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Home(../../../home.php)>Laboratory(../../../laboratory.php)>SteamEngineering(../SteamEngineering.php)>BoilerEfficiencybyIndirectmethod

Aim

Aim
CalculationofBoilerEfficiencybyIndirectmethod
Prerequisite
Prerequisite
Objective
Steam,Steamgeneration,Boiler,Boileroperation
Apparatus

Theory Objective

Procedure
1.Intellectualskills:
Simulation(Boiler i.Toknowthevariationofefficiencybyusingvariousfuels.
EfficiencyInDirect
Method_performance.php) ii.Understandthesteamgenerationprocess.

Observations(Boiler 2.Motorskills:
EfficiencyInDirect i.Todetermineenthalpyoffeedwater.
Method_performance.php)
ii.Todetermineenthalpyofwetsteam.
Calculations(Boiler iii.Todetermineheatproducedinthecombustionchamber
EfficiencyInDirect
Method_performance.php) iv.Todetermineheatloss

Result(Boiler
VariousfuelsusedintheBoiler,Efficiencycalculation,HeatBalanceSheet
EfficiencyInDirect
Method_performance.php) Apparatus

Inference(Boiler
EfficiencyInDirect 1.Boiler
Method_performance.php)
2.Drynessfractionmeasuringdevice
3.Fluegasanalyzer
Movetotop

Theory

NewConcept:

Diagram

Fig.PackagedSteamBoiler

Theory:

Thermalefficiencyofboilerisdefinedasthepercentageofheatinputthatiseffectivelyutilizedtogenerate
thesteam.Therearetwomethodsofassessingboilerefficiency.

A) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is compared with the
energycontentoftheboilerfuel.
B)TheIndirectMethod:Wheretheefficiencyisthedifferencebetweenthelossesandtheenergyinput.(Energy
producedfromthecombustionoffuelistakenas100%energyinput)

IndirectMethod:

Indirect method is also called as heat loss method. The efficiency can be arrived at, by subtracting the
heat loss fractions from 100. The standards do not include blow down loss in the efficiency determination
Fig.IllustrationofheatlossfromtheBoiler
Theprinciplelossesthatoccurinaboilerare:
Lossduetodryfluegas(sensibleheat).............L1
Lossduetohydrogeninfuel(H2).............L2
Lossduetomoistureinfuel(H2O)............L3
Lossduetomoistureinair(H2O)L4
Lossduetocarbonmonoxide(CO)......L5
Unburntlossesinflyash(Carbon)...L7
Unburntlossesinbottomash(Carbon)L8

BoilerEfficiencybyindirectmethod=100(L1+L2+L3+L4+L5+L6+L7+L8)

Measurements Required for Performance Assessment Testing: The following parameters need to
bemeasured,asapplicableforthecomputationofboilerefficiencyandperformance:

a)Fluegasanalysis
PercentageofCO2orO2influegas
PercentageofCOinfluegas
Temperatureoffluegas
b)Flowmetermeasurementsfor
Fuel
Steam
Feedwater
Condensatewater
Combustionair
c)Temperaturemeasurementsfor
Fluegas
Steam
Makeupwater
Condensatereturn
Combustionair
Fuel
Boilerfeedwater
d)Pressuremeasurementsfor
Fuel
Steam
Combustionair,bothprimaryandsecondary
Draft
e)Watercondition
Totaldissolvedsolids(TDS)
pH
Blowdownrateandquantity

BoilerEfficiencybyIndirectMethod:CalculationProcedureandFormula:

Inordertocalculatetheboilerefficiencybyindirectmethod,allthelossesthatoccurintheboilermustbe
established.Theselossesareconvenientlyrelatedtotheamountoffuelburnt.Inthiswayitiseasytocompare
theperformanceofvariousboilerswithdifferentratings.
Theoretical(Stoichiometric)airfuelratioandexcessairsuppliedaretobedeterminedfirstforcomputing
theboilerlosses.Thefollowingrelationcanbeusedforthesame.

([(11.6*C)+(34.8*(h 2 O2 /8))+(4.35*S)]) kg
1.Theoreticalairrequiredforcombustion=
100 (kgoffuel)
O2
2.%ExcessAirSupplied(EA)= *100...............fromfluegasanalysis
((21O2 ))
Note:NormallyO2measurementisrecommended.IfO2measurementisnotavailableuseofCO2cando.
OR
7900*[(CO2 %)t(CO2 %)a]
%ExcessAirSupplied(EA)= .fromfluegasanalysis
[(CO2 )a%*[100(CO2 )t]

Where:

(CO2%)t=TheoreticalCO2

(CO2%)a=ActualCO2%measuredinfluegas

([MolesofC])
(CO2%)t=
([MolesofN2 +MolesofC])

## [WtofN2 intheoreticalair] [WtofN2 infuel]

MolesofN2= +
[Mol.WeightofN2 ] [Mol.WeightofN2 ]

[WtofCinfuel]
MolesofC=
[Mol.WeightofC]
1+EA
Actualmassofairsupplied/kgoffuel(AAS)= *Theoreticalair
100

Thevariouslossesassociatedwiththeoperationofaboilerarediscussedbelow:

1.Heatlossduetodryfluegas(L1):

Thisisthegreatestboilerlossandcanbecalculatedbythefollowingmethod:

([m*Cp*(TfTa)])
L1= *100
(GCVofFuel)

Where,

L1=%Heatlossduetodryfluegas

m=Massofdryfluegasinkg/kgoffuel

=Combustionproductsfromfuel:

=CO2+SO2+Moistureinfluegases+O2influegas+Massofairsuppliedforcombustionoffuel

Cp=SpecificheatoffuelgasinkJ/kgK

Tf=FluegastemperatureinC

Ta=AmbienttemperatureinC

2.HeatlossduetoevaporationofwaterformedduetoH2infuel(%)(L2):

Thecombustionofhydrogencausesaheatlossbecausetheproductofcombustioniswater.Theevaporation
ofwaterabsorbstheheatintheformofLatentHeat.

([9*h2 *{2676+Cp(TfTa)}])
L2= *100
(GCVofFuel)

Where:

H2=kgofhydrogenpresentinfuel(perkgoffuel)

Cp=SpecificheatofsuperheatedsteaminkJ/kgK

Tf=FluegastemperatureinC

Ta=AmbienttemperatureinC

2676=LatentheatcorrespondingtopressureofwatervapourinkJ/kg

3.Heatlossduetomoisturepresentinfuel(L3):

sensible heat to bring the moisture to boiling point, the latent heat of evaporation of the moisture, and the
superheatrequiredtobringthissteamtothetemperatureoftheexhaustgas.Thislosscanbecalculatedby
followingmethod:

([m*{2676+Cp(TfTa)}])
L3= *100
(GCVofFuel)

Where:

M=kgmoistureinfuelon1kgbasis

Cp=SpecificheatofsuperheatedsteaminkJ/kgC

Tf=FluegastemperatureinC

Ta=AmbienttemperatureinC

2676=LatentheatcorrespondingtopressureofwatervapourinkJ/kg

4.Heatlossduetomoisturepresentinair(L4):

Vapourintheformofhumidityintheincomingair,issuperheatedasitpassesthroughtheboiler.Sincethis
heatpassesupthestack,itmustbeincludedasaboilerloss.Torelatethislosstothemassofcoalburned,
themoisturecontentofthecombustionairandtheamountofairsuppliedperunitmassofcoalburnedmust
beknown.Themassofvapourthataircontainscanbeobtainedfrompsychometricchartsandtypicalvalues
areincludedbelow:

([AAS*humidityfactor*Cp*(TfTa)])
L4= *100
(GCVofFuel)

Where:

AAS=Actualmassofairsuppliedperkgoffuel

Humidityfactor=kgofwater/kgofdryair

Cp=SpecificheatofsuperheatedsteaminkJ/kgK

Tf=Fluegastemperaturein(C)

Ta=Ambienttemperaturein(C)(Drybulbtemperature)

5.Heatlossduetoincompletecombustion(L5):

Products formed by incomplete combustion could be mixed with oxygen and burned again with a further
releaseofenergy.SuchproductsincludeCO,H2,andvarioushydrocarbonsandaregenerallyfoundintheflue
gasoftheboilers.Carbonmonoxideistheonlygaswhoseconcentrationcanbedeterminedconvenientlyina
boilerplanttest.

[%CO*C] 5744
L5= * *100
%CO+%CO2 GCVoffuel

Where:

L5=%HeatlossduetopartialconversionofCtoCO

CO=VolumeofCOinfluegasleavingeconomizer(%)

CO_2=ActualVolumeofCO2influegas(%)

C=Carboncontentkg/kgoffuel

OR
WhenCOisobtainedinppmduringthefluegasanalysis

COformation(Mco)=CO(inppm)*106*Mf*28

Mf=fuelconsumptioninkg/hr

L5=Mco*5744

5744=heatlossduetopartialcombustionofcarbonkJ/kg

The other heat losses from a boiler consist of the loss of heat by radiation and convection from the boiler
castingintothesurroundingboilerhouse.

Normallysurfacelossandotherunaccountedlossesisassumedbasedonthetypeandsizeofthe
boilerasgivenbelow

Forindustrialfiretube/packagedboiler=1.5to2.5%

Forindustrialwatertubeboiler=2to3%

Forpowerstationboiler=0.4to1%

However it can be calculated if the surface area of boiler and its surface temperatures are known as given
below:

Ts Ta (196.85Vm+68.9)
L6=0.548*[(
(55.55)
)4(
(55.55)
)4]+1.957*(TsTa)1.25* 68.9

Where,

Vm=Windvelocityinm/s

Ts=Surfacetemperature(C)

Ta=Ambienttemperature(C)

7.Heatlossduetounburntinflyash(%)(L7):

Small amounts of carbon will be left in the ash and this constitutes a loss of potential heat in the fuel. To
assesstheseheatlosses,samplesofashmustbeanalyzedforcarboncontent.Thequantityofashproduced
perunitoffuelmustalsobeknown.

((Totalashcollected)
*GCVofflyash)
L7= (kgoffuelburnt) *100
(GCVoffuel)
8.Heatlossduetounburntinbottomash(%)(L8):

((Totalashcollected)
*GCVofbottomash)
L8= (kgoffuelburnt) *100
(GCVoffuel)

UltimateFuelAnalysis:

HeatBalance:

Havingestablishedthemagnitudeofallthelossesmentionedabove,asimpleheatbalancewouldgivethe
efficiencyoftheboiler.Theefficiencyisthedifferencebetweentheenergyinputtotheboilerandtheheatlosses
calculated.

Movetotop

Procedure

seethenextinputparameter.Youcanevenusethearrowstoincreaseordecreasethevalue
4.Nowclickonthe'DisplayHeatBalanceSheet'Button.YouwillseetheHeatBalanceSheet
6.YoucansimplyExporttheObservationtabletoanExcelFilebysimplyClickingonthe'ExportDatatoExcelFile'
Button

Movetotop

ClickHeretoProceedtoPerformance(BoilerEfficiencyInDirectMethod_performance.php)

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