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Review Lesson

PART 1: VERBS

A. Study Charts
Affirmative Negative
Be He is tired. He isnt tired.
I am afraid. Im not afraid.
He was absent. He wasnt absent.
Simple Present Tense I work. I dont work.
He works. He doesnt work.
Simple Past I worked. I didnt work.
I ate. I didnt eat.
I fell. I didnt fall.
I studied. I didnt study.
Future I am going to study. I am not going to study.
I will study. I wont study.
Present Continuous He is sleeping. He isnt sleeping.
Past Continuous He was sleeping. He wasnt sleeping.
Present Perfect You have broken the mirror. You havent broken the mirror.
Present Perfect Continuous We have been studying for We havent been studying for two
two hours. hours.
Modals He can study. He cannot study.
You should go. You shouldnt go.

BePresent BePast
I am I, He, She, It was
You, We, They are You, We, They were
He, She, It is

Part 1: Verbs R-1


B. Rules and Editing Practice
Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.
Rule 1. For the simple present tense, use the s form for he, she, it, singular
subjects, gerund subjects, and subjects beginning with every and no.
Study Edit
s
She has a computer. 1. My brother work in a restaurant.
He needs my help. 2. in Australia.
My best friend lives
Your composition looks good. 3. Getting a college degree require hard work.
Learning a new language takes time. 4. Nobody know how I feel.
Everyone deserves a good life. 5. No one have time for me now.
Nobody wants to get old. 6. Every child deserves love.
Wrong: She have a computer. 7. Everybody want respect.
8. That building needs repair.

Rule 2. When the subject is I, we, they, you, or a plural word, use the base form,
not the -s form.
Study Edit
I like ice cream. 1. They has free time now.
You live near me. 2. People complains a lot.
We walk to school. 3. My parents lives in Germany.
My parents live in China. 4. The students want more practice.
Note: People is a plural word. 5. All her friends has a cell phone.
Some people have a hard life.
Wrong: Some people has a hard life.

Rule 3. To form the negative of the simple present tense, use dont with I, you,
we, they, and plural subjects. Use doesnt with he, she, it, and singular subjects.
Always use the base form after dont or doesnt.
Study Edit
I speak Italian. I dont speak German. 1. He dont know your name.
We know the question. We dont know the 2. We doesnt speak French.
answer. 3. Some people doesnt have a cell phone.
He has a bike. He doesnt have a car. 4. They dont want to go home.
She lives in Los Angeles. She doesnt live in 5. I dont like his new jacket.
San Diego. 6. She doesnt lives in New York.
Wrong: She doesnt lives in San Diego.

R-2 Review Lesson


Rule 4. To describe regular activity or repeated action, use the base form or the
s form for the simple present tense. Dont use the -ing form.
Study Edit
I always drink coffee in the morning. 1. I usually sitting near the door.
She never walks to school. 2. We always watch TV at night.
Wrong: She never walking to school. 3. She driving to school every day.
4. I brush my teeth three times a day.
5. She doesnt eating breakfast every day.

Rule 5. Use the correct form of be.


(I am, He is, She is, It is, You are, We are, They are)
(I was, He was, She was, It was, You were, We were, They were)
Study Edit
My parents are very kind. 1. My friends is always good to me.
We are sorry about your problem. 2. We was in Canada last summer.
Your sister is intelligent. 3. You were in class yesterday.
You were late yesterday. 4. Most people is kind.
My brother was at the soccer game last week. 5. They wasnt here yesterday.

Rule 6. Do not use a form of be to form the simple present or the simple past
tense.
Study Edit
I like my new dog. 1. Shes needs some help.
Wrong: I am like my new dog. 2. Im know Spanish well.
She bought a new CD player. 3. She was took the test last week.
Wrong: She was bought a new CD player. 4. The accident was happened at four oclock.
5. I left my keys at home.
6. He was opened the present.

Rule 7. Many past-tense verbs are irregular. Use the correct form. For a complete
list of irregular verbs, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix M.
Study Edit
She left early this morning. 1. They went home early last night.
We saw the movie last night. 2. She heared the news on the radio this
I knew the answer. morning.
She fell down two days ago. 3. He see the accident yesterday.
Wrong: She falled down. 4. They wrote a composition last night.

Part 1: Verbs R-3


Rule 8. After do, does, and did, use the base form.
Study Edit
Doesnt she have a cell phone? 1. Did you saw the movie yesterday?
Does she know the answer? 2. Does she understands the problem?
Did you drive the car? 3. Did you find the newspaper?
Did he bring his book today? 4. Does the teacher have your paper?
Wrong: Did he brought his book today? 5. Does your father knows your cell phone
number?
6. Does he has a laptop computer?

Rule 9. To make the negative of regular and irregular past-tense verbs, use
didnt + the base form.
Study Edit
She saw the movie. She didnt see the play. 1. He didnt went to the party last Saturday.
She studied French. She didnt study German. 2. I dont watched the news last night.
Wrong: She dont studied German. 3. She didnt find a job last week.
She lost her keys. She didnt lose her wallet. 4. He took the keys. He didnt take the money.
Wrong: She didnt lost her wallet.

Rule 10. In American English, the negative of have as a main verb is dont have.
The negative of has is doesnt have. The negative of had is didnt have.
Study Edit
British: He has money. He hasnt any time. Change to American English:
American: He has money. He doesnt have any 1. She hadnt time to do her homework last
time. night.
2. I havent money for the bus.
3. He hasnt a car.

Rule 11. Use was/were with born. Do not use did with born. Do not put an ending
on born.
Study Edit
I was born in 1978. 1. They were born in Guatemala.
Wrong: I borned in 1978. 2. I borned in July.
Where were your parents born? 3. When was your parents born?
Wrong: Where did your parent born? 4. Did you born before 1985?

R-4 Review Lesson


Rule 12. Continuous tenses = a form of be + verb -ing.
Study Edit
We are correcting sentences. 1. He eating lunch now.
She was driving when she had an accident. 2. Hes work now.
They have been living in the U.S. for three 3. I sleeping when the phone rang.
years. 4. They are driving home now.
Wrong: They have living in the U.S. for 5. The baby has sleeping for four hours.
three years. 6. Im read a great book now.
The teacher is teaching us about verbs. 7. You have been working for six hours.
Wrong: The teacher teaching us about
verbs.

Rule 13. Dont use a continuous tense with nonaction verbs (believe, care, cost,
hate, have, hear, know, like, love, matter, mean, need, own, prefer, remember, see,
seem, think (about), understand, want, and sense perception verbs: taste, smell,
feel, sound, look).
Study Edit
I remember my first day in the U.S. 1. Are you wanting to go home now?
We dont need your help now. 2. I am not remembering the name of my first
I like your new shirt. teacher.
Wrong: I am liking your new shirt. 3. This music sounds beautiful.
4. He is understanding English now.
5. Do you own a cell phone now?

Rule 14. Present perfect tense = have/has + past participle. Use the present
perfect for:
actions or states that started in the past and continue to the present.
activities that repeat in a present time period.
an indefinite time in the past.

Study Edit
I have taken several art courses. 1. I have made many mistakes.
She has been here since May. 2. They been here for two hours.
Wrong: She been here since May. 3. Ive look at the clock five times.
The teacher has given several tests. 4. She has eating dinner already.
Note: Dont confuse the -ing form with the 5. Have you ever been in France?
-en form. 6. We havent given our parents a gift yet.
Wrong: The teacher has giving several tests.

Part 1: Verbs R-5


Rule 15. Present perfect continuous = have/has + been + verb-ing. Use the
present perfect continuous for actions that started in the past and continue to
the present.
Study Edit
He has been studying for two hours. 1. You have been worked for two hours.
We have been working for five weeks. 2. Theyve been sleeping for five hours.
Wrong: We been working for five weeks. 3. Ive living in Chicago for three months.
She has been giving me piano lessons for 4. Shes been taken English classes for three
three years. years.
Note: Dont confuse the -ing form with the 5. She been sleeping for six hours.
-en form. 6. I have studying English for three years.
Wrong: She has been given me piano
lessons for three years.

Rule 16. After certain verbs (want, need, expect, try), use an infinitive
(to + base form).
Study Edit
I needed to find a job. 1. She needs buy a new car.
Wrong: I needed to found a job. 2. I wanted called you yesterday.
I expect to get an A in this course. 3. She wanted to left early last night.
Wrong: I expect get an A. 4. She wants to finish college and finding a job.
Note: If two infinitives are connected with 5. He expected to receive a letter yesterday.
and, dont repeat to. The second verb is an 6. I like to receive and to send letters.
infinitive without to.
She wants to get married and have children.

R-6 Review Lesson


Rule 17. Include be and to with the following expressions: be supposed to,
be allowed to, be permitted to, be able to. Be sure to put a d at the end of
supposed, allowed, permitted.
Study Edit
Are you able to find a job? 1. You are able to speak English well.
I am supposed to write my composition on 2. We not supposed to talk during a test.
the computer. 3. Youre not allowed park on this side of the
Wrong: I supposed to write my composition street.
on the computer. 4. We not permitted to use our dictionaries
The child is not permitted to see the movie. during a test.
Wrong: The child is not permitted see the 5. Youre not suppose to write on that paper.
movie.
We are not allowed to talk during a test.
Wrong: We are not allow to talk during
a test.

Rule 18. Future = will + base form or am/is/are + going to + base form.
Study Edit
She will eat dinner later. 1. He will coming home later.
She is going to eat dinner later. 2. She will become a doctor.
Note: Dont use be together with a simple 3. I going to visit my parents on Saturday.
future tense verb. 4. You will be have a good time on your
Wrong: I will be eat dinner later. vacation.
Note: Dont use will and going to together. 5. I will going to visit my cousins next week.
Wrong: I will going to eat dinner later.

Rule 19. When talking about the future, use the simple-present tense in a time
clause or an if clause.
Study Edit
She will eat dessert after she finishes dinner. 1. When I will return to my country, I will visit
If you are at the library, the librarian will my parents.
help you. 2. He will go to the movies if he will have time.
I will do my homework after I go home. 3. She will visit the Eiffel Tower when she is in
Wrong: I will do my homework after I will Paris.
go home. 4. If Im home before 10 p.m., Ill call you.

Part 1: Verbs R-7


Rule 20. We show purpose with to + the base form.
Study Edit
He used a knife to open the box. 1. I turned on the TV for watch the weather.
She needs money to go to college. 2. She used a spell check to check her spelling
I came to this school to learn English. mistakes.
Wrong: I came to this school for learning 3. He came to the U.S. for improving his skills.
English.
Wrong: I came to this school for learn
English.

Rule 21. After a modal, use the base form. (Modals = can, could, will, would,
should, may, might, must.)
Study Edit
They can learn English. 1. She dont can drive.
You should drive carefully. 2. I cant to help you.
Wrong: You should to drive carefully. 3. You shouldnt making so much noise.
Note: To make a negative of a modal, put not 4. It may rain tonight.
after the modal. 5. You must to leave immediately.
They couldnt help me. 6. You should not drive so fast.
Wrong: They dont could help me.

Rule 22. Dont forget the d in used to.


Study Edit
They used to have a dog. 1. She use to own a house, but she sold it.
I used to live with my grandparents. 2. I used to live with my uncle.
Wrong: I use to live with my grandparents. 3. They use to play video games.

R-8 Review Lesson


Rule 23. After prepositions, use the -ing form. Some prepositions are for, about,
of, from, after, before, in, without, by.
Study Edit
After finishing dinner, we watched TV. 1. Hes concerned about lose his job.
Instead of using a fork, we used a spoon. 2. He thanked me for give him my seat.
You cant get ahead without working hard. 3. Are you good at writing compositions?
Shes interested in learning about computers. 4. She complains about not get enough sleep.
Before eating dinner, wash your hands. 5. Instead of write your composition by hand,
Wrong: Before eat dinner, wash your hands. you can use the computer.

Rule 24. Dont mix can and be able to.


Study Edit
I can play the guitar. 1. Are you able to finish the job?
I am able to play the guitar. 2. She cant able to do her homework with the
Wrong: I can able to play the guitar. TV on.
3. I cant help you.

EXERCISE 1 Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,write C.
s
EXAMPLES He drink coffee every day.

You were late yesterday. C

1. She going to buy a new computer next month.


2. She goes to the library once a week.
3. My brother work very hard.
4. She didnt went home after work yesterday.
5. My father have a new car.
6. My cousin lives in New York.
7. I watching TV last night when the telephone rang.
8. My sister likes dogs. She doesnt likes cats.
9. Ill be know a lot of grammar at the end of the semester.
10. He speaks Russian. He doesnt speak Ukrainian.
11. She will take a vacation next month.

Part 1: Verbs R-9


12. Hes a doctor. He been a doctor since 1997.
13. Nobody know how to fix the problem.
14. We cant able to help you now.
15. I have saw a lot of good movies lately.
16. He was driving to work when he had a flat tire.
17. Last week, she was lost her gloves.
18. I have eating Mexican food many times.
19. She forgot to turned off the oven.
20. If we will have time next week, we will go to the zoo.
21. You should to buy a faster computer.
22. I want eat lunch now.
23. Every student need a textbook.
24. She doesnt has a computer.
25. I not want to go outside now.
26. You done a good job on your last composition.
27. She quitted her job two months ago.
28. My father was borned in 1945.
29. Shes been talking on the phone for two hours.
30. Were you excited about go to Paris?
31. She cant understand the lesson.
32. I finded a job yesterday.
33. She didnt understood the explanation.
34. Some American people is very friendly.
35. She will become a teacher when she graduates.
36. Im not able find a good job.
37. Most people want to be rich.
38. You wasnt in class yesterday.
39. He has already taking care of the problem.
40. She came to the U.S. for find a better job.
41. They didnt driving to Canada. They flew there.
42. Be quiet. The baby sleeping.
43. I want to go back to my country and visiting my parents.

R-10 Review Lesson


44. You not supposed to talk in the library.
45. She expected received a letter, but she didnt.
46. She isnt interested in watching the baseball game.
47. I am not knowing the answer to your question.
48. I use to walk to school, but now I take the bus.
49. We visiting our grandparents every week.
50. Were not allow to write in our books.
51. When I am at the post office tomorrow, Ill buy stamps.
52. Are we suppose to write a composition today?

PART 2: ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, AND NOUN MODIFIERS

A. Study Chart
Adjectives Adverbs Noun Modifiers
Adjectives describe a Adverbs describe a verb. Noun modifiers make nouns
noun. more specific.
He is a careful driver. He drives carefully. He has a drivers license.
He is a good cook. He cooks well. He uses a gas stove.
She is a hard worker. She works hard. She is a city worker.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. A descriptive adjective has no plural form.


Study Edit
His ideas are so different from mine. 1. Her children are beautifuls.
He has two wonderful daughters. 2. You have pretty eyes.
Wrong: He has two wonderfuls daughters. 3. Boston and Chicago are Americans cities.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers R-11


Rule 2. After a form of be or other linking verbs (seem, look, smell, sound, taste,
feel), use an adjective, not an adverb.
Study Edit
I am very proud of you. 1. She seems responsible.
The pie tastes good. 2. She is very carefully when she drives.
The coffee smells fresh. 3. That music sounds beautifully.
Wrong: The coffee smells freshly.

Rule 3. To describe an action, use an adverb, not an adjective.


Study Edit
He speaks English fluently. 1. You should drive careful.
I type very quickly. 2. He spoke very quiet.
Wrong: I type very quick. 3. Please speak more softly.

Rule 4. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: fast, hard, late1,
early. They do not use -ly.
Study Edit
She has an early class. She arrives early. 1. She worked very hardly last week.
He is a fast worker. He works fast. 2. She talks very fastly.
Wrong: He works fastly. 3. Im trying hard to find a job.
4. She came late to the meeting.

Rule 5. Good is an adjective. The adverb is well.


Study Edit
He is a good cook. 1. He writes English very good.
He cooks well. 2. He is a good writer.
Wrong: He cooks good. 3. I didnt do too good on my math test.

1Hard and late have an -ly form, but the meaning is different:
Lately she has had a lot of problems. (lately = recently)
Hes lazy. He hardly does any work at all. (hardly = almost nothing)

R-12 Review Lesson


Rule 6. Some -ed words are adjectives: concerned, located, situated, married,
divorced, crowded, allowed, permitted, worried, tired. Dont omit the -ed for these
words. Since these words are not verbs, be sure to include a verb (usually a form
of be).
Study Edit
My sister isnt married. 1. Are you tire?
We are not permitted to use a book during 2. Im not worried about my grades.
the test. 3. Shes concern about her son.
My college is located nearby. 4. The elevator isnt crowded.
Wrong: My college located nearby. 5. The college situated on the corner of
Im bored. Broadway and Wilson Avenues.
Wrong: Im bore.

Rule 7. You can put very before adjectives and adverbs. You cannot put very
before verbs.
Study Edit
You have a very good accent. 1. I very like your new car.
You speak English very well. 2. His new suit is very expensive.
I want to meet your mother very much. 3. He dresses very stylishly.
Wrong: I very want to meet your mother. 4. She very wants to be a pilot.

Rule 8. Use too much before nouns. Use too before adjectives and adverbs.
Study Edit
That car costs too much money for me. 1. Hes too young to retire.
That car is too expensive. I cant buy it. 2. He drives too much slowly on the highway.
Wrong: That car is too much expensive. He can get a ticket.
I cant buy it. 3. Its too much hot in here. Lets turn on the
air conditioner.

Rule 9. Use too, too much, too many only if there is a problem. If there is no
problem, use very and a lot of.
Study Edit
My brother is a very good student. 1. My brother got a scholarship to a good
My brother is 14. Hes too young to drive. college because hes too smart.
I ate too much candy, and now I feel sick. 2. He found a job because he has too much
He has a lot of friends. Hes happy. experience in his field.
Wrong: He has too many friends. 3. He finally found a good job. Now he makes
too much money.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers R-13


Rule 10. When a noun describes a noun, the first noun is always singular.
Study Edit
She had a two-week vacation. 1. Put your shoes in a shoes box.
I need a five-dollar bill. 2. We have a three-days weekend next week.
Wrong: I need a five-dollars bill. 3. I need an eye exam. My eyes are bad.

Rule 11. This and that are singular. These and those are plural.
Study Edit
This watermelon is big. 1. That shoes are mine.
That watermelon is small. 2. Those are beautiful boots.
Those cherries are good. 3. This are my English books.
These grapes are delicious. 4. This gloves are too big for me.
Wrong: This grapes are delicious.

Rule 12. Combine two affirmative statements with too. Combine two negative
statements with either.
Study Edit
I exercise every day, and my sister does too. 1. My mother doesnt like sports. My sister
I dont play tennis, and my sister doesnt doesnt too.
either. 2. She cant speak Spanish, and I cant either.
Wrong: I dont play tennis, and my sister 3. My mother likes classical music, and I too.
doesnt too. 4. I dont play tennis, and my sister doesnt
Note: Include an auxiliary verb before too too.
and either.
My friend has a dog, and I do too.
Wrong: My friend has a dog, and I too.

R-14 Review Lesson


EXERCISE 2 Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.
ly
EXAMPLES He drives very careful .

He speaks English fluently. C

1. Her daughters are very intelligents.


2. He is very proudly because his daughter graduated from college.
3. The bread tastes fresh.
4. Im too much busy today. I dont have time for you.
5. She very likes her new job.
6. This books are mine.
7. We had a three-weeks vacation.
8. I dont type very fast or very well.
9. I cant speak Italian, and my friend cant too.
10. She studied hard for the test.
11. You are not allow to talk during a test.
12. My house located in a suburb.
13. Im concerned about learning English.
14. My sister has a Japanese car, and I too.
15. They speak English perfectly.
16. She doesnt know him very good.
17. My sister likes tennis. Her daughter does too.
18. Hes always tire because he works so hardly.
19. She gets up early every day.
20. The bus is very crowd in the morning.

Part 2: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Noun Modifiers R-15


PART 3: COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES

A. Study Charts
Simple Comparative Superlative
Short Adjectives and Adverbs tall taller tallest
Add -er / -est big bigger biggest
old older oldest
Adjectives That End in -y busy busier busiest
Change y to i, add -er / -est easy easier easiest
Longer Adjectives important more important most important
Add more /most before the adjective wonderful more wonderful most wonderful
-ly Adverbs quickly more quickly most quickly
Add more / most before the adverb easily more easily most easily
Irregular Forms good better best
well better best
bad worse worst
badly worse worst
far* farther farthest
far further furthest
little less least
a lot more most
Language Note:
Far, farther, farthest is used for distance. Far, further, furthest is used for concepts.
He rode his bike the farthest. He explained his idea further.

Examples Comparison Patterns


Comparative He is taller than his father. short adjective / adverb + -er + than
Forms He is more intelligent than his brother. more + long adjective + than
He drives more carefully than you do. more + -ly adverb + than
Superlative He is the tallest person in his family. the + short adjective / adverb + -est
Forms He is the most intelligent person in the most + long adjective
his family. the most + -ly adverb
He drives the most carefully of anyone
in his family.
Equality with He is as tall as his brother. as adjective as
Adjectives She doesnt dance as well as me. as adverb as
and Adverbs
Equality with He has as much money as you do. as much noncount noun as
Quantities I dont have as many friends as you do. as many plural noun as

R-16 Review Lesson


Equality with You dont drive as much as I do. as much (as)
Verbs You eat more. I dont eat as much.
Equality with He is the same height as his brother. the same noun (as)
Nouns He and his brother are the same height.
Equality with She looks like her father. look like / look alike
Sense- They look alike. sound like / sound alike
Perception A CD almost sounds like live music. taste like / taste alike
Verbs They sound almost alike. feel like / feel alike
This coat feels like real fur. smell like / smell alike
Equality of She is like her mother. They are both be like / be alike
Characteristics very talented.
She and her mother are alike.
Same The new dollar bills are not the same as the same (as)
the old dollar bills.
The new dollar bills and the old dollar
bills are not the same.
Different The new dollar bills are different from different (from)
the old dollar bills.
The new dollar bills and the old dollar
bills are different.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. Choose the correct form of the adjective or adverb. A simple adjective or
adverb (tall, good, important, fast) describes one thing or person. A comparative
adjective or adverb (taller, better, more important, faster) compares two things or
people. A superlative adjective or adverb (the tallest, the best, the most important,
the fastest) points out the number-one item in a group of three or more.
Study Edit
biggest
He is tall. 1. New York is the bigger city in the U.S.
He is taller than his father. 2. Trigonometry is difficult than algebra.
Hes the tallest person in his family. 3. Chicago is a bigger city.
Wrong: He is a taller person. 4. Los Angeles is big than Chicago.
Golf is a popular sport. 5. My grandfather is very oldest.
Baseball is more popular than golf. 6. You drive most carefully than your brother.
Soccer is the most popular sport in the 7. She is the more beautiful woman I have ever
world. seen.
8. The dictionary is a heavier book.

Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives R-17


Rule 2. Use -er and -est with short adjectives (including adjectives that end
in -y) and short adverbs ( fast, late, early, hard). Use more and most with longer
adjectives and -ly adverbs.
Study Edit
My aunt is nicer than my uncle. 1. I am more old than you are.
Book 2 is easier than Book 3. 2. My sister is more intelligent than my brother.
3. Who is the most lazy person in your family?
My aunt is more intelligent than my uncle.
4. What is the most unusual place you have
The car is running more smoothly than
visited?
before.
5. My dictionary is heavier than my textbook.
Jake is the tallest person in my family. 6. He wrote the composition more carefully
He is the laziest person Ive ever met. than I did.
She is the most interesting person in my 7. You speak English fluentlier than I do.
family.
She dresses the most stylishly of all her
classmates.

Rule 3. Before a superlative form, use the. Use than before the second item of
comparison.
Study Edit
New York is the biggest city in the U.S. 1. Books in the U.S. are more expensive books
Los Angeles is bigger than Chicago. in my country.
Note: Omit than if you omit the second item 2. My aunt is intelligent, but my uncle is even
of comparison. more intelligent than.
3. Alaska is largest state in the U.S.
Los Angeles is big, but New York is bigger.
4. Is Alaska larger than California?

Rule 4. Dont use more and -er together. Dont use most and -est together.
Study Edit
You are older than I am. 1. You drive more worse than I do.
Wrong: You are more older than I am. 2. You are the most youngest person in the
He is the tallest person in his family. class.
Wrong: He is the most tallest person in his 3. You type more quickly than I do.
family. 4. She speaks more faster than you do.
5. This book is more better than the other one.

R-18 Review Lesson


Rule 5. With nouns, use the same . . . (as). With adjectives and adverbs, use
as . . . as.
Study Edit
She and her husband are the same age. 1. I am the same tall as my brother.
She is the same age as her husband. 2. Im not as athletic as you are.
Wrong: She is the same age like her husband. 3. A nickel is the same shape like a quarter.
She is as pretty as her sister. 4. She isnt as strong than her husband.
Wrong: She is the same pretty as her sister. 5. Her shoes are the same color as her dress.
6. I am not the same height my friend.

Rule 6. For sense similarities, use look like, sound like, feel like, etc. For other
similarities, use be like.
Study Edit
She is like her mother. They have the same 1. I am look like my twin brother.
interests. 2. You are look like your father. You both love
The weather in Cuba is like the weather in sports.
Puerto Rico. Both islands are tropical. 3. Shes beautiful. She looks like a movie star.
She looks like her mother. They have almost 4. I look like my friend. We have the same
the same face. character.
Note: Dont include be with a sense- 5. When you sing, you sound like Bob Dylan.
perception verb. 6. The weather in Chicago looks like the
Wrong: She is looks like her mother. weather in Detroit.

Rule 7. To make the negative of sense-perception verbs, use dont or doesnt.


Study Edit
She doesnt sound like a professional singer. 1. Polyester doesnt feel like silk.
My photo ID doesnt look like me at all. 2. He has an accent. He isnt sound like an
Wrong: My photo ID isnt look like me at all. American.
3. This drink looks like coffee, but it isnt smell
like coffee.

Rule 8. The connector after the same is as. The connector after different is from.
Study Edit
Large is the same as big. 1. This dish is the same like the one you made
Wrong: Large is the same like big. yesterday.
Large is different from long. 2. My English book is different than yours.
Wrong: Large is different than long. 3. Your idea is the same as mine.

Part 3: Comparatives and Superlatives R-19


EXERCISE 3 Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them.
Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,
write C.

EXAMPLES I am the most oldest of all my cousins.


She is older than her husband. C

1. Hes taller than his brother.


2. He speaks English more better than his brother.
3. Hes as smart as his brother.
4. Alaska is the biggest state in the U.S.
5. January is the colder month of the year.
6. New York is one of the most interesting cities in the world.
7. She is funniest girl in the class.
8. Hes not as old as his wife.
9. She is beautiful, but her sister is even more beautiful than.
10. Hes not the same tall as his son.
11. He and his wife are the same age.
12. Oranges dont taste as tangerines.
13. She looks like her mother. They are both pretty.
14. She isnt look like her father. She has her mothers eyes and smile.
15. Asian music doesnt look like Western music.
16. Decaf coffee tastes like regular coffee to me.
17. My house in this city is very different than my house in my hometown.
18. A quarter is the same like twenty-five cents.
19. He doesnt have as many problems as I do.
20. I dont drink as much coffee my brother.
21. You and I are alike in many ways. We both love sports and jazz.
22. He is same his father in many ways. Theyre both very intelligent.

R-20 Review Lesson


PART 4: COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS 2

A. Study Chart
Singular Count Plural Count Noncount
a peach some peaches some milk
one peach two peaches two glasses of milk
a couple of peaches a couple of glasses of milk
no peaches no milk
any peaches (in questions any milk (in questions and
and negatives) negatives)
a glass a lot of peaches a lot of milk
one glass lots of peaches lots of milk
plenty of peaches plenty of milk
many peaches much milk (in questions and
negatives)
too many peaches too much milk
a few peaches a little milk
several peaches several glasses of milk
How many peaches? How much milk?

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. With noncount nouns, use much and little. With count nouns, use many
and few.
Study Edit
few
I dont have many friends. 1. We saw a little good movies.
I dont have much time. 2. Much people came to the party.
She ate a few cookies. 3. A few people were late.
She drank a little milk. 4. I get a little help from my friends.

2 For a list of noncount nouns, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix A.

Part 4: Count and Noncount Nouns R-21


Rule 2. In affirmative statements, use a lot of, not much.
Study Edit
He drinks a lot of coffee. 1. I drank a lot of orange juice today.
I have a lot of time today. 2. The teacher gave me much information
Wrong: I have much time today. about registration.
3. You should drink much water every day.

Rule 3. With a unit of measure or container, use of. Use of with a lot and a couple.
Study Edit
I drank a cup of tea. 1. I always put a little salt in the soup.
She bought a loaf of bread. 2. He put a little of sugar in his tea.
I have a couple of tickets for the baseball 3. He bought a jar olive oil.
game. 4. I need to buy a gallon of milk.
They ate a lot of cookies. 5. Put a spoonful sugar in the tea.
Note: If you omit the noun, omit of. 6. I need to buy a couple bananas.
They ate a lot of cookies, but I didnt eat a lot. 7. She uses a lot sugar.
Note: Dont use of after a little. 8. I have a lot of free time on Monday, but I
dont have a lot of on Tuesday.
Wrong: I drink a little of juice every 9. I have a couple of questions about the
morning. grammar. My friend has a couple of too.

Rule 4. To emphasize a positive quantity, use a before few and little (to mean
some or enough). To emphasize a negative quantity, use very or nothing before
few and little (to mean almost none).
Study Edit
I saw a few good movies last week. 1. Their marriage was a failure because they
I rarely see movies in my language because had little in common.
there are very few available here. 2. Hes a lucky man. He has few good friends.
I have a little money. Lets go to the movies. 3. I cant help you today. I have a little time.
I have little money. I cant even buy a cup of 4. I bought a few bananas. Do you want one?
coffee.

R-22 Review Lesson


Rule 5. Dont make a noncount noun plural. Some unexpected words that are
noncount nouns are: advice, information, equipment, furniture, and homework.
(See Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix A for a list of noncount nouns.)
Study Edit
The teacher gave us a lot of homework. 1. He bought a lot of furnitures for his new
All this equipment is very heavy. home.
I have a lot of information about the new 2. My mother gave me a lot of advices.
courses. 3. Do you have any informations about the new
I want to give you some advice. biology course?
Wrong: I want to give you some advices. 4. I finished all my homework.
5. He works with a lot of heavy equipments.
6. He put a lot of sugars in his tea.

EXERCISE 4 Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them.
Not every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct,
write C.

EXAMPLES My counselor gave me a lot of informations about colleges.


The teacher gave us a lot of homework last week. C

1. He has many money.


2. He has many credit cards.
3. There were a lot of people at the party. Everyone had a great time.
4. I cant talk to you now. I have very little time.
5. She drank three glasses of water today.
6. She put a little of milk in her coffee.
7. The soup has no taste. There is no salt in the soup.
8. He has a lot of mistakes on his test, but he doesnt have a lot on his
composition.
9. There are some people from Guatemala in my class.
10. I have much work to do. I have little free time today.
11. The teacher gave me a lot of advices about how to study.
12. You can get a lot of information from the Internet.
13. Do we have a lot of homeworks today?
14. I ate a little of rice with dinner.
15. A little students were absent today.
16. I sent a couple letters to my friends.
17. I drink two cups coffee every day.

Part 4: Count and Noncount Nouns R-23


PART 5: NOUNS: SINGULAR/PLURAL AND POSSESSIVE

A. Study Charts
Regular Plural Forms
Singular Plural
girl girls
boy boys
box boxes
watch watches
dish dishes
class classes
lady ladies
shelf shelves

Irregular Plural Forms3


Singular Plural
man men
woman women
mouse mice
tooth teeth
foot feet
goose geese
child children
person people (OR persons)

3For other irregular plurals, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix I.

R-24 Review Lesson


Possessive Forms of Nouns
Noun Ending Examples
Singular nouns: Add apostrophe + s
teacher teachers The teachers office is on the third floor.
mother mothers My mothers name is Elena.
Plural nouns ending Add apostrophe only
in -s:
parents parents My parents house has 3 bedrooms.
students students Do you know the students names?
ladies ladies Wheres the ladies room?
Irregular plural Add apostrophe + s
nouns:
men mens Thomas and Robert are mens names.
women womens Mary and Susan are womens names.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. For possession of singular nouns and irregular plural nouns, put the
apostrophe before the s. For possession of plural nouns ending in s, put the
apostrophe after the s.
Study Edit
The boys name is Sam. 1. The childrens toys are on the floor.
The boys names are Sam and Mark. 2. My parents house is old.
The childrens names are Lee and Ann. 3. All the teachers offices are on the third floor.
The mens names are Harry and William. 4. My teachers name is Barbara.
5. The childs name is Kim.
6. My parents names are Sylvia and Paul.

Part 5: Nouns: Singular/Plural and Possessive R-25


Rule 2. Possession shows ownership or relationship. Use correct word order and
form for possession:

The mans dog.

possessor + apostrophe s + possessed


OR

The boys dog.

possessor + s apostrophe + possessed

Study Edit
The students books
The teachers office is on the second floor. 1. Books the students are blue.
My brothers wives are very nice. 2. My parents house is near mine.
My sisters car is new. 3. The children toys are on the floor.
Wrong: The car of my sister is new. 4. The name of my brother is Fred.

Rule 3. Dont use an apostrophe for a plural ending.


Study Edit
The workers are in the factory. 1. How many cousins do you have?
Two girls are crying. 2. Where do your brothers live?
Wrong: Two girls are crying. 3. Do your parents have a car?

Rule 4. To talk about more than one thing, use the plural form. After one of the,
some of the, all of the, use the plural form.
Study Edit
She bought a lot of books. 1. A lot of teacher at this school speak Spanish.
Some of my teachers are very strict. 2. Do you have a lot of friend?
One of the classrooms has carpeting. 3. One of my brother lives in Boston.
Five people in my class speak Polish. 4. All of the orange are delicious.
5. She has a lot of cousins.

R-26 Review Lesson


Rule 5. Dont put an s ending on an irregular plural noun.
Study Edit
They have beautiful children. 1. There are two mens from Taiwan in my class.
Two women came late to the meeting. 2. The children are eating ice cream.
Wrong: Two womens came late. 3. How many womens were at the meeting?

Rule 6. Use the singular form after every. Use the plural form after all.
Study Edit
Every child needs love. 1. Every students passed the test.
All children need love. 2. All the students were unhappy with the test.

EXERCISE 5 Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.
women
EXAMPLES Only three woman came to the party.
My sisters son lives in Los Angeles. C

1. They have four childrens.


2. There were two men in the office.
3. One of my friend has twin sons.
4. My parents house is not very big.
5. Car of my father is new.
6. What is name your sister?
7. Do you have any brothers?
8. Robert and Paul are mens names.
9. Your sister husband is a very nice man.
10. All of the student in this class can speak English.
11. Every student in this class can speak English.
12. All the teachers have offices. The teachers offices are on the second
floor.

Part 5: Nouns: Singular/Plural and Possessive R-27


PART 6: PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 4

A. Study Charts
Subject Object Possessive Possessive Reflexive
Pronoun Pronoun Adjective Pronoun Pronoun
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its itself
we us our ours ourselves
you you your yours yourselves
they them their theirs themselves
who whom whose whose

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. After a verb or preposition, use the object pronoun.


Study Edit
I saw her at the park. 1. She loves her boyfriend and always talks
You dont know me very well. him
They always talk about us. about he.
Wrong: They always talk about we. 2. You know my parents. You met they at the
party.
3. I want to know about your sister. Tell me
about her.

4For a list of word order of object pronouns, see Grammar in Context Book 3, Appendix F.

R-28 Review Lesson


Rule 2. Before a noun, use the possessive adjective. When the noun is omitted,
use the possessive pronoun.
Study Edit
I have my books. Do you have yours? 1. We bought ours books at the bookstore on
If you dont have your dictionary, you can the corner.
borrow mine. 2. Theirs parents dont speak English.
Our friends are in the U.S. Theirs are not. 3. They gave their children a good education.
4. My textbook is new. Yours is used.

Rule 3. After want, need, expect, would like, use the object form, plus an
infinitive.
Study Edit
He wants me to mail the package. 1. My brother watches too much TV. I want that
I expect them to answer my question. he read more.
I want her to help me. 2. The teacher wanted me to correct my
Wrong: I want that she helps me. mistakes.
3. The teacher expects we write five
compositions.
4. My parents would like I called them every
week.

Rule 4. You say something. You tell someone something.


Study Edit
He said his name clearly. 1. He told the answer.
He told me his problem. 2. She said something, but I didnt hear it.
Wrong: He said me his problem. 3. She told her name, but I forgot it.

Rule 5. Dont confuse her and his.


Study Edit
She loves her son. 1. The boy gave her mother a present.
He loves his wife. 2. My sister loves his husband.

Part 6: Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives R-29


Rule 6. Dont confuse there, theyre, and their.
Study Edit
Theyre my friends. 1. These are my brothers. Theyre names are
Their names are Bob and Alice. Peter and Tim.
They live over there. 2. They take their kids to that park over there.
3. Their very nice people.
4. What are their names?

Rule 7. Dont confuse its and its.


Study Edit
Its a hot day today. 1. This is a grammar book. Its interesting.
How does an elephant use its trunk? 2. The library has its own computer lab. Its on
the first floor.

Rule 8. Dont confuse your and youre.


Study Edit
Youre my best friend. 1. I dont know youre name.
I like your personality. 2. Your a good student.
3. Youre late for class.

Rule 9. Dont confuse whos and whose.


Study Edit
Whos your English teacher? 1. Whos coat is that?
Whose book is this? 2. Whos your best friend?

Rule 10. Before the verb, use subject pronouns. After a verb or preposition, use
object pronouns. Be careful with compound subjects and objects. If a compound
subject or object includes the speaker, the speaker is last.
Study Edit
They invited my friend and me to a party. 1. Just between you and I, I didnt study for
Wrong: They invited my friend and I. the test.
I spoke with him and his cousin. 2. Me and him had a fight.
Wrong: I spoke with he and his cousin. 3. Id like to go with them and their friends to
My friend and I went to New York. the concert.
Wrong: My friend and me went to New York. 4. I saw her and her cousin at the park.
Wrong: Me and my friend went to New York. 5. I and my sister took a trip together.

R-30 Review Lesson


Rule 11. Use the correct reflexive form. See the chart on page R-28 for the
correct form.
Study Edit
I looked at myself in the mirror. 1. All of you need to prepare yourself for the
They always talk about themselves. test.
Wrong: They always talk about themself. 2. He loves hisself very much.
3. The teachers always make theyselves
available for help.
4. She corrected herself when she made a
mistake.

EXERCISE 6 Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

EXAMPLES I dont know yours parents.


Whos that man over there? C

1. Do you like dogs? Yes, I like it very much.


2. Wheres your sister? I want to talk to she.
3. Theyre very lonely because they parents dont live in the U.S.
4. You didnt bring your book today. You can use mine.
5. Him and his wife bought a new house.
6. My neighbors take theirs children to a museum once a week.
7. He didnt wash him hands before dinner.
8. They helped theyselves to more dessert.
9. My parents wanted that I become a teacher.
10. I didnt see my friends at school, but I saw them at the library.
11. Mary speaks English well, but his brother doesnt.
12. I have two cats. I got them from my friend.
13. They lost there suitcases at the airport.
14. I know what movie youre talking about, but I cant remember
its name.
15. That boy is making a lot of noise. I want he be quiet.
16. The teacher expects us to write five compositions.
17. My parents gave my sisters and I a good education.
18. He never likes to talk about himself.
19. Whos book is this?

Part 6: Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives R-31


20. We lost ours books.
21. They always look at themself in the mirror.
22. I told them the answer.
23. I dont even know youre name.
24. She said me the secret.
25. Me and my friends like to play video games.

PART 7: SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND WORD ORDER

A. Study Chart
Examples Explanation
Subject Verb Complement A simple sentence has a subject and
She speaks English. a verb. The basic sentence word order
is:
You are early.
subject + verb + complement
Jack didnt go to work.
I woke up late, so I missed my bus. A compound sentence combines two
My counselor didnt have much time, but simple sentences with and, but, or, so.
she helped me anyway.
When you are late, you miss important A complex sentence has a dependent
information. clause and a main clause. Each clause
The man whom you met is my boss. has a subject and a verb.
I know that you passed the test.

B. Rules and Editing Practice


Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has
a mistake.

Rule 1. Every sentence must have a verb. Remember: Many -ed words are
adjectives: married, worried, tired, bored, interested, crowded, etc.
Study Edit
am
My teacher is very patient. 1. I very tired today.
^
The college is located downtown. 2. My sister is married.
The elevator was very crowded. 3. The bus crowded every morning.
They are satisfied with their grades. 4. I concerned about your health.
Wrong: They satisfied with their grades.

R-32 Review Lesson


Rule 2. A verb must have a subject.5
Study Edit
I didnt understand the lesson because it was 1. Lets stay inside. Is cold today.
too hard for me. 2. Is impossible to learn English in a month.
It is important to have a good job. 3. I dont like birds as pets because make a lot
Wrong: Is important to have a good job. of noise.

Rule 3. Dont repeat the subject with a pronoun.


Study Edit
My sister plays the piano. 1. My parents they have a new house.
Wrong: My sister she plays the piano. 2. My friend she is a doctor.
3. Your brother is very nice.
4. My friends and I we like to play soccer.

Rule 4. To introduce the subject, sometimes we need there + a form of be.


Study Edit
There were a lot of people at the party. 1. Its a telephone in the kitchen.
Wrong: Were a lot of people at the party. 2. In the park a beautiful garden.
Theres a map on the wall. 3. There will be a concert tonight.
Wrong: Its a map on the wall. 4. Are some Puerto Rican students in my class.

Rule 5. Put the subject before the verb in all clauses.


Study Edit
The children came home late. 1. The workers began to work when arrived the
Wrong: Came home late the children. boss.
The little girl is very happy. 2. I didnt go to work because the office was
Wrong: Is very happy the little girl. closed.
3. Everything that said the teacher is important.
4. Was very interesting the movie.

5Exception:
The verb in an imperative does not state the subject.
Come here. Sit down.

Part 7: Sentence Structure and Word Order R-33


Rule 6. Dont separate the verb from the object.
Study Edit
Verb Object 1. She likes very much her new apartment.
She typed the report very slowly. 2. He looks all the time at the clock.
Verb Object 3. She opened her eyes slowly.
They opened the window carefully. 4. You drove very quickly the car.
Wrong: They opened carefully the window.

Rule 7. We do not usually put more than one word between the subject and the
verb. Put a phrase before the subject or at the end of the verb phrase.
Study Edit
Once in a while, she eats meat. 1. We every day practice grammar.
She eats meat once in a while. 2. Every other day I visit my parents.
Wrong: She once in a while eats meat. 3. He in the kitchen eats breakfast.

Rule 8. Dont use a double negative.


Study Edit
There arent any elevators in the building. 1. There arent no Korean students in my class.
Wrong: There arent no elevators in the 2. I have no time for television.
building. 3. I dont want no milk in my coffee.
Nobody wants to go home. 4. She doesnt have any children.
Wrong: Nobody doesnt want to go home. 5. Nobody doesnt know how I feel.
He doesnt have any time. 6. I havent never seen the movie.
Wrong: He doesnt have no time.

Rule 9. Put a one-word adverb (always, never, probably, even, just, especially,
etc.) in the right place.
Study Edit
A. Between the subject and the verb: 1. She always is late to class.
2. I have wanted always to visit London.
I always watch the news at night.
3. You have never seen my vacation pictures.
B. After the verb be:
4. We are making probably progress.
You are especially kind. 5. He can study with noise. He even can study
C. Between the auxiliary verb and the main with loud rock music.
verb: 6. They are probably right.
I will probably call you later. 7. I dont want to bother you. Just I need to
ask you a question.
He has never seen a play.

R-34 Review Lesson


Rule 10. Most frequency words can come before the subject. However, always and
never dont usually come before the subject.
Study Edit
We never speak Spanish in class. 1. Never he walks to work.
Wrong: Never we speak Spanish in class. 2. You always tell the truth.
You are always right. 3. Always I have coffee with breakfast.
Wrong: Always you are right. 4. Never she has gone to the zoo.
5. She is never on time.

Rule 11. Put an adjective before, not after, a noun.


Study Edit
She has a very interesting job. 1. I saw a very long movie.
This is a very difficult lesson. 2. The U.S. is a country very powerful.
Wrong: This is a lesson very difficult. 3. You did a job very excellent.

Rule 12. Enough follows an adjective or adverb.


Study Edit
I am old enough to make my own decisions. 1. The little girl is enough smart to read the
He speaks English well enough to take a book.
composition course. 2. He drives well enough now to get his drivers
license.

Rule 13. In comparing nouns (rain, problems, books), put more before the noun.

Study Edit
Seattle has more rain than San Diego. 1. He has money more than I do.
I have more problems than you. 2. I have more time than you do.
Wrong: I have problems more than you. 3. You have work more than I do.

Rule 14. In comparing verbs (read, cook), put the comparative adverb after the
verb phrase.
Study Edit
I read English faster than you do. 1. I more quickly finished the homework than
You cook better than your wife. you did.
Wrong: You better cook than your wife. 2. She writes English more beautifully than we
do.

Part 7: Sentence Structure and Word Order R-35


Rule 15. If two nouns come together, put the specific noun before the general noun.
Study Edit
She has a winter coat. 1. Can I borrow your hair dryer?
I need a coat hanger. 2. This wig is made of hair human.

EXERCISE 7 Find the mistakes with word order and correct them. If the
subject or verb is missing, add it. Take out any extra words. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

EXAMPLES We did at night the homework.


It i
Is necessary to have a good dictionary.
^
On Monday and Wednesday, the teacher is usually in her office. C

1. Came in late the student and took a seat in the back.


2. She always has problems with spelling.
3. Because she has a full-time job, she has a lot of responsibilities.
4. Is very important to know your rights.
5. I have always wanted to visit Paris.
6. Began registration on August 18.
7. I dont like very much my biology class.
8. I found on the desk a dictionary.
9. Whenever I have a problem, I talk to my father.
10. She doesnt know nothing about your problem.
11. Theres in my class a Japanese woman.
12. She cant always come to class on time.
13. He usually eats cereal for breakfast.
14. Never he eats eggs for breakfast.
15. He usually is sleepy in the afternoon.
16. San Francisco a very beautiful city.
17. Are a lot of closets in my new apartment.
18. Shes almost finished with her composition. Just she has to write a
title.
19. She opened carefully the package.
20. Once in a while, Mary eats ice cream.

R-36 Review Lesson


21. I dont speak Spanish. Only I speak English and Italian.
22. I didnt understand nothing the teacher said.
23. After arrived the teacher, the lesson began.
24. After my brother found a job, bought a car.
25. He doesnt want to eat for dinner chicken.
26. Came to the U.S. my father last year.
27. I dont have no time for you today.
28. She left angrily the room.
29. At nine oclock starts the second part of the movie.
30. Is very good the story you wrote.
31. He will probably go to Mexico for vacation.
32. I will be probably absent next week.
33. Is he enough old to drive?
34. She has a wonderful family.
35. He earns money more than his wife.
36. My parents they live in Montreal.
37. I run faster than you do.
38. Do you have a license fishing?
39. I always listen to the news on the radio.
40. I cant quickly run.
41. Theres a good movie on TV at 6:00.
42. Always we study before a test.

PART 8: QUESTION FORMATION

A. Study Charts
Be
Wh- Word Be Subject Be Complement
She is in California.
Is she in Los Angeles?
Where is she?
Why isnt she in Los Angeles?
Who is in Los Angeles?

Part 8: Question Formation R-37


Simple Present Tense
Wh- Word Do/Does Subject Verb Complement
She watches TV.
Does she watch TV at night?
When does she watch TV?
Why doesnt she watch TV at night?
Who watches TV at night?
How many people watch TV at night?

Simple Past Tense


Wh- Word Did Subject Verb Complement
He bought a TV.
Did he buy a DVD?
When did he buy a TV?
Why didnt he buy a DVD?
Who bought a DVD?

Modal
Wh- Word Modal Subject Modal Main Verb Complement
She can play the piano.
Can she play the guitar?
When can she play the piano?
Why cant she play the guitar?
Who can play the guitar?

Continuous Tense
Wh- Word Aux. verb Subject Aux. verb Main verb Complement
They are eating lunch.
Are they eating rice?
What are they eating?
Why arent they eating rice?
Who is eating rice?

R-38 Review Lesson


B. Rules and Editing Practice
Look at the rules and study the examples in the column on the left. Find and
correct the errors in the edit column on the right. Not every sentence has a
mistake.

Rule 1. To ask about cost, spelling, and meaning, use normal question word
order: Wh- word + do/does/did + subject + verb + complement.
Study Edit
do you
How much did your book cost? How spell Minnesota?
^
Wrong: How much cost your book? What does friendship mean?
What does DVD mean? How much cost your trip to the U.S.?
Wrong: What means DVD? How do you spell the name of your country?
How do you spell your name? How say hello in your language?
Wrong: How spell your name?
How do you say teacher in your language?
Wrong: How say teacher in your
language?

Rule 2. Dont use do/does/did with questions about the subject.


Study Edit
Who came to the party? How many students brought a dictionary today?
How many people came to the party? Who did come late to the meeting?
Which people came to the party? Who has my keys?
What kind of people came to the party? Which student does have my book?
Wrong: Who did come to the party?

EXERCISE 8 Find the mistakes with question formation and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

didnt you
EXAMPLES Why you didnt call me last night?
Who called you last night? C

1. What means invent?


2. Who lives in the White House?
3. How do you spell your name?
4. Where I can buy a good computer?

Part 8: Question Formation R-39


5. How many languages speaks your father?
6. Does the vice president lives in the White House?
7. What should I take to the party?
8. How much costs a new car?
9. How say car in your language?
10. When were you buy your books?
11. What kind of car your brother bought?
12. How much money do you have?
13. Where does live your teacher?
14. What time you go to bed every night?
15. Do you ever drink coffee at night?
16. Why dont you buy a new computer?
17. How many states the U.S. has?
18. How many students in the class speak Spanish?

R-40 Review Lesson