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CHE184-1P Process Dynamics and Control Lab.

Exercise 3
2nd Quarter SY 2016-2017

Tuning of Controllers
Guillermo, Jollana Dianne A. 1
Student, CHE184-1P/C21, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology


The actions of controllers can be divided into groups

based upon the functions of their control mechanism.
Each type of controller has advantages and
disadvantages and will meet the needs of different
applications. Grouped by control mechanism function,
the three types of controllers are: discrete controllers,
multistep controllers, and continuous controllers.
Discrete controllers are controllers that have only
two modes or positions: on and off. This type of
control doesnt actually hold the variable at setpoint,
but keeps the variable within proximity of setpoint in
what is known as a dead zone.
Continuous Controllers automatically compare the
value of the PV to the SP to determine if an error
exists. If there is an error, the controller adjusts its
output according to the parameters that have been
set in the controller. The tuning parameters essentially
a. How much correction should be made? The
magnitude of the correction (change in
controller output) is determined by the
proportional mode of the controller.
b. How long should the correction be applied?
The duration of the adjustment to the
controller output is determined by the
integral mode of the controller.
c. How fast should the correction be applied?
The speed at which a correction is made is
determined by the derivative mode of the
Multistep controllers are controllers that have at controller.
least one other possible position in addition to on and
off. Multistep controllers operate similarly to discrete DISCUSSION
controllers, but as setpoint is approached, the
multistep controller takes intermediate steps. An on/off control has an acceptable behavior due to
Therefore, the oscillation around setpoint can be less the fact that the variation in this magnitude under a
dramatic when multistep controllers are employed small interference is slow. If we take small values in
than when discrete controllers are used. the performance times and in the tolerances, we can
obtain a level control close to the set value.
The proportional mode is used to set the basic gain
value of the controller. The setting for the proportional
mode may be expressed as either:

Lab. Exercise 3 December 06, 2016 1 of 3

CHE184-1P Process Dynamics and Control Lab. Exercise 3
2nd Quarter SY 2016-2017

1. Proportional Gain,
(Kc) = Output% / Input %
2. Proportional Band,
PB = Input (% Span) For 100%Output
Proportional action responds only to a change in the
magnitude of the error. Proportional action will not
return the PV to setpoint. It will, however, return the
PV to a value that is within a defined span (PB)
around the PV. Its advantage is that is simple.
However, PB settings have following effects:

Small PB (%) Minimize Offset The purpose of integral action is to return the PV to
High Gain (%) Possible cycling SP. This is accomplished by repeating the action of
Large PB (%) Large Offset the proportional mode as long as an error exists. The
Low Gain Stable Loop units are in terms of repeats per minute or minutes
per repeat. With the exception of some electronic
controllers, the integral or reset mode is always used
with the proportional mode. Adding reset to the
controller adds one more gain component to the loop.
The faster the reset action, the greater the gain. Its
advantage is that it eliminates error but may result
reset windup and possible overshoot.

Fast Reset High Gain

(Large Repeats/Min., Fast Return to SP
Small Min./Repeat) Possible Cycling
In the figure, the proportional band is high (gain is Slow Reset Low Gain
(Small Repeats/Min., Slow Return to SP
low). The loop is very stable, but an error remains
Large Min./Repeats) Stable Loop
between SP and PV.
To tune a proportional mode,r educe PB (increase
To tune, increase repeats per minute until the PV
gain) until the process cycles following a disturbance,
cycles following a disturbance, then slow the reset
then double the PB (reduce gain by 50%).
action to a value that is 1/3 of the initial setting.
Duration of Error and Integral Mode: Another
Derivative Mode Basics - Some large and/or slow
component of error is the duration of the error, i.e.,
process do not respond well to small changes in
how long has the error existed? The controller output
controller output. To improve response, a large initial
from the integral or reset mode is a function of the
change in controller output may be applied. This
duration of the error.
action is the role of the derivative mode. The
derivative action is initiated whenever there is a
change in the rate of change of the error (the slope of
the PV). The magnitude of the derivative action is
determined by the setting of the derivative. The mode
of a PID controller and the rate of change of the PV.
The Derivative setting is expressed in terms of
minutes. In operation, the controller first compares the
current PV with the last value of the PV. If there is a

Lab. Exercise 3 December 06, 2016 2 of 3

CHE184-1P Process Dynamics and Control Lab. Exercise 3
2nd Quarter SY 2016-2017

change in the slope of the PV, the controller In tuning, increase the rate setting until the process
determines what its output would be at a future point cycles following a disturbance, then reduce the rate
in time (the future point in time is determined by the setting to one-third of the initial value.
value of the derivative setting, in minutes). The
Proportional, PI, and PID Control
derivative mode immediately increases the output by
that amount. By using all three control algorithms together, process
operators can:
a. Achieve rapid response to major
disturbances with derivative control
b. Hold the process near setpoint without major
fluctuations with proportional control
c. Eliminate offset with integral control
Not every process requires a full PID control strategy.
If a small offset has no impact on the process, then
proportional control alone may be sufficient.
Its advantage is that rapid output reduces the time PI control is used where no offset can be tolerated,
that is required to return PV to SP in slow process. Its where noise (temporary error readings that do not
disadvantage is that it dramstically amplifies noisy reflect the true process variable condition) may be
signals which can cause cycling in fast processes. present, and where excessive dead time (time after a
disturbance before control action takes place) is not a
Large High Gain
(Minutes) Large Output Change
Possible Cycling In processes where no offset can be tolerated, no
Small Low Gain noise is present, and where dead time is an issue,
(Minutes) Small Output Change customers can use full PID control.
Stable Loop

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