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Monterey, California, USA, 24-28 July, 2005

Automotive Part Surface Inspection

Quan Shi, Ning Xi, and Yifan Chen

Abstract This paper introduces an automated 3D optical A robotic area sensing system is developed for dimen-

measurement system. In industrial inspection, Coordinate Mea- sional measurement of inspecting industrial parts. The sys-

surement Machines (CMMs) provide accurate measurement but tem is illustrated in Figure 1. We developed an area sensor

are very time consuming because only one point can be acquired

each time. An area sensor based robotic 3D measurement prototype and an area sensor planner to implement this

system can acquire an automotive parts surface patch-by- robotic area sensing system, which can generate 3D point

patch, which reduces the inspection time signicantly. This clouds of a part automatically.

paper describes a pixel-to-pixel sensor calibration scheme and Gray Code and Line Shifting (GCLS) method can give

a bounding box based sensor planning method which are high sensor precision and accuracy [3] [4]. Precision species

developed for the automatic optical measurement system of

large and complex surfaces. Experiment results are presented a limitation that an area sensor can reach and sensor accuracy

and discussed. species the ability of an area sensor to tell the truth of

a parts 3D dimensions. An area sensor with high accuracy

I. INTRODUCTION may not have high measurement precision.

Calibration of an area sensor has been discussed for years.

Current manufacturing industry needs a rapid product Trobina [5] developed an error model for an active range

dimensional inspection process [1]. Instead of measuring an sensor, in which the 3D sensors model was developed

object point-by-point using Coordinate Measurement Ma- based on camera perspective geometry and a maximum

chine (CMMs), people expect measuring an objects surface likelihood estimation method. A multiple-plane method [6]

patch-by-patch using an area sensor. A lot research has been was developed to calibrated lens distortion of a projector for

done on 3D shape measurement [2]. But, to implement a 3D range sensors. A relative error model [7] was proposed

rapid inspection system into industry application, following for calibration of the active triangulation sensing model.

ve requirements need to be satised: fast, high accuracy, Recently, a self-calibration method [8] has been developed

high precision, high point density, and inexpensive. Precision for an active 3D sensing system. The distance between

is dened as the minimum surface height difference that can correspondent points was also analyzed. The rectication of

be measured by an area sensor. stripe location was well formulated to calculate the distance

To reduce the time of an inspection process, vision based between the pair of correspondent points.

surface measurement methods attract a lot of attention. Vari- Pinhole camera model was widely used in area sensor

eties of 3D sensors, line or area scanners, using laser light or calibration. Therefore, in the area sensor triangulation model,

white light projection, have been developed. Usually, expe- all incident light beams are emitted from one point, the

rienced technicians are required for controlling illumination pupil of the projector lens; and all recorded light beam

conditions, setting the 3D sensor on different viewpoints, and are considered to pass through the pupil of camera lens,

re-calibrating system. Therefore, an automated dimensional which forms two end points of the baseline of active sensing

inspection system is essential to manufacturing industry. triangle. After calibration, all points on the image plane are

calculated based this triangular geometry. This triangulation

Area Sensor CAD model relies on the well calibrated lens. It has been known

Model Model that camera calibration process needs a nonlinear least square

estimation by using Levenberg-Marquardt optimization. But,

Area Sensor 3D Point Clouds Error Map

Planner Measurement Integration Generation without a good initial parameter estimation, the optimization

algorithm will have a local minimum and the calibration may

Fig. 1. An robotic area sensing system for dimensional inspection fail [9][10]. Even if it is calibrated successfully, calibration

residue may not be tolerable for part inspection. Therefore,

The work described in this paper is supported under NSF Grant IIS- off-the-shelf lenses may not be able to be used for a commer-

9796300, IIS-9796287, EIA-9911077, DMI-0115355 and FORD Motor cial 3D sensors. A pixel-to-pixel strategy has been developed

Company university research project. for calibrating off-the-shelf lenses. Instead of calibrating the

Q. Shi is with the Department of Electrical and Computer En-

gineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA frames of a camera and a projector using the pinhole model,

shiquan@egr.msu.edu each pair of corresponding points are calibrated. Therefore,

N. Xi is with Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan the area sensor parameters are no longer a group of constants,

State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA xin@egr.msu.edu

Y. Chen is with the Scientic Research Lab, Ford Motor Company, but a group of matrices corresponding to pairs of pixels.

Dearborn, MI, USA ychen1@ford.com To get a 3D point cloud, the area sensor need to be

Camera Projector

calibrated in 3D space. Usually, the baseline between the d

camera and the projection has an offset angle to the direction

of stripe. Simulation analysis shows that angle signicantly

affect the measurement accuracy. Because of the cameras

perspective geometry model, transformation from measured S

2.5D height maps to 3D point clouds is necessary for

part shape measurement. An exploding vector method is

developed in this paper for calibrating the transformation D

matrix. h

Sensor planning has been an active research area [11] [12]. C A

LAC Reference plane

Because a prior CAD model embeds delity into the planning

strategy, Model-based sensor planning methods are more reli- Fig. 2. Measurement conguration of area sensor using structured light

able than non-model-based methods to be used in inspection method

system. Knowledge based methods [13][14] require expert

information. Generate-and-test approach can simplify sensor

planning into a searching problem [15]. Cowan and Kovesi analysis is to nd the corresponding point A and C, so that

et.al [16] made task constraints as searching functions and the distance LAC can be obtained. The surface relative height

solved the task as a constraint-satisfaction problem. One h can be calculated. As reported in [4], GCLS method has

limitation is that the solution space is conned because they better performance in accuracy, precision, and point density

considered fewer degrees of freedom on orientations. Taraba- in 3D shape measurement.

nis et.al [17] developed a MVP system which integrates the B. Calibration of a Digital Area Sensor

robot vision task constraints with CAD models and optical

The positioning error of the area sensor need to be

sensor models. Sheng et.al [18] developed a CAD-Based

calibrated. The frames of the camera and projector, are

robot motion planning system by combining the generate-

not easy to be aligned accurately. Distortion of an off-the-

and-test and the constraint-satisfaction approach. One prob-

shelf lens will cause the measurement errors. A pixel-to-

lem in those system is that sensors usually are considered as

pixel calibration method has been developed based on the

a single camera, or equivalent to a single camera model.

corresponding points. As shown in Figure 3, for each pixel

In applications of 3D sensing using the structured light

on projector plane, there will be a virtual point correspondent

method, the triangulation of the projector and camera makes

on the camera side. With this pixel-to-pixel method, d and S

the area sensor model different to a single camera model.

are no longer constants but matrices. Equation(2) shows the

Therefore, placing an area sensor is a different problem

calculation of the relative height, in which, each digitized

from placing a camera. To estimate area sensor viewpoints,

surface point (xi , yi ) has a pair of corresponding sensor

task constraints for both camera and projector have to be

parameters, d(x,y) and S(x,y) .

satised. For planning 3D sensors, Prieto et.al [19] developed

a 3D laser camera and a NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational d (x1,y1)

B-Splines) based sensor planner, viewpoints are projected Camera

d (x2,y2)

Projector

on a 2D bitmap and solve occlusion and collision problem plane plane

model-based sensor planning system by mounting two video S (x1,y1)

cameras on a PUMA robot. An equivalent viewing model

couples constraints of both cameras for the sensor planning

issue. S (x2,y2)

P(x1,y1) P(x2,y2)

A. Measurement using a Digital Area Sensor

The conguration of area sensors and measurement prin- Fig. 3. Calibration of sensor triangulation using pixel-to-pixel strategy

ciple has been shown in Figure 2, where h represents the

distance from one surface point D to the reference plane. L(x,y) S(x,y)

S is the standoff from camera frame to the reference plane h(x,y) = (2)

d(x,y) + L(x,y)

and d represents the baseline distance from the camera to

the projector. From Figure 2, the following equation can be Because calibration is done independently on each pixel,

obtained: distortion problem no longer exists for calibrating (d, S)

and the calibration process is very simply but accurate. A

LAC S

h= (1) multiple plane method and a linear least square method have

d + LAC been developed to calibrated the sensor parameter matrix

Equation (1) shows how to calculate the height from surface d(x,y) and S(x,y) . Equation (3) shows the calibration formula:

points to the measurement reference plane. The task of image by shifting the reference board up multiple times, a set of

1558

heights h and lengthes L can be measured, then (d, S) can

be obtained by this calibration equation.

h(x,y) = h(x,y) h(x,y) (6)

h1 (i, j) L1 (i, j) h1 (i, j)L1 (i, j) L(x,y) S(x,y) L(x,y) S(x,y)

... d(i,j) = (3) =

...

S(i,j)

..

d(x,y) + L(x,y) d(x,y) + L(x,y)

hn (i, j) Ln (i, j) hn (i, j)Ln (i, j)

Figure 3 only shows the offset of area sensor in the plane Following two tables show simulated values of

perpendicular to the reference plane. An offset angle exists measurement errors caused by different offset angles

in a plane parallel with the reference plane, as can be see in , sensor parameters are: S=490.19mm, d=160.91mm,

Figure 4. Since the projected stripes have same code along R=0.165mm/pixel. When h is a constant, expanding

one direction of the pattern, the corresponding point may will increase measurement error signicantly; when is

fall in an arbitrary position. To eliminate this arbitrariness, a constant, the higher the surface is to the reference, the

the camera and the projector have to be aligned so that bigger is the error obtained. The quantity of the errors

sensor baseline is perpendicular to projection stripes, which show that it is necessary to calibrate the offset angle .

cannot be guaranteed in practice. Similar to the pixel-to-pixel Calibration of (x,y) can be done by following two steps:

calibration method, calibration of those offset angles need to TABLE I

be done individually to eliminate the arbitrariness in nding M EASUREMENT E RROR OF P IXEL D ISTANCE L(x,y) (pixel)

correspondent points.

1 = 2o 2 = 4o 3 = 6o 4 = 8o

Projector h1=20mm 0.025 0.101 0.223 0.408

h2=50mm 0.068 0.270 0.610 1.089

d h3=80mm 0.116 0.464 1.048 1.870

Camera M TABLE II

s

M

M EASUREMENT E RROR OF D EPTH h (mm)

1 = 2o 2 = 4o 3 = 6o 4 = 8o

h1=20mm 0.0117 0.0468 0.1057 0.1885

C C h2=50mm 0.0274 0.1102 0.2472 0.4408

Gauge h3=80mm 0.0408 0.1634 0.3684 0.6568

A

A

1). Detect the group of correspondent points of A and C,

and 2). calculate the offset angle to the axis of image plane.

Equation (2) only measures a height map, or called 2.5D

Fig. 4. Area sensor offset angle in XY plane

map, of a 3D surface. Task of area sensing for dimension

inspection requires a 3D point cloud, which not only tells

In Figure 4, point M is the desired camera position which depth but also length and width information of 3D surfaces.

makes the baseline MP perpendicular to the projection stripe. an exploding vector method has been developed to detect

For a point on the top of a gauge with equal height, point

A and point C are the correspondent points for measuring Z

Px2

Px1 Image Plane

line between the triangle plane to the reference plane with a

length of L(x,y) . But, in reality, the camera is setup at point

M and therefore the triangle plane, has another intersection

B

line which has an angle to the desired one. The point A D

X

point with same height to the reference plane, has different X1 X2

length L(x,y) . The difference of L(x,y) causes an error

h(x,y) in depth measurement in equation (2). Equation Fig. 5. Exploding vector method for transformation from a height map to

a 3D point cloud

(5) shows the relationship between the offset angle and the

measurement error of L(x,y) . And equation (6) tells the

height error caused by offset angle L(x,y) . the x,y coordinates of the measured 3D points. Figure 5

illustrates a vector on the image plane which corresponds to

the depth change of a point along Z direction. In Figure 5,

point B and point C have same image coordinates Px2

L(x,y) = L(x,y) sec() (4)

but different x coordinates x1 and x2 respectively. Without

L(x,y) = L(x,y)

L(x,y) depth information, it is impossible to tell the difference

= (1 sec()) L(x,y) (5) of x coordinates between point B and point C. In another

1559

2) Field of view determines the size of maximum in-

spection area. It is usually a rectangular eld. In the

developed 3D sensor planner, it was determined by the

standoff and camera viewing angles.

3) Resolution denes the entitys minimal dimension to

be mapped onto one camera pixel.

4) Point density is a constraint determined by the eld

of view and the resolution of the projector, which is a

new constraint developed for the automated 3D sensor

(a) (b)

planning system. Point density constraint ensures that

Fig. 6. Calibration for X,Y coordinates using exploding vectors enough points can be measured for certain area of

(a)simulation result (b)measured Results surfaces.

5) Focus constraint denes the farthest measurement dis-

tance and the nearest measurement distance from a

situation, point C and point D have same coordinates x2 viewpoint.

but different image coordinates Px1 and Px2 . A zooming

phenomena will be shown on the image plane if moving the A bounding box method has been developed to integrate

object in the viewing direction to the camera. A 3D point, all of those constraints for searching potential viewpoints

when ying towards the camera, forms an expansion track, to satisfy a tolerant measurement error, as shown in Figure

which is called an exploding vector V . We utilize exploding 7.

vectors to calibrate x,y coordinates with given measured

depth h(x,y) . For independence, a group of exploding vectors

were calibrated out so that x,y location of a 3D surface point

then can be projected back to the reference plane. Bound box with meshed CAD

model

of calibration points are detected in sub-pixel accuracy and

images are stacked together to show exploding vectors. In

calibration, as many as 30 groups of calibration points are Camera

FOV region

Projector

FOV region

Camera Projector

simulation result that using the calibrated exploding vector Focus region Focus region

can be seen that the estimation result is very close to the

measurement result. Fig. 7. Integrating planning constraints using a bounding box method

A physical coordinate system can be built on the reference

plane by using a check board. The transformation from the

image frame to this physical cartesian frame can be obtained The viewpoint search algorithm can be described as a

through a linear least square method as shown in equation(7) process of satisfying the camera constraints under the condi-

tions of satisfying the projector constraints. An optimization

Px Ix dx process to minimize the inspection error can help to obtain

= TS TR (7)

Py Iy dy the potential viewpoints:

where (Ix , Iy ) are image coordinates, (dx , dy ) are translation

N

distance from the physical origin to the image origin. TS min F (Ci1 , Ci2 , Ci3 , Ci4 , Ci5 Rc | Pi1 , Pi2 , Pi3 , Pi4 , Pi5 Rp )

represents the scaling transformation and TR represents the P i=1

(8)

rotation transformation.

where P represents the potential viewpoints, N represents

C. Area Sensor Planning the number of meshed triangles in the inspected eld,

Ci1 ,Ci2 ,Ci3 ,Ci4 ,Ci5 and Pi1 ,Pi2 ,Pi3 ,Pi4 ,Pi5 are camera and

In manufacturing, a dimensional inspection system re- projector constraints respectively. If there is one solution

quires the area sensor to be congured on multiple view-

of P existing for satisfying equation (8), and the overall

points automatically. An area sensor planner takes the CAD measurement error of this bounded patch can be tolerated, a

model and area sensor model as inputs, and output a group viewpoint is congured and assigned to this bounding box.

of sensor congurations, which satisfy constraints of 3D If no solution exists, the inspected patch and its respective

measurement. Currently, there are ve constraints satised bounding box will be split, each sub-patch will be tested to

in the developed area sensor planner: assign a viewpoint using this search algorithm. This process

1) Visibility constraint demands that there is less occlu- iteratively executed till a solution is reached. Figure 8 shows

sion between the entity and the area sensor along the this recursive searching process for obtaining viewpoints that

line of projection and collection. satisfy the relative constraints.

1560

Tessellated CAD model

the area sensor model

the bounding box

pose

Output Viewpoint

Fig. 10. Calibration of transformation matrix from 2.5D height maps to

3D point clouds

Fig. 8. A recursive viewpoint searching algorithm.

III. E XPERIMENTS I MPLEMENTATION

TABLE III

Area sensor calibration was made on a DYNA 2400C NC

M EASUREMENT ACCURACY AFTER CALIBRATION

machine, a reference board was xed on the platform of the

NC machine and can be moved along 3 directions. The area No. of calibration points Mean: (mm) Std: (mm)

sensor is made by a Sony XCD710 camera and a Plus V- 4096 0.0018 0.0261

16384 0.0011 0.0185

1100 digital projector. A plano convex lens is mounted in

65536 0.0006 0.0162

the front of the projector lens. This enables the projected

image to be focused around 500mm from the projector. The

inspection eld is 160mm 120mm. One Matrox image

adapter is installed on a PC for image collection. Software

for grabbing images and analysis is developed using C++

and Matlab. Figure 9 shows the calibration setup.

before calibration

for calibration evaluation after calibration

Fig. 11. Measurement evaluation on a gauge (Four slots were made on the

gauge, from left to right, the depth are: 32 1m, 24 1m, 14 2m,

and 6 2m )

Fig. 9. Calibrating the area sensor on DYNA 2400C NC machine dimensional measurement after area sensor calibration. The

gauge shown in Figure 11(a) has four slots, from left to

Figure 10 shows the detected calibration check board for right: 32 1m, 24 1m, 14 2m, and 6 2m.

transformation from 2.5D height map to 3D point clouds. Figure 11(b) is a point cloud measured before calibration

A measurement on a known height at surface was used to and Figure 11(c) shows the measured result. It can been

evaluate the calibration result. A statistic result is shown in seen that our area sensor prototype has an ability to detect

the table III, in which when applying more calibration points, the a depth change as small as to 14m. Figure 12

the mean of the measurement error is closed to 0mm with shows an implementation of the robotic area sensing system

1561

for measuring automotive parts and can be extended to many

areas which require fast and accurate dimension measure-

ment of 3D surfaces.

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Both the constraints of the camera and the projector have

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An automated 3D surface measurement system then was

implemented on a PUMA robot. Experiment results show

the successful testing of such a system on measuring an

industrial part. The developed methods are not constrained

1562

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