideas:thosetaintedwithvenerealdiseaseshouldnotbeallowedtoreproduceearlymarriagesareneededtocombat
prostitutionbirthcontrolisadangerbecauseitlimitsgeneticchoiceandsoleadstodegenerationtoomuchstudyisunhealthythesexualexcitationprofferedbyfilms,
plays,paintings,andpostersunderminesthemoralsofyouthyoungmenhavetoberenderedhardbygymnasticsandsport.21Having

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examinedthewaysinwhichattemptsweremadeinthenineteenthcenturytodefineanddefendhealthymasculinity,itshouldcomeasnosurprisethatinthetwentieth
manyintheWestwereimpressedbytheruddymasculinevigoroftheHitlerYouthandfewprotestedtheNazis'passinglawsforthecastrationofmale"sexcriminals"
andhomosexualsdiagnosedas"sick."22Tosuggestthereforethatoneprogressivetwentiethcenturymodelofmasculinitydisplaceditsrepressivenineteenthcentury
counterpartissimplistic.Perhapsthebestthatcanbesaidisthatintheearlytwentiethcenturydeterminingwhatweretheboundariesofappropriatemasculine
behaviorwasrenderedmorecomplicatedthanithadbeenwhenmalesexualitywasfirstproblematizedacenturyearlier.

Thisstudyhadasitsgoaltoshowhowconceptsofmasculinitywerecreated,policed,andmaintainedbymen.Males,itshouldbeclearbynow,measuredtheir
masculinityagainstthatofothermennotwomen.Communitiesalwayshadavarietyofformalandinformalmeansbywhichtopolicegender.Dominantformsof
masculinityinthenineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturies,wehaveargued,werelargelyconstitutedoutofasetofnegativevarietiesthatappearedineveryday
discourseandpractice."Acuriousfeatureofourpatriarchalsociety,"notesoneauthor,inmakingmuchthesamepoint,"isthelackofsympathygiventothefateof
menincertaincontexts,particularlyinareasoffailure."23Wesetouttoshowhowaseriesofkeytrials,oftenbymakingscapegoatsor"examples"ofmaleviolators
whocametotheattentionofthepressorpublic,setnormativeboundariesforturnofthecenturymasculinity.Gaugingtheimpactofsuchcasesonthemassofmen
posesobviousdifficulties.Theverdictsinsensationaltrialsdidnotalwaysprovideanaccuratereflectionoftheextentofeitherthepublicortheprofessionals'intentto
enforceruthlesslysuchboundaries.Muddledordebatedmessagesasinthecaseofwhatwasexpectedofagentlemanwheninconflictwithalady,forexample
wereoftentheresultofthesecontests.Genderdisputesweremoreovermadeendlesslycomplicatedbysocialclass,culturalsetting,andasinthecaseofMr.Justice
Dayindividualperspective.

HereitisworthrecallingRobertConnell'spointthatfemininityandmasculinityrefernottoessencesbuttowaysoflivingthatarehistorical.Femininitiesand
masculinitieschangetheirmeaningsshift.Connellidentifiesan"emphasizedfemininity"anda"hegemonicmasculinity"ascurrentlypowerful,publicideologiesin
Westernculture.24Healsoargues,aswehave,thatsuchmodelsdonotnecessarilycorrespondtoactualfemininitiesandmasculinitiesastheyarelived,andsuch
dominantformsareal

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wayscontested."Ascendantdefinitionsofreality,"tousethecumbersometerminologyofthesociologist,arealwayspartialandalwaystosomeextentcontested
accomplishments.Intheorynoonecounteredthebourgeoisargumentthatthemanwhocommittedbigamywasascoundrelinpracticemanyworkingclassmenand
womenappreciatedthesocialconditionsthatmightleadtosuchamarriage.

Aswedemonstrated,especiallyinparttwoofthisstudy,thedominantideologyofmasculinitydidnottotallyobliteratealternativereadings.Menselected,used,and
appropriatedelementsoftheideologythey"tookitup"whennecessarytorationalizeormakesenseoftheiractions.Wedonothavetoimaginethemasallpassively
internalizingtheideologyof"hegemonicmasculinity"inasimplecauseandeffectorcoercedway.Thisideologycreatedlinguisticandsocialpositionsthatit"invited"
mentoassume.Norarewesuggestingthatthelegalandmedicalprofessionsformedsomehomogenousmassthatconspiredtowieldpoweroverthesexlivesoftheir
fellowcitizens.Theirmemberswereoftennodoubtmovedbygenuinescientificcuriosity,byunderstandableconcernsfororder,byphilanthropy.Whatweargueis
thatthenotionthattherewasoneessentialformofmasculinitywassimplyassumedbyjudges,journalists,anddoctors.Whattheydidnotrealizethemselvesisthatthe
modelofmasculinitythattheytookasagivenwasonethattheywereactuallyhelpingtoconstruct.

Inshort,althoughthepublicrhetoricofwhatitmeant"tobeaman"wasdominatedbyamaleelite,masculinitynecessarilyhaddifferentmeaningsdependingonmen's
individualexperiencesandontheirclass,race,andsexualorientation.Unfortunatelywecouldnothopetorevealallthewaysinwhichtotalkoractlikeamanvaried
byclass,industry,region,locality,orethnicgroup.Nor,intakingahighlyselectivechoiceoftrialcases,didweproposetoshowaclearprocessofchangeinmen's
behaviorovertime.Consequentlywearewaryofmakinganygrandclaimsaboutevolvingmodelsofmasculinity.Whatareadingofthesortofevidenceunearthedby
thisstudydoesallowustoappreciateishowandwhynineteenthandearlytwentiethcenturydoctors,lawyers,andlaymen,incondemningthe"unmanly,"helpedto
constructandsoughttoimposeontheirsocietieswhatfordecadestocomeweretobeheraldedasnaturalandtimelessnormsofmasculinity.

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NOTES

Introduction
1.ThehistoricalanalysisofmasculinityandfemininityisarelatedrecentphenomenonthereisnodiscussionofgenderedtermsinaClassictextsuchasRaymond
William,Keywords:AVocabularyofCultureandSociety(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1976).

2.PierreBourdieu,OutlineofaTheoryofPractice,trans.RichardNice(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1977),94.

3.AswasmadeclearinRuddiman's1749passingreferencetotheterm"BesidesthePrerogativeofhisSex,orMasculinity(astheFrenchcallit)'"masculinity"
hadonlyrecentlyenteredtheEnglishlanguage.InFranceitwasusedfromthesixteenthcenturyonwardtodescribethelegalprivilegesofmalesinbothlanguagesit
beganinthenineteenthcenturytobeemployedtorefertowhatweretakentobemalephysiologicalandpsychologicaltraits.OxfordEnglishDictionary
Dictionnairedelalanguefranaisedu16esicle(Paris:Didier,1961).

4.See,forexample,EdwardShorter,TheMakingoftheModernFamily(NewYork:BasicBooks,1976)PaulRobinson,TheModernizationofSex:Havelock
Ellis,AlfredKinsey,WilliamMastersandVirginiaJohnson(NewYork:HarperandRow,1976).

5.MichelFoucault,TheHistoryofSexuality:Introduction,trans.RobertHurley(London:AllenLane,1978)andseealsoRosalindCoward,Patriarchal
Precedents,SexualityandSocialRelations(LondonRoutledgeandKeganPaul,1983).

6.ThomasLaqueur,MakingSex:BodyandGenderfromtheGreekstoFreud(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1990)LawrenceBirken,Consuming
Desires:SexualScienceandtheEmergenceofaCultureofAbundance,18711914(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1989)CynthiaEagleRussett,Sexual
Science:TheVictorianConstructionofWomanhood(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1989)RobertA.Nye,MasculinityandMaleCodesofHonorin
ModernFrance(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress1993)E.AnthonyRotundo,AmericanManhood(NewYork:BasicBooks,1993)LesleyA.Hall,Hidden
Anxieties:MaleSexuality,19001950(Oxford:PolityPress,1991)KevinWhite,TheFirstSexualRevolution:TheEmergenceofMaleHeterosexualityin
ModernAmerica(NewYork:NewYorkUniversityPress,1993)JudithWalkowitz,TheCityofDreadfulDelight(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1992)
CarollSmithRosenberg,DisorderlyConduct:VisionsofGenderinVictorianAmerica(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985)RuthHarris,Murderersand
Madness:Medicine,LawandSocietyintheFindeSicle(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1989).Ontherelationshipofprogressivepoliticalviewsandattitudestoward
sexualityinEasternEurope,seeLauraEngelstein,TheKeystoHappiness:SexandtheSearchforModernityinFindesicleRussia(Ithaca:CornellUniversity
Press,1992).

7.Studiesthatfocuson"respectable"modelsofmasculinityincludeStevenSeidman,RomanticLongings:LoveinAmerica,18301930(NewYork:Routledge,
1991)PeterG.Filene,Him/Her/Self:SexRolesinModernAmerica(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversity

Page240

Press,1974)andJoeL.Dubbert,"ProgressivismandtheMasculinityCrisis,"inTheAmericanMan,ed.E.PleckandJ.Pleck(NewYork:PrenticeHall,
1980),30319MichaelS.Kimmel,"Thecontemporary'Crisis'ofMasculinityinHistoricalPerspective,"inTheMakingofMasculinities:TheNewMen's
Studies,ed.HarryBrod(Boston:UnwinHyman,1987):PeterN.Steams,BeaMan!MalesinModernSociety(NewYorkHolmesandMeier,1979)J.A.
ManganandJamesWalvin,ManlinessandMorality:MiddleClassMasculinityinBritainandAmerica,18001940(NewYork:St.Martin'sPress,1987)
MichaelRoperandJohnTosh,eds.ManfulAssertions:MasculinitiesinBritainsince1800(London:Routledge,1991)MarkC.CarnesandClydeGriffen,
MeaningsforManhood(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1990)ElisabethBadinter,XY:Del'Identitmasculine(Paris:OdileJacob,1992)MartinA.
Danahay,ACommunityofOne:MasculineAutobiographyandAutonomyinNineteenthCenturyBritain(Albany:SUNYPress,1993)HerbertSussman,
VictorianMasculinities:ManhoodandMasculinePoeticsinEarlyVictorianLiteratureandArt(CambridgeCambridgeUniversityPress,1995)Claudia
Nelson,InvisibleMen:FatherhoodinVictorianPeriodicals,18531910(Athens:UniversityofGeorgiaPress,1995).

8.Forsuggestiveinsightsonhistoricizingandsociologizingmasculinity,seeR.W.Connell,WhichWayIsUp?EssaysonSex,ClassandCulture(London:Allen
andUnwin,1983)JohnTosh,"WhatShouldHistoriansDowithMasculinity?ReflectionsonNineteenthCenturyBritain,"HistoryWorkshopJournal38(1994):
179202.

9.Harris,MurderersandMadness,327.

10.JoanScott,"StatisticalRepresentationsofWork:ThePoliticsoftheChamberofCommerce'sStatitiquedel'industrieParis,184748,"inWorkinFrance:
Representations,Meaning,OrganizationandPractice,ed.StevenLawrenceKaplanandCynthiaJ.Koepp(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1986),36in83.

11.TheodoreZeldin,"LesFranaisetl'amour,"inAmouretsexualitenl'occident,ed.GeorgesDuby(Paris:Points,1991),31723.

12.ForanintroductiontothisissueseeGailBederman,ManlinessandCivilization:ACulturalHistoryofGenderandRaceintheUnitedStates,18801917
(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1995)AnneMcClintock,ImperialLeather:Race,GenderandSexualityinColonialConquest(NewYork:Routledge,
1995)MrinaliniSinha,ColonialMasculinity:The"ManlyEnglishman"andthe"EffeminateBengali"intheLateNineteenthCentury(Manchester:
ManchesterUniversityPress,1995)AntoinetteBurton,BurdensofHistory:BritishFeminists,IndianWomenandImperialCulture,18651915(ChapelHill:
UniversityofNorthCarolinaPress,1994).

13.Somuchhasbeenwrittenabouttheconstructionofnineteenthcenturyhomosexualitythatoneisoftenleftwiththemisleadingimpressionthattheonlyformof
"sexualdissidence"thatpreoccupiedthesexologistswasinversion.See,forexample,JonathanDollimore,SexualDissidence:AugustinetoWilde,Fraudto
Foucault(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1991).

14.LeonoreDavidoffandCatherineHall,FamilyFortunes:MenandWomenoftheEnglishMiddleClass,17801850(London:Hutchinson,1987),33.

15.EdCohen,TalkontheWildeSide:TowardaGenealogyofaDiscourseonMaleSexualities(London:Routledge,1993),129

16.GuidoRuggiero,TheBoundariesofEros(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985).

17.SanderGilman,DifferenceandPathology:StereotypesofSexuality,RaceandMadness(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1985).

18.JamesW.Messerschmidt,MasculinitiesandCrime:CritiqueandReconceptualizationofTheory(Lanham,Md.:RowmanandLittlefield,1993)

19.Rotundo,forexample,inAmericanManhoodcompletelyskirtsthelinkagesofviolenceandmasculinity.

20.MarieElisabethHandman,LaViolenceetlaruse:Hommesetfemmesdansunvillagegrec(Paris:Edisud,1983),15459.

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21.GeorgesLanteriLaura,Lecturedesperversions:Histoiredeleurappropriationmdicale(ParisMasson,1979).

22.KatherineFischerTaylor,InTheTheaterofCriminalJustice:ThePalaisdeJusticeinSecondEmpireParis(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1993).

23.AndrGide,Souvenirsdelacourd'assises(Paris:Nouvellerevuefranaise,1913)andonthecrucialroleofpopularprejudiceasreflectedbyjuriesinthe
UnitedStates,seeSamuelWalker,PopularJustice:AHistoryofAmericanCriminalJustice(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1980),111.

24.JoanWallachScott,GenderandthePoliticsofHistory(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1988),42.

25.RobertA.Nye,MasculinityandMaleCodesofHonorinModernFrance(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1993).

26.OntheroleoffilmandtelevisionintheshoringupofgenderrolesintwentiethcenturyAmerica,seeSusanJeffords,TheRemasculinizationofAmerica:Gender
andtheVietnamWar(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,1989).

27.ArnoldDavidson,"SexandtheEmergenceofSexuality,"CriticalInquiry14(1987):1648JeffreyWeeks,Sex,PoliticsandSociety:TheRegulationof
Sexualitysince1800(London:Longman,1981).

28.KarenDubinsky,ImproperAdvances:RapeandHeterosexualConflictinOntario(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1993).

29.MauriceGodelier,NewLeftReview127(1987):17,citedinScott,GenderandthePoliticsofHistory,45.Onthelonghistoryofsuchpreoccupations,see
DavidCohen,Law,SexualityandSociety.TheEnforcementofMoralsinClassicalAthens(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1991).

IntroductiontoPartOne
1.BrianDippie,TheVanishingAmerican:WhiteAttitudesandUnitedStatesIndianPolicy(Middletown,Conn.:WesleyanUniversityPress,1982).

2.WilliamJames,CollectedEssaysandReviews(London:Longman,1920),4045.

Chapter1
Deviants
1.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommoms43(14Nov.1912),cols.208486LeonRadzinowiczandRogerHood,AHistoryofEnglishCriminalLaw
anditsAdministrationfrom1750(London:Stevens,1986),5:711.

2.PieterSpierenburg,TheSpectacleofSuffering:ExecutionsandtheEvolutionofRepressionfromaPreindustrialMetropolistotheEuropeanExperience
(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1984),689MichaelIgnatieff,AJustMeasureofPain:ThePenitentiaryintheIndustrialRevolution,17501850
(London:Macmillan,1978).

3.MartinJ.Wiener,ReconstructingtheCriminal:Culture,LawandPolicyinEngland,18301914(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1990).Foraless
optimisticviewofthewideningscopeofcriminallawandtheaccompanyinggrowthofpolicepowers,seeV.A.C.Gatrelletal.,eds.,CrimeandtheLaw:The
SocialHistoryofCrimeinWesternEuropesince1500(London:EuropaPress,1980).

4.RadzinowiczandHood,EnglishCriminalLaw,5:690.

5.Onthecontinuedsubjectionintothetwentiethcenturyofmalesundertheageofsixteentobirchings,seeGeoffreyPearson,Hooligan:AHistoryofRespectable
Fears(London:Macmillan,1983),261n92.

6.JenniferDavis,"TheLondonGarrotingPanicof1862:AMoralPanicandtheCreationofaCriminalClassinMidVictorianEngland,"inCrimeandtheLaw,ed.
Gatrelletal.,190213.

7.Onthenumbersflogged,seeParliamentaryPapers54(1882):137"Reportofthe

Page242

DepartmentalCommitteeonCorporalPunishment,"ParliamentaryPapers9(19371938):461619RadzinowiczandHood,EnglishCriminalLaw,5:707.

8.Thewaveofgarrotingswasactuallyoverbeforefloggingwasemployed.seeGeorgeBenson,M.P.,Flogging:TheLawandPracticeinEngland(London:
HowardLeague,1931).

9.RadzinowiczandHood,EnglishCriminalLaw,5:694.

10.MaeveE.Doggett,Marriage,WifeBeatingandtheLawinVictorianEngland(London:WeidenfeldandNicolson,1992),10633.

11.ElizabethPleck,DomesticTyranny:TheMakingofAmericanSocialPolicyagainstFamilyViolencefromColonialTimestothePresent(NewYork:
OxfordUniversityPress,1987),10824

12.SimeonBaldwin,TheAmericanJudiciary(NewYork:Century,1905),245.

13.SimeonBaldwin,"WhippingandCastrationasPunishmentsforCrime,"YaleLawJournal8(1899):377.

14.Pleck,DomesticTyranny,111LindaGordon,HeroesofTheirOwnLives:ThePoliticsandHistoryofFamilyViolence,Boston18801960(NewYork:
Viking,1988),255.

15.RadzinowiczandHood,EnglishCriminalLaw,695.SeealsoParliamentaryDebates,HouseofLords300(31July1885),cols.72251.

16.ParliamentaryPapers82(1888):333572(1898):56971.

17.Floggingswereusedtoenforcedisciplineinthearmyandnavyuntil1881seeAlanRamsaySkelley,TheVictorianArmyatHome(London:CroomHelm,
1977),14752.Forafirstpersonaccountofthehorrorsofbeingflogged,seeAlexanderSomerville,TheAutobiographyofaWorkingMan(London:Turnstile
Press,1951),18889.

18.T.B.L.Baker,"OnVagrantsandTramps"(pamphlet,ManchesterStatisticalSociety,1869).

19."1898VagrancyActAmendmentBill,"ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons62(1898),col.426ff.

20.Rev.FrankCharlesLaubach,WhyThereareVagrants:AStudyBaseduponanExaminationofOneHundredMen(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversity,
1916),36andonthe"wolf"or"jocker,"seealsoJosiahFlynt,TrampingwithTramps(NewYork:Century,1899),7.AccordingtotheOxfordEnglish
Dictionary,NorthAmericansalsoemployedthetermgunsel(fromtheYiddish"littlegoose")torefertoatramp'scompanionand/ortheyounghomosexual.

21."ABilltoAmendtheVagrancyAct,1824,"ParliamentaryPapers7(1898):6078HenryS.Salt,TheFloggingCraze:AStatementoftheCaseagainst
CorporalPunishment(London:GeorgeAllen,1916),72.

22.Salt,FloggingCraze,71.

23.Ibid.,73.

24.SeelettertoLondonTimes,28Feb.1899,7f.

25.In1895onlyonepersonof1,265convictedofexposinghimselfhadactuallyhadbeenwhippedseeRadzinowiczandHood,EnglishCriminalLaw,5:707.

26.JosephCollinson,TheFloggingofVagrants(London:HumanitarianLeague,1909),9.

27.Onthebitchingoffouryoungmaleprostitutesforwhatthenewspapersdiscretelyreferredtoasthe"annoying"ofgentlemenintheWestEnd,seeLondonTimes,
6Nov.1912,4e.OnthefloggingofmenforsexoffensesinCanada,seePierreHurteau,"L'Homosexualitmasculineetlesdiscourssurlesexeencontexte
montralaisdelafinduXIXesiclelarevolutiontranquille,"Histoiresociale/SocialHistory26(1993):47.

28.EdwardJ.BristowProstitutionandPrejudice:TheJewishFightagainstWhiteSlavery,18701939(NewYork:SchockenBooks,1983),37.Thehighly
chargedimageofBritishgirlsbeingheldcaptiveinBelgianbrothelshadbeenlaunchedin1879bythemoralpurityadvocate,AlfredDyer.WilliamSteadandWilliam
Cootesubsequentlycarriedonthecampaign.

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29.EdwardJ.BristowViceandVigilance:PurityMovementsinBritainsince1700(London:GillandMacmillan,1977)

30.ParliamentaryPapers7(1898):607.

31.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofLords12(1912),cols.1193,1198.

32.SeealsoParliamentaryPapers1(191213):599614ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),cols.725806cols18421950Houseof
Lords13(1912),cols10636HouseofCommons45(1912),cols.69934696ff.

33.Inprisonsthelastfloggingstookplacein1962butwerenotactuallyabolisheduntil1967.IanGibson,TheEnglishVice:Beating,SexandShameinVictorian
EnglandandAfter(London:Duckworth,1978),167.SeealsoArthurGriffiths,MemorialsofMillbankandChaptersinPrisonHistory(London:Chapmanand
Hall,1884),12932.

34.E.RoyCalvertandTheodoraCalvert,TheLawBreakers(London:Routledge,1933),254.

35.DailySketch,13Feb.1913.Mormons,becauseoftheirassociationwithpolygamy,playedthestockroleofsexualvillainsinliteraryworksrangingfromArthur
ConanDoyle'sAStudyinScarlet(1887)toZaneGrey'sRidersofthePurpleSage(1912).

36.WilliamTallack,PenologicalandPreventivePrinciples(London:Wertheimer,1896),414

37.Bristow,ViceandVigilance,193.ButforMajorPaget's1924attempttoextendwhippingtomalesoversixteenwhocommitsexualoffenseagainstgirlsunder
thirteen,seeLancet1(1924):1344.

38.RadzinowicsandHood,EnglishCriminalLaw,5:697.

39.M.St.J.Packe,LifeofJohnStuartMill(1954),4823.

40.Tallack,PenologicalandPreventivePrinciples,11.

41.RichardMaxwellBrown,StrainofViolence(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1975),17779.

42.Tallack,PenologicalandPreventivePrinciples,413.

43.Labouchrecitedinibid.,11112.

44.Tallack,PenologicalandPreventivePrinciples,117.

45.Ibid.,391.

46.Baldwin,"WhippingandCastration,"383.Onviewsofchildhoodsexualitysee,SanderGilman,DifferenceandPathology:StereotypesofSexuality,Race,
andMadness(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1985).

47.Tallack,PenologicalandPreventivePrinciples,414.Onthepress'ssupportforTallack'scalltogettoughwithtramps,seethebookofpresscuttingsonW.
Tallack'sPenologicalandPreventivePrinciples(BritishLibrary,6057ee25).

48.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofParliament43(1912),cols.19001902.JewshadbeenaccusedofpimpingbythepopularjournalistArnoldWhite,The
ModernJew(London:Heinemann,1899).OntheportrayalofJewsaseffeminateandhysterical,seeJohnM.Efron,DefendersoftheRace:JewishDoctorsand
RaceScienceinFindeSicleEurope(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1994),7.OntheassociationofblackmenwiththedruggingandseductionofEnglish
women,seeMarekKohn,DopeGirls:TheBirthoftheBritishDrugUnderground(London:LawrenceandWishart,1992).

49.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),col.1901.col.18921938andseealsothestatementsofReginaldMcKenna,theLiberalhome
secretary,ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),col.767andseealsoLondonTimes,2Nov.1912,7f.

50.Baldwin,"WhippingandCastration,"380.

51.SimeonBaldwin,TheAmericanJudiciary(NewYork:Century,1905),246.

52.Pleck,DomesticTyranny,10824.Virginiarevertedtowhippingin1898forundersixteensasanalternativetoafineorjailsentenceifthefatherconsented.
TheodoreRoosevelt

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threwhissupportbehindthecorporalpunishmentcampaignin1904,buttheUnitedStatesCongressrejectedflogginglegislationin1906.

53.OnoppositiontowhippinginIndia,seeThomasBabingtonMacaulay,Works,4:196,citedinGibson,EnglishVice,154.

54.Baldwin,''WhippingandCastration,"382.

55.WilliamHarbuttDawson,TheVagrancyProblem(London:P.S.King,1910),3.

56.HippolyteLaurent,LesChtimentscorporels(Lyon:Phily,1912),112,34850.

57.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons81(1900),col.555.

58.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),cols.1874,1877.Thesameargumenthadbeenmadein1898seeParliamentaryDebates,House
ofCommons62(1898VagrancyActAmendmentBill),col.429.

59.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),col.72830.Thegovernmentwasatthistimeseekingbywayofabillforfeeblemindednesstohave
placedunderdetentionsinglepregnantwomenreceivingreliefseeLondonTimes,8Nov.1912,4a.

60.JosephCollinson,FactsaboutFlogging(London:Fifield,1905),17.

61.Onthewomen'smovementandsexualpanics,seeLucyBland,BanishingtheBeast:EnglishFeminismandSexualMorality,18851914(London:Penguin,
1995).

62.Fortheobservationthat,thoughmenwerebeatenwhilewomenwerenot,womendidnothavehigherstatusandindeedthepimp,inbecomingthefocusof
criminallaw,wasgiven"theprivilegeofagency,"whichwasdeniedwomen,seeLauraEngelstein,TheKeystoHappiness:SexandtheSearchforModernityin
FindeSicleRussia(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1992),749093.

63.TheHumanitarian(December1912):9091.TheHumanitarianLeaguewassupportedbyfeministssuchasLadyFlorenceDixie,whowroteoneofits
pamphlets,"TheMercilessnessofSport:"

64.Between1883and1899,Dayhadincludedinhissentencing4,061strokesseeParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons81(1900),col.560Salt,
FloggingCraze,134.

65.LondonTimes,13Nov.1912,16d.

66.TeresaBillingtonGreig,"TheTruthaboutWhiteSlavery,"EnglishReview14(1913):43435.FrancesPowerCobbehadbeenanearliervocalfeminist
opponentofflogging.

67.LondonTimes,13Nov.1912,16d.

68.ParliamentaryPapers,HouseofCommons43(1912),col.1861.

69.ParliamentaryPapers,HouseofCommons43(1912),col.1930.

70.ElaineShowalter,SexualAnarchy:GenderandCultureattheFindeSicle(London:Penguin,1990).

71.ColinWatson,SnobberywithViolence:EnglishCrimeStoriesandTheirAudience(London:EyreMethuen,1971).

72.Predictablyenoughthedefendersoffloggingcharacterizedtheiropponentsasbeingnotrealmenbut"enthusiasticoldwomenintrousers:"Skelley,Victorian
Army,152.

73.EdwardCarpenterprovidedsomepositive,remedialexamplesofcaningbutconcludedthatitwasmorallythelowestformofpunishmentandshouldonlybeused
inreformatoriesbythosewhoknewandcaredfortheircharges,butneverforadults.EdwardCarpenter,Prisons,PoliceandPunishment(London:Fifield,1905)
andseealsoDanWeinbren,"AgainstAllCruelty:TheHumanitarianLeague,18911919,"HistoryWorkshopJournal(1995):86105.

74.OnOscarWilde'srevulsionatthefloggingshewitnessedinprison,see"TheCaseofWarderMartin:SomeCrueltiesofPrisonLife,"alettertotheeditorofthe
DailyChroniclepublished28May1897,inTheAnnotatedOscarWilde,ed.H.MontgomeryHyde(London:Orbis,1982),470.

75.SeealsoH.G.Wells,TheIslandofDr.Moreau(London:Heinemann,1896).

76.ThomasdeQuincey,"OnSuicide,"inCollectedWritings(Edinburgh:Black,1890),8:400andseealso"FlogginginSchools,"inCollectedWritings,1:29195.

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77.JamesFitzjamesStephen,AHistoryoftheCriminalLaw(London:Macmillan,1883),2:91.

78.ReportedbyArthurGreenwood,M.P.,intheintroductiontoSalt,FloggingCraze.

79.Mr.L.Williams,ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),col.1900.

80.Salt,FloggingCraze,80.

81.NewsoftheWorld,22June1913,1.ThesexologistslikeKrafftEbing,Moll,andEllisprovidedsimilarreports.

82.GeorgeBernardShaw,TheAwakener,16Nov.1912,78andseealsoHumanity,April1898,2627MisallianceinCollectedWorks(London:Constable,
1930),13:56,inwhichhedeclaredthe1912actwas"notalegislativephenomenonbutapsychopathicone."

83.Salt,FloggingCraze,87

84.ParliamentaryDebates,HouseofCommons43(1912),cols.194849.

85.Ausefulreviewofothercountries'viewsonfloggingwasprovidedinthe"ReportoftheDepartmentalCommitteeonCorporalPunishment,"Parliamentary
Papers9(19371938)610ff.Canadastoodoutasanationespeciallypronetousingthewhiponaverage,ineachyearbetween1932and1936,130adultswere
sopunished.

86.ThankstotheworkoftheInternationalAbolitionistFederation,firstorganizedbyJosephineButler,internationalagreementsof1902and1910hadtheuseof
fraudorforcetomovefemalesunderagetwentyabroadrecognizedininternationallawasacrime.TheDutchin1911raisedtheageofconsenttotwentyone.Inthe
UnitedStates,inadditiontotheMannAct,fortytwostatespassedsimilarlegislation,thoughonly7.5percentofwomenstatedthattheywerecoercedintothetrade.
Bristow,ProstitutionandPrejudiceDavidJ.Pivar,PurityCrusade:SexualMoralityandSocialControl,18681900(Westport,Conn.:GreenwoodPress,
1973)RuthRosen,LostSisterhood:ProstitutioninAmerica,19001918(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1981),11219,134DavidJ.Langum,
CrossingovertheLine:LegislatingMoralityandtheMannAct(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1994)

87.Indeedonthecontinentavisittoabrothelremainedamaleriteofpassageandtheprocurercouldevenbemadethesubjectofanovel.SeeCharlesLouis
Philippe,BubuofMontparnasse(1905Paris:Crosby,1932)RichardJ.Evans,TheFeministMovementinGermany,18941933(London:Sage,1976),17.

88.Onregulatedprostitution,weLoTaxil,LaCorruptionfindesicle(Paris:Noirot,1904),66169LouisFiaux,LaPolicedesmoeursenFranceetdansles
principauxpaysdel'Europe(Paris:Dentu,1888),3vols.AlainCorbin,LesFillesdenoce.Misresexuelleetprostitution,19eet20esicles(ParisAubier
Montaigne,1978)JacquesTermeau,Maisonsclosesdeprovince(Paris:Editionscnomane,1986)JeanMarcBerlire,LaPolicedesmoeurssouslaIIIe
rpublique(Paris:Seuil,1992).

89.RobertA.Nye,Crime,Madness,andPoliticsinModernFranceThemedicalConceptofNationalDecline(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1984),
196202.

90.TheywerealsoreportedinLille,Marseilles,andLyon.

91.Dr.Lejeune,FautilfouetterlesApaches?(Paris:LibrairieduTemple,1910),23seealsoHippolyteLaurent,LesChtimentscorporels:LaPeinecapitale,
lefouetauxapaches(Lyon:Phily,1912)LeFouetcontrelecrime(Lyon:Phily,1913).EdmondLocard,LeCrimeetlescriminels(Paris:LeRenaissancedu
livre,1927).

92.Fortheobservationthatmostyoungmeninsuchgangswereinrealitysimplygoingthroughapreadulthoodriteofpassage,seeMichellePerrot,"DanslaFrance
delaBellepoque,les'Apaches',premiresbandesdejeunes,"inLesMarginauxetlesexclusdansl'histoire,ed.BernardVincent(Paris:Uniongnrale
d'ditions,1979),387408.

93.AlexandreLacassagne,Peinedemortetcriminalit(ParisMaloine,1908),967,144,16465A.Lacassagne,'LeschatimentscorporelsenAngleterre,"
Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle26(1911):3546.

94.CesareLombroso,L'Uomodelinquente(Milano:Hoepli,1876)andseealsoEu

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genioFlorianandGuidoCavaglieri,IVagabondi:Studiosociologicogiuridico(Torino:Bocca,1900).

95.Flynt,TrampingwithTramps."JosiahFlynt,"whoalsocontributed"HomosexualityamongTramps,"toappendixAofHavelockEllis's"SexualInversion,''was
actuallyF.Willard,anephewofMissFrancesWillard,presidentoftheWCTU.SeeHavelockEllis,StudiesinthePsychologyofSexuality(NewYork.Random
House,1942),1:35967.

96.FrankCharlesLaubach,WhyThereAreVagrants:AStudyBaseduponanExaminationofOneHundredMen(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,
1916).Seealso,AllanPinkerton,Strikers,Communists,TrampsandDetectives(NewYork:Carleton,1877).

97.HubertduPuy,Vagabondageetmendicit(ParisLarose,1899),2.

98.PierreBoue,Vagabondageetmendicit:Moyensdedfense(Pithiviers:A.Gibier,1906),39.

99.Boue,Vagabondageetmendicit,911JeanBerryandGeorgesBerry,LeVagabondageetlamendicit(Paris:Figuire,1913).

100.mileFourquet,"LesVagabondscrimnels,"Revuedesdeuxmondes2(1899):399437.

101.Ontrampsandsexcrimes,seealsoBenjaminBall,LaFolierotique(Paris:Baillire,1888),116,147.ThefifthCongrspnitentiareinternational,whichwas
heldinParisin1895,focuseditsattentionontheissueofvagabondage.

102.A.R.Diefendorf,ed.,Kraeplin'sClinicalPsychiatry(NewYork:Macmillan,1912),529.

103.Defendersoffloggingmaintainedthat"singlehandedrape"theabilityofonemantoassaultaconsciouswomanwasimpossibleseeParliamentary
Debates,HouseofCommons81(1900),col.554.

104.PaoloMantegazza,Physiologiedel'amour(ParisKolb,1886).

105.HenryMaudsleyBodyandWill(London:KeganPaul,Trench,1883),241,CharlesKingsleyalsospokeofa"processofdegradation"thatledto"effeminate
barbarism."CharlesKingsley,HealthandEducation(Daldy:Isbister,1875),1011.

106.MarieJoBonnet,UnChoixsansequivoque:RecherchessurlesrelationsamoureusesentrelesfemmesXVIeXXesicle(Paris:Denoel,1981),180
JonathanKatz,TheInventionofHeterosexualityNewYork:BasicBooks,1994).

107.PierreHahn,Nosancestreslespervers:LaViedeshomosexuelssousleSecondEmpire(Paris:OlivierOrban,1979),20.

108.Formoretraditionalviewsofdeviantsexualbehavior,seeMarieVroniqueGauthier,Chanson,SociabilitetGrivoiserieauXIXesicle(Paris:Aubier,
1992),23945.

109.Hahn,Nosancestreslespervers,125.

110.JoachimS.Hohmann,ed.,DerunterdruckteSexus(LollarAchenbach,1977),25citedinGeorgeMosse,"MasculinityandtheDecadence,"inSexual
Knowledge:SexualScience:TheHistoryofAttitudestoSexuality,ed.RoyPorterandMikulasTeich(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1994),257.

111.JosephBristow,ed.,SexualSameness:TextualDifferencesinLesbianandGayWriting(NewYork:Routledge,1992).

112.ReviewofReviews(1895),citedinH.MontgomeryHyde,ed.,TrialsofOscarWilde(London:London,Hodge,1948)

113.DerekS.Linton,"WhoHastheYouth,HasTheFuture":TheCampaigntoSaveYoungWorkersinImperialGermany(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity
Press,1991)HarryHendrick,ImagesofYouth:Age,Class,andtheMaleYouthProblem,18801920(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1990)J.RobertWegs,
GrowingUpWorkingClass:ContinuityandChangeamongVienneseYouth,18901938(UniversityParkPennStateUniversityPress,1989).

114.GailBederman,ManlinessandCivilization:ACulturalHistoryofGenderandRaceintheUnitedStates,18801917(Chicago:UniversityofChicago
Press,1995),10110.

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115.milePoursy,LaGangrnepornographique(Roubaix:FoyerSolidariste,1908).

116.AnnieStoraLamarre,L'EnferdelaIIIeRpublique:Censeursetpornographes18811914(Paris:Imago,1990),21HeywoodBrounandMargaret
Leech,AnthonyComstock:RoundsmanoftheLord(NewYork:AlbertandBoni,1927).

117.Onthenotionthatpornography'senemiesfirstsawitasposingreligiousandpoliticaldangersandthatthequestionofitsthreatto"decency"wasanew
nineteenthcenturypreoccupation,seeLynnHunt,ed.,TheInventionofPornography:ObscenityandtheOriginsofModernity,15001800NewYork:Zone
Books,1993).

118.PoursyLaGangrnepornographique,214237.

119.Ibid.,293,419.

120.AnneliseMauge,L'Identitmasculineencriseautournantdusicle,18711914(Paris:Rivages,1987),242.

121.SigmundFreud,"TheUniversalTendencytoDebasementinLove,"(1912),TheStandardEditionoftheCompletePsychologicalWorks,trans.James
Strachey(London:HogarthPress,1966)11:185

122.HenryMaudsley,LifeinMindandConduct(London:Macmillan,1902),302.

123.JacquesLeRider,ModernityandCrisesofIdentity:CultureandSocietyinFindeSicleVienna(Cambridge:PolityPress,1993).

124.Dr.P.J.Moebius,Deladebilitmentalephysiologiquechezlafemme,trans.NicoleetSimoneRoche,(1900Paris:Solin,1991).

125.CarrollSmithRosenberg,DisorderlyConduct:VisionsofGenderinVictorianAmerica(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985)seealsoBonnet,Un
ChoixsansequivoqueMarthaVicinus,IndependentWomen:WorkandCommunityforSingleWomen,18501920(London:Virago,1985).

126.SmithRosenberg,DisorderlyConduct,265.

127.G.J.BarkerBenfield,TheHorrorsofTheHalfKnownLife:MaleAttitudestowardWomenandSexualityinNineteenthcenturyAmerica(NewYork:
HarperandRow,1976),212.

128.GeneviveFraisse,Musedelaraison:LaDmocratieexclusiveetladiffrencedessexes(Paris:Alina,1989)OlwenH.Hufton,WomenandtheLimits
ofCitizenshipintheFrenchRevolution(Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress,1992),49.

129.OnthedevelopmentinFranceofmaleclubsfromwhichwomenwereexcluded,seeMauriceAgulhon,LeCercledanslaFrancebourgeoise,18101848
(Paris:Colin,1977)JeanLucMarais,LesSocitsd'hommes:Histoired'unesociabilitdu18esiclenosjours:Anjou,Maine,Touraine(Vauchetien:La
Botellerie,1986).OnGermany,wherelawspreventedwomenfromparticipatinginclubsandpolitics,seeVernonL.Lidtke,TheAlternativeCulture:Socialist
LaborinImperialGermany(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1982),37.

130.Ontheemergenceofnewmodelsofmasculinity,seeG.J.BarkerBenfield,TheCultureofSensibility:SexandSocietyinEighteenthCenturyBritain
(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1992),24748LeonoreDavidoffandCatherineHall,FamilyFortunes:MenandWomenoftheEnglishMiddleClass,
17801850(London:Hutchinson,1987),110,250CatherineHall,White,MaleandMiddleClass:ExplorationsinFeminismandHistory(Cambridge:Polity
Press,1992)RobertL.Griswold,FatherhoodinAmerica:AHistory(NewYork:BasicBooks,1993).

131.C.Davidson,AWoman'sWorkIsNeverDone(London:ChattoandWindus,1986),citedinWallySeccombe,WeatheringtheStorm:Workingclass
FamiliesfromtheIndustrialRevolutiontotheFertilityDecline(London:Verso,1993),18788andseealsoAvaBaron,WorkEngendered:TowardaNew
HistoryofAmericanLabor(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1991)AnnaClark,TheStrugglefortheBreaches:GenderandtheMakingoftheBritish
WorkingClass(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1995)JeanH.Quataert,

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ReluctantFeministsinGermanSocialDemocracy,18851917(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1979),15360,199200.

132.BruceHaley,TheHealthyBodyandVictorianCulture(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1978),20614DonaldE.Hall,ed.,MuscularChristianity:
EmbodyingtheVictorianAge(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1994).

133.DavidD.Gilmor,ManhoodintheMaking:CulturalConceptsofMasculinity(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1990).Yetawomanwhodemanded
politicalrightsorengagedinarangeofunacceptablebehaviorswouldbedescribedashavingsacrificedher"womanhood."

134.DavidLockwood,TheBlackcoatedWorker:AStudyinClassConsciousness(London:AllenandUnwin,1966).IntheUnitedStates,thetermsquawman
wasusedtoderidetheindividualwhohopedtoliveonhisIndianwife'sland.

135.EugenWeber,France:Findesicle(Cambridge,Mass.:BelknapPress,1986),42.MarieThrseEyquem,PierredeCoubertin:L'poqueolympique
(ParisCalmanLevy,1966).

136.TheodoreRoosevelt,"TheManlyVirtuesandPracticalPolitics,"TheForum,July1894,32.

137.RobertErnst,WeaknessIsaCrime:TheLifeofBernarrMacFadden(Syracuse:SyracuseUniversityPress,1991)BernarrA.MacFadden,Mthode
d'ducationphysique(Paris:n.p.,1899)KathrynGrover,FitnessinAmericanCulture:ImagesofHealth,Sport,andtheBody,18301940(Amhurst:
UniversityofMassachusettsPress,1989)MichaelOriard,ReadingFootball:HowthePopularPressCreatedanAmericanSpectacle(ChapelHill:Universityof
NorthCarolinaPress,1993),188ff.

138.ThequoteisfromC.F.G.MastermancitedinMichaelRosenthal,TheCharacterFactory:BadenPowell'sBoyScoutsandtheImperativesofEmpire
(NewYork:Pantheon,1986),13132.andseealsoJohnSpringhall,Youth,EmpireandSociety:BritishYouthMovements,18831940(London:CroomHelm,
1977),andJohnGillis,YouthandHistory:TraditionandChangeinEuropeanAgeRelations,1770Present(NewYork:AcademicPress,1974),11113
DavidI.Macleod,BuildingCharacterintheAmericanBoy:TheBoyScouts,YMCA,andTheirForerunners,18701920(Madison:UniversityofWisconsin
Press,1983).OnBadenPowell'sdesiretoprovideboyswithasafehavenfromwomenandthequestionofhishomosexuality,seealsoTimJeal),TheBoyMan:
TheLifeofLordBadenPowell(NewYork:WilliamMorrow,1990).ThorsteinVeblen'sopinionofgrownmen'sinvolvementin"boysbrigades"andsportswasthat
itwasasignof"arrestedspiritualdevelopment,"which"mayexpressitselfnotonlyindirectparticipationbyadultsinyouthfulexploitsofferocity,butalsoindirectlyin
aidingandabettingdisturbancesofthiskindonthepartofyoungerpersons."ThorsteinVeblen,TheTheoryoftheLeisureClass:AnEconomicStudyof
Institutions(1899London:AllenandUnwin,1924),254

139.AnnDouglas,TheFeminizationofAmericanCulture(NewYork:Knopf,1977),327.

140.F.A.Vuillermet,Soyezdeshommes:laconqutedelavirilit(Paris:Lethielleux,1909).

141.ArthurLautrec,LaFindumondeprochainement(Paris:Cte,1901)seealsoforareligiousgloss,JeanRocray,LaFindumondeen1921(ParisVic,
1904).

142.JeanPhilippeandG.PaulBoncour,LesAnomaliesmentaleschezlescoliers(Paris:Alcan,1905.

143.Previouslymagistrates,inordertotrysuchcasessummarily,hadtoreducethemtocommonassault.SeeE.RoyCalvertandTheodoraCalvert,TheLaw
Breakers(London:Routledge,1933),3233.

144.IsabelV.Hull,TheEntourageofKaiserWilhelmII,18881918(CambridgeCambridgeUniversityPress,1982),133.

Page249

145.Onthecowboymyth,seeRichardSlotkin,RegenerationthroughViolence(Middletown,Conn:WesleyanUniversityPress,1973)andGunfighterNation:
TheMythoftheFrontierinTwentiethcenturyAmerica(NewYork:Atheneum,1992).AndonthethemeofAmericaasnature's"goodbadboy,"violentbut
sexuallypure,seeLeslieFielder,LoveandDeathintheAmericanNovel(NewYork:SteinandDay,1966).

146.Theconcernforgenderthatpervadedmuchoftheliteraturemeantpurposefullyforboyshasyettobefullyanalyzed.HoratioAlger,Jr.,whobeginningwith
RaggedDick(1867)wrotemorethanahundredclassicboystoriesontheragtorichestheme,madeapointofalwaysscorningthecharacteroftheeffeminateyoung
fop.Hedidso,ithasbeensuggested,becausehefearedthatthefactthathelosthisfirstpostasministerinBrewster,Massachusetts,in1866becauseof"unnatural
familiaritywithboys"mightbediscovered.GarySchnarnhorst,HoratioAlger,Jr.(Boston:Twayne,1980),29.ButOwenWister,authorofTheVirginian(1902),
hadnoreluctanceinhavingthemalenarrator,mesmerizedbytheherowhomhefirstseesatawedding,exclaim:"HadIbeenthebride,Ishouldhavetakenthegiant,
dustandall"and"HadIbeenawoman,itwouldhavemademehistodowhathepleasedwithonthespot."Slotkin,GunfighterNation,177.

147.Burroughs,whoseTarzanoftheApesfirstappearedin1912,wasinfluencedbytheeugenicnotionsofMadisonGrantandT.L.StoddardseeErlingB.
Holtsmark,EdgarRiceBurroughs(Boston:Twayne,1986).

IntroductiontoPartTwo
1.Onthedepictioninworkingclassmelodramasofcapitalistsas"vampires"andfiendbegottenmonsters,"seePatrickJoyce,VisionsofthePeople:Industrial
EnglandandtheQuestinofClass,18481914(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1991),34.

2.PaulGinisty,LeMlodrame(Paris:LouisMichaud,1910)PeterBrooks,TheMelodramaticImagination:Balzac,HenryJames,Melodrama,andtheMode
ofExcess(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1976)PierreGascar,LeBoulevardducrime(Paris:Hachette,1980)JudithR.Walkowitz,CityofDreadful
Delight:NarrativesofSexualDangerinLateVictorianLondon(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1992).

3.Onthewaysinwhichtrialsinspiredsensationalistnovels,andfictioninturninfluencedtherolesindividualsplayedincourt,seeThomasBoyle,BlackSwineinthe
SewersofHampstead(NewYork:VikingBooks,1989).

Chapter2
Fools
1.PeterGay,TheBourgeoisExperience,VictoriatoFreud:TheTenderPassion(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1986),103andseealsoEllenK.
Rothman,HandsandHearts:AHistoryofCourtshipinAmerica(NewYork:Basic,1984),105KarenLystra,SearchingtheHeart:Women,Menand
RomanticLoveinNineteenthcenturyAmerica(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1989).

2.ForbothattacksonmercenarymarriageswhichincludedMarieCorelli'santiSemiticslurthattheysawthe"Christianvirginsacrificedonthealtarofmatrimonyto
amoneylending,moneygrubbingsonofIsrael"andtheresponsethat,althoughtherewouldalwaysbesome"designingwomen"andsome"unpleasantand
repulsive"men,mostwhoenteredsocietywiththeintentionofmakingadvantageousmarriageswereactinginarationalnotdespicablefashion,seeMarieCorelli,
LadyJeune,FloraAnnieSteel,andSusanna,CountessofMalmsbury,TheModernMarriageMarket(London:Hutchinson,1898)andseealso''TheMarriage
Market,"Spectator78(24April1897):62224.

3.Ontheeffectofincreasingemploymentopportunitiesonworkingwomen'smarriageoptions,see"TheMatrimonialMarket,"TheForum21(1896):74752.

4.Ontheuseofgobetweens,matchmakers,andmarriagebrokers,seeAlanMacfarlane,MarriageandLoveinEngland:ModesofReproduction,13001840
(Oxford:Blackwell

Page250

1986),247,29495PeterBorsheid,"RomanticLoveorMaterialInterest:ChoosingPartnersinNineteenthcenturyGermany,"JournalofFamilyHistory11
(1986):16667.InFrancematchmakers,usedwellintothetwentiethcentury,includedastheirclientstheparentsofSimonedeBeauvoirseeMichellePerrotand
AnneMartinFugier,"BourgeoisRituals,"inAHistoryofPrivateLife,ed.MichellePerrot(Cambridge,Mass.:BelknapPress,1990),310.

5.MatrimonialHeraldandFashionableMarriageGazette[hereafterHerald],4Jan.1890,1.

6.AmongthemoreinfamousadvertiserswasWilliamCorder,who,havingmurderedhispregnantsweetheart,placedanmarriageadvertisementintheSundayTimes
thatelicitedmorethanonehundredresponses.SeeTheTrialofWilliamCorderattheAssizes,BurySt.EdmondsfortheMurderofMariaMarten,inthered
barn,atPolsteadincludingthematrimonialadvertisement...(London:KnightandLacey,1828).Ananonymousauthoralmostimmediatelyturnedthecaseinto
apopularmelodrama.

7.SoniaOrwellandIanAngus,eds.,TheCollectedEssays,JournalismandLettersofGeorgeOrwell(NewYork:HarcourtBrace,1968),13940.Seealso
LincolnSpringfield,"TheMatrimonialAgency,"TheIdler6(189495):17381.

8.Incourttheagencyonlyclaimedtohaveassistedinfifteenhundredmarriagesbetween1890and1895.

9.LondonTimes,12Nov.1895,14.

10.Therewasmentionincourtoftheassociationhavingpreviouslyweatheredaprivateprosecutionbroughtagainstitbyafirmofsolicitors.Ibid.,9Jan.1896,14.

11.Warwick,oneoftheoriginalcomplainants,becauseofillhealthdidnottestifyatthepreliminaryhearing.RobertMatthewsofBirminghamcameforwardafterhe
"foundhewasbit."Ibid.,31Dec.1895,9.

12.PennyIllustratedPaper,7Mar.1896,150.

13.TheWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociationwasregisteredasalimitedcompanyinJanuary1893withanominalcapitalof25,000.ItspremisesatNewOxford
Streetwereimposing,butnobusinesswasdonetheretheclerksworkedoutof5MecklenburghSquare.FortyLamb'sConduitStreet,whereclients'mailwas
received,wassimplyastationeryshop.

14.LondonTimes,3Dec.1895,12.

15.Ibid.,14Jan.1896,14.

16.Ibid.,8Jan.1896,15.

17.Ibid.,29Feb.1896,144Mar.1896,4.

18.Girlsstoriesalsopropoundedtheideathatanattractivemale,thoughheshouldbeeconomicallyactiveandsuccessful,didnothavetobehandsome.Judith
Rowbotham,GoodGirlsMakeGoodWives:GuidanceforGirlsinVictorianFiction(Oxford:BasilBlackwell,1989).But,asthefollowingadvertisementmakes
clear,somewomenreadersoftheMatrimonialHeralddidhaveverypreciserequirements:"Ayounglady,passionatelyfondofhorseracing,wellconnected,and
withpossibilityofmeans,wishestocorrespondwithalightweightjockey,occupyinggoodpositionandofunimpeachablecharacter,ageeighteentotwentyfivewith
viewtomatrimony.Youngtrainernotobjectedto."

19.Foraccountsofthepaper'sadvertisements,seealsoIllustratedPoliceNews,7Mar.1896,3.

20.Suchstereotypesenjoyedalonglife.Inthe1930ssuchadvertisementsinLeChasseurfranais,aParisianjournal,inevitablycharacterizedwomenas
"affecteuses,caressantes,portantbienlatoilette,dephysiqueagrable,"whilemenwerealways"beaux,vigoreux,andloyaux"andiffifty''lookedforty."JeanGaltier
Boissire,"LesPetitesannounces,"LeCrapouillot,November1937,4650

21.MatrimonialHerald,2Nov.1895.MuchthesamesortofmalereadershipperusedtheIllustratedPoliceNews,wheretheysaw,nexttothereportsofthe
Association'strial,advertisementsforHollowayPills"Brou'sInjection"fordisordersoftheurinaryorganscuresfordeafness,baldness,andnervousandphysical
debilityHolywellStreetpornographic

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publicationsandpamphletswithsuchtitlesasABoontoWeakMen,VigourofYouthandMarriageandItsConsequences.

22.LondonTimes,24Dec.1895,3.

23.Ibid.,8Jan.1896,311Jan.1896,14.ThisrulingwasupheldbytheRecorderatthetrialIbid.,5Mar.1896,12.

24.Ibid.,29Jan.1896,14.

25.Ibid.,14Jan.1896,14.

26.Jordan,inpossessingabusiness,wasanuntypicalcomplainant.Althoughnodoubtexaggerating,heestimatedthevalueofhistobacconistandhairdressing
businessat2,000andgavehisyearlyincomeas400.

27.LondonTimes,29Feb.1896,14.

28.IllustratedPoliceNews,7Mar.1896,3.

29.LondonTimes,18Dec.1895,4.

30.Ibid.,19Nov.1895,1314.

31.Ibid.,23Dec.1895,14.

32.Ibid.,3Mar.1896,14.

33.Ibid.,26Nov.1895,12.

34.Ibid.,18Dec.1895,4.

35.Ibid.,24Dec.1895,3.

36.Ibid.,23Dec.1895,14.Atthepreliminaryhearingof22Dec.1895,JosephAvery'sname,despitetheprotestsofthedefense,thoughwrittendown,wasnot
initiallydivulgedtothepublic.

37.Suttonwasparticularlyincautious.Hehadafriendwhohadbeenbilkedoffivepoundsbyasimilarscheme.ThedefensealsosuggestedthatMr.Averyhad
employedtheInternationalMatrimonialAgency.

38.LondonTimes,3Dec.1895,123Mar.1896,13.

39.Hecameforwardafterthepoliceraid.ThedefensecounselswereadvisedbyMr.JusticeHawkinsthatamagistratedidhavetherightwithinhisdiscretionary
powerstopreventthedisclosureofthenamesofwitnesses.Ibid.,1Jan.1896,4.

40.Ibid.,1Jan.1896,14.

41.Ibid.,1Jan.1896,14.On31Dec.1895,thewitnesswasdescribedbytheTimesashavingtheappearanceofa"fairlywelltodoartisan."Hehadrepliedtoan
advertisementintheGlasgowHerald.

42.LondonTimes,3Dec.1895,12.

43.Ibid.,18Dec.1895,42.Mar.1896,13.

44.Ibid.,23Dec.1895,14.

45.Ibid.,26Nov.1895,12.

46.IllustratedPoliceNews,7Mar.1896,3.

47.Ibid.,7Mar.1896,3.

48.LondonTimes,6Mar.1896,12.

49.GeorgeOrwell,"Boy'sWeeklies"(1940),inCollectedEssays,ed.S.OrwellandAngus,461.

50.RobertDarnton,TheGreatCatMassacreandOtherEpisodesinFrenchCulturalHistory(NewYork:BasicBooks,1984),7778.

51.Steadwasalso,ashemadeclearin"IfChristCametoChicago"(1894),avocalopponentofthemodern"marriagemarket."SeeRuthBrandon,TheDollar
Princesses(London:WeidenfeldandNicolson,1980),48andonhisinvolvementinchildprostitution,seeJohnStokes,IntheNineties(London:Harvester
Wheatsheaf,1989),20.

52.OnsuchagenciesseeJ.Ronchet,CrimeSocial:LesBureauxdeplacementetleursfunestesconsquences(Paris:Wattier,1897)TheresaMcBride,The
DomesticRevolution(London:CroomHelm,1976),7778.

53.SeeAlfredC.Hills,MatrimonialBrokerageintheMetropolisbeingtheTrueNarra

Page252

tivesoftheStrangeAdventuresinNewYorkandtheStartlingFactsinCityLifebyaReporteroftheNewYorkPress(NewYork:Thatcherand
Hutchinson,1859).

54.SeeHoraceWyndham,DramasoftheLaw(London:Hutchinson,1936),17093LondonTimes,13Aug.1890,8.

55.Miris,ModerneHeiratsfchwindlerundihreOpfer(Argus:VerlagGokau,1912).

56.Gazzettedestribunaux,24Mar.1886281.

57.AugusteBebel,LaFemmedanslepass,lepresentetl'avenir(Genve:Slatkine,1979[firsttranslation1891]),7475.

58.TheBritishLibrary'snewspaperdepositoryatColindalehasrunsoftheMatrimonialChronicle(189093),MatrimonialCircle(191415,193132),
MatrimonialCourier(1891),MatrimonialGazette(1884),InternationalMatrimonialGazetteoftheInternationalBureauduMariage(190944),Matrimonial
GazetteandCorrespondence(1913),MatrimonialIntelligencerandMarriageCorrespondent(1896),MatrimonialJournalandHighClassMarriage
Medium(1895),MatrimonialMascot(1910),MatrimonialNewsandSpecialAdvertiser(187095),MatrimonialPostandFashionableAdvertiser(1885
1955),MatrimonialWorld(188290),MatrimonialStandard(191415),MatrimonialTimes(190461),MatrimonialTimesandGeneralAdvertiser(1874
75),MatrimonialWorldandUniversalMarriageAdvertiser(1891),Matrimony(1891),andMatrimonialGazette(1883),whichbecameNuptials(188384),
whichinturnbecameMatrimonialHeraldandFashionableMarriageGazette(188495).OnthispressseeE.S.Turner,AHistoryofCourting(NewYork:
Dutton,1955),26970.

59.FranoisBarretDucrocq,L'AmoursousVictoria:SexualitetclassespopulairesLondresauXIXesicle(Paris:Plon,1989),125,227.Itmightbenoted
thatLushingtonwasanexpertoncourtshipsthatwentawry,beingtheauthorofTheLawofAffiliationandBastardy(London:Shaw,1897).

60.JohnGillis,ForBetter,forWorse:BritishMarriages,1600tothePresent(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985),183MartineSegalen,Mariet
femmedanslasocitpaysanne(Paris:Flammarion,1980),20.

61.JulesNoriac[Cairon]Dictionnairedesamoureux(Paris:MichelLevy,1875),101andseealsoDrs.JafandSaldo,L'coledelasduction:L'Artdeplaire
(Paris:Denans,1908),141Dr.Surbled,LaViedeux:Hyginedumariage(Paris:Maloine,1890),10.

62.LonBlum,DuMariage(Paris:AlbinMichel,1937[1906])HenryMaudsley,LifeinMindandConduct(London:Macmillan,1902)PauloMantegazza,
Commentsemarier?L'artdeprendrefemmeetduchoixd'unmari(Paris:Librairieillustre,1895).

63.Gillis,ForBetter,forWorse,264.

64.LondonTimes,8Jan.1896,15.

65.Ibid.,14Jan.1896,14.

66.Ibid.,3Dec.1895,12.Itwasclaimedthatthepolicefoundaletterfromanexcabinetministerthankingtheassociationforarranginghismarriage.Ibid.,5Mar.
1896,12.

67.BobMullan,TheMatingTrade(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1984),48MaryseLapeyre,DossierAcommeagencesmatrimoniales(Paris:Alain
Moreaui,1980).

68.MarieVroniqueGauthier,Chanson,SociabilitetGrivoiserieauXIXesicle(Paris:Aubier,1992),179,21419E.AnthonyRotundo,American
Manhood:TransformationsinMasculinityfromtheRevolutiontotheModernEra(NewYork:BasicBooks,1993),115JudithF.Stone,"TheRepublican
Brotherhood:GenderandIdeology"inGenderandPoliticsofSocialReforminFrance,18701914,ed.ElinorAccampo,RachelFuchs,andMaryLynnStewart
(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1995),35.

69.Thebachelorwasanequivocalfigure,probablymoresuspectinthelowermiddleclassthaninthebourgeoisie,whereinthelatenineteenthcenturytherewasa
certainidealizationoftheselfsufficient,manlyindividualtypifiedbyHolmesandWatson.Onunmarriedwomen,seeSheilaJeffreys,TheSpinsterandherEnemies:
FeminismandSexuality,18801930(London:Pandora,1985).

Page253

70.JeanBorie,LeClibatairefranaise(Paris:LeSagittaire,1976),85.Fortheargumentthatbachelorswerethecauseofillegitimacy,adultery,andabortion,see
RogerDebury[GeorgesRossignol],UnPaysdeclibatairesetdefilsuniques(Paris:Dentu,1913),2931Dr.Lavergne,"Mariageetpsychopathes,"Archives
del'anthropologiecriminelle27(1912):61619andforadefense,seeRogerGibb,"ABachelor'sComplaint,"Nation,29Jan.1916,63738.

71.mileDurkheim,LeSuicide:tudedesociologie(Paris:Alcan,1897),175.

72.Ginisty,LeMlodrame,14.Theclassicmelodramawouldhavefocusedmoreonthethreatsofphysicalityratherthanthoseoffraudandwouldnothave
evidencedasthistrialdidsuchanicebalanceofgreed.

73.SimilarlyintheUnitedStates,thebasisofblackfaceminstrelhumorwasthepurportedpreposterousnessofAfricanAmericansaspiringtoactandtalklikewhite
men.LaughterwasemployedbyAmericanstoshoreupracedivisions,bytheEnglishtoreinforceclassdivisions.Butfortheinsightthatwhiteworkingclassmale
audiencesalsoenjoyedthecaricaturedupperclasstypebeingshownupbythe"plantationdarkie,"seeRobertC.Allen,HorriblePrettiness:Burlesqueand
AmericanCulture(ChapelHill:UniversityofNorthCarolina,1991),17073DavidD.Roediger,TheWagesofWhiteness:RaceandtheMakingofthe
AmericanWorkingClass(London:Verso,1991),11532.

74.PeterBailey,"ChampagneCharley:PerformanceandIdeologyintheMusicHallSwellSong,"inMusicHall:PerformanceandStyle,ed.J.S.Bratten(Milton
Keynes:OpenUniversityPress,1986),13559"ConspiraciesofMeaning:MusicHallandtheKnowingnessofPopularCulture,"PastandPresent144(1994):
13870andseealsoRichardHoggart,TheUsesofLiteracy(London:Penguin,1958)PeterBailey,LeisureandClassinVictorianSociety:Rational
RecreationandtheContestforControl(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1978)MarthaVicinus,TheIndustrialMuse:AStudyofNineteenthcentury
BritishWorkingClassLiterature(London:CroomHelm,1974),25861WallySeccombe,WeatheringtheStorm:WorkingclassFamiliesfromtheIndustrial
RevolutiontotheFertilityDecline(London:Verso,1993),141.

75.JudithWalkowitz,CityofDreadfulDelight:NarrativesofSexualDangerinLateVictorianLondon(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1992.),80.

76.KeithMcClelland,"Masculinityandthe'RepresentativeArtisan'inBritain,185080,"inManfulAssertions:MasculinitiesinBritainsince1800,ed.Michael
RoperandJohnTosh(London:Routledge,1991),8184.

77.Infactworkingclassmotherscontinuedtosupplementthefamilyincomeandexpectedtheirchildren,havingfinishedtheirschoolingbyagefourteen,toalso
contribute.See,EllenRoss,LoveandToil:MotherhoodinOutcastLondon,18701918(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1993).Theresponseofradical,
middleclassfeministstothecallforanewsexualdivisionoflaborwastolikentheidlewomanwhoregarded"marriageasatrade"asa"keptwoman"or"parasite."
SeeCarolDyehouse,FeminismandtheFamilyinEngland,18801939(Oxford:Blackwell,1989),15556.

78.See,forexample,Bebel,LaFemme,63.

79.Thesong"TheCityToff"citedinBailey,"ChampagneCharlie,"151.

80.StevenMintz,APrisonofExpectations:TheFamilyinVictorianCulture(NewYork:NewYorkUniversityPress,1983),46.

Chapter3
Cads
1.OxfordEnglishDictionaryPeterBailey,"ConspiraciesofMeaning:MusicHallandtheKnowingnessofPopularCulture,"PastandPresent144(1994):144.

2.GazettedesTribunaux,29Jan.1886,934.

3.Ibid.,21Sept.1892,926.

4.Ibid.,15Nov.1889,1097.

5.Ibid.,9June1864,562.

Page254

6.Ibid.,24March1886,281.

7.Ibid.,26Jan.1886,95.

8.Ibid.,23June1864,611.

9.Ibid.,89Jan.1894,29.

10.Ibid.,24May1866,495.

11.Ibid.,8Feb.1877,130.

12.Ibid.,9Dec.1896,1224.

13.Ibid.,14Jan.1898,45.

14.Ibid.,910Aug.1886,752.

15.Ibid.,22Feb.1890,178.

16.Ibid.,3June1892,550.

17.Ibid.,11Mar.1886,234.

18.Ibid.,21Sept.1892,926.

19.ErnestGlasson,LeMariageciviletledivorce(Paris:DurandandPdoneLauriel,1880),470.

20.GazettedesTribunaux,3Oct.1894,969LePetitParisien,3Oct.1894.

21.Canadianinvestigationssimilarlyrevealedthatwhenpetitioningfordivorcewomenwerefarmoreconcernedbythequestionofnonsupportthanmen.JamesG.
Snell,IntheShadowoftheLaw:DivorceinCanada,19001939(Toronto:TorontoUniversityPress,1991),15455.

22.LePetitParisien,12Apr.189719July1897GazettedesTribunaux,18July1897,700.

23.JessieL.Embry,MormonPolygamousFamilies:LifeinPrinciple(SaltLakeCity:UniversityofUtahPress,1987),810F.ScarlettPotter,"TheMost
SuccessfulBigamistonRecord,"CornhillMagazine,July1899,95102.

24.GazettedesTribunaux,20May1864,491.ForsimilarscenariosactedoutinEnglishcourts,seeWalkerFirth,"CircuitNotes,"CornhillMagazine14(1890):
3637.

25.GazettedesTribunaux,1213Feb.1894,150.

26.PaulMasson,tudesurlabigamie(Paris:Jouve,1917).

27.GazettedesTribunaux,12Apr.1896,3678.

28.Ibid.,3031May1892,538.

29.PaulParsy,UneAffairedebigamie(Paris:Dodiviers,1920).

30.Butthetermbigamistwassometimesusedtodescribeamanwhosimplyremarriedafterhiswife'sdeath.SeeStephenWillm,DelaBigamieendroitcriminel
(Bordeaux:Cadoret,1898).

31.NatalieZemonDavis,TheReturnofMartinGuerre(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1983),8,4647.

32.PaulAugusteBrohan,tudesurlecrimedebigamie(Paris:Rousseau,1898),28.

33.LawrenceStone,RoadtoDivorce:England,15301987(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1990),142.RichardBoyerhas,thankstothesourcesprovideby
theSpanishInquisition,beenabletoproduceafascinatingaccountofmultiplemarriagesintheearlymodernperiodseeLivesoftheBigamists:Marriage,Family
andCommunityinColonialMexico(Albuquerque:UniversityofNewMexicoPress,1995).

34.RoderickPhillips,PuttingAsunder:AHistoryofDivorceinWesternSociety(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1988),296302.

35.GazettedesTribunaux,20May1864,491.

36.Ibid.,3June1892,550.

37.Itisimpossibletosayhowcommonbigamywas.OncasesinRouenin179899,seeRoderickPhillips,FamilyBreakdowninLateEighteenthcentury
France(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1980),16365.OnthelawseeMaxRheinstein,"TheCodeandtheFamily,"inTheCodeNapoleonandtheCommonLaw
World,ed.BernardSchwartz(NewYork:NewYorkUniversityPress,1956),14243.

Page255

38.BigamycontinuesinthetwentiethcenturytoberegardedasaseriouscrimeseeLawReformCommissionofCanada,Bigamy(Ottawa:Queen'sPrinter,1985).

39.Administeringthelawproveddifficult.Goodfaithwasonedefensethatcouldbeemployed.Publicofficialswhocelebratedasecondmarriagewereliableas
accomplices.ThenewspaperpressnotedthatIsraelBernardmightgetoffsincethemayorofMontrougehadin1888carriedoutanumberofirregularmarriage
ceremonies.GreathopeswereheldoutbytheopponentsofbigamyfortheMichelinlawof1897namedafterthedeputymuchpreoccupiedbyFrance'slowfertility
ratewhichrequiredarecordofeachmarriagetobeinscribedonone'sbirthcertificate.GazettedesTribunaux,5Feb.1886,119LePetitParisien,12Apr.
1897,1Brohan,tude,150.

40.AccordingtoaBritishcommentator,marriagehadtobemadeeasierifsocietyseriouslyintendedtocounterthe"designsofcriminalfraudorperfidiouspassionin
entrappingtheyoung,theignorantandtheinexperienced."W.O.C.Morris,"TheMarriageLawofGreatBritain,"BritishQuarterlyReview34(1862):128.

41.JohnGillishassuggestedthatinearlynineteenthcenturyBritainuptoonefifthofthepopulationlivedatsometimeinacommonlawunionForBetter,for
Worse:BritishMarriages,1600tothePresent(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985),219.

42.ForaBelgianwhomadethesameclaim,seeGazettedesTribunaux,15Nov.1889,1097.

43.LenardBerlanstein,"Illegitimacy,ConcubinageandProletarianizationinaFrenchTown,17601914,"JournalofFamilyHistory5(1980):368KatherineA.
Lynch,Family,Class,andIdeologyinEarlyIndustrialFrance:SocialPolicyandtheWorkingClassFamily,18251848(Madison:UniversityofWisconsin
Press,1988),87100.

44.AnnaClark,TheStrugglefortheBreeches:GenderandtheMakingoftheBritishWorkingClass(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1995),823.

45.JohnSkinner,JournalofaSomersetRector,18031834,ed.HowardandPeterCoombs(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1984),35.Englishlawdidinfact
acceptasevenyearseparationasasignthatamarriagehadbeenterminated.SeeEarlofHalsbury,TheLawsofEngland(London:Butterworth,1955),10:663.

46.J.P.Menefee,WivesforSale:AnEthnographicStudyofBritishPopularDivorce(Oxford:Blackwell,1981)E.P.Thompson,"TheSaleofWives,"in
CustomsinCommon:StudiesinTraditionalPopularCulture(NewYork:NewPress,1991),40466.

47.GazettedesTribunaux,17June1886,4809Sept.1886.856.

48.FrancisRonsin,LesDivorciaires(Paris:Aubier,1992)WilliamReddy,"Marriage,HonorandthePublicSphereinPostRevolutionaryFrance:Sparationsde
corps,18151848,"JournalofModernHistory65(1993):43772TheresaMcBride,"DivorceandtheRepublicanFamily,"inGenderandthePoliticsofSocial
ReforminFrance,18701914,ed.ElinorAccampo,RachelFuchs,andMaryLynnStewart(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1995),79.

49.Brohan,tude,6364.

50.Ibid.,7273.

51.GazettedesTribunaux,12Feb.1874,1489.

52.Ibid.,14Jan.1898,45.

53.Ibid.,9Sept.1886,856.

54.PatriciaKnight,"WomenandAbortioninVictorianandEdwardianEngland,"HistoryWorkshop4(1977):5768AngusMcLaren,"Women'sWorkandthe
RegulationofFamilySize:TheQuestionofAbortionintheNineteenthCentury,"HistoryWorkshop4(1977):7081AngusMcLaren,BirthControlinNineteenth
CenturyEngland(London:CroomHelm,1978),23153BarbaraBrookes,AbortioninEngland,19001967(London:CroomHelm,1988),348.OnNorth
America,seeJamesMohr,AbortioninAmerica:TheOriginsandEvolutionofNationalPolicy(NewYork:OxfordsUniversityPress,1978)LeslieJ.Reagan,
"'AbouttoMeetHerMaker':Women,DoctorsandDyingDeclarations,andthe

Page256

State'sInvestigationofAbortion,Chicago,18671940,"JournalofAmericanHistory77(1991):124064AngusMcLaren,"IllegalOperations:Women,
Doctors,andAbortion,18861939,"JournalofSocialHistory26(1993):797816.

55.BirminghamDailyMail,10Mar.1896,unpaginatedhereandhereafterIllustratedPoliceNews,21Mar.1896,7.

56.Warwick,LeamingtonandWarwickshireTimes,14Dec.1895,5.

57.On8Nov.1895,HindsonwroteIsabellaPiriethatnewsoftheMabelGordonaffairhadledtohisbeingsacked.YorkshireEveningPost,10Mar.1896,4
IllustratedPoliceNews,21Mar.1896,7.

58.Mr.JusticeDayinsistedthatthismadenolegaldifferenceshestillhaddied.BirminghamDailyPost,10Dec.1895,7.

59.YorkshireEveningPost,10Dec.1895,4.

60.BirminghamDailyPost,11Dec.1895,5.

61.Warwick,LeamingtonandWarwickshireTime,14Dec.1895,5.

62.YorkshireEveningpost,11Dec.1895,3.

63.Ibid.,10Mar.1896,4IllustratedPoliceNews,21Dec.1895,2.

64.DailyChronicle,12Dec.1895,6seealsoIllustratedPoliceNews,21Dec.1895,2.

65.LondonTimes,24Dec.1895,7YorkshireEveningPost,9Mar.1896,3.

66.BirminghamDailyGazette,10Mar.1896,8.

67.LondonTimes,11Mar.1896,10.

68.BirminghamDailyGazette,10Mar.1896,8.

69.Warwick,Leamington,andWarwickshireTimes,14Mar.1896,5LondonTimes,11Mar.1896,10.

70.PennyIllustratedPaper,30Apr.1892,286.

71.BirminghamDailyGazette,10Dec.1895,4.

72.Warwick,LeamingtonandWarwickshireTimes,14Dec.1895,5.

73.BirminghamDailyGazette,10Dec.1895,4.

74.See,forexample,LondonTimes,9Apr.1836,6.

75.LondonTimes,14Dec.1890,14Lancet,21Feb.1891,4634LondonTimes,26Oct.1891,428Mar.1892,79Nov.1893,83May1893,139Feb.
1899,321Nov.1900,14.

76.See,forexample,LondonTimes,3Aug.1885,5.4Aug.,8andseealsoMcLaren,"IllegalOperation,"797816.

77.Warwick,Leamington,andWarwickshireTimes,21Mar.1896,5.

78.BirminghamDailyMail,10Mar.1896.

79.BirminghamDailyGazette,11Mar.1896,4.

80.BirminghamDailyMail,11Mar.1896.

81.YorkshireEveningPost,11Mar.1896,3.Thedefensecounsel,atthetrialofanothermarriedmanimplicatedintheabortiondeathofasinglewoman,metsuch
achallengeheadonandvainlyappealedtothejurythatit"wasnotacourtofmorals.Theywerenottotrytheprisonerbecausehewasanimmoralman."
Neverthelesshisclientwasfoundguiltyhisdeathsentencewascommutedtoatwelveyearprisonterm.LondonTimes,9Dec.1898,6.

82.PeterBailey,"ParasexualityandGlamour:TheVictorianBarmaidasCulturalPrototype,"GenderandHistory2,(1990):14872andonworkingwomen's
negotiationoftheirsexualfavors,seeKathyPeiss,CheapAmusements:WorkingWomenandLeisureinTurnoftheCenturyNewYork(Philadelphia:Temple
UniversityPress,1986,10810.

83.In1892,forexample,eighteenmenandnowomenwereexecutedin1893fifteenmenandnowomen.BritishSessionalPapers103(189394):38108
(1895):122.

84.BirminghamDailyGazette,10Mar.1896,8.

85.BirminghamDailyMail,10Mar.1896.

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86.LondonTimes,16Dec.1858,10CharlesMeymottTidy,LegalMedicine(London:Smith,Elder,1882.),2:162.

87.ArthurDay,JohnC.F.S.Day:HisForebearsandHimself(London:Heath,Cranton,1916),117andseealsoDictionaryofNationalBiography,1901
1911,48185.

88.BirminghamDailyGazette,10Dec.1895,4.

89.SirJohnWilliamNottBower,FiftyTwoYearsaPoliceman(London:EdwardArnold,1926),151.

90.Day,JohnC.F.S.Day,120.

91.RobertSindall,StreetViolenceintheNineteenthCentury:MediaPanicorRealDanger(Leicester:LeicesterUniversityPress,1990),153andseealso
12112,152.

92.Day'ssexualcensoriousnessdidnotpreventhimin1900attheageofseventyfour,thoughhavingslidintosenilitythatentailedthelossoftheabilitytowriteand
partialparalysis,frommarryingasecondtime.Day,JohnC.F.S.Day,13536.

93.DailyNews,17Dec.1895,5.

94.DailyChronicle,16Dec.1895,4.

95.BirminghamDailyGazette,11Dec.1895,4.

96.DictionaryofNationalBiography,19011911,58990.

97.DailyNews,17Dec.1895,5.

98.TheTorchofAnarchy,18Dec.1895,107reprintedintheAmericanjournalRebel,February1896,56.OriginallyentitledTheTorch,fromOctober1895the
journalcalleditselftheTorchofAnarchyhereafteritwillbesimplyreferredtoasTheTorch.

99.RichardD.Sohn,AnarchismandCulturalPoliticsinFindeSicleFrance(Lincoln:UniversityofNebraskaPress,1989),216.Inaletterof20Nov.1896,
CohendescribedhowPaulRobin,thebestknowndefenderoffertilitycontrolinFrance,congratulatedhimonhisdefenseofMrs.EdenIowethisreferenceto
RonaldSpoor.SeealsoAngusMcLaren,SexualityandSocialOrder:TheDebateovertheFertilityofWomenandWorkersinFrance,17701920(New
York:HolmesandMeier,1983),13654JacquesDupaquier,"Combiend'avortementsenFranceavant1914,"Communications44(1986):87105.

100.OnCohen(18641961),seehisautobiography,VanAnarchisttotMonarchist,2vols.(Amsterdam:G.A.OorschotUitgeuer,1961).Forassistanceon
tracingCohen,IamindebtedtoPaulAvrichandRonaldSpoor,whoiseditingCohen'sletters.OnLondonanarchism,seeRudolfRocker,TheLondonYears
(London:RobertAnscombe,1936),6598.

101.HermiaOliver,TheInternationalAnarchistMovementinLateVictorianLondon(London:CroomHelm,1983),12124.

102.TheTorch,31Oct.1894,11.

103.Ibid.,18July1895,20.

104.Ibid.,18Nov.1895,8586.

105.TheSocialDemocraticFederationalsoexploitedinfanticidecasestoembarrassthegovernment.ForitsdefenseofFannyGane,atwentysixyearoldservant,
sentencedtodeathforthemurderofhermalechild,seeJustice,11Dec.1891,6.Onlyin1922wasinfanticidedesignatedaspecialnoncapitaloffenseBrookes,
Abortion,31.

106.TheTorch,31Oct.1894,11LondonTimes,26Oct.1894,7.

107.TheTorch,18Dec.1895,2LondonTimes,28Mar.1895,14.Forageneralaccountofinfanticide,seeLionelRose,TheMassacreoftheInnocents:
InfanticideinBritain,18001939(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1986)AnnR.Higginbotham,"SinoftheAge:InfanticideandIllegitimacyinVictorian
London,"VictorianStudies32(1989):31937.

108.EvenEngelsusedthelanguageofchivalryindenouncingEdwardAvelingastheworstvillaininsocialistEurope.GeorgeBernardShawagreedthatAveling's
recordasaswindlerandseducerwas"unapproachable."Aveling,anactivesocialist,supportedhimselfforatimebytutoringfemalestudentsinscience.Accordingto
Shaw,"themorefortunateonesgotnothingworsefortheirmoneythanlettersofapologyforbreakingthelessonengagement.

Page258

Theotherswereseducedandhadtheirmicroscopesappropriated."AvelinglivedforyearswithEleanorMarxbutcouldnotmarryherashisfirstwifewasstill
alive.Whenthelatterdiedhesecretlywedanotherwoman,soprecipitatingEleanor'ssuicide.SeeHeskethPearson,BernardShaw:HisLifeandPersonality
(London:Collins,1942,),124YvonneKapp,Eleanor:ChroniquefamilialedesMarx(Paris:ditionssociales,1980),39.

109.IntheearlynineteenthcenturyatthetimeoftheQueenCarolineAffair,theEnglishradicalspresentedthemselvesaschivalrousdefendersofwomanhood.
SimilarlytheopponentsoftheNewPoorLawportrayedthemselvesasdefendingpoorwomenfromlibertineseducers.InFrancethemanlycourageofanarchists
facingdeathwasevenreluctantlynotedbytheiropponents.SeeAnnaClarke,Women'sSilence,Men'sViolence:SexualAssaultinEngland,17701845(London:
Pandora,1987),164,194L.Proal,LaCriminalit,politique(Paris:Alcan,1895),43,64AlexandreBerard,Documentsd'tudessociales:Surl'anarchie
(Lyon:Storck,1897),13139RuthHarris,"UnderstandingtheTerrorist:Anarchism,MedicineandPoliticsinFindeSicleFrance,"inLegalMedicineinHistory,
ed.C.CrawfordandM.Young(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1994),2023.

110.Ondefenseofabortionelsewhere,seeMartinHenryBlatt,FreeLoveandAnarchism:TheBiographyofEzraHeywood(Urbana:UniversityofIllinoisPress,
1989),149MargaretS.Marsh,AnarchistWomen,18701920(Philadelphia:TempleUniversityPress,1981),76,93JanetFarrellBrodie,Contraceptionand
AbortioninNineteenthcenturyAmerica(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1994),99,128,1867,324C.Wickert,B.HamburgerandM.Lienau,"Helene
StckerandtheBundfuerMutterschutz:(TheSocietyfortheProtectionofMotherhood),"Women'sStudiesInternationalForum5(1982):613JamesWoycke,
BirthControlinGermany,18711933(London:Routledge,1988),5457.ThereisareferencetoabortioninafeministnovelbyLadyFlorenceDixie,Gloriana:
orTheRevolutionof1900(London:Henry,1890),137,buttheissuewastoohotatopicfortheEnglishwomen'smovementtohandle.In"Cryofthe
Unborn"(Shafts,October1894,344),forexample,EvelynHuntwouldonlytalkoftheneedofmalepurityandhealthymarriagestoensureasoundheredity.

111.TheTorch,18July1895,31.HenrySeymourwasoneofthefewEnglishAnarchistswhointerestedhimselfinsexquestions.Hestatedthat"awomancould
employdevicestopreventconception,toavoidaltogetherorthetoofrequentburdensofmaternity.Infact,Iregardthesemeansasalmostindispensableinconnection
withsexualfreedom."TheAnarchyofLove(London:Seymour,1888),15.

112.TheTorch,1Apr.1896,141.

113.AngusMcLaren,BirthControlinNineteenthcenturyEngland(London:CroomHelm,1978),15774.

114.SeeAngusMcLaren,"SexRadicalismintheCanadianPacificNorthwest,18901920,"JournaloftheHistoryofSexuality2(1992):52933andforthe
1890sliterarycritiquesofsexuality,seeElaineShowalter,SexualAnarchy:GenderandCultureattheFindeSicle(NewYork:Viking,1990).

115.LondonTimes,18Dec.1895,10BirminghamDailyGazette,18Dec.1895,4.

116.DailyNews,18Dec.1895,3.

117.Warwick,LeamingtonandWarwickshireTimes,21Dec.1895,4.

118.BirminghamDailyGazette,11Mar.1896,4.

119.BirminghamDailyMail,11Mar.1896.

120.LondonTimes,17Mar.1896,8.

121.YorkshireEveningPost,16Mar.1896,2.

122."JudicialStatistics(for1895),"HouseofCommons:SessionalPapers49(1897),C.,54,table1.In1895thereweretwentyprosecutionsofabortionists.Five
oftheaccusedweremalefifteenwerefemale.

123.LondonTimes,5Apr.1875,1120Apr.1875,9.

Page259

124.OnWark,seeLondonTimes,8Dec.1898,109Dec.,6.

125.JohnGlaister,ATextbookofMedicalJurisprudenceandToxicology(Edinburgh:Livingstone,1910),397.GlaistermistakenlyreferstothisastheWhitmarsh
caseJohnWhitmarshwastriedforthesameoffensebyMr.JusticeBigham.SeeLondonTimes,26Oct.1898,927Oct.,13.ForJamesFitzjamesStephen's
attackontheconceptof"constructivemurder,"seeHenryWarburton,ASelectionofLeadingCasesintheCriminalLaw(London:Stevens,1908),18083.

126.LeonardA.Parry,SomeFamousCriminalTrials(London:Churchill,1927),4054BritishMedicalJournal2(1898):59,1221(1899):448.

127.CamilleMauclair,L'Amourtragique(Paris:CalmanLevy,1908)BettyBeckerTheye,TheSeducerasMythicFigureinRichardson,Laclosand
Kierkegaard(NewYork:Garland,1988)JamesMandrell,DonJuanandthePointofHonor:Seduction,PatriarchalSociety,andtheLiteraryTradition
(UniversityPark:PennStateUniversityPress,1992).

128.TonyTanner,AdulteryintheNovel:ContractandTransgression(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1979)andforbourgeoissociety'sattemptto
arguethatcontractscanovercomesexdifferences,seeCarolePateman,TheSexualContract(Cambridge:PolityPress,1988).

129.See,VroniqueDemarsSion,Femmessduitesetabandonesau18esicle:L'ExampleduCambrsis(Paris:L'Espacejuridique,1992)RachelG.Fuchs,
PoorandPregnantinParis:StrategiesforSurvivalintheNineteenthCentury(NewBrunswick,N.J.:RutgersUniversityPress,1992)MarieVictoireLouis,
LeDroitdecuissage:France18601930(Paris:Lesditionsdel'atelier,1994).

130.KatherineSobbaGreen,TheCourtshipNovel,17401820:AFeminizedGenre(Lexington:UniversityPressofKentucky,1991).

131.GregorioMaraon,DonJuanetdonjuanisme,trans.M.B.Lacombe(Paris:Gallimard,1958),1529.

132.JeanBorie,LeClibatairefranais(Paris:LeSagittaire,1976),45.

133.EdwardJ.Bristow,ViceandVigilance:PurityMovementsinBritainsince1700(London:GillandMacmillan,1977),104JacquesAmblard,Dela
seduction:Thsepourledoctorat(Paris:Rousseau,1908).Yetatthesametimethepopularpressstillproducedbookslike,"Calypso,"Methodpratiquepour
attireretsduiren'importequellepersonne(Paris:Calypso,1915).

134.ForanAmericanexampleofthewayinwhichanabortiondeathwasturnedtothepurposesofacautionary,melodramaticliterature,seeAmyGilmanSrebnick,
TheMysteriousDeathofMaryRogers:SexandCultureinNineteenthCenturyNewYork(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1995).

Chapter4
Gentlemen
1.JeanBorie,LeCelibatairefranais(Paris:Sagittaire,1976),181.

2.AlexisdeTocqueville,TheAncienRegimeandtheFrenchRevolution,trans.S.Gilbert(London:Fontana,1966),109.Forafascinatingaccountoftheearly
modernEnglishscientist'sclaimtobeagentlemanonewhocouldbetrustedtospeakthetruthseeStevenShapin,ASocialHistoryofTruth:Civilityand
ScienceinSeventeenthcenturyEngland(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1994),4264,6667,8183,10724.

3.EdwinHarrisonCady,TheGentlemaninAmerica:ALiteraryStudyinAmericanCulture(Syracuse:SyracuseUniversityPress,1949)DavidCastronovo,
TheAmericanGentleman:SocialPrestigeandtheModernLiteraryMind(NewYork:Continuum,1991)TimMason,TheEnglishGentleman:TheRiseand
FallofanIdeal(London:AndreDeutsch,1982).

4.PatrickJoyce,VisionsofthePeople:IndustrialEnglandandtheQuestionofClass,18481914(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1991),44.

Page260

5.Dr.Playfair'sgrandson'saccountofthetrial,basedon''originalsourcematerialsinhisownpossession"thoughunfortunatelynotfootnoted,isstillusefulsee(files
Playfair,SixStudiesinHypocrisy(London:SeckerandWarburg,1969),13465.Ashorter,garbledversionisprovidedinEdgarLustgarten,TheJudgesandthe
Judged(London:Odhams,1961),24547.

6.DictionaryofNationalBiography:TheTwentiethCentury(19011911),4045.

7.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):815.

8.Heismistakenlyidentifiedas"Nunzio"WilliamsinPlayfair,SixStudies.

9.DictionaryofNationalBiography:TheTwentiethCentury(19011911),120BritishMedicalJournal2(1903):439Lancet2(1903):57075.Playfair's
worksincluded(withT.C.Allbutt)ASystemofGynaecology(NewYork:Macmillan,1896)andATreatiseofMidwifery(Philadelphia:Lea,1893).

10.Lancet1(1896):897.

11.LondonTimes,24Mar.1891,13DailyChronicle,24Mar.1896,9.

12.Foradiscussionofanesthesiabringingonwomen's"unfoundeddreams"ofsexualassault,seeFrederickJ.Smith,LecturesonMedicalJurisprudenceand
Toxicology(London:Churchill,1900),18788.

13.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):817.

14.Nineteenthcenturypubliccommentatorsinavarietyofmediumsaddressedthetragicfatethatnecessarilyawaitedthewomanwhotransgressedsexualnorms.On
thedepictionoftheadulteressinVictoriannarrativepainting,seeLyndaNead,MythsofSexuality:RepresentationsofWomeninVictorianBritain(Oxford:
Blackwell,1988),4890andinliterature,seeTonyTanner,AdulteryintheNovel:ContractandTransgression(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,
1979)ChantalGleyses,LaFemmecoupable:Petithistoiredel'pouseadultreauXIX,sicle(Paris:Imago,1994).

15.Lancet1(1896):896.

16.Playfair,SixStudies,164.An1890textdirectedatyoungmedicalmenanticipatedPlayfair'sactionsincarryingthewarningthatforadoctortogossipabouthis
casescouldbedisastrousforhiscareer."Donotletyourwife,oranyoneelse,knowyourprofessionalsecrets,ortheprivatedetailsofyourcases,eventhoughthey
arenotsecrets."JukesdeStyrap,TheYoungPractitioner(London:Lewis,1890),113.

17.Playfair,SixStudies,143.

18.Stillstallingfortime,LindaKitsoninherlastlettertoPlayfairhadasked,"AmItoolatetosayyes?"BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):816.

19.SeeLindaKitsontoEmilyPlayfair,19Mar.1894EmilyPlayfairtoLindaKitson,24Mar.1894,intheDailyChronicle,24Mar.1896,9.

20.W.S.PlayfairtoArthurKitson,22Sept.1894,inDailyChronicle,25Mar.1896,8.

21.Asahusbandandwifewereinlawoneperson,thefactthatalibelhadbeendisclosedtoaspousewasnotacceptedasevidenceofitspublication.Thecourts
turnedbackthesuggestionthatthepassagein1882oftheMarriedWomen'sPropertyActunderminedsuchaconcept.LawReports:Queen'sBenchDivision20
(1888):63540.

22.Infact,Playfair,athiswife'srequest,hadinformedSirJamesMrs.Playfairwasnotcalledtotestify.

23.Heismisidentifiedas"James"SpencerinPlayfair,SixStudies,147.

24.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):818.

25.ThewitnesseswereimplicitlyfollowingthelinesetbyThomasPercivalwho,atthebeginningofthecentury,arguedthatwhentheissueofmedicalconfidentiality
aroseonesimplyhadtorelyuponthedoctor'sdiscretion.ChaunceyD.Leake,ed.,Percival'sMedicalEthics(Baltimore:WilliamsandWilkins,1927),90.Secrecy
certainlyseemstobedemandedbytheHippocraticoath"Whatever,inconnectionwithmyprofessionalpracticeornotinconnectionwithit,Iseeorhearinthelife
ofmenwhichoughtnottobespokenabroadIwill

Page261

notdivulge,asreckoningthatallsuchshouldbekeptsecret"butwasrarelyreferredtointhenineteenthcentury.FrancisGurry,BreachofConfidence(Oxford:
ClarendonPress,1984),148.

26.LondonTimes,26Mar.1896,13andseealsoWalterBroadbent,ed.,SelectionsfromtheWritingsofSirWilliamBroadbent(London:Froude,1908).

27.SeeArthurKitson'slettertotheBritishMedicalJournal1(1896):1236.

28.Thepressportrayedheras"aladywhooncepossessedconsiderableattractionsandevennow,inspiteofillhealthandmentalanxiety,herpalefacebeneathher
darkbrownhairisnotwithoutitscharm."Playfair'scountenancewaslessflatteringlydepictedasdominatedby"adeterminedjaw"and''closecroppedirongrey
hair."PennyIllustratedPaper,14Mar.1896,214.

29.DailyChronicle,24Mar.1896,9.

30.Lancet1(1896):896.

31.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):816.

32.DailyChronicle,25Mar.1896,8.

33.ButnoonesuggestedthatPlayfair'sprovidingoftreatmentforhissisterinlawconstitutedabreachofpropriety.Today'snotionthatdoctorsshouldgiveonly
minororemergencycaretomembersoftheirimmediatefamilywasobviouslynotwidelysharedattheturnofthecentury.

34.LondonTimes,25Mar.1896,3.

35.Onscientists'fearsofbeingmadetolookfoolishincourt,seeChristopherHamlin,"ScientificMethodandExpertWitnessing:VictorianPerspectivesonaModern
Problem,"SocialStudiesofScience16(1986):485513.

36.DailyChronicle,27Mar.1896,7.

37.LondonTimes,27Mar.1896,14.

38.BowenRowlands,TheLifeintheLawofSirHenryHawkins(London:WymanandSons,1897),44A.W.B.Simpson,ed.,BiographicalDictionaryofthe
CommonLaw(London:Butterworths,1984),22930.

39.LondonTimes,28Mar.1896,5.

40.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):883.

41.Onappealtheawardwasreducedto9,200,butthescandalousnatureofthecasecostPlayfairmuchofhispracticeandallhopesofanyfurtherhonorsfromthe
Queen.Gladstonewrotetoexpresshisindignationatthejury'sverdictandtodeclare"youhavedoneneithermorenorlessthanyourduty."Lancet2(1903):574.

42.Reynold'sNewspaper,29Mar.1896,5.

43.DailyNews,28Mar.1896,6.

44.R.VasherRodgers,Jr.,TheLawandMedicalMen(Toronto:Carswell,1884),93.

45.Ibid.,93.Onthecontemporaryassumptionthatdoctorsandlawyershadthesamedutytokeepsecrets,see"ProfessionalSecrecy,"Spectator75(1895):364
65.

46.JamesNealandHughWoods,TheConductofMedicalPractice(London:Lancet,1927),22223.

47.PaulBrouardel,LeSecretmdical(Paris:Baillire,1880)RobertTod,"LeSecretmdicalauXIXsicledanslestextesmdicauxetjuridiques,"Nouvelle
pressemdicale8(1979):269597.

48.NewYorkTimes,6Apr.1896,4ClintonDeWitt,PrivilegedCommunicationsbetweenPhysicianandPatient(Pittsburgh:ClarenceC.Thomas,1958).

49.CharlesMeymottTidy,LegalMedicine(London:Smith,Elder,1882),1:2021.

50.JohnGlaister,ATextbookofMedicalJurisprudence(Edinburgh:Livingstone,1915),56.

51.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):1012.

52.LondonTimes,24Mar.1896,14.

Page262

53.Ibid.,Mar.1896,13Lancet1(1896):962.

54.LondonTimes,7Apr.1896,6.

55.DailyNews,28Mar.1896,9.

56.Ibid.,6.

57.LondonTimes,28Mar.1896,11.

58.Playfair,SixStudies,159.

59.SamuelHaber,TheQuestforAuthorityandHonorintheAmericanProfessions,17501900(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1991),34546.

60.Lancet1(1896):1292.

61.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):861.

62.Ibid.,8612.

63.PercyClarkeandCharlesMeymottTidy,MedicalLawforMedicalMen(London:BaillireTindall,1890),39,55.InFrancedoctorswerewarnedbyone
writerthat"circonspection"wasalwaysrequiredwhendealingwithpatientswhoatbestmisconstruedwhatonesaidandatworsesoughttoentraptheirpractitioner.
Dr.Peinard,LaProfessionmdicaleenFrance(Paris:Socitd'ditionsscientifiques,1894),149.

64.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):92930andseealso1(1896):871.ThevariousattemptsmadeinBritaininthe1920sand1930stoestablishmedical
secrecywereallunsuccessful.

65.LondonTimes,9Apr.1896,12.

66.Ibid.,3Apr.1896,66Apr.1896,10.

67.Ibid.,3Apr.1896,6.

68.Ibid.,4Apr.1896,10.

69.Ibid.,6Apr.1896,10.

70.Thesamewriterpointedoutthatin1889SirMorellMackenziehadbeencensoredbytheRoyalCollegeofSurgeonsforpublishingrevelationsconcerningthe
cancerdeathofEmperorFrederickIIIofGermany.Ibid.,7Apr.1896,6.

71.mileWorms,LesAttentatsl'honneur:diffamation,injures,outrages,adultre,duel,loissurlapresse,etc.(Paris:Perrin,1890)mileBeaussire,Les
Principesdudroit(Paris:Alcan,1888),37278.

72.Ondoctors'reportingofmalingerersamongsoldiersandminers,seeSirJohnCollie,FraudinMedicoLegalPractice(London:Arnolds,1932).

73.DailyNews,28Mar.1896,6.

74.BritishMedicalJournal2(1884):32829.

75.BritishMedicalJournal2(1899):60.

76.Justice,4Apr.1896,6andseealso25Apr.1896,45E.BelfortBax,TheFraudofFeminism(London:GrantRichards,1913).

77.Justice,18Apr.1896,39May1896,3.

78.LondonTimes,7Apr.1896,6.

79.CoraLansbury,"Gynaecology,PornographyandtheAntivivisectionMovement,"VictorianStudies28(1985):41338.

80.Lancet1(1896):961.Inanyeventthenotionhadbeenlongacceptedthatwomen,notenjoyingcompletefreedomofaction,wouldonoccasionofnecessitytoy
withthetruth.SeeShapin,SocialHistoryofTruth,8791.

81.Playfair,SixStudies,156.

82.FrankMort,DangerousSexualities:MedicoMoralPoliticsinEnglandsince1830(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1987),95109.

83.OndoctorsopposedtotheActs,seeBenjaminScott,AStateIniquity:ItsRise,Extension,andOverthrow(London:KeganPaul,1890),116,119,217.

84.Glaister,MedicalJurisprudence,60.

85.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):817.

Page263

86.JillHarsin,"Syphilis,Wives,andPhysicians:MedicalEthicsandtheFamilyinLateNineteenthcenturyFrance,"FrenchHistoricalStudies16(1989):7295
GailSavage,"TheWillfulCommunicationofaLoathsomeDisease:MedicalConflictandVenerealDiseaseinVictorianEngland,"VictorianStudies34(1990):35
54.

87.GeorgeIves,AHistoryofPenalMethods(London:StanleyPaul,1914),35356AlexanderWelsh,GeorgeEliotandBlackmail(Cambridge:Harvard
UniversityPress,1985).

88.DeWitt,PrivilegedCommunications,247.ButfordemandsmadeinAmericathatabortionsbereported,seeNormanBarnesby,MedicalChaosandCrime
(London:MitchellKennerley,1910),213,22317.

89.A.S.Taylor,AManualofMedicalJurisprudence(London:J.A.Churchill,1891),560.

90.BritishMedicalJournal1(1896):883.

91.Lancet1(1896):962.

92.DictionaryofNationalBiography:TheTwentiethCentury(19011911),6078.

93.LawReports(AppealCases),1905,482.

94.BritishMedicalJournal1(1904):1416ScottishLawReporter,1904,42:21321Glaister,MedicalJurisprudence,6063.

95.Buteveninthemidtwentiethcentury,Britishcourts,inordertoacceptthevalidityofalegitimateconception,showedthemselveswillingtostretchthelengthofthe
gestationperiod.Inthe1940sjudgestookseriouslyclaimsthatspermcouldremainviableinthevaginaforaslongastwentyeightdaysandthatbirthsmightoccuras
lateasthreehundredandsixtydaysafterconception.J.D.Cantley,"MedicalEvidenceinMatrimonialCases,"MedicoLegalJournal18(1950):2630.

96.Foradiscussionofhowsomenineteenthcenturywomenliterallygotawaywithmurderbyplayingtheappropriaterole,seeMaryHartman,Victorian
Murderesses(NewYork:Schoken,1977)RuthHarris,MurdersandMadness:Medicine,LawandSocietyintheFindesicle(Oxford:Clarendon,1989)
VirginiaB.Morris,DoubleJeopardy:WomenWhoKillinVictorianFiction(Lexington:UniversityPressofKentucky,1990).

97.Immediatelyfollowingthetrial,theRoyalCollegeofPhysiciansofLondonsetupacommittee"todefineinalegalsensetheproperconductofaPractitionerwhen
broughtintorelationwithacaseofacknowledgedorsuspectedcriminalabortion,"butthedebateoverthedoctor'sdutycontinuedonintothetwentiethcentury.Sir
GeorgeClark,AHistoryoftheRoyalCollegeofphysiciansofLondon(Oxford:ClarendonPress,196472),3:98085.

98.S.SquireSprigge,MedicineandthePublic(London:Heinemann,1905),243.Butforadiscussionofconfidentiality,whichbyitscautioustoneindicatesa
lessonhadbeendrawnfromthePlayfairfiasco,seeRobertSaundby,MedicalEthics:AGuidetoPersonalConduct(London:Simpkin,Marshall,Hamilton,Kent,
1902),625.

99.LondonTimes,28June1920,10.

100.IntheageofAIDS,thewholequestionofmedicaldisclosureisbeingdebatedoncemore.See,RobertLee,"DisclosureofMedicalRecords:AConfidence
Trick?"inConfidentialityandtheLaw,ed.LindaClarke(London:Lloyd's,1990),26IrvineLoudon,"AQuestionofConfidence:HowItStrikestheHistorian,"
BritishMedicalJournal288(1984):12526.

101.MauriceKeen,Chivalry(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1984),1.

102.JohnFraser,AmericaandthePatternsofChivalry(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1982)MarkGirouard,TheReturntoCamelot:Chivalryand
theEnglishGentleman(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1981).

103.RobertA.Nye,MasculinityandMaleCodesofHonorinModernFrance(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1993)UteFrevert,"BourgeoisHonour:
MiddleClassDuelistsinGermanyfromtheLateEighteenthCenturytotheEarlyTwentiethCentury,"inTheGermanBourgeoisie,ed.DavidBlackbournand
RichardJ.Evans(London:Routledge,1991),25492UteFrevert,MenofHonour:ASocialandCulturalHistoryoftheDuel,

Page264

trans.AnthonyWilliams(Cambridge,Eng.:PolityPress,1995)KevinMcAleer,TheCultofHonorinFindeSicleGermany(Princeton:PrincetonUniversity
Press,1994)NormanVance,TheSinewsoftheSpirit:TheIdealofChristianManlinessinVictorianLiteratureandReligiousThought(Cambridge:
CambridgeUniversityPress,1985).

104.JamesHammerton,CrueltyandCompanionship:ConflictinNineteenthCenturyMarriedLife(London:Routledge,1992).

105.HaroldJ.Laski,TheDangerofBeingaGentlemanandOtherEssays(London:AllenandUnwin,1939),1331RobinGilmour,TheIdeaofthe
GentlemanintheVictorianNovel(London:AllenandUnwin,1981).

Chapter5
Murderers
1.Suchcommunitynormswereasmuchcreatedasdefendedbythecourts.SeeJuliaEpsteinandKristinaStaub,eds.,BodyGuards:TheCulturalPoliticsof
GenderAmbiguity(London:Routledge,1991),14.

2.NanaimoFreePress,12Oct.1910,12.

3.Suchsources,dealingastheydowithdeadlyconflicts,areunlikelytorevealtheworkingclassmale'spenchantfor"cooperation,fraternityandequality"foundby
others.SeeBryanPalmer,ACultureinConflict:SkilledWorkersandIndustrialCapitalisminHamilton,Ontario,18601914(Kingston:McGillQueens
UniversityPress,1979),40.

4.ForfineexamplesoftheculturalanalysisofmurdercasesinEurope,seeEdwardBerenson,TheTrialofMmeCaillaux(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
1991)CarolynConley,TheUnwrittenLaw:CriminalJusticeinVictorianKent(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1991)JoelleGuillais,CrimesofPassion:
DramasofPrivateLifeinNineteenthcenturyFrance(NewYork:Routledge,1991andfortheUnitedStates,seeRogerLane,ViolentDeathintheCity:
Suicide,AccidentandMurderinNineteenthcenturyPhiladelphia(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1979)BertramWyattBrown,SouthernHonor:
EthicsandBehaviorintheOldSouth(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1982)

5.PapersoftheAttorneyGeneralofBritishColumbia[hereafterBC]GR419,vol.198,file1915/50.

6.Letterdated24Apr.1915,inIbid.

7.CranbrookHerald,22Sept.1915,121Oct.1915,1.i1l

8.SherwoodHerchmertoJ.P.McLeod,23Oct.1923,BCGR1323,reel2121,file7049415.

9.Anon.,"L'HomicideenFrancecompardl'homicidel'tranger."Archivesdel'anthroplogiecriminelle13(1898):34951.

10.Thesedisparitieswererecognizedatthetime.SeeDr.HenriLeale,"Delacriminalitdessexes'Archivesdel'anthroplogiecriminelle25(1910):40130and
foramorerecentaccount,seeJudithA.Allen,SexandSecrets:CrimesInvolvingAustralianWomensince1880(Melbourne:OxfordUniversityPress,1990),
2830.

11.PopulationofBritishColumbia

1901 1921

males 114,160 293,400


females 64,497 231,173
total 178,657 524,582
Source:CensusofCanada,1931,table16.SeealsoAdelePerry,"'OhI'mjustSickoftheFacesofMen':GenderImbalance,
Race,SexualityandSociabilityinNineteenthCenturyBritishColumbia,"BCStudies1056(1995):2743.

12.PerhapsthemostnotoriousescapeewasWilliamMcLaughan,whoin1912killedtwomenandawoman.VancouverDailyProvince,14Oct.1912,1.13.

13.SeeRosemaryGartnerandBillMcCarthy,"TheSocialDistributionofFemicideinUrbanCanada,19211988,"LawandSocietyReview25(1991):287311
PamelaHaig,

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"The'IlluseofaWife':PatternsofWorkingclassViolenceinDomesticandPublicNewYork,18601880,"JournalofSocialHistory25(1992):44777
EllenRoss,"FierceQuestionsandTaunts:MarriedLifeinLondon,18701914,"FeministStudies8(1982):575602.OnCatholicEurope'sviewofspousal
murdersas"crimesofpassion,"seePaulPeyssonnie,LeMeurtreexcusable(Orleans:Morand,1897)PaulEscoffier,LesCrimespassionels(Paris:George
Jacob,1891)ErmannoCavazzoni,ed.,AlbertoOlivo:Fatalcourroux:Autobiographied'unuxoricide(Paris:Verdier,1992).

14.BCGR429,box11,file5,#3142/04.

15.BCGR419,vol.135,file1909/73.

16.Ibid.,vol.97,file1903/54.

17.Ibid.,vol.160,file1912/134.

18.ComparetoMilesFairburnandStephenHaslett,"ViolentCrimeinOldandNewSocietiesACaseStudyBasedonNewZealand,18531940,"Journalof
SocialHistory20(1986):89126.Foraclassicaccountoflivingconditions,seeEdwinBradwin,TheBunkhouseMan:AStudyoftheWorkandPayinthe
CampsofCanada,19031914(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1928).

19.OnafightbetweenGermanprisonersofwarattheVernonInternmentCampleadingtomurder,seeBCGR419,vol.229,file1919/127.

20.Ibid.,vol.198,file1915/42.

21.Ibid.,vol.125,file1908/27A.

22.InOctober1907apokergameatKirby'sHotel,Keremeos,ledtoashootingdeath.Ibid.,vol.127,file1908/52.Thiscasewasunusualinthattheaccused
successfullyescapedpolicecustody.

23.Ibid.,vol.161,file1912/151.

24.Ontherelationshipofsociabilitytoviolence,seeNoelDyck,"Booze,BarroomsandScrapping:MasculinityandViolenceinaWesternCanadianTown,"
CanadianJournalofAnthropology1(1980):19198StephenWilson,Feuding:ConflictandBanditryinNineteenthcenturyCorsica(Cambridge:Cambridge
UniversityPress,1988),94.

25.BCGR419,Vol.101,file1904/52.

26.Ibid.,vol.125,file1908/27b.

27.Ibid.,vol.147,file1911/27.

28.BCGR429,box14,file2#2181/07.

29.BCGR419,vol.119,file1907,35.

30.Ibid.,vol.135,file1909/63.

31.Ibid.,vol.152,file1911/104.

32.Ibid.,vol.162,file1912/129.

33.Ibid.,vol.148,file1911/45.

34.Ibid.,vol.190,file1914/155.

35.Ibid.,vol.87,file1901/27

36.Ibid.,vol.183,file1914/13.

37.Ibid.,vol.229,file1919/120.

38.Ibid.,vol.210,file1917/59.

39.Ibid.,vol.175,1913/122.

40.Ibid.,vol.201,file1915/95Ibid.,vol.203,file1916/8.Forthecaseofaderangedrancherwhoin1922killedaneighborhebelievedwas"murmuring"against
him,seeibid.,vol.255,file1922/73.

41.BCGR419,vol.218,file1918/99.

42.Ibid.,vol.160,file1912/138Ibid.,vol.157,file1912/77.

43.Ibid.,vol.189,file1914/144.

44.Ibid.,vol.232,file1920/25.

45.Ibid.,vol.236,file1920/99.

Page266

46.Ibid.,vol.255,file1922/64.

47.Ibid.,vol.266,file1932/29.

48.BCGR1327,B2384BCGR419,vol.145,file1910/91.

49.BCGR419,vol.162,file1912/170Ibid.,vol.163,file1912/179VancouverDailyProvince,26Mar.1912,1,4.

50.BCGR419,vol.169,file1913/46.

51.Ibid.,vol.184,file1914/59.

52.Ibid.,vol.193,file1914/191.

53.Ibid.,vol.197,file191526.

54.Ibid.,vol.204,file1916/43.

55.Ibid.,vol.208,file1917/15.

56.Ibid.,vol.258,file1922/113.

57.Ibid.,vol.129,file1908/105.

58.Ibid.,vol.235,file1920/69Ibid.,vol.271,file1923/74.

59.Forarecentaccountofsuchmotivations,seeKennethPolk,"Masculinity,HonourandConfrontationalHomicide,"inJustBoysDoingBusiness?Men,
MasculinitiesandCrime,ed.TimNewburnandElizabethA.Stanko(London:Routledge,1994),16688.

60.DonaldMacDonaldwasin1910foundnotguiltyofmurderingFrankSavage,who,thoughsworninasaspecialconstable,wasviewedbythecommunityasa
bullywhousedhistemporaryauthoritytoterrorizeanoldrival.NanaimoFreePress,12Oct.1910,12.

61.BCGR419,vol.196,file1915/9.

62.Ibid.,vol.89,file59.

63.KamloopsInlandSentinel,15May1913,1.

64.BCGR419,vol.144,file1910/63.

65.BCGR1323,reelB2121,file6515415.

66.BCGR1327,reelB2399,file1917/54.

67.PrinceRupertDailyNews,10Jan.1921,6.

68.PrinceRupertEveningEmpire,18Jan.1919,2.

69.BCGR419,vol.101,file1904/54.

70.Ibid.,vol.135,file1909/63.

71.ForAmericanexamplesofthiscredo,seeElliottGorn,"ByeByeBoys,IDieaTrueAmerican:Homicide,NativismandWorkingclassCultureinAntebellum
NewYork,"JournalofAmericanHistory74(1987):40Gorn,TheManlyArt:BareknucklePrizeFightinginAmerica(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,
1989).

72.BCGR419,vol.91,file1920/6.

73.Ibid.,vol.147,file1911/34.

74.Theseweretypicalprisonsentences.Jurieshadtheoptionofacquittingtheaccusedorfindinghimguiltyofeithermanslaughter(duetoprovocationorbycriminal
negligence)ormurder.Fiftyeightof125mentriedformurderwentfreebecausetheywerefoundnotguiltyortheircasesweredroppedordismissed.Thirtyeight
receivedprisonsentencesthatrangedfromoneyeartolife,theaveragebeingbetweenfiveandtenyears.Twentyninemenweresentencedtodeath.

75.GreenwoodWeeklyTimes,9May1901,1.

76.BCGR419,Vol.125,file1908/29.

77.Ibid.,vol.176,file1913/166.

78.Ibid.,vol.87,file1901/27.

79.Ibid.,vol.129,file1908/105.

80.Ibid.,vol.93,file1902./61

81.ForaFrenchcaseofamurdercommittedbyamanwhobelievedthatpeoplewerewhisperingabouthisbeingsodomizedasayouth,seeDrs.Reignier,
Lagardelle,andLegrandduSaulle,"Sodomieetassassinat,"Annalesmdicopsychologiques17(1877):190202.

82.Fortheargumentthatsomehomosexualrelationsweretoleratedinworkingclass

Page267

milieus,seeStevenMaynard,"RoughWorkandRuggedMen:TheSocialConstructionofMasculinityinWorkingclassHistory,"Labour/LeTravail23(1989):
15970.Forthelegalcontext,seeTerryL.Chapman,"'AnOscarWildeType':'TheAbominableCrimeofBuggery'inWesternCanada,18901920,"Criminal
JusticeHistory4(1983):97118.

83.BCGR419,vol.89,file1900/77VictoriaDailyColonist,29,30Oct.1901.

84.BCGR419,vol.116,file1906/79.

85.Ibid.,vol.124,file1908/2.

86.VancouverDailyProvince,9May1908,1.

87.Ofallthemurdersthattookplacebetween1900and1923,theonlyoneinwhichactualproofthatahomosexualact(thoughperhapsbestdescribedasa
pedophilicattack)occurredwasreportedin1913.AsimplemindedClintonranchhandwassentencedtodeathforbuggeringandthenkillingthefourandahalf
yearoldboyleftinhiscare.BCGR419,vol.176,file1913/164.

88.Onthesubjectof"malesexualproprietariness,"seeKennethPolk,WhenMenKill:ScenariosofMasculineViolence(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,
1994),5861.

89.BCGR419,vol.87,file1901/12.

90.Ibid.,vol.101,file1904/55VancouverDailyProvince,21May1904,2.

91.Ibid.,vol.108,file1905/58.

92.Ibid.,vol.246,file1921/43PrinceRupertDailyNews,10Jan.1921,6.

93.BCGR1327B3294,#122/14BCGR419,vol.187,file1914/86

94.Iwillbetreatingtheoptionofthehusbandkillingthewifeinaforthcomingstudyofintersexualmurders.

95.BCGR419,vol.92,file1902/36.

96.Ibid.,vol.146,fil1913/149.

97.Ibid.,vol.141,file1910/28.

98.Ibid.,vol.167,file1913/14VancouverDailyProvince,15Oct.1912,3028Mar.1913,2229Mar.1913,3.MaryHenriettaMcNaughton,theaccused's
mother,wasaleadingmemberoftheWCTUandinJanuary1912thefirstwomanelectedtotheVancouverCityCouncil.OnclassandmurderinEngland,see
Conley,UnwrittenLaw,5659.

99.BCGR419,vol.113,file1906/27.

100.Ibid.,vol.230,file1919/135.

101.Ibid.,vol.272,file1923/92.

102.Kootenaian,19Oct.1922,1NelsonDailyNews,14Oct.1922,1.

103.PrinceRupertDailyNews,6June1921,4.

104.FernieFreePress,22Oct.1915,1.

105.PeterN.Stearns,BeaMan:MalesinModernSociety(NewYork:HolmesandMeier,1984)MarkC.CarnesandClydeGriffen,eds.,Meaningsfor
Manhood:ConstructionsofMasculinityinVictorianAmerica(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1990)J.A.ManganandJamesWalvin,eds.,Manliness
andMorality:MiddleClassMasculinityinBritainandAmerica,18001940(Manchester:ManchesterUniversityPress,1987)MichaelS.Kimmel,"The
Contemporary'Crisis'ofMasculinity,"inTheMakingofMasculinities,ed.HarryBrod(Boston:AllenandUnwin,1987),12255MarilynLake,"ThePoliticsof
Respectability:IdentifyingtheMasculinistContext,"HistoricalStudies22(1986):11631JockPhillips,AMan'sCountry?TheImageofthePakehaMale
(Aukland:Penguin,1987).

IntroductiontoPartThree
1.JeanClaudeBologne,Histoiredelapudeur(Paris:OlivierOrban,1986)AnneVincentBuffault,Histoiredeslarmes(Marseille:Rivages,1986).

2.CharlesDarwin,TheExpressionoftheEmotionsinManandAnimals,inTheWorksofCharlesDarwin(London:Pickering,1989),23:18183andseealso
CharlesFr,Pathologiedesmotions(Paris:Alcan,1892).

3.HenriBergson,LeRire:Essaisurlasignificationducomique(Paris:Alcan,1900),5.

Page268

4.Respectablewomenwerecontrariwisecounseledthatitwasunbecomingafemaletoappear,inpublicatleast,toointelligent.

5.JeanJacquesRousseau,mile,(Paris:LaPlaide,Gallimard,1969),bookV,p.697.

6.LesleyA.Hall,HiddenAnxieties:MaleSexuality,19001950(Oxford:PolityPress,1991).

7.M.L.Holbrook,ParturitionwithoutPain(NewYork:1882),p.36citedinCharlesRosenberg,NoOtherGods:OnScienceandAmericanSocialThought
(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1976),47.

8.Ontheroleoftheexperts,startingwiththeGermansexologists,seeVernL.Bullough,ScienceintheBedroom:AHistoryofSexResearch(NewYork:Basic
Books,1994).

Chapter6
Weaklings
1.Forexamplesofsuchadvertisements,seeDailyTelegraph,24Oct.1864,2IllustratedPoliceNews,12Mar.1870,4.

2.LondonTimes,24Oct.1864,9.

3.OntheHenerycase,seeLancet2(1864):5027,529,620,640,647,648,650DailyTelegraph,25Nov.1864,2andseealsoPunch,30Nov.1864.The
OxfordTimesof10Dec.1864notedthatsuchadvertisementsprovidedthestrugglingnewspaperwitha"readybutveryquestionableprop."

4.Lancet2(1864):620,640.

5.WilliamActon,TheFunctionsandDisordersoftheReproductiveOrgans,3ded.(London:JohnChurchill,1862),.appendixE,p.211andseealsoLancet2
(1857).

6.BritishMedicalJournal2(1864):632.

7.Lancet1(1865):9899

8.Ibid.,161.

9.Lancet2(1865):391andseealso,Lancet1(1865):277,2942(1865):518.

10.Onearlierattacks,seeJ.Corry,QuackDoctorsDissected(London:Whitrow,n.d.),andTheDetectorofQuackery(London:Crosby,1802).

11.LynnHunt,ed.,TheInventionofPornography:ObscenityandtheOriginsofmodernity,15001800(NewYork:ZoneBooks,1993),41AnnieStora
Lamarre,L'EnferdelaIIIeRpublique:Censeursetpornographes18811914(Paris:Imago,1990).

12.Fortheargumentthatinanewageofprivacythemasturbationpanicreflectedafearoftheautonomoushedonismsponsoredbytheriseofcapitalism,seeColin
Campbell,TheRomanticEthicandtheSpiritofModernConsumerism(Oxford:Blackwell,1987).Forolderinterpretations,seeE.H.Hare,"Masturbatory
Insanity:TheHistoryofanIdea,"JournalofMentalScience108(1962):125JeanStengersandAnnevanEck,Histoired'unegrandepeur:LaMasturbation
(Bruxelles:ditionsdel'UniversitdeBruxelles,1984)FreddyMortier,WillemColen,andFrankSimon,"InnerScientificReconstructionsintheDiscourseon
Masturbation(17601950),"PaedagogicaHistorica30,no.3(1994):81748.

13.EarlyworksthatexploitedthefearsofsexualabuseincludedW.Farrer,AShortTreatiseonOnanismor,theDetestableViceofSelfPollution(London:
1767)Dr.JamesGraham,ALectureontheGeneration,IncreaseandImprovementoftheHumanSpecies(London:Smith,1784)WilliamBrodum,AGuide
toOldAgeoraCurefortheIndiscretionsofYouth,2vols.(London:Myers,1795),whichpublicizedtheauthor's"NervousCordial"SamuelSolomon,AGuide
toHealth(London:Mathews,1796),whichpuffed"Solomon'sCordialBalmofGilead"E.Senate,TheMedicalMoniteur,ContainingObservationsonthe
EffectsofEarlyDissipation(London:bytheauthor,n.d.).

14.SamuelLa'Mert,SelfPreservation:APopularInquiryintotheConcealedCausesofThoseObscureandNeglectedDisordersoftheGenerativeSystem
(Manchester:bytheauthor,1841),whichappearedinFranceasLaPrservationpersonnelle(Paris:LedoyenandLaroque,1847),andTheScienceofLife
(London:Piper,Spence,1858)J.L.Curtis,Manhood:TheCausesofItsPrematureDeclinewithDirectionsforItsPerfectRestoration(Lon

Page269

don,1840)andGuidemedicaldumariage(Paris:Brachet,1868)Dr.Belliol,Conseilsauxhommesaffaibls(Paris:Dentu,1877),Dr.Brennus,L'Actebref
(Paris:Hall,1907)Dr.Pouillet,LaSpermatorrhe(Paris:Delahaye,1877).Dr.O.Retau,DasBchuberdieEhe(Luzern:Nedwig,s.d.).

15.Lancet2(1864):529

16.Lancet1(1901):493andseealsoBritishMedicalAssociation,SecretRemedies,WhatTheyCostandWhatTheyContain(London:B.M.A.,1909)and
MoreSecretRemedies(London:B.M.A.,1912).

17.M.H.Utley,DidacticElucidations,RespectingtheOriginalSin,ortheSinofImagination,andItsConsequences,Morally,PhysicallyandMentally
(Montreal,1874).

18.Foronedoctor'sassertionthathewasattackedinthemedicalpressformerelybroachingsexualissues,seeR.Dawson,AnEssayonSpermatorrhoea(London:
H.Hughes,1847).

19.Onthelackofunanimityamongdoctors,seeMichaelMason,TheMakingofVictorianSexuality(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1994),175228
LesleyHallandRoyPorter,TheFactsofLife:TheCreationofSexualKnowledgeinBritain,16501950(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1995),13255.

20.SomediscreetlywroteabouttabooedsubjectsinLatinsee,forexample,HenricoKaan,PsychopathiaSexualis(Lipsiae:ApudLeopoldum,1844).

21.AntiSemiticslurswerefrequentlyemployedbydoctorsintheirattacksonquacks.Onemedicaljournalistsaidofasalesmanof"Dr.JordansBalsamRakasir"that
his"facewasasJewishashisconduct."MonthlyGazetteofHealth9(January1824):786.JohnL.Milton,whopopularizedthenotionof"spermatorrhoea,"claimed
thatthe"mostillustrious"ofthe''wretchesoftheManlyVigorschoolandthespermatorrhoeaquacks"belongedto"thestrickenhouseofJudah."PracticalRemarks
ontheTreatmentofSpermatorrhoea(London:Highley,1855),5.SimilarlytheeditoroftheLancet,inhailingthefoundingofa"UnionfortheDiscouragementof
ViciousAdvertisements,"describedquacksas"hooknosed,blacklocked,andoverdoneinjewelryanddressofthemostextravagantfashion."Lancet1(1851):73.
SuchstatementssuggestnotthatJewswereactuallyoverrepresentedwithintheranksofunqualifiedpractitionersbutthatnonJewsattributedtothemtheexotic
"other"arcanesexualknowledge.Onthesocialcontext,seeBillWilliams,TheMakingofManchesterJewry,17401875(Manchester:ManchesterUniversity
Press,1976).

22.Seechapter6,entitled"ThePriceofRepression,"inPeterGay,TheTenderPassion,vol.2ofTheBourgeoisExperience,VictoriatoFreud(NewYork:
OxfordUniversityPress,1986).

23.WilliamActon,TheFunctionsandDisordersoftheReproductiveOrgans(London:JohnChurchill,1857)andforthecontext,seeF.BarrySmith,"Sexuality
inBritain,18001900:SomeSuggestedRevisions,"inAWideningSphere:ChangingRolesofVictorianWomen,ed.MarthaVicinus(Bloomington:Indiana
UniversityPress,1977),1898.

24.GeorgeDrysdale,inlaterlifeasexradical,wassofrightenedofmasturbatingthathehadhimselfcauterizedsevenoreighttimes.Otherremediesincluded
blistering,camphorrubs,infibulation,andphysicalrestraints.J.MiriamBenn,ThePredicamentsofLove(London:PlutoPress,1992),3746

25.OnBeardseeCharlesRosenberg,NoOtherGods:OnScienceandAmericanSocialThought(Baltimore:JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1976),98ff.

26.GeorgeM.Beard,SexualNeurasthenia(NewYork:E.B.Treat,1884).

27.OnBeard'sinfluenceonFrance,seeMauricedeFleury,LesGrandssymptomesneurasthniques:Pathognieettraitement(Paris:Alcan,1901).

28.Beard,SexualNeurasthenia,103.

29.ReportofDr.HammondintheAmericanJournalofNeurologyandPsychiatry(August1882)citedinBeard,SexualNeurasthenia,100.

30.Beard,SexualNeurasthenia,91.

Page270

31.Ibid.,125andseealsoG.StanleyHall,Adolescence(NewYork:D.Appleton,1904),1:43263TomLutz,AmericanNervousness,1903:AnAnecdotal
History(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1991).

32.FlixRoubaud,Traitdel'impuissanceetdesterilitchezl'hommeetchezlafemme,2vols.(Paris:Baillire,1855).

33.M.H.Utley,DidacticElucidations,RespectingtheOriginalSin,ortheSinofImagination,andItsConsequences,Morally,PhysicallyandMentally
(Montreal,1874).

34.VictorG.Vecki,PathologieundTherapiedermannlichenImpotenz(Wien:Urban&Schwarzenberg,1897).

35.VeckicitedinF.R.Sturgis,SexualDebilityinMan(London:Rebman,1901),86.

36.GeorgeHy.Savage,"Insanity,ItsCauseandIncrease,"BritishMedicalJournal1(1907):62223.WilliamWynnWestcott,indiscussingcausesofdeathnoted,
"Imustnotomittonoticethatsimplefatalsyncopemaybeduetomuscularexhaustion,especiallyduringoraftersexualintercourseamong1,100inquestsayear,I
haveaboutfoursuchoccurrences,alwaysofmales.""SuddenandUnexpectedDeaths,''BritishMedicalJournal1(1908):491.

37.SigmundFreud,AnAutobiographicalStudy(London,1948),4246andseealsoHannahDecker,FreudinGermany:RevolutionandReactioninScience,
18931907(NewYork:InternationalUniversitiesPress,1977),134ffJeffreyMasson,ed.,TheCompleteLettersofSigmundFreudtoWilhelmFliess,1877
1904(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1985),41,43,5758,61,7879.

38."HowAnxietyOriginates,"(1894),StandardEditionoftheCompletePsychologicalWorks,trans.J.Strachey(London:HogarthPress,1966),1:18990.

39.Ibid.,1:191andseealso1:214,3:151.

40."DraftA"(1892),Ibid.,1:177.

41."DraftB"(1893),Ibid.,1:181.

42."TheAnxietyNeurosis,"(1893),Ibid.,3:101andseealso16:401402.

43."DraftB.AetiologyoftheNeurosis,"(1893),Ibid.,1:183.

44."TheAnxietyNeurosis"(1895),Ibid.,3:103.

45."TheAnxietyNeurosis"(1898),Ibid.,3:106.SeealsoSandorFerenczi's1905assertionthatneurastheniawascausedbyalossofsemen"siricheen
glycrophosphates."SandorFerenczi,LescritsdeBudapest,trans.G.KurczandC.Lorin(Paris:E.P.E.L.,1994),259.

46.SanderGilman,DifferenceandPathology:StereotypesofSexuality,Race,andMadness(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1985),21324.

47."'Civilized'SexualMorality"(1908),StandardEdition,9:200.

48.IntroductoryLectures(1915)inIbid.,16:316.InthispassageFreudreferstobothdefecationandcoitusinterruputusasbeingas"perverse"inthatboth
engenderaformofsexualpleasureandyetarenonreproductive.

49.JamesPaget,ClinicalLecturesandEssays(London:LongmanGreen,1875),26892.

50.SexualDebilityinMan,68.

51.Forapoemon"UnJeanquinepeut"andassortedjokesandanecdotesconcerningimpotency,allofwhichpredatedthenineteenthcentury,seeGrande
DictionnaireduXIXesicle(Paris:Larousse,18661900)andseealsoMargaretWaller,TheMaleMalady:FictionsofImpotenceintheFrenchRomantic
Novel(NewBrunswick:RutgersUniversityPress,1993).

52.Acton,Functions,3ded.,1862.appendixE,"ExposureoftheQuackSystem,"30.

53.JamesWoycke,BirthControlinGermany,18711933(NewYork:London,1988),12.

54.RexversusDesctes,RapportsJudiciaresdeQubec:CourSup,rieure63(1925),5256.Descteswasentrappedbythepoliceintosellingapolice
constableoneofthecited

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texts.Suchtacticswerenotunusualinsuchcases.In1899Dr.VilleneuveinformedtheSocitmdicopsychologiquedeQubecofthecaseof"H.C.,"aBelgian
patissierdcorateur,chargedunderarticle179oftheCriminalCodeforsellingthreepastryfigurestendingtocorruptmorals.
Cesfigures,d'uncaractreobscneparlaprdominancedonnesauxorganesgnitaux,taientensucrecolorietreprsentaientunefemmeetunhommenus,avecunchien.Une
imagedel'EnfantJsusportaitunecroixtaitcollesurlaboite.

Oneofthepastrycook'screationshadbeendiscoveredandreportedtotheauthorities.Thepolicesentalonganagenttoentrap"H.C."intosellinghimsomething
similar."H.C."statedthatinBelgiumheproducedsuchwareswhenheneededthemoneybutsuchundertakingsweremoredangerousinQuebec.Hewasfinally
talkedintoproducingtheconfectionandthenarrested.Hislastlineofdefensewastoclaimtobeanepileptic,whichexplainswhyDr.VilleneuveoftheasileSaint
JeandeDieubecameinvolvedinthecase.AnnalesmdicopsychologiquesII(1900):268.

55.AlsocitedwasJeanErnestCharles,LaPossessioncriminelle:Dramesd'amouretdejalousie(Paris:Flammarion,1923).

56.TheMontrealpresswasatthesametimereportingthatthecity'sestimatedeightybrothelsposedthequestionofwhetherregulationwasrequired.SeeLeDevoir,
23Dec.1924,126Dec.1924,129Dec.1924,1MontrealGazette,23Dec.1924,1024Dec.1924,2.OnthediscussionofsexualissuesinQuebec,see
AndreLvesque,LaNormeetlesdviantes:DesfemmesauQuebecpendantl'entredeuxguerres(Montreal:Lesditionsduremuemnage,1989).

57.PeterGay,EducationoftheSenses,vol.IofTheBourgeoisExperience:VictoriatoFreud(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1984),318.

58.Someofthesamematerialwasrepackagedintheseries"Collectiondepsychologiepopulaire."Acompetitorwhoranthe"InstitutRabelais,"whichdistributed
books,nudephotographs,contraceptives,andabortifacients,wasin1910sentencedtosixmonthsinprisonseeGazettedesTribunaux,23July1910,66223.

59.Dr.Caufeynon,Brviaredel'amourdanslemarriage,d'aprsleDr.Venette(Paris:Fort,1907)Drs.CaufeynonetJaf,LesSecretsmerveilleuxdugrand
etdupetitAlbert(Paris,Librairiedesouvragespratiques,1905)Dr.Jaf,UnisexualLove(NewYork:NewEraPress,1954).

60.Dr.Caufeynon,L'Eunuchisme:Histoiregnraledelacastration(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1903).

61.Dr.Caufeynon,L'Hermaphrodisme(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1904).

62.Dr.Jaf,LesTatouages(Paris:J.Fort,1908),73,76.

63.Drs.CaufeynonandJaf,LesSecretsmerveilleuxdugrandetpetitAlbert(Paris:Librairiedesouvragespractiques,1905)Brviaredel'amourdansle
mariage,d'aprsleDr.Venette(Paris:Fort,1907).

64.Dr.Caufeynon,LaProcrationvolontdesfillesetdesgarons,suiviedefcondationartificielleetdel'amidesjeunesfemmes(Paris:Fort,1903).

65.Drs.JafandCaufeynon,Scuritdedeuxsexesenamour(Paris:GeorgesAnquetil,1926),425,429,437andseealsoJ.C.Bernard,"Filleougaron
volont:UnAspectdudiscoursmdicalauXIXesicle,"Ethnographiefranaise11(1981):6376.

66.Dr.Caufeynon,Aberrations,foliesetaberrationsdusensgnital(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1903),63andseealsoonthedismissalofwomen'sclaimsof
beingraped,AmbroiseTardieu,tudemdicolgalesurlesattentatsauxmoeurs(Paris:Baillire,1878),1012,13335.

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67.Onchangingdiagnoses,seeMarthaNoelEvans,FitsandStarts:AGenealogyofHysteriainModernFrance(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1992).

68.Onsuchcontinuities,seeAngusMcLaren,ReproductiveRituals:ThePerceptionofFertilityinEnglandfromtheSixteenthCenturytotheNineteenth
Century(London:Methuen,1984).

69.Dr.Jaf,Physiologieduvice(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1904),55.

70.Dr.Jaf,L'Amourmalade(Paris:J.Fort,1908),86ff.

71.Dr.Caufeynon,L'Hystrie(Paris:Nouvellelibrariemdicale,1905)andseealsoJanGoldstein,"TheHysteriaDiagnosisandthePoliticsofAnticlericalismin
LateNineteenthcenturyFrance,"JournalofModernHistory54(1982):20939,andConsoleandClassify:TheFrenchPsychiatricProfessioninthe
NineteenthCentury(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1987).

72.Dr.Caufeynon,Aberrations,foliesetaberrationsdusensgnital(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1903),46

73.Dr.Caufeynon,TheViceofWoman(Paris:ArtisticLibrary,1925),17075.

74.Dr.Caufeynon,LesVnusimpudiques:LaGrandeprostitutiontraverslesges(Paris:Socitparisienned'dition,1903).

75.Forclaimsthatcontraceptionwasphysicallyandpsychologicallydebilitating,seeDr.MichelBourgas,LeDroitl'amourpourlafemme(Paris.Vigotfrres,
n.d.),10610.

76.Drs.JafandCaufeynon,Scuritdedeuxsexesenamour(Paris:GeorgesAnquetil,1926),399,422andcomparetoDoctorSaldo,LovewithoutDanger,
followedwithTheShortAct(Paris:EditionsModernes,1927).

77.Dr.Forel'srecommendationsonarange,ofbirthcontroltechniquesincludingcondomsandcoitusinterruptuswasincludedinDrs.JafandSaldo,Physiologie
secrtedel'hommeetdelafemme(Paris:Denans,1908),11823.

78.Dr.Jaf,AmouretmariageenOrient(Paris:J.Fort,1908).Thistextappearedinthe"Collectiondepsychologiepopulaire."Theevenmoreextensivelistthat
appearedinDoctorBrennus,Amouretscurit(Paris:SaintElmeGuerin,1906),includedadvertisementsforpessaries,douches,sponges,bidets,contraceptive
powders,diaphragms,aphrodisiacs,antispermatorrhearings,chastitybelts,injectorsforartificialinsemination,falsebreasts,vaginalprotectors,("L'Infallible"),
capuchons("bonnetfindesicle''),baudruches,condomsinavarietyofcolorsandimitationcrocodilehide,andcigarettecases,hollowonefrancpiecesand
"boutinsdeviolettes"inwhichsuchcondomscouldbediscretelyhidden.Forsimilaradvertisementsinaman'smagazine,seeLeSourire25Aug.1899.

79.Dr.Caufeynon,L'Hystrie(Paris:Nouvellelibrariemdicale,1905).

80.Dr.Caufeynon,Aberrations,foliesetaberrationsdusensgenital(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1903),26,27,61.

81.Dr.Caufeynon,L'Onanismechezl'homme(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1902.),8,9,45,107.

82.Dr.Jaf,LeCommercesexueletleproxntisme(Paris:J.Fort,1908),53,56,98.SeealsoDr.Caufeynon,LaProstitutiondbauchecorruption
(Paris.Nouvellelibrairiemdicale,1905).

83.Forcontemporaryaccountsofthedangersprostitutionposedsociety,seeCharlesJrmeLecour,LaProstitutionParisetLondres(Paris:Asselin,1877)
LouisMartineau,LaProstitutionclandestine(Paris:Lecrosnier,1885).

84.Dr.Jaf,Physiologieduvice(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1904),23536.

85.Dr.Caufeynon,TheViceofWoman(Paris:ArtisticLibrary,1925),132.

86.Dr.Caufeynon,Scnesd'amourmorbide(Observationspsychophysiologiques(Paris:P.Fort,1902).

87.Onthelinkageofmaleandfemaleprostitution,seeF.Carlier,LesDeuxprostitutions(Paris:E.Dentu,1887).

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88.Dr.Jaf,Physiologieduvice(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1904),8,205.Ontheargumentthat"compensatory"masturbationwaspermissible,but"essential
Onanism"ledontohomosexuality,seeAugusteForel,TheSexualQuestion,trans.C.F.Marshall(NewYork:MedicalArtAgency,n.d.[firstFrenchedition
1905]),22831.ThesimilarargumentthatcasesofinversionthatweremereschoolboyflingscouldbecuredbymarriagewasassertedbyPierreGarnier,
Anomaliessexuelles:Apparentesetcaches(Paris:Garnier1889),490502.

89.OnhomosexualityanddegenerationfearsseeJ.AronandR.Kempf,Labourgeoisie,lesexeetl'honneur(Paris:Editioncomplxe,1984).

90.Dr.Caufeynon,LaPderastie(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1905),17,19.ButFauconneyalsonotedthatblackmailersexploitedhomosexuals'fearsofbeing
revealed.

91.Ontheconstructionofthemedicalimageofthehomosexual,seeRobertA.Nye,"SexDifferenceandMaleHomosexualityinFrenchMedicalDiscourse,1830
1930,"BulletinoftheHistoryofMedicine63(1989):3252.

92.Ontheemergenceinthenineteenthcenturyofsuchviews,seeE.K.Sedgwick,TheEpistemologyoftheCloset(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
1990),8.

93.Dr.Jaf,L'Amourmalade(Paris:J.Fort,1908),18,29,31Dr.Caufeynon,LaFolierotique(Paris:CharlesOffenstadt,1903).

94.MichelFoucault,TheHistoryofSexuality:AnIntroduction,trans.RichardHoward(NewYork:Vintage,1980).

95.See,forexample,Stekel'sassertionthat"loveinadequacy"increasedascivilizationadvancedWilhelmStekel,ImpotenceintheMale(NewYork:Liverwright,
1927),1:11andseealsoMartinJ.Weiner,ReconstructingtheCriminal:Culture,LawandPolicyinEngland,18301914(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity
Press,1990),23840.

96.EdwardShorter,FromHysteriatoFatigue:AHistoryofPsychosomaticIllnessintheModernEra(NewYork:FreePress,1992).

97.KarenOffen,"Depopulation,Nationalism,andFeminisminFindeSicleFrance,"AmericanHistoricalReview89(1984):64876andonfearsofdeclining
virility,seeRobertA.Nye,"Honor,Impotence,andMaleSexualityinNineteenthcenturyFrenchMedicine,"FrenchHistoricalStudies16(1989):4871.

98.WilliamSchneider,QualityandQuantity:TheQuestforBiologicalRegenerationinTwentiethcenturyFrance(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,
1990)IanDowbiggen,InheritingMadness:ProfessionalizationandPsychiatricKnowledgeinNineteenthcenturyFrance(Berkeley:UniversityofCalifornia
Press,1991).

99.SanderGilman,DifferenceandPathology:StereotypesofSexuality,Race,andMadness(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1985),21324.

100.Onthebiologicalpreoccupationsofthelatenineteenthcentury,seeAlainCorbin,LeTemps,ledsiretl'horreur(Paris:Aubier,1991)

101.OnthepopularityofthetreatmentsofferedbyDrs.BrownSequard,Steinach,andVoronoff,see"Impuissance"inLaGrandeEncyclopdie(Paris:Lamirault,
18871902),64748NaomiPfeffer,TheStorkandtheSyringe:APoliticalHistoryofReproductiveMedicine(Oxford:Polity,1993),51ff.

102.Onchangingtherapiessee,KevinJ.Mumford,"'LostManhood'Found:MaleSexualImpotenceinVictorianCultureintheUnitedStates,"Journalofthe
HistoryofSexuality3(1992):3357.

103.SheilaFaithWeiss,RaceHygieneandNationalEfficiciency:TheEugenicsofWilhelmSchallmayer(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1987),23.

104.EugeneTerraillon,L'Honneur,sentimentetprincipemoral(Paris:Alcan,1912),17176.

105.See,forexample,theargumentthatAfricanAmericanstudentswereexhaustedintryingtokeepupwiththeirwhitecounterpartsinC.K.Mills,Mental
OverworkandPrema

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tureDiseaseamongPublicandProfessionalMen(Washington:SmithsonianMisc.Collections,1885)15.

106.HenriMartin,"LaDpopulation,"SemaineSocialeduCanada:CompteRendudescoursetconfrences(Montral:Bibliothquedel'Action,1924),152.

Chapter7
Sadists
1.AlexandreLacassagne,Vacherl'ventreuretlescrimessadiques(Lyon:Storck,1899),288.

2.JeffreyWeeks,"QuestionsofIdentity,"inTheCulturalConstructionofSexuality,ed.PatCaplan(NewYork:Tavistock,1987),3151andseealsoGeorge
LanteriLaura,Lecturedesperversion:Histoiredeleurappropriationmdicale(Paris:Masson,1979).

3.IanHacking,"MakingUpPeople,"inReconstructingIndividualism:Autonomy,IndividualityandtheSelfinWesternThought,ed.T.C.Helleretal.
(StanfordUniversityPress,1986),228.Ontwentiethcenturyviewsofsadism,seeVernBullough,DwightDixon,andJoanDixon,"Sadism,MasochismandHistory,
orWhenIsBehaviorSadoMasochistic?"inSexualKnowledge,SexualScience:TheHistoryofAttitudestoSexuality,ed.RoyPorterandMichaelTeich
(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1994),4762MartinS.Weinberg,ColinJ.Williams,andCharlesMoser,"TheSocialConstituentsofSadomasochism,''
Socialproblems31(1984):37989.

4.Whichexplainswhysadomasochisticpracticesbecamemorepopularinthebrothelsofthe1890sseeAlainCorbin,WomenforHire:ProstitutionandSexuality
inFranceafter1850(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1990),81.

5.ThreeyearsearlierVictor'smotherhadhandedhimovertotheSpcitlyonnaisepourlesauvetagedel'enfance,whichhadfoundhimworkwithalocallandowner.

6.EvenbeforeVacher'strialconcluded,abookhadbeendevotedtohiscase,M.LaurentMartin,LeRoidesassassins(Paris:Librairieuniverselle,1897).The
fullestaccountofhiscareerwasproducedbytheinvestigatingmagistrate,mileFourquet,Vacher(Paris:Gallimard,1931).Fourquet'sconservativesocialviews
weremadeevidentbythetitlesofhisotherworks:LesVagabondsLesFauxtmoinsLesmeneursdegrves.SeealsoRenTavernieretHenriGaret,LeJude
etl'assassin(Paris:FranceLoisirs,1976),onwhichwasbasedBertrandTavernier'sexcellentfilmofthesamename.

7.GazettedeTribunaux,17Oct,1898,987.Joan,whosebeatificationtookplacein1909andcanonizationin1920,wasinthe1890svociferouslyclaimedasa
martyrbyboththerepublicannationalistsandtheCatholicmonarchists.Marina,JoanofArc:TheImageofFemaleHeroism(London:WeidenfeldandNicolson,
1981),22564.TheseofLisieux,whoseremarkablyspeedyadvancementtosainthoodalsooccurredintheearlytwentiethcentury,recordedasherfirsttriumph,
bythepowerofprayeralone,ofhavingtheimpenitentmurdererPranziniconvertbeforehisexecutionon31Aug.1887.Histoired'uneme(Lisieux:O.L.L.,1946),
7778.

8.AlexandreLacassagne,"Vacherl'ventreur,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle13(1898):641.

9.Fourquet,Vacher,235.

10.Lacassagne,"Vacher,"641.

11.GazettedeTribunaux,31October1Nov.1898,1004.

12.Ibid.

13.Ibid.

14.Ibid.NoonenotedatthetimethatVacheridentifiedwithJoanofArcratherthanwithhercompanioninarms,thenotoriousGillesdeRais,whohelpedliberate
Orleansin1429butin1440wasturnedoverbytheinquisitiontothebishopofNantes,accusedoftheevocationofthedevilandthemurderandsodomyofhundreds
ofchildren.In1885theoriginalcourtdocumentsofthemanwhosememoryhadbecomeconfusedwiththeBluebeard

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storywerepublishedinAbbEugneBossard,GillesdeRais,marchaldeFrance,ditBarbeBleue(Paris:Champion,1886).Theaccountwaschallengedby
thedreyfusardSalomonReinachin"GillesdeRais,"Cultes,mythesetreligion(Paris:ErnestLeroux,1912),4:26799,whofollowingVoltairearguedthat
Gilles,likeJoanandDreyfus,hadbeendisposedofforpoliticalreasons.Gilles'slands,atemptingprizeforhissuzerain,thedukeofBrittany,wereindeedseized,
andhisconfession,inwhichheattributedhismurderofhundredsofboystoidlenessandirreligion,ranghollow.
Heurgedthefathersoffamilies,moreover,toguardagainstdressingtheirchildrendaintilyandpermittingthemtoliveinidlenessandhenotedandclaimedthatverymanyevils
aregeneratedfromidlenessandovereatinganddeclaredmostexpresslyabouthimselfthatidlenessandexcessive,frequentconsumptionofsavoryfoodsandwarmwineshad
suppliedhimchieflywiththeincentivesfromwhichheperpetratedsomanysinsandmisdeeds.

ReginaldHyatte,ed.,LaughterfortheDevil:TheTrialsofGillesdeRais,CompanioninArmsofJoanofArc(1440)(Cranbury,N.J.:AssociatedUniversity
Presses,1984),120andseealsoFernandFleuret,DeGillesdeRaisGuillaumeApollinaire(Paris:MercuredeFrance,1933).

15.L'Intransigeant,26October1898,2.

16.Ibid.LeMatin,27Oct.1898,2.FortheclaimthatsomeinFranceboastedthatVacherhadbestedtherecordsetinEnglandbyJacktheRipper,see
L'Illustration,6Nov.1897,89798.VacherhimselfsupposedlywroteaspecialcolumnforLePetitJournal.

17.GazettedeTribunaux,31Oct.1Nov.1898,1004.

18.Onthedebateoverthemoralityofpublicexecutions,seeAlexandreBerard,LaPublicitdesexcutionscapitales(Lyon:Storck,1894).

19.Fourquet,Vacher,312.

20.LeFigaro,28,29Oct.1898.

21.RuthHarris,MurdersandMadness:Medicine,Law,andSocietyintheFindeSicle(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1989)JanGoldstein,Consoleand
Classify:TheFrenchPsychiatricProfessionintheNineteenthCentury(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1987)RobertA.Nye,Crime,Madnessand
PoliticsinModernFrance:TheMedicalConceptofNationalDecline(PrincetonUniversityPress,1984).

22.PatriziaGuarnieri,ACaseofChildMurder:LawandScienceinNineteenthcenturyTuscany(Cambridge:Polity,1993),121.

23.Guarnieri,ChildMurder,139.

24.Ibid.,16768.

25.CitedinPaulMoreaudeTours,Aberrationdusensgnsiques(Paris:Asselin,1880),243.Sexualaberrations,accordingtoMoreaudeTours,couldlike
epilepsyoverridethepowersofreason.

26.GazettedeTribunaux,31Oct.1Nov.1898,1004.

27.Dr.Bozonnet,doctoroftheprisonatBelley,statedthatVacherwasnotcompletelyresponsible.Dr.FranoisMadeufconcurred,pointingouttheimportanceof
thebulletinVacher'sskull.Madeuf,authorofL'Artdeviteretdegurirlesmaladiesintimesspcialesl'hommeetlafemme(Paris:PortRoyal,s.d.)and
otherselfhelpmedicalguides,wasverymuchanoutsider,andhistestimonywasthuseasilydiscountedbyLacassagne.

28.IanR.Dowbiggin,InheritingMadness:ProfessionalizationandPsychiatricKnowledgeinNineteenthcenturyFrance(Berkeley:UniversityofCalifornia
Press,1991).

29.OnLacassagne'straditionalviewofsexroles,seehisPrcisd'hyginepriveetsociale(Paris:Masson,1876),50230.

30.OnLombroso'sinfluence,seeRafaelHuertas,"MadnessandDegeneration,III.DegenerationandCriminality,"HistoryofPsychiatry4(1993):14158on
Lacassagne'searly

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deferencetotheItalians,seeAlexandreLacassagne,L'Hommecriminelcomparl'hommeprimitif(Lyon:Associationtypographique,1882)andforthe
floweringoftheFrenchschool,seemileLaurent,L'Anthropologiecriminelleetlesnouvellesthoriesducrime(Paris:Socitd'ditionsscientifiques,1893).

31.SeeRobertNye,"HeredityorMilieu:TheFoundationsofModernEuropeanCriminologicalTheory,"Isis67(1976):339Nye,Madness,1036,19192,221
24HenriSouchon,"AlexandreLacassagneetl'coledeLyon,"Revuedesciencecriminelle35(1974):53359.

32.SeeAlexandeBerard,LaResponsibilitmorale(Lyon:Storck,1892).

33.Lacassagne,Vacher,286.

34.MaximedeFleury,L'meducriminel(Paris:Alcan,1898),87.

35.LaScuolapositiva(January1899),citedinLacassagne,Vacher,289andseealsoRaffaeleGarofalo,Criminology(Boston:LittleBrown,1914),133.

36.MagnusHirschfeld,SexualPathology(NewYork:Emerson,1947),221.

37.Patients'attacksonasylumkeeperswereinthenewsforanaccountwrittentoexposeconditionsattheSalptrirebyawomancommittedbyherparentsfor
fourteenyearssee,HersilieRouy,Mmoiresd'unealine(Paris:Ollendorf,1883),citedinMarthaNoelEvans,FitsandStarts:AGenealogyofHysteriain
ModernFrance(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1991).

38.PaulGarnier,"DesPerversionssexuellesobsdantesetimpulsives,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle15(1900):62629.

39.Lacassagne,Vacher,5759.A.Pierret,mdecinenchefdelamaisondesantdeChampvertatLyonandexpertonmalingering,wasresponsibleforreporting
tothecourtonVacher'sheredityLacassagneprovidedanaccountoftheaccused'ssadism,Dr.F.Rebatelreviewedthephysicalandanthropologicalevidence,and
Dr.Lannois,anearspecialist,explainedtheeffectofthebulletlodgedinVacher'sskull.

40.Vacher'sbrain,likesomesortofforensicfootball,waskickedaroundbycompetingteamsofEuropeanpsychiatrists,criminologists,andanthropologists.The
ItaliansLombrosoandRoncoroniinsisteditcarriedallthecharacteristicsoftheborncriminal.TheFrenchanthropologistsLabordeandManouvrierfollowed
Lacassagneindeclaringitnormal,indeeddisturbinglysimilartotherepublicanpoliticianGambetta'sbeautifulgraymatter.Madeuf,Klippel,Philippe,Rabaud,
Marchand,andToulousemoreorlessagreed,butToulousemadethepointthatthebrain'slackoflesionsdidnotmeanVacherwassane.douardToulouse,Le
RapportdesmdicinsexpertsurVacher(Clermont:Daixfrres,1898)AlexandreLacassagne,"LeCerveaudeVacher,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle
14(1899):65362M.J.V.LabordeaveclacollaborationdeMM.Manouvrier,Papillault&Gelle,tudepsychophysiologique,mdicolgal&anatomique
surVacher(Paris:Schleicherfrres,1900)andseealsoChroniquemdicale(1900):208,citedinPierreDarmon,Mdicinsetassassinslabellepoque(Paris:
Seuil,1989),70.

41.UnderLacassagne'seditorshiptheArchivesdel'anthropologiecriminelleetdessciencespnalespublishedthefirstresultsofthesortoflargescale
measurementsofcriminalscalledforbyAdolpheBertillon."ItwasthiscircumstancethatacceleratedtheFrenchshiftawayfromtheatavismhypothesisandtowards
thedegenerationapproachthatistosay,awayfromphysiognomyandcraniologyandtowardspsychopathologyandpsychodynamics."JaapvanGinneken,
Crowds,Psychology,andPolitics,18711899(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1992),11213.Butforevidencethatbiologicaldeterminismhadits
Frenchdefenders,seeCharlesFr,Dgnrescenceetcriminalit(Paris:Alcan,1888)CharlesFr,LaFamillenevropathique(Paris:Alcan,1898).

42.ThreepsychiatristsLasgue,Brouardel,andMotethadheldthatMenesclouwassane.Lacassagne,Vacher,253.

43.GazettedeTribunaux,31Oct.1Nov.1898,1004.

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44.Lacassagne,"Vacher,"636.

45.Lacassagne,Vacher,288.

46.Marciat,"LeMarquisdeSadeetlesadisme,"inLacassagne,Vacher,185138.

47.L.Thoinot,Attentatsauxmoeursetperversionsdusensgital(Paris:Doin,1898)andseealsoL.ThoinotandA.W.Weysse,MedicolegalAspectsof
MoralOffenses(Philadelphia:F.A.Davis,1921),417.

48.Thetermdecadentwasfirsttakenupinthe1850sandwasmostassociatedwithBaudelaire,authorofFleursdumal(1857),ofwhomPaulBourgetsaid,"Heis
alibertine,anddepravedvisionsamountingtoSadismdisturbtheverymanwhocomestoworshiptheraisedfingerofhisMadonna."Flaubertwascalleda"sadiste"in
the1850sandaccusedbySainteBeuveinthe1860sofhavingan"imaginationsadique.''LeGrandRobertdelalanguefranaise(Paris:LeRobert,1985).

49.OctaveUzanne,Idessurlesromans,parD.A.F.Sade(Paris:Rouveyre,1878)CharlesHenry,LaVeritsurlemarquisdeSade(Paris:Dentu,1887),H.
d'Almeras,LeMarquisdeSade(Paris:Michel,1906),GuillaumeApollinaire,L'OeuvredumarquisdeSade(Paris:Bibliothquedescurieux,1909)Dr.Salvatore
Sarfati,EssaimdicopsychologiquesurlemarquisdeSade(Lyon.BoscandRiou,1930)andontheliterarycultofsadism,seetheintroductionbyOctave
UzannetoEugenDuebren[IwanBloch],LeMarquisdeSadeetsontemps(Paris:Michalon1904)MauriceHeine,LeMarquisdeSade(ParisGallimard,1950),
MichelDelon,"Untypepatantpourlessaloperies,"in"JeanLorrain:vicesetcriture,"RevuedesScienceshumaines230(199394):16373.

50.IwanBloch,DasSexuallebenunsererzeit(Berlin:Marcuse,1919),586626MaxNordau,Degeneration(London.Heineman,1913[Frenchedition1895])
MarioPraz,TheRomanticAgony(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1970)JeanPierrot,TheDecadentImagination,trans.DerekColtman(Chicago:
UniversityofChicagoPress,1981)JenniferBirkett,TheSinsoftheFathers:DecadenceinFrance,18701914(London:QuartetBooks,1986).

51.EmilyApter,FeminizingtheFetish:PsychoanalysisandNarrativeObsessioninTurnoftheCenturyFrance(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1991),128
DeborahL.Silverman,ArtNouveauinFindeSicleFrance(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1989)WandaBannour,EdmondetJulesdeGoncourtou
legieandrogyne(Paris:Persona,1985)andonEnglandseeElaineShowalter,SexualAnarchy:GenderandCultureattheFindeSicle(NewYork:Penguin,
1990),818LindaGertnerZatlin,AubreyBeardsleyandVictorianSexualPolitics(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1990).

52.FewweremorebizarrethanJeanLorrain,whocombedhishairoverhisforeheadtomakehimselflooklikeamurderer.Amoreseriousinterestindecadencewas
takenbyPaulBourget,whomovingfrompositivismtoconservative,socialCatholicism,wasattractedbydeSade'sideathattherewasananimalisticifnotsatanic
sidetolovesee,PaulBourget,Nouveauxessaisdepsychologiecontemporaine(ParisLamerre,1886)2volsPhysiologiedel'amourmoderne(Paris:
Lemmerre,1891).

53.J.K.Huysmans,LBasinOeuvrescompltes(Paris:Cres,1928),vol.12,chap.11.

54.SatanicsadisminfactofferedmanyofthedecadentslikeHuysmansawaybackintoCatholicismseetheintroductionbyHavelockEllistoJ.K.Huysmans,
AgainsttheGrain(Rebours)trans.ArthurZaidenberg(NewYork:IllustratedEditions,1931).

55.CitedinBarbeyd'Aurevilly,Oeuvres(Paris.BibliothquedelaPlaide,1964),1:1295.

56.OctaveMirbeau,whoinLeJardindessupplices(1899)providedaseductiveaccountofsadism,movedfromRomanCatholicismtoanarchismasaresultofthe
Dreyfusaffair.HisLeJournald'unefemmedechambre(1901),whichportraysaVacherlikerapeandkillingofachild,presentstheantiSemitic,provincial
bourgeoisieastherealsadists.Hesimilarlycritiquedthecriminalpsychiatryofperiod,presentingadoctordiagnosingpovertyasaformof

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cranialdegeneration.RegCarr,AnarchisminFrance:TheCaseofOctaveMirbeau(Montreal:McGillQueens,1977)Apter,Fetish,157andseealso
GermainGalerant,LesRosessadiquesdeMaupassant(Paris:Bertot,1992).

57.Duehren,Sade,460andonmisogynyinpaintingseeBramDjkstra,IdolsofPerversity:FantasiesofFeminineEvilinFindeSicleCulture(NewYork:
OxfordUniversityPress,1986).Seealsofootnote80below.

58.PaulLidsky,LescrivainscontrelaCommune(Paris:Maspero,1970)butfortheargumentthat1871actuallyretardeduntilthe1880stheemergenceof
decadentliterature,seePierreCitti,Contreladcadence:Histoiredel'imaginationfraisedansleroman,18901914(Paris:PUF,1987),5253.

59.EugenWeberFrance,FindeSicle(CambridgeHarvardUniversityPress,1986),13.

60.Birkett,SinsoftheFathers,4.OnDeSade'srehabilitationinthetwentiethcentury,seeCarolynJ.Dean,TheSelfandItsPleasures:Bataille,Lacanandthe
HistoryoftheDecenteredSubject(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1992.),127ff.

61.Lacassagne,Vacher,246andforsimilarpraise,seeScipioSighele,Littratureetcriminalit(Paris:GiardetBrire,1908),13234.

62.Butfortheargumentthatthedecadentwriterswerethemselvessick,seeDr.eLaurent,LaPosiedcadentedevantlasciencepsychiatrique(Paris:
AlexandreMaloine,1897).

63.PaulGarnier,"DesPerversionssexuellesobsdantesetimpulsives,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle15(1900):618.

64.SeeCesareLombroso,L'Hommecriminel(Paris:Alcan,1887)ArthurMacDonald,LeCrimineltypedansquelqueformesgravesdelacriminalit,trans.
HenryCoutagne(Lyon:Storck,1894).

65.Dr.Georget,ExamenmdicaldesprocscriminalsdesnommsLeger,Feldtmann,Lecouffe,JeanPierreetPapavoine(Paris:Migneret,1825)
Lacassagne,Vacher,26570ArthurMacDonald,"Observationspourservirl'tudedelasexualitpathologiqueetcriminelle,"Archivesdel'anthropologie
criminelle7(1892):637558(1893):406227798PaulGarnier,"Pervertisetinvertssexuels,"Annalesd'hygine(1893):349,385Dr.SergePaul,LeVice
etl'amour(Paris:Nouvellelibrairiemdicale,1905),130.

66.Apter,Fetish,xi.

67.AccordingtoDr.Toulouse,womenasylumpatientswerenotasinventiveasmenintheirdeliriumsandmoregiventomelancholyandsulkiness.douard
Toulouse,LesConflitsintersexuellesetsociaux(Paris:Charpentier,1904),4Frcitedwomen'sfewersuicidesasevidenceoftheirweakeremotionsCharles
Fr,Pathologiedesmotions(Paris:Alcan,1892),47980.

68.J.M.CharcotandV.Magnan,"Inversiondusensgnital,"Archivedeneurologie34(1882.):5360,296322.

69.LouisMartineau,drivenbywhatheclaimedtobealoveofhumanity,devotedabooktothedelicatequestionofunnaturalsexacts.Heclaimedthatsodomy,both
amonghomosexualsandheterosexuals,wasincreasing.Hewasparticularlyoutragedthathusbandsforceditontheirwives,butnotedthatsomewomendidnot
understandthatitwaswrongandactuallypreferredittogenitalintercourse.LouisMartineau,LesDformationsvulvairesetanalesproduitesparla
masturbation,lesaphisme,ladflorationetlasodomie(Paris:Vigotfrres,1905),12140andseealsoA.BrierredeBoismont,Manueldemdicinelgale
(Paris:Baillire,1835),24244.

70.RobertNye,MasculinityandMaleCodesofHonorinModernFrance(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1993).

71.AlfredBinet,"LeFtichismedansl'amour,"Revuephilosophique24(1887):14367,25277andseealsoPaulGarnier,LesFtichistespervertisetinvertis
sexuels:Observationsmdicolgales(Paris:Baillire,1896).mileLaurent,Ftichistesetrotomanes(Paris:Vigotfrres,1903).

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72.SomedisplacementcanbedetectedintheFrenchattributingapenchantforsadisticpracticestotheEnglishandatasteformasochismtotheGermans.

73.RichardvonKrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis,trans.FranklinS.Klaf(NewYork:SteinandDay,1965),87,417n12.CharlesFrinPathologiedes
motions(Paris:Alcan,1892)notedKrafftEbing'screationofthetermmasochism,butmadenomentionofsadism.FortheassertionthatKrafftEbingcoined
sadism,see,forexample,FrankJ.Solloway,Freud:BiologistoftheMind(NewYork:BasicBooks,1979),483H.F.Ellenberger,TheDiscoveryOfthe
Unconscious(NewYork:Basic,1970),299.

74.AsenseofhowlatetheconceptofsadismenteredthemedicalvocabularycanbegaugedfromthefactthatitwasnotmentionedbyAmbroiseTardieuinhis
celebratedstudyoflegalmedicinetudemdicolgalsurlesattentatsauxmoeurs(Paris:Baillire,1865)norinPaulMoreau(deTours),Aberrationdusens
gnsiques(Paris:Asselin,1880).TheIndexCatalogueoftheLibraryoftheSurgeonGeneral'sOfficedidnotincludesadismasatopicinitsfirstseries(1891),but
thesecond(1910)listedninebooks(fourinGermanandfiveinFrench)andfortytwoarticlesonthesubject.Ontheuseofideas"goodtothinkwith"incultural
history,seeRobertDarnton,TheGreatCatMassacreandOtherEpisodesinFrenchCulturalHistory(NewYork:BasicBooks,1984).

75.KrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis,5354.

76.AndrLamoureux,Del'ventrationaupointdevuemdicolgal(Lyon:Storck,1891).

77.AlbertMoll,DieKontrareSexualempfindung(Berlin:Fischer,1893),18687seealsothetranslationbyDrs.PactetandRomme,Lesperversionsde
l'instinctgnital(Paris:Carr,1893),172ffandonsimilarideasinItaly,seeDr.A.LaCara,LaBaseorganicadeipervertimentisessualielaloroprofilassi
sociale(Torinto:Bocca,1902).

78.MargaretJackson,"FactsofLife'ortheEroticizationofWomen'sOppression?SexologyandtheSocialConstructionofHeterosexuality,"inCultural
Construction,ed.Caplan,5266andseealsoJackson,"SexualLiberationorSocialControl,"Women'sStudiesInternationalForum6(1983):117Jackson
"SexResearchandtheConstructionofSexuality:AToolofMaleSupremacy,"Women'sStudiesInternationalForum7(1984),4351Jackson,The"Real"
FactsofLife:FeminismandthePoliticsofSexuality18501940(London:TaylorandFrancis,1994).

79.HavelockEllis,StudiesinthePsychologyofSex(NewYork:RandomHouse,1936),vol.1,part2,p.104.

80.Thepervasivemisogynyofthe1890smanifesteditselfinnumerousliteraryandartisticportrayalsoffeminineevilintheguisesoftheinvalid,vamp,orvampire.
NovelistslikeMirbeauwerefixatedonthenotionofthesadisticwoman.Thoughthesexologistsregardedsadismasprimarilyamaleperversion,theydutifullynoted
thatcruel,"masculine"womenlikeSalome,Messalina,andCatherinedeMdiciwarrantedthetitlesofillustriousfemalesadists.Dr.ErichWulffen,aGermanexpertin
legalmedicine,labeledassadisticsuchFrenchwomenasRoseLacomb,ThroignedeMricourt,andLouiseMichel,whobyparticipatinginradicalpoliticshad
violatedgenderboundaries.WomanasSexualCriminal(NewYork:EthnologicalPress,1934),287.Forapopularnovelthatendshappilywithasimplepeasant's
motherdeliveringhersonfromhissadisticwifebymurderingher,seeJeanRichepin,LaGlu(Paris:Tallandier,1927).

81.E.Gley,"LesAberationsdel'instinctsexuel,"Revuephilosophique17(1884):6692.

82.StefanowskymadethepointthatKrafftEbinghadbeenheartlessincoiningmasochism,atermthathadnointrinsicmeaningandcoveredbothSacherMasoch
andhischildreninshame.Indeed,yearslaterthelatter,inaskingLouSalomeforlettersofreference,claimedtobestillsufferingfromtheirfather'snotoriety.Dimitry
Stefanowsky,"LePassivism,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle7(1892):29498.

83.mileLaurent,Sadismeetmasochisme(Paris:Vigotfrres,1903).

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84.Paul,LeVice,169.

85.AugustComte,SystemofPositivePolity(London:Longmans,Green,1877),4:100.

86.Paul,LeVice,146.

87.E.AnthonyRotundo,AmericanManhood:TransformationsfromtheRevolutiontotheModernEra(NewYork:Basic,1993),269.

88.Onthewaysinwhichthe"sexfiend"motifisplayedupand"normal"malesexualassaultsplayeddownbythenewspaperpressinthetwentiethcentury,seeKeith
SoothillandSylviaWalby,SexCrimesintheNews(London:Routledge,1991)HelenBenedict,VirginorVamp:HowthePressCoversSexCrimes(New
York:OxfordUniversityPress,1992).

89.KrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis,54.

90.Ibid.,56.

91.Paul,LeVicefortheargumentthat"morbidlove"wasusuallyrelatedtoanatomicalanomalies,seeFr,Pathologie,434.

92.Binet,"Ftichisme,"266.

93.LacassagnefollowedMacDonaldinstressingthenotionthatthesexualimpulsewasthestrongestdrivewehave.

94.PaulmileLittr,Dictionnairedelalanguefranaise(Paris:Hachette,1878),makesnomentionoffminisme.LeGrandRobertdelalanguefranaise
(Paris:LeRobert,1985)notesfminismewasusedbyFourier(1837)andemployedinamedicalsenseby1877andinapoliticalsenseby1904.Proust,for
example,spokeofthe"psychologicalfeminism"ofCharlusinLetempsretrouv(Paris:Gallimard,1954),3:991.Forthestrictlypoliticalusesoftheterm,seeKaren
Offen,"Surlesoriginesdesmots'fminisme'et'feminists,'"Revued'histoiremoderneetcontemporaine34(JulySeptember1987):49196.ForSirRichard
Burton'suseoftheterm"malefeminism"torefertohomosexuality,seeElaineShowalter,SexualAnarchy:GenderandCultureattheFindeSicle(Penguin:
Harmondsworth,1990),82.

95.PierreGarnier,Anomaliessexuelles:Apparentesetcaches(Paris:Garnier,1889),371Fr,Pathologie,495andseealsoJulesDallemagne,Thoriesde
lacriminalit(Paris:Masson,1896),175.

96.Lacassagne,Vacher,288.

97.Fourquet,Vacher,80andseealso242.

98.LeFigaro,27Oct.1898,34.

99.Fourquet,Vacher,323.

100.Lacassagne,Vacher,33.Inthe1890sanumberofdoctors,acceptingtheideaofinnatehomosexualinstinctsthattheindividualcouldnotrepress,cametoview
homosexualityaspathologicalratherthancriminalinnature,yetcontradictedthemselvesincontinuingtospeakabout"cures."mileLaurent,L'Amourmorbide(Paris:
Socitd'ditionsscientifiques,1891),27576AntoneyCopley,SexualMoralitiesinFrance,17801980(London:Routledge,1989),13554GertHekma,"A
FemaleSoulinaMaleBody:SexualInversionasGenderInversioninNineteenthCenturySexology,"inThirdSex,ThirdGender:BeyondSexualDimorphismin
CultureandHistory,ed.GilbertHerdt(NewYork:Zone,1994),21340.

101.ThecampaigninGermanyagainstArticle175,whichcriminalizedhomosexuality,ledtomoreopendiscussionsofsamesexrelationshipseastoftheRhine,but
ontheFrenchdebate,seeAndrRaffalovich,"Unisexualitanglaise,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle11(1896):431Raffalovich'sexchangewithDr.
Laupts,Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle24(1909):353,69396PaulLouisLadame,"Lestravauxrecentsdesauteursallemandssurl'homosexualit,"
Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle28(1913):82761Ladame,"Homosexualitoriginaireethomosexualitacquise."Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle
29(1914):26286andseealso,PatrickCardon,"AHomosexualMilitantattheBeginningoftheCentury:MarcAndrRaffalovich,"JournalofHomosexuality25
(1993):8392

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ClaudeCourouve,"L'UranismeentrelaFranceetl'Angleterre,"inAndrGideetl'Angleterre,ed.PatrickCollard(London:BirkbeckCollege,1986),100103
Courouve,Vocabulairedel'homosexualitmasculine(Paris:Payot,1985).

102.AlexandreLacassagne,"Pderastie,"Dictionnaireencyclopdiquedessciencesmdicales,2dseries(Paris:MassonandAsselin,1886),22:23959.
LacassagneapprovinglycitedtheworkofhiscolleagueJulianChevalier,Surl'inversiondel'instinctsexuelaupointdevuemdicolgal(Lyon:Storck,1893)
seealsoJulianChevalier,"Del'inversionsexuelleauxpointsdevueclinique,anthropologiqueetmdicolgal,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle5(1890):
314366(1891):500519.

103.BenjaminBall,LaFolierotique(Paris:Baillire,1888),116,147HenriJoly,LeCrime:tudesociale(Paris:Cerf,1888),12425.Amongwritersof
fiction,thefirsttobroachthesubjectofhomosexualityweredecadentslikeHuysmansandLorrain,whoweredrawntosadism.

104.UzanneinDuehren,DeSade,xvMollnotedhomosexualcasesofsadismasdidUlrichs,whoinIncube(1896)spokeoflovers'bitesanscratches.

105.InEnglandperhapstheearliestdiscussionofsadismwasincludedintheanonymouslyauthored1897obituaryofpolicesurgeonGeorgeBagsterPhillips,who
hadconductednecropsiesonthevictimsofJacktheRipper.Theauthordescribedthesadistasanindividualwhoasidefromhismurderousdesiresmightbeotherwise
sane.Suchindividualssprangfrom"neuroticstock"andhadcranialdefectssymptomsofinsanity,hysteria,andotherneuropathicconditionswouldbefoundintheir
families.Youngpeoplepronetocrueltytoanimals(towhichtheEnglishwerepredictablymoresensitivethantheFrench)wouldhavetobecarefullywatched.Ifas
adultssadisticattackswerelaunched,thesamehorrificactswouldberepeateduntilcapture.Lancet2.(1897):1263.

106.EllisdescribeddeSade'sgait,skull,andtemperamentas"feminine"andnotedthatasidefromhiswhippingofRosaKellerhisactualoffenseshadbeenfairly
mild.Ellis,Studies,vol.1,part2,p.106.

107.Ibid.,vol.1,part2,p.109.

108.Ibid.,vol.1,part2,p.110.

109.G.FrankLydston,TheDiseasesofSociety:TheViceandCrimeProblem(Philadelphia:J.B.Lippincott,1904),309.

110.ArthurMacDonald,HearingontheBill(H.R.14798)toEstablishaLaboratoryfortheStudyoftheCriminal,PauperandDefectiveClasses
(Washington,D.C.:GovernmentPrintingOffice,1902),1830.

111.Stekellabeledas"medicalsadism"doctors'useofthe"Paquelincautery"(employedlikearedhotpokertodealwithhysteria),theextortionfrompatientsof
admissionsofhealthbypatrioticmedicalofficersduringthewar,andpsychoanalysis'owninquisitionlikepractices.WilhelmStekel,SadismandMasochism:The
PsychologyofHatredandCruelty,trans.LouiseBrink(NewYork:Liverwright,1929),453n4.SeealsoMarieBonaparte'sstatement,"Lorsqueparaitsurla
sceneundecesraresgrandspervers,telVacheronKurten,quituentpourlesimpleplaisir,l'meentiredelafouleestsouleve.Nonpasparl'horreurseule,mais
paruntrangeintrt,quiestlarponsedenotreprofoundsadismeauleur."

112.Stekel,SadismandMasochism,40.FreudalsofollowedEllisinnotingthatsadistsweresimultaneouslymasochists.A.A.Brill,ed.,TheBasicWritingsof
SigmundFreud(NewYork:ModernLibrary,1938),56971.

113.Stekelnotedthatforsomesadismwasequatedtoheightenedmasculinityandmasochismtoheightenedfemininity,buthestressedthatbothsexescouldmanifest
suchsyndromes.

114.Stekel,SadismandMasochism,60,146.Manyconservativesattackeddecadentliteratureandtabloidjournalismforactingasa"schoolforsadism."Stekel
notedthathispatientswhoconfessedtoharboringsadisticdesireswereaschildrenmorelikelytohavebeen

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influencedbyfairytaleaccountsofwolvesandwitches,parents'assertionsthattheywould"eatthemup,"andfearsofbeingwhippedbytheirteachers.Ibid.,416,
425.

115.Ibid.,73,76,77.

116.Ibid.,154.

117.J.K.Huysmansprovocativelydefendedabortionasconsistingof"destroyingananimal,lessfullyformed,lessaliveandcertainlylessintelligentandmoreugly
thanadogoracat,whichmaybestrangledatbirthwithoutpenalty."AgainsttheGrain,279.

118.Forclaimsthatsciencewasreplacingreligion,seeJoanneRoux,Psychologiedel'instinctsexuel(Paris:Baillire,1899).

119.tienneMartin,"Vacherdevantlacourd'assisesdel'Ain,"inLacassagne,Vacher,67.

120.Tarde,"Lestransformationsdel'impunit,"inLacassagne,Vacher,16784andonsuggestion,seealsoSighele,LittatureDr.Haury,"Lesfauxtmoins
pathologiques,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle27(1912):63753.

121.Fortheargumentthattheriseof"ripper"stylekillingswasalsoduetoimitation,seeM.J.F.A.deSt.VincentdeParoism,Dudpecagecriminel(Lyon:Storck,
1902).

122.GabrielTarde,"L'Amourmorbide,"L'Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle5(1890)GabrielTarde,PenalPhilosophy(Boston:LittleBrown,1912),256
andseealsoTarde,TheLawsofImitation(NewYork:HenryHolt,1903)ArsneDumont,Dpopulationetcivilisation:tudedmographique,ed.Andr
Bjin(Paris:Economica,1990),40210SusannahBarrows,DistortingMirrors:VisionsoftheCrowdinLateNineteenthcenturyFrance(NewHaven:Yale
UniversityPress,1981),13745.

123.AnneliseMauge,L'Identitmasculineencriseautournantdusicle,18711914(Paris:Rivages,1987)MichellePerrot,"TheNewEveandtheOldAdam
ChangesinFrenchWomen'sConditionattheTurnoftheCentury,"inBehindtheLines:GenderandtheTwoWorldWars,ed.M.R.Higonnetetal.(NewHaven:
YaleUniversityPress,1987),5160.

124.mileLaurent,LeCriminelauxpointsdevueanthropologique,psychologiqueetsociale(Paris:Vigot,1908),2:2089.

Chapter8
Exhibitionists
1.Dr.Hpital,"Quelquemotssurlesexhibitionistes"Annalesmdicopsychologiques21(1905):22028.

2.RichardvonKrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis(NewYork:SteinandDay,1965),34142.

3.CitedinHavelockEllis,StudiesinthePsychologyofSex(NewYork:RandomHouse,1936),3:89104.

4.W.NorwoodEast,"ObservationsonExhibitionism,"Lancet2(1924):37075.

5.Hpital,"Quelquemotssurlesexhibitionistes,"222.

6.GeorgesLantriLaura,Lecturedesperversions:Histoiredeleurappropriationmdicale(Paris:Masson,1979),43.

7.KinseyreportedthatalmostalltwentiethcenturyAmericanchildrenwereexhibitionisticboys'exhibitionism,whichcontinuedintolateadolescence,oftenincluded
demonstrationsofmasturbation.Exhibitionistsranahighchanceofbeingcaughtsincetheyperformedtheiractsinpublicandbeforestrangers.Inthe1950sone
quartertoonethirdofallsexualoffendersintheUnitedStatesandtheUnitedKingdomwerechargedwithexhibitionism.PaulH.Gebhard,JohnH.Gagnon,Wardell
B.Pomeroy,andCorneliaV.Christenson,SexOffenders:AnAnalysisofTypes(NewYork:HarperandRow,1965.)IsmondRosen,"Exhibitionism,Scopophilia,
andVoyeurism"inSexualDeviation,ed.IsmondRosen(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1979),13994.AlfredC.Kinsey,WardellB.Pomeroy,andClydeE.
Martin,SexualBehaviorintheHumanMale(Philadelphia:W.B.Saunders,1948),169.

8.MichelFoucault,TheHistoryofSexuality,trans.RobertHurley(NewYork:Vintage,

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1980),vol.IandseealsoBryanS.Turner,TheBodyandSociety:ExplorationsinSocialTheory(Oxford:BasilBlackwell,1984).

9.JoanScott,GenderandthePoliticsofHistory(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1988),45.

10.FranceBorel,LeVtementincarn(Paris:CalmannLevy,1992).

11.RogerGoodland,ed.,ABibliographyofSexRitesandCustoms(London:Routledge,1931)MargaretMead,MaleandFemale:AStudyoftheSexesina
ChangingWorld(NewYork:Morrow,1949),15657DanielRancourLaferrire,SignsoftheFlesh:AnEssayontheEvolutionofHominidSexuality(New
York:MoutondeGruyter,1985),299300.

12.EvaC.Keuls,TheReignofthePhallus(NewYork:HarperandRow,1985).

13.K.J.Dover,GreekHomosexuality(London:Duckworth,1978),12535.

14.Leviticus18:718.

15.MargaretMiles,CarnalKnowing:FemaleNakednessandReligiousMeaningintheChristianWest(Boston:BeaconPress,1989)RobinLaneFox,
PagansandChristians(NewYork:Knopf,1987).

16.LeoSteinberg,TheSexualityofChristinRenaissanceArtandinModernOblivion(NewYork:Pantheon,1983).

17.FrankBottomley,AttitudestotheBodyinWesternChristendom(London:Lepus,1979).

18.ThepopularaccountoftherideheldthattheEarlofMerciadaredhiswifethatifsherodenakedthroughthemarketplacehewouldreducehissubject'staxes.
Coveringherselfwithherlongtressesandaccompaniedbytwosoldiersshetookupthechallenge.Inlaterseventeenthcenturyaccounts,thesoldiersdisappearedand
"PeepingTom"wholookedatGodivaandwasstruckblindemerged.EncyclopediaBritannica(1972),10:51516.

19.GuidoRuggiero,TheBoundariesofEros:SexCrimeandSexualityinRenaissanceVenice(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985),141.

20.Inthetwentiethcentury,theRussianDoukhoborslivinginwesternCanadawereledbythelogicofspiritualismtoemploynudemarchesintheirstrugglesagainst
thegovernment.GeorgeWoodcockandIvanAvakumovic,TheDoukhobors(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1968).SeealsoShirleyArdener,"Nudity,
VulgarityandProtest,"NewSociety27,no.598(1974):7045,and"Arson,NudityandBombsamongtheCanadianDoukhobors:AQuestionofIdentity,"in
ThreatenedIdentities,ed.GlynnisM.Breakwell(NewYork:Wiley,1983),23966.

21.ErikH.Erikson,YoungManLuther:AStudyinPsychoanalysisandHistory(London:Faber,1958),23840.

22.MikhailBakhtin,RabelaisandHisWorld(Cambridge:MITPress,1968),373andonpictorialrepresentationsofthewearingofbreechesbeingequatedwith
authority,seeDavidKunzle,TheEarlyComicStrip,vol.IofHistoryoftheComicBook(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1973),22426,23640.Fora
cartoonportrayingagroupofartistsstrippinganoldlecheraspunishmentforharassingaprettywoman,seeGilblas,15Nov.1891,4.

23.Ellis,PsychologyofSex,3:100,citesKleinpaul,Spracheohneworte,27173.

24.RogerMcGraw."PopularAnticlericalisminNineteenthcenturyRuralFrance,"inDisciplinesofFaith:StudiesinReligion,PoliticsandPatriarchy,ed.J.
Obelkevich,L.Roper,andR.Samuels(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1987),169.

25.IainMcCalman,RadicalUnderworld:Prophets,Revolutionaries,andPornographersinLondon,17951840(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1993),20410
VivianCameron,"PoliticalExposures:SexualityandCaricatureintheFrenchRevolution,"inEroticismandtheBodyPolitic,ed.LynnHunt(Baltimore:Johns
HopkinsUniversityPress,1991),90108JoanB.Landes,"RepresentingtheBodyPolitic:TheParadoxofGenderintheGraphicPoliticsoftheFrenchRevolution,"
inRebelDaughters:WomenandtheFrenchRevolution,ed.SaraE.MelzerandLeslieW.Rabine(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1992),1537Robert

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JustinGoldstein,"CensorshipofCaricatureinFrance,18151914,"FrenchHistory(1993):71108.

26.JeanClaudeBologne,Histoiredelapudeur(Paris:OlivierOrban,1986),64.

27.MicheldeMontaigne,"OnSomeVersesbyVirgil,"TheCompleteEssays(London:Bell,1913),3:82.

28.Ruggiero,BoundariesofEros,11415.

29.PaulHair,BeforetheBawdyCourts(London:Elek,1972),83G.R.Quaife,WantonWenchesandWaywardWives:PeasantsandIllicitSexinEarly17th
CenturyEngland(London:CroomHelm,1979),73.

30.CitedinJohnGillis,ForBetter,forWorse:BritishMarriages,1600tothePresent(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1985),126butsee122for
evidencethatsuchexposurewasalsousedtohumiliateawoman.

31.AngeloHesnard,Traitdesexologienormaleetpathologique(Paris:Payot,1933),61112.

32.PierreDarmon,TrialbyImpotence:VirilityandMarriageinpreRevolutionaryFrance,trans.PaulKeegan(London:HogarthPress,1985)Ruggiero,
BoundariesofEros,14647.

33.OnthecontinuedemploymentincontemporaryEuropeofgenitalgesturessuchasthe"brasd'honneur"orforearmjerkassexualinsults,seeDesmondMorriset
al.,Gestures:TheirOriginandDistribution(London:Cape,1979).

34.JeanJacquesRousseau,LesConfessionsinOeuvrescompltes(Paris:Gallimard,1959),3:889.

35.FortheargumentthatElias,infailingtonotetherestraintsoftheclassicalworldandtherelaxedcodesofthetwentiethcentury,exaggeratesthenotionofan
unlinearshifttowarddecorum,seeJanBremmerandH.Roodenberg,eds.,ACulturalHistoryofGesture:FromAntiquitytothePresentDay(Oxford:Polity
Press,1991).

36.Erasmus,DeCiviltaemorumpuerilium,1530ed.,citedinNorbertElias,TheCivilizingProcess:TheHistoryofManners,trans.EdmundJephcott(New
York:UrizenBooks,1978),130.

37.PhilippeAris,CenturiesofChildhood:ASocialHistoryofFamilyLife(NewYork:VintageBooks,1962),109.

38.Elias,CivilizingProcess,13132.

39.Ibid.,138.

40.AlfredFranklin,LaCivilit(Paris:milePaul,1908),1:49J.FrykmanandO.Lofgren,TheCultureBuilders:AHistoricalAnthropologyofMiddleclass
Life(NewBrunswick,N.J.:RutgersUniversityPress,1987).

41.Darmon,TrialbyImpotence,215andseealsoIrvingC.Rosse,"SexualIncapacityinitsMedicoLegalRelations,"inMedicalJurisprudence:Forensic
MedicineandToxocology,ed.R.A.WitthausandTracyC.Becker(NewYork:WilliamWood,1894),2:393.

42.ForareferencefromThePeopleof26July1936toaclubofnightshirtwearersledbyDr.DavisofOttawa,whoopposedmalepajamasasbeingeffeminate
whileothersattackedthemastoomasculineforwomentowear,seeElias,CivilizingProcess,301n80.

43.OctaveUzanne,Sottisierdesmoeurs(Paris:Paul,1911),32JenniferCraik,TheFaceofFashion:CulturalStudiesinFashion(London:Routledge,1994),
176203J.Finkelstein,TheFashionedSelf(London:Polity,1991)RichardSennett,TheFallofPublicMan(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1974),
161,163LeonoreDavidoffandCatherineHall,FamilyFortunes:MenandWomenoftheEnglishMiddleClass,17801850(London:Hutchinson,1987),410
13JohnHarvey,MeninBlack(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1995).

44.EllenMoers,TheDandy:BrummelltoBeerbohm(London:SeckerandWarburg,1960)FranoiseCoblence,LeDandysme,obligationd'incertitude(Paris:
PressesuniversitairesdeFrance,1988)GillesLipovetsky,L'Empiredel'ephmre(Paris:Gallimard,1987)

Page285

AnneMartinFugier,LaVielganteoulaformationduToutParis,18151848(Paris:Fayard,1990)MarkM.Anderson,Kafka'sClothes:Ornament
andAestheticismintheHasburgFindeSicle(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1992).

45.PeterGay,EducationoftheSenses,vol.1ofTheBourgeoisExperience:VictoriatoFreud(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1984),33839,37998
EdwardLucieSmith,TheMaleNude:AModernView(London:Rizzoli,1985)TamarGarb,"TheForbiddenGaze:WomenArtistsandtheMaleNudeinLater
NineteenthcenturyFrance,"inTheBodyImaged:TheHumanFormandVisualCulturesincetheRenaissance,ed.KathleenAdlerandMarciaPointon
(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1993)JosephA.Kestner,MasculinitiesinVictorianPainting(Aldershot:ScolarPress,1995).Butonthemalenudein
findesiclenorthernEuropeastherepresentationofthetrueidealsofbothathleticandaestheticbeauty,seePatriciaG.Berman,"BodyandBodyPoliticsinEdward
Munsch'sBathingMen,"inBodyImaged,ed.AdlerandPointonGeorgeL.Mosse,NationalismandSexuality:MiddleclassMoralityandSexualNormsin
ModernEurope(Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,1985),5057BramDijkstra,IdolsofPerversity:FantasiesofFeminineEvilinFindeSicleCulture
(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1986),198202.

46.LeRoyversusSirCharlesSedley(1663)inISis168[TheEnglishReports:King'sBenchDivision,82:103637.]

47.RobertLathamandWilliamMatthews,eds.,TheDiaryofSamuelPepys(London:Bell,1971),6:20810.

48.V.deSolaPinto,SirCharlesSedley,16391701(London:Constable,1927),6064.

49.HenryFielding,"AChargetotheGrandJury,"inTheCompleteWorksofHenryFielding(London:Heinemann,1903),13:21112.

50.LynnHunt,ed.,TheInventionofPornography:ObscenityandtheOriginsofModernity,15001800(NewYork:ZoneBooks,1993).

51.RexversusCrunden(1809)2Camp.89.

52.12Cox'sCriminalCases1.ButyoungmenandboyscontinuedtoswimnakedinLondonparksinthelatenineteenthcenturyandanudebathingplacefor,menin
OxfordcalledParson'sPleasurewasonlyclosedinthe1990s.SeeJ.J.Sexby,TheMunicipalParks,GardensandOpenSpacesofLondon(London:Stock,
1898),555LeonoraCollins,Londoninthe1890s(London:SaturnPress,1950),29.OnthepolicingofswimmingintheSeine,seeJ.P.AronandR.Kempf,La
Bourgeoisie:LeSexeetl'honneur(Paris:Grasset,1978).

53.5Geo.IVc.83:VagrancyActof1824.Canada'sVagrancyActof1869wasbasedontheUnitedKingdom's1822act,notthe1824act,whichledtoconfusion
inasmuchasitdidnotmakeclearwhatan"indecentact"was.Itwasfinallyamendedin1892.TheDoukhoborswereprosecutedundersection205(a)which
prohibitednudeparades.AlexanderK.Gigeroff,SexualDeviationintheCriminalLaw(Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress,1968),5155.

54.10&11Vict.c.89,s.28andseealsoJeffreyS.Adler,"AHistoricalAnalysisoftheLawsofVagrancy,"Criminology27(1989):20929M.J.D.Roberts,
"PublicandPrivateinEarlyNineteenthCenturyLondon:TheVagrantActof1822andItsEnforcement,"SocialHistory13(1988):27394.

55.ReginaversustheJusticesoftheTownandCountyNewcastleuponTyne,in1B.&AD.933[EnglishReports,vol.109,KingsBenchDivision].

56.ReginaversusWatson(1847),2Cox'sCriminalCases376.

57.ReginaversusWebb(1848),3Cox'sCriminalCases183.

58.ReginaversusGeorgeThallman(1863),9Cox'sCriminalCases388.

59.ReginaversusWellard(1884)14Q.B.D.63.

60.ReginaversusMichaelRowedandAnother,3Q.B.D.180.

61.3Cox'sCriminalCases248andseealso2Cox'sCriminalCases376inwhichtheQueen'sBenchheardthecaseon3Dec.1847ofJohnWatson,whohad
beenindictedforexposinghimselftoatwelveyearoldgirlinPaddingtonChurchyard,"tothegreatinjuryandcorruptionofthesaidLydiaCrickmore."Theobjection
wasraisedthatsinceonlyoneperson

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waspresentitwasinlawnooffense.Thebenchagreedthat"anuisancemustbepublic,"otherwiseeverymanexposinghimselftoawomanwouldheindictable,
andquashedtheindictment.

62.LawReports:CrownCasesReserved,1(1872):2824.

63.AlfredSwainTaylor,ThePrinciplesandPracticesofMedicalJurisprudence(London:J.A.Churchill,1905),2:367.

64.East,"ObservationsonExhibitionism."374.

65.DavidS.Booth,"Erotomania:ACaseofExhibitionismAMedicoLegalStudy,"AlienistandNeurologist26(1905):14.Thetermexhibitionist,accordingto
theOxfordEnglishDictionary,wasfirstemployedinEnglandtorefertothemanwhoassistedtheAnglicanpriestduringchurchrituals.Theterm'smodem
psychiatricusagewasmadeknowntotheEnglishbyC.G.Haddock's1893translationofKratfftEbing.

66.PaulGarnier,"Rapportmdicolgalsurunexhibitioniste,"Annalesmdicopsychologiques19(1894):97103.

67.A.Rousset,"UnCasd'exhibitionisme."AnnalesMdicalPsychologiques3(1906):394401.

68.A.Vigoroux,"UnExhibitionistecondamnparlestribunaux,"Annalesmdicopsychologiques3(1896):21316.

69.ButTronchonwarnedthat,everymanwhoexposedhimselfcouldnothesimplyletoffasjust"sick."A.Trochon,"UnCasd'exhibitionisme,"Archivesde
l'anthropologiecriminelle3(1888):25664.

70.GarniercitedinBooth,"Erotomania."2.

71.CharlesLasgue,"LesExhibitionistes,"L'UnionMdical3eserie,23(May1877):709andonLasgue'sworkon"l'anorxiehysterique,"seeJoanJacobs
Brumberg,FastingGirls:TheEmergenceofAnorexiaNervosaasaModernDisease(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1988),12730.

72.AmbroiseTardieu,tudemdicolgalesurlesattentatsauxmoeurs(Paris:Baillire,1878),5"Exhibitionistes,"Dictionnairedessciencesmdicales(Paris:
Lahure,1887),36:42729AlfredBinet,"LeFtishismedansl'amour,"Revuephilosophique24(1887):256.

73.ValentinMagnan,"LesExhibitionistes,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle5(1890):436.

74.TheauthoroftheDictionnairedessciencesmdicalesarticleonthesubjectalsolabeledasexhibitionistsmenwhostalkedtheirlovedoneandthus"exhibited"
themselves.

75.KrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis,33841.

76.Onepileptics,whowereoftenplayedupinthenineteenthcenturyasexhibitionistsandvagabonds,seeCesareLombroso,L'Hommecriminel(Paris:Alcan,
1895),2:9697.Inthetwentiethcentury,Ellisstatedthatepilepticsshouldbeexcluded,andEastfoundnocasesofepilepsyinhissample.Eastdidbelievealcoholism
playedarole:in1913inEnglandandWales866menwereconvictedofindecentexposure,butintwelvemonthsof192223,afterrestrictionsonsaleofdrinkswere
imposed,only548.East,"ObservationsonExhibitionism,"374.

77.Moll(ascitedinEllis,PsychologyofSex,3:90)evenarguedthatifonemasturbatedduringtheactonewasnotatrueexhibitionist.

78.Fortheassertionthatmostofthe"attentatslapudeur"werecarriedoutbyoldmenonchildrenbecausebadstomachsneeded"greenfruit,"seemileLaurent,
L'Amourmorbide(Paris:Socitd'ditionsscientifiques,1891),195.

79.PaulMoreau(deTours),DesAberrationsdusensgnsiques(Paris:Asselin,1880),612.

80.Binet,"LeFtishismedansl'amour,"256.

81.PaulGarnier,"DesPerversionssexuellesobsdantesetimpulsives."Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle15(1900):612.

Page287

82.Dr.HamblinSmithofBirminghamPrisonclassedabouthalfoftheexhibitionistshesawasinsane,senile,ordefective.SeeSmith,''TheMentalConditionsFound
inCertainSexualOffenders,"Lancet1(29Mar.1924),64346,andseealsoW.NorwoodEast,AnIntroductiontoForensicPsychiatryintheCriminal
Courts(London:Churchill,1927),308.

83.EastwasmedicalinspectorofHerMajesty'sPrisonsinEnglandandWalesandhadbeenseniormedicalofficerofBrixtonPrison.Hispaperwasbasedon150
casesreceivedonremandatBrixtonPrison.Heassumedthatsincemosthadnotbeenconvictedbefore,prisontermsdidserveasadeterrent.SeeEast,
"ObservationsonExhibitionism,"372.

84.Dr.SergePaul,LeViceetl'amour(Paris:Nouvellelibrairiemdicale,1905),257,267.

85.Ibid.,262.

86.KrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis,34446.

87.Ellis,PsychologyofSex,3:92.

88.Garnier,"DesPerversionssexuellesobsdantesetimpulsives,"60443.SeealsomileLaurent,Ftichistesetrotomanes(Paris:Vigotfrres,1903),253.

89.Fortheinterestingquestionofwhythesatisfactionofsomeviceswasviewedasasickness,seeHspital,"Quelquemotssurlesexhibitionistes."

90.Ellis,PsychologyofSex,3:93.

91.PaulGarnier,"Rapportmdicolgalsurunexhibitionists,"Annalesmdicopsychologiques19(1894):97103.

92.EdwardJames,SwansReflectingElephants:MyEarlyYears,ed.GeorgeMelly,(London:WeidenfeldandNicolson,1982),26RonaldHyam,Empireand
Sexuality:TheBritishExperience(Manchester:ManchesterUniversityPress),27.

93.Evensomedoctorswereaccusedofexhibitionism,thoughtheonlyphysicianfoundtohavebeenactuallyconvictedoftheoffenseinFrancepriortoWorldWarI
wasanArmenianseeGeorgesVernet,"UnMdecinsatyre,"Annalesmdicopsychologique1(1912):55470.

94.Laugier'sassertionfromtheAnnalesdehygineetdemdecine(1878)iscitedinL.ThoinotandA.W.Weysse,MedicolegalAspectsofMoralOffenses
(Philadelphia:F.A.Davis,1911),266.

95.Hspital,"Quelquemotssurlesexhibitionistes,"22028.

96.BenjaminBall,LaFolierotique(Paris:Baillire,1888),814.

97.Ellis,PsychologyofSex,3:89104.

98.C.H.Hughes,"MorbidExhibitionism,"TheAlienistandNeurologist25(1904):34850.

99.CharlesLasgue,"Lesexhibitionistes,"inEcritspsychiatriques,ed.J.Corraze(Paris:Privat,1971),118andseealsoMichaelMiller,TheBonMarch
(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1981),197201.

100.East,"ObservationsonExhibitionism,"373.

101.Ibid.

102.KrafftEbing,PsychopathiaSexualis,339.

103.GeorgeJacoby,TheUnsoundMindandtheLaw(NewYork:FunkandWagnalls,1918),341.

104.CitedbyEast,"ObservationsonExhibitionism,"375.

105.PaoloMantegazza,TheSexualRelationsofMankind(1885NewYork:Eugenics,1935)IwanBloch,TheSexualLifeofOurTime(NewYork:Allied,
1930).

106.Hspital,"Quelquemotssurlesexhibitionistes,"222.

107.Ellis,PsychologyofSex,3:9394.

108.SirW.NorwoodEast,SocietyandtheCriminal(Springfield,Ill.:CharlesC.Thomas,1949),154.

109.SigmundFreud,"OntheUniversalTendencytoDebasementintheSphereofLove"(1912),StandardEdition,11:189.

Page288

110.SigmundFreud,"ThreeEssaysontheTheoryofSexuality"(1905),Ibid.,7:147.

111.GregorioMaraon,DonJuanetdonjuanisme,trans.M.B.Lacombe(Paris:Gallimard,1958),183.

112.BenjaminKarpman,TheSexualOffenderandHisOffenses(NewYork:JulianPress,1954),199.

113.Rosen,"Exhibitionism,Scopophilia,andVoyeurism,"148.

114.LarsUllerstam,TheEroticMinorities,trans.AnselmHollo(NewYork:GrovePress,1966),60.

115.WeknowofthiscasethankstoH.BonnetandJ.Bulard,Rapportmdicolgalsurl'tatmentaldeCh.J.Jouy,4Jan.1868.

116.Foucault,HistoryofSexuality,1:31.

117.MarcelMauss,"BodyTechniques"SociologyandPsychology(1950London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1979),95123.

118.ExhibitionismwasfirstdiscoveredinEuropeandNorthAmerica.Attheturnofthecentury,Blocharguedthatperversionsspreadasareactiontotheconstraints
placedonthesexualityofcivilizedmanbytheforcesofsocialcoercionandsexualconventionality.BarringtonMooreJr.statesthatin"primitive"societies,wherethe
boundariesbetweentheprivateandthepublicarenotfirm,discretionisemployedtopreventnoticingthatwhichshouldnotbeseen.SeeBloch,SexualLifeofOur
Time,472BarringtonMooreJr.,Privacy:StudiesinSocialandCulturalHistory(London:M.E.Sharpe,1984),78GrahamRooth,"Exhibitionismoutside
EuropeandNorthAmerica,"ArchivesofSexualBehavior2(1973):35163.

119.JohnM.MacDonald,IndecentExposure(Springfield,Ill.:CharlesC.Thomas,1973),43.

120.Karpman,TheSexualOffenderandHisOffenses.

121.ErichWulffen,WomanasSexualCriminal(NewYork:AmericanEthnologicalPress,1934),363.

122.Taylor,PrinciplesandPracticesofMedicalJurisprudence,2:367.

123.Laurent,Ftichistesetrotomanes,249.

124.Hpital,"Quelquemotssurlesexhibitionistes"224.

125.Garnier,"Rapportmdicolgalsurunexhibitioniste,"100.

126.J.C.FlugelThePsychologyofClothes(London:HogarthPress,1930),10710.

127.SamuelD.Schmalhausen,"TheSexualRevolution"inV.F.CalvertonandS.D.Schmalhausen,eds.,SexinCivilization(NewYork:GardenCity,1931),433.

128.PaulLeViceetl'amour,268.

129.Hughes,"MorbidExhibitionism,"350.

130.SeealsoGregorioMaraon,Psychologiedugeste,duvtementetdelaparure,trans.RolandLauras(Paris:LaPeneuniverselle,1971).

131.Codeintime(Paris:EditionsandLibrairie,n.d),17andforprotestsagainstthe1882lawthatinFrancetreatedwritersandartistsasiftheywereexhibitionists,
seeLionelAutrec,L'Outrageauxmoeurs(Paris:Cupidon,1923).

132.PhilippePerrot,LeTravaildesappearances:LeCorpsfeminin,XVIIIXIXesicle(Paris.Seuill,1984),162.

133.ForananalysisofhowCameroonwomendefendthedignityoftheirsexbyflauntingthatwhichisinsulted,seeShirleyArdener,"ANoteonGender
Iconography:theVagina,"inTheCulturalConstructionofSexuality,ed.PatCaplan(London:Tavistock,1987),11342.

Chapter9
Transvestites
1.AnnieWoodhouse,FantasticWomen:Sex,GenderandTransvestism(NewBrunswick,N.J.:RutgersUniversityPress,1989).

2.JuliaEpsteinandKristinaStraub,eds.,BodyGuards:TheCulturalPoliticsofGenderAmbiguity(NewYork:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1991),4.

Page289

3.W.NorwoodEast,"ObservationsonExhibitionism"Lancet2(1924):375.

4.St.HelensNewspaperandAdvertiser,20Nov.1931,4.

5.Ibid.

6.Suchcasesareunusualbutcontinuetobereported.ForthetrialofaUtahmanwhointhe1990sposedasawomanduringathreeandahalfyearmarriage,see
VancouverSun,7Sept.1995,A20andforanEnglishwomanwhopassedasamanoverthespaceofaseventeenyearmarriage,seeManchesterGuardian,10
Feb.1996.

7.ManchesterGuardian,16Nov.1931,11.

8.IllustratedPoliceNews,19Nov.1931,3.

9.St.HelensNewspaperandAdvertiser,20Nov.1931,4.

10.LiverpoolEcho,14Nov.1931,6.

11.Mrs.Hull,accordingtopressreports,wasthemotherofsixchildrenandexpectingaseventh.WeekEndReview,19Dec.1931,794.

12.GlasgowHerald,16Nov.1931,13.

13.Hullattendedschooluntiltheageoffourteenandthenobtainedworkasahaulagehandatthelocalcollieries.Fromaboutagesixteen,hebegantochangefrom
hisworkclothesintofemaleattireforwhichbehaviorhereceivedcautionsfromtheSt.Helenspoliceandthrashingsfromhisparents.

14.St.HelensNewspaperandAdvertiser,20Nov.1931,5.

15.Ibid.

16.LiverpoolPostandMercury,16Nov.1931,9.

17.St.HelensNewspaperandAdvertiser,20Nov.1931,4.

18.IllustratedPoliceNews,19Nov.1931,3.Hull'sfather,apparentlyshakenbythetrial,wastakentoamentalhospitalandhiswifeandchildrenforcedonrelief.
WeekEndReview,19Dec.1931,794.

19.WeekEndReview,5Dec.1931,712.

20.Ibid.,787,79495HavelockEllis,ViewsandReviews:ASelectionofUncollectedArticles,18841932(London:DesmondHarmsworth,1932),2:220.

21.GlasgowHerald,16Nov.1931,13.

22.OnevidencethatmanyboysuseHalloweenpartiestoexperimentwithcrossdressing,seeJohnT.Talamini,BoysWillBeGirls:TheHiddenWorldofthe
HeterosexualMaleTransvestite(Scranton,Pa.:UniversityofScrantonPress,1982.),20PeterAckroyd,DressingUp:TransvestismandDrag,theHistoryof
anObsession(London:ThamesandHudson,1979).

23.OnthepopularityoffemaleimpersonatorsatAmericannavalbasesintheearlytwentiethcentury,seeGeorgeChaunceyJr.,"ChristianBrotherhoodorSexual
Perversion:HomosexualIdentitiesandtheConstructionofSexualBoundariesintheWorldWarOneEra,"JournalofSocialHistory19(1985):191,207n14.

24.Onhowcrossdressingallowedrespectablemaletheaterspectatorstorelaxandwithgoodconscienceoglethe"principleboy's"legsorinsultthehorrid,old
"dame,"seeJaneW.Stedman,"FromDametoWoman:W.S.GilbertandTheatricalTransvestism,"inSufferandBeStill:WomenintheVictorianEra,ed.
MarthaVicinus(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,1972),2037.

25.SharonR.Ullman,"'TheTwentiethCenturyWay':FemaleImpersonationandSexualPracticesinTurnoftheCenturyAmerica,"JournaloftheHistoryof
Sexuality5(1995):573600.

26.Onthemyththattoavoidelectingawomanthecardinalsinspectthepapalcandidateandmustrituallydeclare"Habetduostesticulosetbenependentes"hehas
twotesticles,wellhungseeAlainBoureau,LaPapesseJeanne(Paris:Aubier,1988),16.

27.RudolphM.DekkerandLotteC.vandePol,TheTraditionofFemaleTransvestisminEarlyModernEurope(NewYork:St.Martin'sPress,1989).

28.RandolphTrumbach,"London'sSapphists:FromThreeSexestoFourGendersinthe

Page290

MakingofModernCulture,"inBodyGuards,ed.EpsteinandStraub,12223DianneDugaw,WarriorWomenandPopularBalladry,16501850
(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1989)GeorgeS.RousseauandRoyPorter,eds.,SexualUnderworldsoftheEnlightenment(Manchester:
ManchesterUniversityPress,1987).

29.ReinholdSchunze'splayViktorundViktoriabecamethefilmFirstaGirl(1935)directedbyVictorSavilleandlaterVictorVictoria(1982)directedbyBlake
Edwards.SeePatriciaPetro,JoylessStreets:WomenandMelodramaticRepresentationinWeimarGermany(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1989),
15355.

30.WeknowthatinFrancethepainterRosaBonheurandNapoleonIII'smistressMargueriteBellangertookadvantageofsuchprovisions,butitmusthavebeena
questionofrestrictingbourgeoisclothingsinceobserverssuchasA.J.Munbynotedthatmanyworkingclasswomenintheminingandfishingindustriesnecessarily
dressedmuchlikeworkmenonthelawof16brumaireyearIXforbiddingwomentoweartrousersorculotteswithoutamedicalcertificate,seeAnon.,Codedela
femme(Paris:EditionsandLibrairie,n.d.),3031ArthurBoime,"RosaBonheur,"ArtHistory4(1981):384409JannMatlock,"MasqueradingWomen,
PathologicalMen:CrossDressing,FetishismandtheTheoryofPerversion,18821935,"inFetishismasCulturalDiscourse,ed.EmilyApterandWilliamPietz
(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,1993),3161.OnGermany,seeEmilGutheil,"AnalysisofaCaseofTransvestism,"inWilhelmStekel,SexualAberrations:The
PhenomenaofFetishisminRelationtoSex(NewYork:Liveright,1930),281318andonworkingwomen,seeMichaelHiley,VictorianWorkingWomen:
PortraitsfromLife(London:G.Fraser,1979),4143,136n.21.

31.SusanGubar,"BlessinginDisguise:CrossDressingforFemaleModernists,"MassachusettsReview22(1981):477508SandraM.Gilbert,"Costumesofthe
Mind:TransvestismasMetaphorinModernLiterature,"CriticalInquiry7(1980):394.

32.ThetrialreportsfilledthecolumnsoftheLondonTimesduringMarchandAprilof1929.Fortheargumentthatthemasqueradewasemployedsobothwomen
coulddenytheirlesbianism,seeVernL.BulloughandBonnieBullough,CrossDressing,Sex,andGender(Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1993),
16264.

33.MichaelBaker,OurThreeSelves:TheLifeofRadclyffeHall(London:HamishHamilton,1985),254.

34.Hall'sTheWellofLoneliness,whichseriouslydefendedhomosexuality,wasseizedbythepolicewhereasVirginiaWoolf'sOrlando(1928),whichplayedwith
ideasoftransvestismandtranssexualism,wasapublishingtriumph."Differentthoughthesexesare."wroteWoolf,"theyintermix.Ineveryhumanbeingavacillation
fromonesextotheothertakesplace,andoftenitisonlyclothesthatkeepthemaleandfemalelikeness,whileunderneaththesexistheveryoppositeofwhatis
above."QuentinBell,VirginiaWoolf:ABiography(London:HogarthPress,1973),13839.

35.MagnusHirschfeld,Transvestites:TheEroticDesiretoCrossDress,trans.MichaelA.LombardiNash(Buffalo:PrometheusBrooks,1991),95100.Inthe
eighteenthcentury,HenryFieldingreportedthatawoman,pretendingtobeaman,haddupedanumberof"wives."SeeTheFemaleHusband(1746),ed.ClaudeE.
Jones(Liverpool:LiverpoolUniversityPress,1960).

36.CesareLombrosoandG.Ferrero,LaFemmecriminelleetlaprostitute(Paris:Alcan,1896),419024.

37.OnmaletransvestisminearlymodernEurope,seeGuidoRuggiero,TheBoundariesofEros:SexCrimeandSexualityinRenaissanceVenice(NewYork:
OxfordUniversityPress,1985),136AlanBray,HomosexualityinRenaissanceEngland(London:GayMen'sPress,1982),8689.

38.A.S.Taylor,ThePrinciplesandPracticesofMedicalJurisprudence(London:Churchill,1894),2:289,470.

Page291

39.JeffreyWeeks,Sex,PoliticsandSociety:TheRegulationofMoralitysince1800(NewYork:Longman,1981),101MichaelHarris,"SocialDiseases?Crime
andMedicineintheVictorianPress,"inMedicalJournalsandMedicalKnowledge:HistoricalEssays,ed.W.F.Bynum,StephenLock,andRoyPorter(London:
Routledge,1992),10825.

40.WilliamRoughead,BadCompanions(Edinburgh:W.Green,1930),14983andseealsotheLondonTimesreportsfor1870and1871.

41.H.MontgomeryHyde,TheOtherLove(London:Heinemann,1970),94.

42.Hirschfeld,Transvestites,275.

43.LondonTimes,13Apr.1904,3.

44.W.NorwoodEast,SocietyandtheCriminal(Springfield,Ill.:Thomas,1949),16566.

45.Weeks,Sex,PoliticsandSociety,102.OndragandtravestititsmintheUnitedStates,seeGeorgeChauncey,GayNewYork:Gender,UrbanCultureand
theMakingoftheGayMaleWorld,18901940(NewYork:BasicBooks,1994).

46.Anon.,"Masquerading,"JusticeofthePeaceandLocalGovernmentReview,26Feb.1938,135.

47.St.HelensNewspaperandAdvertiser,20Nov.1931,4.

48.ReginaversusJones(1896)1Q.B.4.

49.E.AnthonyRotundo,AmericanManhood:TransformationsinMasculinityfromtheRevolutiontotheModernEra(NewYork:Basic,1993),27377
SandraM.GilbertandSusanGubar,SexChanges,vol.2ofNoMan'sLand:ThePlaceoftheWomanWriterintheTwentiethCentury:Sexchanges(New
Haven:YaleUniversityPress,1989),2:32476.

50.SigmundFreud,"ThreeEssaysonSexuality"(1905),StandardEdition,7:13638.

51.GeorgeChauncyJr.,"FromSexualInversiontoHomosexuality:MedicineandtheChangingConceptualizationofFemaleDeviance,"Salmagundi5859(1982
83):12030.ForanethnographicaccountofearlytwentiethcenturyAmericanhomosexualcommunities,seeChauncey,GayNewYork.

52.Weeks,Sex,PoliticsandSociety,105.

53.DuringtheFirstWorldWarcallup,reportedHirschfeld,therewereseveralcasesofmenshowingupindressesatGermanrecruitingoffices.MagnusHirschfeld,
SexualAnomaliesandPerversions,ed.NormanHaire(London:EncyclopaedicPress,1952.),198.

54.A1960sstudybasedontheKinseyInstitutefilesconcludedthattransvestitessufferedatanearlyagefromdistortedandconfusednotionsofgender,butitnoted
thatsuchfindingsweredrawnfromaselfselectedsampleofsexoffenderswhoendedupinjail.Littlewasknownofthefarlargernumberof"masqueraders"who
avoidedbrusheswiththelaw.PaulH.Gebhard,JohnH.Gagnon,WardellB.Pomeroy,andCorneliaV.Christenson,SexOffenders:AnAnalysisofTypes(New
York:HarperandRow,1965),41011.

55.Hirschfeld,Transvestites,26773.

56.Ibid.,231.

57.CharlotteWolff,MagnusHirschfeld:APortraitofaPioneerinSexology(London:Quartet,1986),1079.

58.AtwentiethcenturyoverviewoftransvestismmadeitclearthattheFrenchhadcontributedlittletoitsexaminationseeDr.AgnesMasson,LeTravestissement:
Essaidepsychopathologiesexuelle(Paris:EditionsHippocrate,1935)andseealsoH.Legludic,Notesetobservationsdemdecinelgale:Attentatsaux
moeurs(ParisMasson,1896),16973EugneWilhelm,"Publicationsallemandessurlesquestionssexuelles,"Archivesdel'anthropologiecriminelle27(1912):
3019PierreVachet,Psychologieduvice(Paris:Grasset,1934).

59.ChushichiTsuzuki,EdwardCarpenter,18441929:ProphetofHumanFellowship(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1980),1313414551.

60.EdwardCarpenter,"IntermediateTypesamongPrimitiveFolk,"Sex,vol.1ofSelectedWritings(London:GMP,1984),263andontheBerdache,seeWalter
L.Williams,

Page292

TheSpiritandtheFlesh:SexualDiversityinAmericanIndianCulture(Boston:BeaconPress,1986).

61.SeeVincentBrome,HavelockEllis:PhilosopherofSex:ABiography(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1979)PhyllisGrosskurth,HavelockEllis:A
Biography(London:AllenLane,1980).

62.HavelockEllis,"Eonism,"StudiesinthePsychologyofSex(Philadelphia:F.A.Davis,1928),7:87.Forthesimilarargumentthatsomewomenonlyfeelatease
inmaleclothesandregardthemselvesas"transvestites"whenforcedtoweardresses,seeHollyDevor,GenderBlending:ConfrontingtheLimitsofDuality
(Bloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,1988),129.

63.AfurthersignofthegrowinginterestinthesubjectwastheappearanceofM.Coryn'sTheChevalierd'Eon(1932),hailedasa"skillfulbiographyofa
pathologicalspecimen"inWeekEndReview,20Aug.1932,216.ForamorerecentaccountseeGaryKates,"D'EonReturnstoFrance:GenderandPowerin
1777,"inEpsteinandStraub,BodyGuards,167andGaryKates,Monsieurd'EonIsaWoman:ATaleofPoliticalIntrigueandSexualMasquerade(New
York:BasicBooks,1995).

64.EllisquotedinMaxHodann,HistoryofModernMorals,trans.StellaBrowne(London:Heinemann,1937),49.

65.Ellis,"Eonism,"7:17,102.

66.Freud,ThreeEssays,56.

67.BernardHollander,ThePsychologyofMisconduct,ViceandCrime(London:AllenandUnwin,1922),14143.

68.SeethepaperreadtotheBritishSexologicalSocietyinMay1932byTheodoreJ.Faithful,"TheReEducationoftheInvert,"TheSocialistReview4(1932):
10619.

69.Forasimilarclaimthat"true"transvestiteswerenothomosexual,seeEast,SocietyandtheCriminal.

70.Ellis,"Eonism,"7:29.

71.Ellis,ViewsandReviews,2:219.

72.WeekEndReview,21Nov.1931,645.

73.SeeE.RoyCalvert'sstatement,"Fourandahalfcenturiesago,inthecityofBasle,acockwassolemnlytriedandburntaliveforcommittingtheunnaturalcrimeof
havinglaidanegg.Itwasnotuntillaterthatitwasdiscoveredthatthereissuchathingasacrowinghen.Yetwestillpunishpeopletodayforactswhichwedonot
understand."WeekEndReview,19Dec.1931,794andseealsoWeekEndReview,28Nov.1931,6789E.RoyCalvert,CapitalPunishmentinthe
TwentiethCentury(NewYork:Putnam,1927)TheLawbreakers(London:Routledge,1931)TheDeathPenaltyEnquiry(London:Gollancz,1932).Herbert
ChorleywasauthorofCleave'sEnd(London:Sisley,1908).

74.WeekEndReview,5Dec.1931,712.SeeGraceWinnifredPailthorpe,WhatWePutinPrison(London:WilliamsandNorgate,1932)Studiesinthe
PsychologyofDelinquency(London:HMSO,1932).Onattemptstohavepsychoanalytictherapiesofferedtoprisoners,seeW.J.Forsythe,PenalDiscipline,
ReformatoryProjectsandtheEnglishPrisonCommission,18951939(Exeter:UniversityofExeterPress,1990),15961.

75.WeekEndReview,28Nov.1931,67879.

76.Ibid.,67980.

77.Ibid.,19Dec.1931,795.

78.TheunnamedAmericanjournalrefusedtoprintthearticleEllis,ViewsandReviews,2:221.

79.WeekEndReview,5Dec.1931,712.

80.Ibid.,26Dec.1931,822.Haynes,alawyer,wastheauthorofReligiousPersecution(1904),TheCaseforLiberty(1919),andALawyer'sNotebook
(1932).

81.WeekEndReview,19Dec.1931,7872Jan.1932,10andonthemakeupofthe

Page293

Society,whichwentunderavarietyofnames,seeLesleyHall,"'DisinterestedEnthusiasmforSexualMisconduct':TheBritishSocietyfortheStudyofSex
Psychology,191347,"JournalofContemporaryHistory30(1995):66586DavidC.Weigle,"PsychologyandHomosexuality:TheBritishSexological
Society,"JournaloftheHistoryoftheBehavioralSciences31(1995):13648.

82.StellaBrowne,"SexualVarietyandVariabilityamongWomen"(1915),inSheilaRowbotham,ANewWorldforWomen:StellaBrowne,SocialistFeminist
(London:Pluto,1977),100.

83.NewGeneration,Feb.1932,29.

84.WeekEndReview,28Nov.1931,679.

85.Ibid.,5Dec.1928,711.

86.Ibid.,2Jan.1932,1016Jan.1932,68andforthepetition,see6Feb.1932,165.

87.Ibid.,9Apr.1932,439,446.

88.Forthejournal'sexpressionofitsappreciationforSirHerbertSamuel"inmitigatingbysympathyandsciencetherigoursofthesystemwhichhefindshimself
responsibleforadministering,"seeWeekEndReview,16Apr.1932,475.

89.H.V.Dicks,FiftyYearsoftheTavistockClinic(London:RoutledgeandKeganPaul,1970),19.

90.Ibid.,78.

91.RenGuyon,SexLifeandSexEthics,trans.J.C.FlugelandI.Flugel(London:BodleyHead,1933),246,271.

92.F.B.Rockstro,APlainTalkonSexDifficulties(1934London:BritishSexologicalSociety,1947),25,27andseealsoLaurieTaylor,"TheUnfinishedSexual
Revolution,"JournalofBiosocialSciences3(1971):47392.

93.StevensonwasthehonorarysecretaryoftheNoiseAbatementSocietyWeekEndReview,6Aug.1932,15631Dec.1932,797.

94.WeekEndReview,5Dec.1931,703andseealsoBarbaraBrookes,AbortioninEngland:19001967(London:CroomHelm,1988),3740,

95.WeekEndReview,28May1932,666.

96.Ibid.,24Sept.1932,338.

97.DaveKing,'GenderConfusions:PsychologicalandPsychiatricConceptionsofTransvestismandTranssexualism,'inTheMakingoftheModernHomosexual,
ed.KennethPlummer(London:Hutchinson,1981),5583

98.Ellis,"Eonism,"7:30.

99.MaxHodann,AHistoryofModernMorals,trans.StellaBrowne(London:Heinemann,1937),48.

100.LiverpoolPostandMercury,16Nov.1931,9.

101.Ellis,ViewsandReviews,2:220.

102.ForananaccountoftheSwedishsexchangeoperationofEinarWegener,whocalledhimself"LiliElbe"andaftersurgerywasknownasAndreasSparre(d.
1931),seeNielsHoyer[pseud.ErnstHarthern],ManintoWoman:AnAuthenticRecordofaChangeofSex(LondonJarrolds,1933).Intheintroduction
NormanHaire,agynecologistandactivememberoftheBritishSexologicalSociety,notedthatDr.Steinachhadachievedsomesuccessinsexchangesbyemploying
hormonetreatmentsonloweranimals.

103.Onthequestionofwhetherfemaletransvestitescanbefeministsandbydressinglikemenarereallyopposingpatriarchy,seeJaniceG.Raymond,The
TranssexualEmpire(London:Woman'sPress,1979).

104.MichelFoucault,HerculineBarbin:BeingtheRecentlyDiscoveredMemoirsofaNineteenthcenturyFemaleHermaphrodite,trans.RichardMcDougall
(NewYork:Pantheon,1991),4AliceDomuratDreger,"DoubtfulSex:TheFateoftheHermaphroditeinVictorianEngland,"VictorianStudies38(1995):33571.

Page294

105.Burrows'ssexualignorancewasnotunique.AnumberofthelettersreceivedintheinterwarperiodbyMarieStopes,theBritishbirthcontrolpropagandist,
concernednonconsummation.Stopesherself,auniversityeducatedwoman,onlyrealizedafterseveralmonthsthatherfirstmarriagehadnotbeenconsumated,and
eveninthe1990saproportionofcouplespresentingatinfertilityclinicsareunawareofhowtohaveintercoursethatwillresultinaconception.Iowethislatter
informationtoLesleyHall.

106.St.HelensNewspaperandAdvertiser,20Nov.1931,4.

107.Dicks,FiftyYearsoftheTavistockClinic,45.

108.ForaperceptiveaccountofthepopularityoffemaletransvestiteperformancesinFrenchtheater,seeLenardBerlanstein,"BreechesandBreaches:CrossDress
TheaterandtheCultureofGenderAmbiguityinModernFrance,"ComparativeStudiesinSocietyandHistory(forthcoming).Thequestionofwhyinthetwentieth
centuryseveralgenerationsofheterosexualwomenwhowishedtoappearmysteriouslyseductiveadoptedandrogynousfashionstylesdeservesexamination.

109.MarjorieGarber,VestedInterests:CrossdressingandCulturalAnxiety(London:Routledge,1992)JudithButler,GenderTrouble(NewYork:Routledge,
1990).

110.QuentinCrisp,TheNakedCivilServant(NewYork:NewAmericanLibrary,1983),21.

Conclusion
1.Onthetropeofmalecamaraderieandwarasatestofmanliness,seePaulFussell,TheGreatWarandModernMemory(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,
1975)MichaelC.C.Adams,TheGreatAdventure:MaleDesireandtheComingofWorldWarI(Bloomington:UniversityofIndianaPress,1990)George
Mosse,FallenSoldiers:ReshapingtheMemoryoftheWorldWars(NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,1990).

2.Themilitaryalsounintentionallyunearthedunanticipatedanddisturbingevidenceofmaledeviancy.Thoughofficerswerelikelyuntroubledbyarecruit's
sadomasochistictendencies,theyweretakenabackwhentransvestitesindressesappearedbeforerecruitingboardsandwhenmorethanonewifeappliedfora
bigamousorcommonlawhusband'sdependenceallowance.StephenParker,InformalMarriage,CohabitationandtheLaw,17501989(London:Macmillan,
1990).

3.PaulCrook,Darwinism,WarandHistory:TheDebateovertheBiologyofWarfromthe"OriginoftheSpecies"totheFirstWorldWar(Cambridge
CambridgeUniversityPress,1994),56138.

4.E.E.Southard,ShellShockandotherNeuropsychiatricProblems(Boston:Leonard,1919),257.

5.IntheBoerandCubanWars,highlevelsof"inanity"hadbeennotedintheRussoJapaneseWarof1905,theRussianshadusedarmyspecialiststodealwith
psychologicalproblems.SeeNormanFenton,ShellShockanditsAftermath(London:Kimpton,1926).

6.Eveninpeacetimemanypsychiatristsbelievedhystericsweresimplycravingsympathyandsodealtwiththemruthlessly.MichaelJ.Clarke,"TheRejectionof
PsychologicalApproachestoMentalDisorderinLateNineteenthCenturyBritishPsychiatry,"inMadhouses,MadDoctorsandMadmen:theSocialHistoryof
PsychiatryintheVictorianEra,ed.AndrewScull(LondonAthlone,1981),271312.

7.AndrLeri,ShellShock:CommotionalandEmotionalAspects(London:UniversityofLondonPress,1919)MillaisCulpin,PsychoneurosesofWarand
Peace(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1920)andseealsoJoannaBourke,DismemberingtheMale:Men'sBodies,BritainandtheGreatWar
(London:ReaktionBooks,1996).

8.K.R.Eissler,FreudasanExpertWitness:TheDiscussionofWarNeurosesbetweenFreudandWagnerJauregg,trans.ChristineTrollope(Madison,Conn.:
InternationalUniversitiesPress,1986),60andseealsoSigmundFreud,"MemorandumontheElectricalTreat

Page295

mentofWarNeuroses"(1920),StandardEditionoftheCompletePsychologicalWorks,trans.J.Strachey(London:HogarthPress,1966),17:21115
MeyerS.Gunther,"FreudasExpertWitness:WagnerJaureggandtheProblemofWarNeuroses,"AnnalsofPsychoanalysis2(1975):323MagdaWhitrow,
JuliusWagnerJauregg(18571940)(London:SmithGordon,1993),1017.WagnerJauregglaterbecameamemberoftheNaziparty.

9.MartinStone,"ShellShockandthePsychologists,"inAnatomyofMadness,ed.WilliamF.Bynun(London:Tavistock,1985),2:242ff.

10.OnesymptomwouldbeanoldmisogynistsuchasBelfortBaxlamentingthedeclineofmaleclubsandcomplainingthatnowmenwerebeingforcedtoregardtheir
wivesasintellectualcompanions.ErnestBelfortBax,ReminiscencesandReflectionsofaMidandLateVictorian(London:AllenandUnwin,1918),6466,174,
197201.

11.RichardWallandJayWinter,eds.,TheUpheavalofWar:Family,WorkandWelfareinEurope,19141918(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,
1988)MaryLouiseRoberts,CivilizationwithoutSexes:ReconstructingGenderinPostwarFrance,19171927(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1994).

12.AdrianCaesar,TakingItLikeaMan:Suffering,SexualityandtheWarPoets:Brooke,Sassoon,Owen,Graves(NewYork:ManchesterUniversityPress,
1993)GrahamDawson,SoldierHeroes:BritishAdventure,EmpireandtheImaginingsofMasculinities(NewYork:Routledge,1994).

13.ModrisEksteins,RitesofSpring:TheGreatWarandtheBirthoftheModernAge(Toronto:LesterandOrpenDennys,1989),292.

14.Doctorsdeclaredthatsexualpotencyandmilitarybraverywererelated."Amatteroffactbearingonthispointistheexperienceofarmyofficers,whohave
observedthatamanofweaksexualinstinctisalwaysapoorsoldier."IrvingC.Rosse,"SexualIncapacityinItsMedicoLegalRelations,"inMedicalJurisprudence:
ForensicMedicineandToxicology,ed.R.A.WitthausandTracyC.Becker(NewYork:WilliamWood,1894),2:395.

15.RosaMayreder,ASurveyoftheWomanProblem,trans.HermanScheffauer(London:Heinemann,1913),109.

16.ChristinaSimmons,"ModernSexualityandtheMythofVictorianRepression,"inBarbaraMelosh,GenderandAmericanHistorysince1890(London:
Routledge,1993),2427.

17.ClaudiaL.Johnston,Politics,GenderandSentimentalityinthe1790'sWollstonecraft,Radcliffe,Burney,Austen(Chicago:ChicagoUniversityPress,
1995)GailBederman,ManlinessandCivilization:ACulturalHistoryofGenderandRaceintheUnitedStates(Chicago:ChicagoUniversityPress,1995).

18.PatrickFridenson,ed.,19141918:L'Autrefront(Paris:Lesditionsouvrires,1977).AnnHigonnet,BehindtheLinesGenderandtheTwoWorldWars
(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1987).

19.RosaMariaBracco,MerchantsofHope:BritishMiddlebrowWritersandtheFirstWorldWar,19191939(Oxford:Berg,1993)SandraM.Gilbertand
SusanGubar,Sexchanges,vol.2ofNoMan'sLand:ThePlaceoftheWomanWriterintheTwentiethCentury(NewHaven:YaleUniversityPress,1989),
258323.

20.Fortheargumentthatnewtherapiessuchassuggestionunderhypnosiswouldbethequickestwaywherebytheshellshockedcouldbecuredandsentbackinto
thelines,seeM.D.Eder,WarShock:ThePsychoneurosesinWarPsychologyandTreatment(London:Heinemann,1917),12833andseealsoEricJ.Leed,
NoMan'sLand:CombatandIdentityinWorldWarOne(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1979),163ff.

21.AdolfHitler,MeinKampf(MonCombat)(Paris:Librairiecritique,1930),22429370.OnAdorno'sstatementthatavowalsofvirilityhavetoberegardedwith
suspicion,seeLynnSegal,SlowMotion:ChangingMasculinities,ChangingMen(NewBrunswick,N.J.:RutgersUniversityPress,1990),45.

Page296

22.PaulWeindling,Health,RaceandGermanPolitics:BetweenNationalUnificationandNazism,18701945(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,1989),101
2.SheilaFaithWeiss,RaceHygieneandNationalEfficiency:TheEugenicsofWilhemSchallmayer(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1987)Robert
Procter,RacialHygiene:MedicineundertheNazis(Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1988).

23.AlisonSinclair,TheDeceivedHusband:AKleinianApproachtotheLiteratureofInfidelity(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1993),24.

24.R.W.Connell,GenderandPower:Society,thePersonandSexualPolitics(Stanford:StanfordUniversityPress,1987),183190.

Page297

INDEX

Aberdeen,Lord,17

Abortifacients,31,45,76

Abortion,7,8,60,7186,87,98,259n.134

anarchistsand,8184,85

defenseof,8,8182,84,282n.117

doctorsand,76,77,100,102,1067,263n.97

evidenceof,97

promiscuityand,78,256n.81

prosecutionsof7186,101,1067

Abortionists,7,7273,77,88

midwifesas,77

AbortionLawReformSociety,71

Abrahams,John,41,51

Acton,William,141,142

Adams,Percy,113

Adolescents,30.

SeealsoYouth

Adultery,8,66,87,1056,108,186,187

evidenceof,92,94,263n.95

murderand12729

Agoult,comtessed'(pseud.DanielStern),215

AlbertusMagnus,149

Alcoholism,27,14546,166,175,179.

SeealsoMurder,alcoholand

Alger,Horatio,249n.146

Ameno,Fatherd'(Capuchin),150

AmericanBarAssociation,19

Anarchists,18,28,168

chivalryof,83,258n.109

defenseofabortionandcontraceptionby,8184,85,258n.111

Anderson,William,138

Anthropologists,5

Anticlericalism,14951,169,179

indecentexposureand,191

Antifeminists,23,104

misogynyof,3132,16970,279n.80

AntiSemitism,20,35,236,243n.48,249n.2

doctors's,269n.21

Antivivisection,19,104

''Apaches,"27,31,36,153,234

Apollinaire,Guillaume,169

ArkellSmith,Valerie(pseud.ColonelBarker),21516,230,290n.32

Arnoult,Amlie,64

AssociationfortheScientificTreatmentofOffenders,224

Asylums,163

Augustus(Romanemperor),66

Aveling,Edward,257n.108

Aveling,EleanorMarx,104

Avery,Joseph,49,251nn.3637

Bachelors,55,252n.69,253n.70

BadenPowell,Robert,34

Baldwin,Simeon,19,21

Ball,Benjamin,177

Balzac,Honorede,87,205

Barbeyd'Aurevilly,Jules,190

Barmaids,4,78

Barrant,Louise,162,176

Barrs,Maurice,34

Bason,George,46,49,50

Bastien(bigamist),62,68

Baudelaire,Charles,169,190,277n.48

Bax,E.Belfort,104,295n.10

Beard,DanielCarter,11

Beard,George,14142,147

Beardsley,Aubrey,190

Bebel,Auguste,53

Benkert,KarolyMaria,177

Berenger,Ren,31

Bergson,Henri,133

Berkeley,Theresa,25

Bernard,Israel,65

Bernhardt,Sarah,231

Berthellot,Marcellin,34

Page298

Bertillon,Jacques,55

Bertle,Charles,171

Bestiality,16

Bianca,Guiseppe,123

Bigamists,8,6070

female,64

Bigamy,8,6070

inEngland,65,66,68,255nn.40,45

Frenchlawon,6667,255n,39

middleclassviewsof,65,6768,70

rateof,6566

workingclass,68,238

BillingtonGreig,Teresa,2324

Binet,Alfred,170,172,174,197

Biologicalarguments,5,9,33

Birchings,13,14

Birthcontrol,142,151,152,155,179,236.

SeealsoContraception

Blackie,JohnHaldane,223

Blackmail,2122,104,106,13738,140,179,200,217

Bloch,Iwan,25,201

Bloquel,Alfred,69,70

Bloy,Lon,169

Blum,Lon,54

Body,male,8,9.

SeealsoExhibitionism

Bois,Jules,32

Bompard,Gabrielle,153

Booth,David,S.,195

Boulton,Ernest,21617,218

Bounder,4,38,59,61,89

Bourde,Marcelin,161

Bourget,Paul,169,277nn.48,52

Bouvier,Franois,161

Bowen,Edward,12526

Bowerbank(witness),21819

Boys:corporalpunishmentof,14,15,19,20

literaturemeantfor,249n.146

BoyScouts,11,34

ThorsteinVeblen'sviewof,248n.138

Bramwell,Lord,79,138

Brlaz,Jules,61,64,69

Bright,John,33

Bristow,Grace,224

BritishColumbia,murdersin,11229

BritishMedicalAssociation,108

BritishSocietyfortheStudyofSexPsychology(BritishSexologicalSociety),9,22425,227,292n.81

Broadbent,William,95,101

Brocket,Robert,48

Brothels,25,235,242n.28,271n.56

Brouardel,Paul,177

Browne,Stella,71,223,22425,227

Burke,Edmund,109,236

Burroughs,EdgarRice,36,249n.147

Burrows,George,20813,230

Byers,Lewis,J.,120

Cad,38,59,61

Calvert,E.Roy,223,292n.73

Campbell,Henry,143

Campbell,Murdock,122

CanadaEvidenceAct,128

Cannon,CharlesK.,200

Canterbury,Archbishopof.SeeDavidson,Randall

Capitalpunishment,19

Carlier,F,30

Carlson,Harriet,127

Carpenter,Edward,24,219,221,244n.73

Casanova,GiovanniGiacomo,202

Casement,Roger,220

Casey,John,119

Casson,Dr.(litigant),103

Castration,202,237.

SeealsoSterilization

Catholicchurch:abortionand,80

bigamyand,66,67,69

Catullus(Romanpoet),149

Caufeynon,Dr.SeeFauconney,Jean

Champney,Francis,95

Chapple,Dr.Harold,22

Charcot,J.M.,149,154

Charivari,58,186,214

CharlesII(kingofEngland),191

Charnot,Andrew,119

Chtelet,Marquisede,189

Cherrill,MaryAnn,193

Childmolesters,15

Children6,13

astargetsofexhibitionists,193,196,197,198,200,203,204

ofbigamists,65,68,69,70

Children'sAct(1908)and,35

protectionof,19,20,22,23

sexualattackson,177

Chivalry,23,5960,90,105,109,228

ofjournalists,80

ofsocialists,257n.108

Chorley,Herbert,22324

Circumcision,142,148

Clarke,MontagueAugustus,13738

Class,3,7

andflogging22,28

bodilyproprietyand,18890

confidentialityand,1034

conflict,170

exhibitionismand,199200

lowermiddle,34,48,56

man

Page299

linessand,33,34,70

marriageand,5455

sexualdegenerationand,152.

SeealsoWorkingclass

Clemenceau,Georges,34

Clinnick,Garland,124,125

Cobden,Richard,33

Cockburn,LordChiefJusticeAlexanderJames,218

Cocks,Henry,194

Codpiece,18687

Cohen,Alexander,8183,257n.99

Coitusinterruptus,142,14346,147

Coleman(murdervictim),117

Collins,Frederick,118,123

Collinson,Joseph,17,24

Comstock,Anthony,31

Comte,Auguste,32,174

Concubinage.SeeMarriage,commonlaw

Connell,John,223

ContagiousDiseasesAct,106

Contraception,83,14246,151

Contraceptives,31,235,272n.78

Cooper,Arthur,143

Cornil,V.A.,165

Coubertin,Pierrede,34

CourtofCriminalAppeal,17

Courtship,7,55,56

exhibitionismand,187,195,198,201

Coval,Serre,119

Cowboys,35

Crebillon,C.P.J.,87

CrichtonMiller,Hugh,225

Crimesofpassion,3,36

CriminalLawAmendmentAct(1885),16,30,218

Criminals,habitual,15

Criminology,5,16466,16768

criminologistsand,116

Crisp,Quentin,231

Crossdressing.SeeTransvestism

Crouzire,Alcide,63,67

Cruikshank,George,186

Crunden(nudebather),19192

Cunnilingus,125,174

Cutri,Bruno,127

Dale,James,118

Dandies,fopsand,29,190

Dando,Arthur,118,121

Darwin,Charles,133

Darwinism,11,156,202

Davidson,Randall(archbishopofCanterbury),23

Dawson,WilliamHarbutt,21

Day,Mr.JusticeJohn,23,7374,81,83,237,244n.64

characterof,7677,7980,86,257n.92

Deal,Fred,120

Declerieux(landowner),161

Degenerates,11,20,28,29,221

Degeneration,2930,152,156,17981,197

DeQuincey,Thomas,25

Derou,Sylvain,6162,63

Desctes,L.A.,147

Detectivestory,56

Deviants.SeePerverts

Diatella,Maria,127

Dickinson,GoldsworthyLowes,220

Diderot,Denis,186

Dietrich,Marlene,231

Divorce,109

popularformsof,68

separationsand,64

inFrance,63,66,67,69

Doctors,90

expertiseof,97,13435

military,23334

professionalsecrecyof,99100

relationswithpatients,99

sexualperversionsand,134,146,152,22627

viewsonsexualityof,14147.

SeealsoMedicalconfidentialityMedicalethicsPrivilegedcommunications

Doherty,John,119

DonJuan,87

Donne,John,25

Dostoievski,Fedor,170

Douglas,Linda.SeeKitson,Linda

Dress,female,190,205

malefashionsand,189,190,203

transvestismand,207,220,222

Dreyfusaffair,164,170

Driver,Daniel,51

Drugs,23,28,118,179

Duels,3,109

Dufour,Dr.(asylumkeeper),162.,167

Dufour,JeanBaptiste,68,69

Dumas,Alexandre,31

Duncan,LeslieFraser,53

Durkheim,mile,55

DutyandDisciplineSociety,18

East,W.Norwood,18283,195,197,198,200201,287n.83

Page300

Eden,Sarah,72,7374,77,78,80,81,82,84,85,86

Edwards,Eliza,216

Egan,Charles,118,12223

Eliot,George,215

Ellis,Havelock,26,148,207219,227

onexhibitionism,195,198,199,201,288n.118

onsadism,173,17778,222

ontransvestism(eonism),22122,223,224,22829

Engels,Friedrich,30,190,257n.108

English,Leo,126

Eon,chevalierd',222

Eonism.SeeTransvestism

Epilepsy,154,167,196,197,204,286n.76

Erasmus,Didier,188

Esseintes,des(fictionalcharacter),170

Essentialism,10

Eugenicists,155,22728,233

Everage,Edna,214

Executions,14,85,164,166

Exhibitionism,18284,196206,282n.7

conceptionof,195

explanationsof,199206

mooningasformof,186

Exhibitionists,3,7,9,13,16,172,18283,186,187,188,193206

floggingof,17

womenas,2046

Faithful,TheodoreJ.,222

Farante,Rocco,119

Fauconney,Jean(pseud.Dr.Jaf,Dr.Caufeynon),14755,157

Feebleminded,22,244n.59

Fellatio,153,174

Femininity,4,5,32,180,208,219,237

modelsofVictorian,4445

Feminism,17576,280n.94

Feminists,1056

corporalpunishmentand,2223

critiqueofmasculinityby,235

Fr,Charles,176

Ferenczi,Sandor,235,270n.45

Ferri,Enrico,167

Ferris,McLaren,212

Ferseneheim.SeePaul,F.S.

Fertilitydecline,2,31,35,159,179,219

Fictionalrepresentations,56

ofmarriage,4445,250n.18

ofseduction,87

sadismand,16970,177,180,181

sexualityand,7,24,32,36

Fielding,Henry,191

Flaubert,Gustave,169,277n.46

Fleury,Maximede,166

Floggings3,9

armyandnavy,242n.17

debateover1327

defendersof,1822

feminists'viewsof,2223

Mr.JusticeJohnDayand,23,7980

ofmaleprostitutes,217,242n.27

ofrobbers,15

opponentsof,2426

prison,243n.33

sentencesof,13

sexualaspectof,25

Flynt,Josiah,28

ForelAuguste,148

Foucault,Michel,2,6,154,183,184,203,204,229

Fourquet,mile,28,160,176

Fraudartists,7,63

sexualcomplaintsand,13739.

SeealsoWorld'sGreatMarriageAssociation

Freud,Sigmund,3,4,6,9,32,148,226,234,235,236

onexhibitionism,2012

onhomosexuality,21920

onsexualexcesses,141,14346,147,148

ontransvestism,222

Gaoin,Franoise,62

Galippe,M.V.,165

Garnier,Paul,195,196,197,19899

Garnier,Pierre,176

Garrotting:panicover,15

GarrottersActand,18

Gender,3,4,8,22

confidentialityand,104,1057

debateover3233

marriageand,5455

murderand,11129

stereotyped,52,180

WorldWarIand,235

Gentleman,4,8,38,87

anarchistsas,83

conceptof,72,80,8990,9596,101,1035,10810,259n.2

discretionof,101,107

George,JohnCharles,48

Geray,M.(marriageagent),53

Gide,Andr,6,235

Gill,Harold,12425,126

Gillier,Louis,126

Gillray,James,186

Gladstone,William,89,261n.41

Glaister,John,100

Godiva,Lady,185,283n.18

Goncourt,EdmondandJules,169

Gordon,Mabel,7275,77,78,87

Grabowsky,Norbert,32

Page301

Grandi,Callisto,164

Green,Dr.(medicalwitness),75

Greilsammer,Captain,162

Gruenfeld,Adolph,48,50

Gurrin,ThomasHenry,46

Guyon,Ren,226

Gypsies,28

Haggard,H.Rider,33,36

Haire,Norman,223

Hall,G.Stanley,31,174

Hall,Radclyff,215,290n.34

Haney,William,11920

Hannah,NormanGolding,41,51

Harcourt,Lewis,199

Harris,Samuel,194

Hawkins,Mr.JusticeHenry,94,97100,107

Haynes,E.S.P.,224

Heap,AlfredThomas,85,86

Henery,Dr.AlfredField,13738,140.

SeealsoWray,WilliamOsterfield

Henry,PaulAntoine,6364,67

Henty,G.A.,33

Hermaphrodites,148,229

Hernant(bigamist),66

Hertzfeld,David,63

heterosexuality,2,4,7,29,151,21920,229.

SeealsoMasculinity

Higson,W.D.,212

Hindson,John,7176,7778,80,8485,86,87

Hirschfeld,Magnus,167,219

ontransvestism,216,22021,222

Hitler,Adolf,236

Hobos.SeeVagrants

Hodann,Max,228

Hollander,Bernard,222

Holtby,Winifred,223

Homosexualacts,17,19394,210,21819,

Homosexuality,4,29,31,36,154,172,17578,219,280n.100

defendersof,21920,280n.101

murderand,12426,168,17678,267n.87

transvestismand,212,213,21417,218,22425,228.

SeealsoLesbianism

Homosexuals,9,35,178,233

attackson,29

emergenceof,30,177,21920

prosecutionof,207,237

Honor,120,126,129,156

Hpital,Dr.,199,200,201,204

Hopkins,Ellice,87

Hopkinson,William,120

Hormones,156,223,224,225

HowardLeagueforPenalReform,225

Huddleston,Mr.Justice,193

Hughes,C.H.,200

Hughes,Thomas,33

Hull,Austin(pseud.NormaJackson),20813,214,218,221,22331,289n.13

HumanitarianLeague,17,22,23,24,244n.63

Huysmans,J.K.,169,277n.54,282n.117

Hyndman,H.M.,104

Hysteria,142,144

male,141,143,149,233,294n.6

Illegitimacy,22,6566

Impotency,32,45,139,142,147,155,156,172,295n.14

trialsfor,187,190

Incest,15,18,26

Incommensurability,sexual,56

Incorrigiblerogues,13,16,17

Indecency,gross,210,212,213,218

Indecentassault,16,17,19,35

Indecentexposure,13,17,183,19194,204,285n.61

Infanticide,83,87,257n.105

Insemination,152,294n.105

artificial,149

InternationalOlympicCommittee,34

Inversion,sexual,4,17677,219.

SeealsoHomosexuality

Invert,30,177,212,216

Jackson,Norma.SeeHull,Austin

JacktheRipper,170,171,178,275n.16,281n.105

Jacoby,George,201

Jaf,Dr.,9,14755,157.

SeealsoFauconney,Jean

James,Walter,120

James,William,1112

Joan(pope),215

JoanofArc,160,163,215,274n.7

JohnHowardSociety,18,19

Johnson,Charles,128

Johnson,Hilda,128

Joly,Henri,177

Jones(felon),21819

Page302

Jordan,Alfred,47,48,50,251n.26

Journalists,13,16,17,26,122,130,163,170,280n.88

chidingofdoctors,101

coverageofbigamytrials65,70

critiqueofabortiontrials,8081

"newjournalism"and,52

Julian,William,120

Kahn,Dr.(quack),138,140,141,147

Kelly,Edward,123

Kingsley,Charles,33

Kitson,Arthur,91,92,93,96

Kitson,Emily.SeePlayfair,Emily

Kitson,Hawthorn,91

Kitson,SirJames,91,93,94

Kitson,Linda,91,261n.28

adulterysuspected,9294

asaffrontedfemale,95,96,97,98,100,103,1045,106,108,110

Kleptomania,200

Kraeplin,Emile,29

KrafftEbing,Richardvon,148,154,156

onexhibitionism,182,196,201

onhomosexuality,219

onsadism171,173,174,178

ontransvestism,220

Kraus,Karl,29

KuKluxKlan,20

Labor:and"breadwinner"wage,33

unrest,28,35

surveillanceof,28

Labouchre,Henry,19,30,218

Lacassagne,Alexandre:onfloggingof,27

onhomosexuality,177

onsadism,158,16566,167,168,170,172,175,176,179,180

Laclos,Choderlosde,87

Lacour,Lopold,32

Lacroix,JudgeJ.O.,147,148,152,157

Lady,4,8,90

roleofthe,104

Lain,JeanBaptiste,68

Lamoureux,Andr,173

Lanchester,Edith,83

Larue,Danny,214

Lasgue,Charles,196,200

Laski,Harold,109

Laubach,Rev.FrankCharles,16,28

Laugier,Dr.,199200

Laurent,mile,180,204

Lautrec,Arthur,35

LawCourts,4,5,6

theatricalnatureof,6,3738,5556,112

vigilantismand,129

Lawrie,JudgeAllan,17

Leach,Henry,54

Lecouty,LouisProsper,60,70

Lee,Arthur,20

Leger(murderer),171

Leger,Alexandre,159

Legre,Alfred,127

Lejeune,Dr.,27,36

Lepaulard,Alexis,171

Lesbianism,6,32,154,21516,219

Lewis,George,94

Liguenationaledel'ducationphysique,34

Lindsay,ThomasF.,224

Lisieux,Isidore,169

Lockwood,Lt.Col.A.R.M.,24

Lockwood,Frank,47,50,94,95,100,105,106

Lombroso,Cesare,152,154,16566,216

viewsontramps,28

Lorraine,Jean,169,277n.52

Louys,Pierre,169

Lushington,Godfrey,41,4243,46,55

Lutaud,Auguste,149

Luther,Martin,18586

Lydston,G.Frank,178

Lyttelton,Alfred,24

McCardie,Mr.JusticeHenry,227,228

McDonald,Mr.Justice,192

McDonald,Arthur,178

McDougal,Albert,118

M'Ewen,Jessie,1078

MacFadden,BernarrA.,34

McGill,Hugh,11314,115,128,129

McGill,Nellie,114

McKillarney,Michael,119,120

McLennan,Malcolm,120

McNaughten,Harold,127

Mac,Gustave,30

Madden,Claire,224,225

Maddows,Anthony,41,51

Madeuf,Franois,165,275n.27

Magnan,Valentin,152,175,196

Mahoney(wouldbemurdervictim),12425

Maistre,Josephde,169

Malelaughter,shamingfunctionof8,5152,56,58,70,211,230

Malthusianism,83,84

Page303

Man,definitionof,1,10

Manliness,1,34,10,26,3334,38,1045

Christian,24,33,3435

emotionalityand,13334

MannAct,27

Manning,Matilda,72,73,74,75

Mantegazza,Paolo,29,54,201

Maraon,Gregorio,87,202

Marciat,Dr.SeeTournier,Claude

Marguerite,Victor,32

Marriage,5758,187

arranged,54,153,249n.2

ascurefordeviancy,197

bigamous,6566

commonlaw,68,255n.41

companionate,87

guidesto,134

genderrolesand,4345

middleclass,39,54

workingclass,33,39,48,5354,68,230

sexualbehaviorin,134

Martial(Romanpoet),148

Martin,tienne,179

Martin,Frank,122

Martin,Henri,157

Martineau,Harriet,18

Martineau,Louis,154

Marty,LouisVictor,62

Marx,Karl,30,172,190

Masculinities,7,1112

Masculinity,2,3,10,239n.3

andfemininity,34,219,23738

andmarriage,4358

andviolence,5

constructionof,7

crisisof,31,35

hegemonic,7,8,23638

medicaldefinitionsof,15557

middleclassidealof,130

negativevarietiesof,10,26,181,231,237

nudityand,2056

sadismand,159,17175,17678,180

standardsanddefinitionof,14,26,27,57,8788,130,207,231

twentiethcenturymodelof,235,23638

Masochism,9,26,172,17374,178,223

MassotPellet,Pierre,176

Mastien(bigamist),64

Masturbation,138,13940,141,14243,146,147,172,187,268n.12

exhibitionismand,195,196

Freudand,14345,147

Dr.Jafand,15253

Mathew,Mr.JusticeJames,75,78,8081

Matrimonialagencies,78,40,53,2.50n.20

Matuschka,Sylvestre,22627

Maudsley,Henry,2930,32,54

Maurice,GeneralFrederick,11

Mayreder,Rose,235

Medicalconfidentiality,6,90,98104,105,106,108,260nn.16,25,262n.63

Medicaldiscourse,4

Medicalethics,95,101,108

Medicine,professionof,1012

Melodrama,19,3738,45,5556,60,112,129,138,162,163,249n.1,253n.72

Menesclou(murderer),165,168,171

Michelet,Jules,32,134,174

Miles,James,139

Mill,JohnStuart,1819

Miller,Dr.H.C.,18

Mirbeau,Octave,31,16970,277n.56

Mitchell,Weir,91

Moebius,PaulJulius,32

Moll,Albert,26,173

Montaigne,Michelde,148,18687

Montesquieu,CharlesdeSecondat,Baronede,150

Moreau(deTours),Paul,197

Morel,B.A.,149

Morella,Edward,118

Morley,John,80

Mormons,18,65,243n.35

Mott,F.W.,143

Mulvihill,Jeremiah,123

Murder,7

abortiondeathstreatedas,71,79,81,8586

alcoholand,115,11718

andmanhood,8,11129

causesof,11920

"constructive,"86

justificationsof,12026

methodsof,11516

policeand,11921

ratesof,114,130

sexualthreatsand,12429.

SeealsoSadism

Murderers,7,10,13

female,114

male,11429

punishmentof,78

Musichalls,56,57,83

Nance,J.Whitely,223

NapoleonI(emperorofFrance),67

NapoleonIII(emperorofFrance),67

Natives,NorthAmerican,11

Neff,Charles,119

Nervousness,134,14041,156

Neurasthenia,3,142,144,145,176

Nicolas,Frank,123

Nietszche,Friedrich,32

Nudebathing,19192,227,285n.52

Page304

Nudity,183,184,205

female,185,186,189,190

JewishandChristianviewsof,18586

male,19091,285n.45

Nymphomania,6,154,155

Obscene:acts,187,188,192

literature,139

pastries,270n.54

pictures,13

OffensesAgainstthePersonAct(1861),71,76

Oleson,Ole,127

Orchard,James,194

Orwell,George,40,51

Otto,Charles,48

Ovariotomies,148

Paget,James,147

Pailthorpe,G.W.,224

Pankhurst,Emmeline,23

Paquette,Louis,127

Paquette,Olive,127

Par,Ambroise,148,150

ParentDuchtelet,A.J.B.,153

ParisCommuneof1871,62,66,170

Park,FrederickWilliam,21617,218

Pasteur,Louis,34

Patentmedicines,45,53,13739,140,250n.21

Paul,F.S.,8384

Paul,Serge,170,174,175,198,205

Pederasty,30,154,267n.87.

SeealsoHomosexuality

Penitentiary,14.

SeealsoPrisons

Pepys,Samuel,191

PeregrinusProteus,184

Perversions,sexual,15254,15859,17980

masculinityandthe,17178

women's,172,173,174

Perverts,56,7,8,14,16,22,29,177,212

Phalliccults,184,199

Philandering,3

Phillimore,Mr.JusticeRobert,85

Pierret,A.,167,276n.39

Pimps,13,14,16,27,29,38,127,244n.62,245n.87

floggingof,1718,20,23,204,234

Pirie,Isabella,72,73

Pitcher,WilliamG.,48,50

Plantier(stonecutter),163

Playfair,Emily,9091,93,94

Playfair,Hugh,92,95

Playfair,WilliamSmoult,91,261n.28

treatmentofLindaKitsonby,9193

trialof,9497,98,100106,109,110,112

PoliceofTownsAct,193

Pollock,Baron,85

Pontmartin,Armandde,169

Popovich,Michael,119

Pornography,29,31,139,152,153,179,191,247n.117

Portalier,Victor,159,160,176,274n.5

Pouchet,F.A.,152,154

Poverty,16

Power,Nellie,57

Priestly,William,95

Prisons,14,19,20,27

Pritchard,Edward,106

Privilegedcommunications,90,94,97,98104

Procurers.SeePimps

Procuring,16

andWhiteSlavepanic,1718,23

Prostitution,13,18,22,38,83,103,106,151,153,154,198,212,236

child,16,52

male13,14,16,17,26,29,177,212,216

Proudhon,PierreJoseph,32,33

Proust,Marcel,235

Psychiatrists,1,5

onmentalirresponsibility,16465

Psychoanalysis,3,178.

SeealsoFreud,SigmundStekel,Wilhelm

Psychology,3,4,5,7

Punishment,corporal.SeeFlogging

PunishmentBill,14

Putnam,J.J.,201

Quacks,134,13739,162.

SeealsoPatentmedicines

Race,3,11,243n.48

Rachilde.SeeVallette,Margurite

Racism,2021

minstrelhumorand,253n.73.

SeealsoAntiSemitism

Raffalovich,Andr,177

Rais,Gillesde,169,170,171,274n.14

Ram(bigamist),63,67

Rankin,Charles,212

Rape,9,13,1516,17,21,28,106,183,187,204

floggingasmaleequivalentof,25

homosexual,126

normalization

Page305

of,29

statutory,22

purporteddifficultyof,149,246n.103

Rebatel,F.,167,276n.39

Reidel(murderer),178

RestifdelaBretonne,NicolasEdme,87

Revolution,French,67

of1848,62,66

Richardson,Samuel,87

Rivers,W.H.,235

RiviresJamesMcGilldes,123

Robin,JeanMarie,159

Roosevelt,Theodore,11,34,143n.52

Rossetti,DanteGabriel,83

Rossetti,Olivia,Arthur,andHelen,83

Roubaud,Flix,142

Rouselle(bigamist),62

Rousseau,JeanJacques,26,33,134,150,170,174,236

exhibitionismof,188

Rowand,Harry,123

Rowed,Michael,19394

Rowlandson,Thomas,186

SacherMasoch,Leopoldvon,170,279n.82

Sade,Marquisde,158,159,169,170,171,281n.106

Sadism,3,7,9,26,31

literarynotionof,16970,180

medicalconceptof,158,159,16469,17078,180,181,279n.74i2]murderand,17475,17778

Salt,Henry,24,2526

Samuel,Herbert,225

Sand,George,215

Savage,George,143

Schopenhauer,Arthur32

Sedley,Charles,191

Seduction,7,8,18,61,188

abortionand,77,78,8687

Serialkillers,3,28,178.

SeealsoVacher,Joseph

Servants,53,15253,189,190,193,199,218

Sex,determinationof,149

modelsof,134

Sexmanuals,14756

Sexologists,1,2,3,5,6,7,9,155,2078

onexhibitionism,182,183,195202,2046

onsadism,17178

ontransvestism,22023

Sexradicals,7,84

Sexreformers,2,24,22325,22628

Sexuality,10

female,5,134,139

male,5,134,139

popularviewsof,14755

Shakespeare,William,214

Shaw,GeorgeBernard,24,2526,35

Shellshock,226,23335

Shiells,William,123

Simister,Rebecca,72,73,74,81,82

Simon(bigamist),63

Singh,Mewa,120

Singh,Paratreap,12526

Skates,JohnCharles,41,42,4647,51,5356,58

Skates,MortimerDaniel,41,51,53,54,56,58

SocialDemocraticFederation,104,257n.105

Socialpurity,37

Socialists,33,35

sexualissuesand,84

WorldWarIand,233

SocitdeSaintFranoisRgis,62,68

Sodomy,16,21,26,30,150,168,172,177,187,278n.69

maleprostitutionand,216,217,218

murderand,124,125,126

Souteneurs.SeePimps

Spencer,Herbert,94,95,97,100,106

Spermatorrhea,141,147

Stadtmhler(abortionist),79

Stamford(litigant),192

Stead,W.T.,16,30,52,242n.28,251n.51

Stefanowsky,Dimitry,173,174

Stekel,Wilhelm,178,202,220,222,281nn.11114

Stendhal,87

Stephen,JamesFitzjames,25

Sterility,15152

Sterilization,2122,176

Stern,Daniel.SeeAgoult,comtessed'

Stevenson,John,225,22728

Stevenson,RobertLouis,24

Stone,Lucy,15

Sturgis,F.R.,147

Suffragists,2223,3

SeealsoFeminists

Sunday,Billie,3435

Sutton,Henry,48,49,50,251n.37

Sutton,JohnBland,94

Swinburne,Algermon,169,190

Tait,Lawson,22

Tait,Robert,120

Talbot,Mr.Justice,210,211,21213,214

Tallack,William,18,19,20

Tarde,Gabriel,17980

Page306

Tardieu,A.A.,30,148,152,154,172,177

Tattooing,14849

Taupier(bigamist),63

Tavistockclinic,22526,230

Taxil,Lo,150,169

Taylor,AlfredSwain,194,204,216

Thallman,George,193

Thoinot,Lon,168

Thomas,Constance,153

Thurtle,James,194

Tidy,CharlesMeymott,99100

Tissot,S.A.A.D.,139,142,153

Tocqueville,Alexisde,87

Tournier,Claude(pseud.Dr.Marciat),168

Tramps,16,22,176.

SeealsoVagrants

Transvestism,9,20831,236,289n.23,291n.54

female,21416,221,23031,290n.30

sexchangesand,293n.102

traditional,214

Transvestites,7,10,14,29

floggingof17,204

maleimpersonatorsas,57

TreasonAct,14

Trumpner,Frederick,117

Ulrichs,KarlHeinrich,30

Utley,M.H.,142

Uzanne,Octave,177

Vacher,Joseph,28,

crimesandtrialof,158,15964

medicaldiscussionof,16568,169,170,176,179

VagrancyActs,16,17,192,217

Vagrants,13,14,2829,35,158,192

French,2729,166,168

sexualdeviancyof,16

Vallette,Margurite(pseud.Rachilde),168

Vecki,VictorG.,14243

Venerealdisease,27,100,106,108,139,151,152,153,235,236

Venette,Nicolas,149

Verne,Jules,34,36

Vial,Joseph,62

Violence,5,14

masculinityand,35,109,130,131.

SeealsoMurder

Vives,Luis,18889

Vizetelley,Ernest,23

Voisin,Dr.,199,204

Voltaire,189

Vowell,A.W.,118

Voyeurism,9,172,201,202

Vuillermet,F.A.,11,35

Wagner,Henry,120

WagnerJauregg,Juliusvon,233,234

Walsh,John,119

Walters,Julius(pseud.KlaraMyer),217

Walton,Lawson,95,9697,98,104

Warburton,Henry,48,4950

Watson,P.H.,1078

Watson,Samuel,113

Webb,James,193

Weininger,Otto,29,32

Wellard,Frederick,193

West,Richard,189

Westphal,Carl,220

Whipping.SeeFlogging

WhiteCaps,20

WhiteCrossMovement,87

WhiteSlavery:panicover,1718,26,37,38,245n.86

TrafficBill,18,20,22,23

continental,27

Wifebeating,15

Wilde,Oscar,24,169,190,207,220,235,244n.74

trialof30,94

Williams,John,95,100,101

Williams,Muzio,91,92

Women,3,6,13

abortionofsingle,71,76,77,78

abortionofmarried,78

asexhibitionists,2046

changingroles,219

corporalpunishmentof,13,14,23

impactofWorldWarIon,235,236

inbigamycases,64,69

matrimonialagenciesand,55

murderand,114,12629

"new,"32,170

protectionof,19,22,5960,61

rightsof,15,159

sexualdesiresof,172,180

targetsofexhibitionists,187,19899,206

transvestismof,21416,23031

unwomanly,31

working,253n.77

Women'sChristianTemperanceUnion,21

Woolf,Virginia,290n.34

Workhouse,13

Workingclass:bigamyand,6163,70

conceptofgentlemanand,89

exhibitionismand,199

"knowingness"of,56

marriageand,53,57,68

murderand,12122

WorldWarI,18,66,207,23335,236

Page307

World'sGreatMarriageAssociation,3943,52,70,250n.13

trialof4651

Wray,WilliamOsterfield(pseud.Dr.AlfredFieldHenery),13738

Wulffen,Erich,204

Youth:male3031

female31

Ysakyr,Thomas,187

Zola,mile,31,61,170,186