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TABLE OF CONTENTS

GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN ................................................................................................................. 1


Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ 1
CHAPTER # 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 2
INTRODUCTION TO GOVERNANCE ....................................................................................................... 2
CHAPTER # 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 6
NATURE AND SCOPE OF GOVERNANCE ............................................................................................... 6
CHAPTER # 3 ....................................................................................................................................... 11
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE ...................................................................................... 11
Characteristics ................................................................................................................................ 13
Democratization and Civil Society .................................................................................................. 13
Accountability................................................................................................................................. 14
Rule of Law ..................................................................................................................................... 15
Transparency .................................................................................................................................. 15
Meritocracy and Absence of Corruption ........................................................................................ 16
Consensus Oriented ....................................................................................................................... 16
Effectiveness and Efficiency ........................................................................................................... 16
Equity and Inclusiveness ................................................................................................................ 17
CHAPTER # 4 ....................................................................................................................................... 18
CAUSES OF BAD GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN..................................................................................... 18
Political System/Leadership ........................................................................................................... 18
Parameters of a Leader .................................................................................................................. 18
Political Power Struggle.................................................................................................................. 18
Political Parties ............................................................................................................................... 18
General Elections............................................................................................................................ 19
Effective Opposition ....................................................................................................................... 19
Public Money .................................................................................................................................. 19
Lack of Education ........................................................................................................................... 19
No Legislative Functions ................................................................................................................. 19
Judicial System ............................................................................................................................... 20
Politicization of Justice ................................................................................................................... 20
Lack of Judges ................................................................................................................................. 21
Complex Political System ............................................................................................................... 21

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Substandard Law Education ........................................................................................................... 21
Civil Service..................................................................................................................................... 21
Politicization of Civil Service ........................................................................................................... 22
Defined Roles ................................................................................................................................. 22
The Quota System and Bureaucracy .............................................................................................. 22
Concentration of Powers................................................................................................................ 23
The Structure of Organization ........................................................................................................ 23
Organizational Culture/Participative Corruption in Public Sector ................................................. 23
Historical Perspective ..................................................................................................................... 24
CHAPTER # 5 ....................................................................................................................................... 26
HISTORY AND CURRENT SCENARIO OF GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN ................................................. 26
History of Governance in Pakistan ................................................................................................. 26
Current Scenario............................................................................................................................. 28
Political earth quake and issues of governance in Pakistan ........................................................... 33
CHAPTER # 6 ....................................................................................................................................... 37
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS ......................................................................................................................... 37
Recommendations ......................................................................................................................... 38
CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................................................... 41
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 42

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GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN

Abstract
This study is an attempt to understand the concept of governance, nature and scope,
characteristics and evaluate the past and present status of good governance in Pakistan and
suggest a way forward for effective and efficient future. The focus of the research is to
understand the concept of global governance and assess Pakistans performance against
various governance indicators. The research looks at some of the harsh realities of Pakistan
and its after affects that have occurred due to the evils of corruption in society. The section
Way forward looks at some recommendations by various researchers in the journey of
good governance in Pakistan and includes suggestions by the author on possible solutions.

Key Words: Governance, characteristics, corruption, political Earthquake.

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CHAPTER # 1

INTRODUCTION TO GOVERNANCE
The best minds of mankind have always been interested in the questions of how
human society develops and what governs its development , whether the changes taking
place in society are accidental or subject to laws , and whether such changes depend on the
will and consciousness of people. For man is a social being; he lives among people and is
linked to them in numerous ways. It is only natural that he should be concerned about the
future of society, about the changes occurring in it, and about the direction in which it
develops. (Bevir, Encyclopaedia of Governance)
Human being since the inception of earth has gone through the process of learning
from nature. The curiosity of how, What and Why has led mankind to discover,
develop, invent and create great ideas and systems to fulfil the needs as and when it has
occurred. The will to explore solutions for his problems is an amazing skill that mankind
possesses despite uncountable failures and defeats. The ability to work hard, remain
persistent in adapting to new and emerging concepts, believes, systems and behaviors has
been the essence of the learning process.
To exist, people must have food, clothing, housing and other necessities of life.
Nature does not provide these necessities and to obtain those people must work towards
establishing means to acquire and fulfil its needs. (Rao, 2008)
We believe that the concept of governance has emerged from a positive and doing
the right thing connotation. Governance means productive development and direction
towards positivity and effective performance. It is the art of showing how to act and react in
a manner that is beneficial and aligned with the goal and objective one has, be it at the
individual, national or international level. Mankind has seen hundreds of wars since the
emergence of humanity and has witnessed two world wars resulting in devastating and
catastrophic outcomes in the shape of deaths, diseases, disability and destruction of
infrastructure. However, these wars have taught us on how to become civilized and value
each others interest for a peaceful world. The steps that have been taken towards peace and
Agreements at the International, national and local level is a result of governance.
It is difficult to analyze the origins of governance as the concept is not new. It can be
said that from the existence and understanding of good and bad, Right or Wrong
the concept of governance had emerged. When people started to comprehend terms like

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justice, fairness law, ethics etc. they had taken their step towards governance.
Every religion has given guiding principles for life and for me these values and rules for
attaining the love of GOD is part of governance. The Ten Commandments for example
were given to better perform ones duties, to avoid evil deeds and promote ethics and
worship and how one followed was part of governance. Similarly in Islam the concept of
Holy Quran as a guiding book and following the life and actions of Prophet Muhammad
(Peace be upon him) as a way of life fall under the category of governance. (Husain)
The Quran defines good governance as the rule of justice, a just and ethical order
and observance of rights and obligations in a society. The Quran declares: Those when
given authority in land, establish (system of) salah, give zakah and enjoin what is good
(maruf ) and forbid what is wrong ( munkar ). Al-Hajj 22:41.
Islamic view of good governance is qualitative and believes that how your values
and ethical decision affect the society are important. It believes in participatory approach, in
public accountability Aithesab, equality etc. The last sermon of the Prophet (Peace be
upon him) is an effective example of an effective policy and system that if followed with
true spirit will result in good governance. (Khawaja, 2011)
The concept of governance is not new. Early discussions go back to at least 400 B.C.
to the Arthashastra, a fascinating treatise on governance attributed to Kautilya, thought to be
the chief minister to the King of India. In it, Kautilya presented key pillars of the art of
governance, emphasizing justice, ethics, and anti-autocratic tendencies. (Kaufmann, 1999)
One might conclude that governance is the process by which authority is conferred
on rulers, by which they make the rules, and by which those rules are enforced and
modified.
From the inception of Political Science as a discipline concerned with the study of
state, governments and politics in setting up rules and regulations to run governments to
modern management science and public administration, governance has become a
frequently used term alongside terms like sustainable development, civil society,
transparency, devolution of power and democracy. The presence of good governance
practices clarifies authority, simplifies decision making, and ensures people and
organizations are accountable for their actions and decisions.
Good governance is an essential factor to the success of any activity, whether in the
public sector or non-governmental sector. In the development context, studies indicate a
direct relationship between good governance, stable governments and better social and
economic outcomes through effective people and rules. Governance like any other subject is
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at the emergence phase and has evolved over the years and will continue to develop as a
discipline through research and experiments. (Morision, 1996)
Hence Governance is:
1) The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country are
exercised (Kaufman)
2) The way power is exercised through a countrys economic, political, and
social institutions. (The World Banks PRSP Handbook)
3) The sound exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority to
manage a countrys resources for development. It involves the
institutionalization of a system through which citizens, institutions,
organizations, and groups in a society articulate their interests, exercise their
rights, and mediate their differences in pursuit of the collective good
(Country Governance Assessment 2005)
4) The exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage
a countrys affairs at all levels. It comprises mechanisms, processes, and
institutions, through which citizens and groups articulate their interests,
exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations, and mediate their
differences. (UNDP)
5) In governance, citizens are rightly concerned with a governments
responsiveness to their needs and protection of their rights. In general,
governance issues pertain to the ability of government to develop an
efficient, effective, and accountable public management process that is open
to citizen participation and that strengthens rather than weakens a democratic
system of government. (The USAID, Office of Democracy & Governance)
6) Refers to how any organization, including a nation, is run. It includes all the
processes, systems, and controls that are used to safeguard and grow assets.
(UNDP, 1997)
7) The systems, processes and procedures put in place to steer the direction,
management and accountability of an organization. (Birmingham City
Council)
8) "Promoting fairness, transparency and accountability" (World Bank)
9) "Sa system by which business organizations are directed and controlled".
(OECD)

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10) The manner in which power is exercised in the management of a countrys
social and economic resources for development. It is referred to as the
quality of the institutions to make, implement and enforce sound policies in
an efficient, effective, equitable and inclusive man ( The Asian
Development Bank )
11) In broad terms, governance is about the institutional environment in which
citizens interact among themselves and with government agencies/officials.
(ADB, 2005)
12) The process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are
implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several
contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national
governance and local governance.
13) The interactions among structures, processes and traditions that determine
how power and responsibilities are exercised, how decisions are taken, and
how citizens or other stakeholders have their say. Fundamentally, it is about
power, relationships and accountability: who has influence, who decides, and
how decision-makers are held accountable. (IOG 2003)
14) As the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to
manage the nations affairs at all levels. It comprises of mechanisms,
processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their
interests, exercise their legal rights and obligations and mediate their
differences. Governance is not the sole domain of government but transcends
government to encompass the business sector and the civil society.

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CHAPTER # 2

NATURE AND SCOPE OF GOVERNANCE

In most dictionaries government and governance are interchangeably used, both


denoting the exercise of authority in an organization, institution or state. Government is the
name given to the entity exercising that authority. Authority can most simply define as
legitimate power. Whereas power is the ability to influence the behavior of others, authority
is the right to do so. Authority is therefore the based on an acknowledged duty to obey
rather than on any form of coercion or manipulation. Weber distinguished between three
kinds of authority, based on the different grounds upon obedience can be established;
traditional authority is rooted in history, charismatic authority stems from personality and
legal-authority is grounded in a set of impersonal rules. To study government is to study the
exercise of authority. (Heywood, 1997) Government is closely related to politics.
To study politics is in essence to study government or more broadly, to study the
exercise of authority. Politics is the art of government, the exercise of control within the
society through the making and enforcement of collective decisions. (Heywood 1997) The
realm of politics is restricted to state actors who are consciously motivated by ideological
beliefs, and who seek to advance them through membership of a formal organization such
as a political organization. This is the sense in which politicians are described as political
whereas civil servants are seen as nonpolitical, the state as public and the civil society
as private. The institutions of the state (the apparatus of the government, the courts, the
police, the army, the society-security system and so forth) can be regarded as public in the
sense that they are responsible for the collective organization of the community life.
Moreover, they are funded at the publics expense, out of taxation. In contrast, civil society
consists of what Raymund Burke called the little platoons, institutions such as the family
and kinship groups, private businesses, trade unions, clubs, community groups and so on
that are private in the sense that they are set up and funded by individual citizens. On the
basis of this public/private life division, government is restricted to the activities of the state
itself and the responsibilities which are properly exercised by public bodies. Although civil
society can be distinguished from the state, it nevertheless contains a range of institutions
that are thought as public in a wider access.

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One of its crucial implications is that it broadens our notion of the government
transferring the economy in particular from the private to the public realm. Now, the
conception of politics and government move beyond the narrow realm of government to
what is thought as public life or public affairs. Since, the government doesnt only
decide for all and the civil society and the private sectors play vital role in the community,
thus, the conception of the word governance. Governance is a broader term than
government. In its widest sense, it refers to the various ways in which social life is
coordinated. Government can therefore be seen as one of the institutions in governance; it is
possible to have governance without government. (Heywood, 1997)
The Institute on Governance defines governance as the process whereby societies or
organizations make their important decisions, determine who has voice, who is engaged in
the process and how account is rendered. (IOG, 2006) The Institute also provides a
framework to further establish the concept of governance as shown in fig.

The need for governance exists anytime a group of people come together to
accomplish an end. Most agree that the central component of governance is decision
making. It is the process through which this group of people make decisions that direct their
collective efforts.

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If the group is too large to efficiently make all necessary decisions, it creates an
entity to facilitate the process. Group members delegate a large portion of the decision
making responsibility to this entity. In voluntary sector organizations this entity is the board
of directors. One simple definition of governance is "the art of steering societies and
organizations." Governance is about the more strategic aspects of steering, making the
larger decisions about both direction and roles.
Some observers criticize this definition as being too simple. Steering suggests that
governance is a straightforward process, akin to a steersman in a boat. These critics assert
that governance is neither simple nor neat by nature it may be messy, The Institute of
Governance (IOG) is a Canadian, non-profit think tank founded in 1990 with the mission to
improve governance for public benefit. Tentative, unpredictable and fluid. Governance is
complicated by the fact that it involves multiple actors, not a single helmsman.
These multiple actors are the organization's stakeholders. They articulate their
interests; influence how decisions are made, who the decision-makers are and what
decisions are taken.

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Decision-makers must absorb this input into the decision-making process. Decision-
makers are then accountable to those same stakeholders for the organization's output and the
process of producing it.
Good governance is about the processes for making and implementing decisions. Its
not about making correct decisions, but about the best possible process for making those
decisions. It is in this context, the study of good governance has become very important in
the literature of political science, Administrative Sciences and development studies. Good
governance is important for several benefits. First and foremost, quality of governance has
to be judged by the performance of the relevant institution. Therefore, the goal of the
institution has to be clearly defined as a matter of priority. Then, steering towards that goal
requires defining decision rights and processes, as well as establishing a feedback loop to
verify and control performance. Governance is how an institution is ruled; it is how the
authority, responsibility, and controls are required in the institution. Governance is relevant
to any institution, small or large; for profit or not; extending from a single family all the
way to global institutions that have an impact on our lives. Hence, governance is relevant
for humanity for quality of life now and for its sustainability in the future. It commonly
acknowledged that in the absence of democracy, peace and good governance, sustainable
socio economic progress is not possible. (Pasha, 1997)
In the context of developing societies there has been an added emphasis on human
development in recent years. It means development of human capabilities and opportunities.
The good governance is a prerequisite for human development and governance which
would ensure human development is human governance. It has been widely accepted now
that the main reasons for human deprivation are not just economic. There are social and
political factors too rooted in poor governance. It is thus clear that the issue of good
governance focuses on the inseparable linkages between social-economic and political
development. It has rightly been pointed out that the good governance means political
pluralism with free and fair elections, It means far pending on military preparation and
infrastructure and war and much more on education, health and basic amenities. It means
fighting the graft and nepotism. This also suggests that good governance has to concentrate
more on building a congenial political atmosphere for social and economic development.
The good governance has also to ensure that the funds of the state are utilized on the
development of human and productive areas instead of non-human and nonproductive areas.

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In short, governance is about performance. Thus the governance in any society, aims
to ensure transparency through the exercise of economic political and administrative
authority. It basically strives to establish quality relationship between the rulers and the
ruled. In the context, governance point out to the nature of mutual interaction among social
actors as well as between social actors and public administration, and it contains the
meaning the meaning of ruling together with aim of helping individuals realize their
potential for improving the quality of their lives. (Ebrahim, 2003)

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CHAPTER # 3

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD GOVERNANCE


The terms governance and good governance has been defined in many way but it
lacks uniformity. (Khawaja, 2011) These definitions are based on normative assumptions
about new decision should be made within organization and the functioning of formal and
informal structure for implementing such decision. The Governance is complex and multi-
faceted concept that is difficult to define in precise ways. There is still no clear-cut
unanimity as to its meaning among them. Scholars have defined the term governance from
different approaches However, simply speaking, governance is the process of decision
making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). (Rao,
2008) Tahir Naveed defines governance as the management of resources, and organization
of individuals and groups into formal and informal bodies and institutions and businesses,
through social, political, administrative and economic mechanisms. (Tahir, 1998) The
World Bank sees governance in two related slightly different ways. Primarily the emphasis
is on how political power is exercised to manage a nations affairs. In the second instance,
World Bank defines the term in a broader sense. It sees governance as the use of power in
the management of a countrys economic and social resources for development. (Khan,
2002) Human development report 2002 of United Nations has given a new perspective to
governance by terming it as democratic governance; which is essential for better human
development. The democratic governance encompasses the respecting peoples human
rights and freedom, say in decision making, which effect their lives and holding decisions
makers accountable. It attempts at making the economic and social policies more responsive
to the peoples needs. According to Etounge Manguella:
Good governance implies presence of rule of law, safeguard of human rights, and
existence of honest and efficient government, accountability, transparency, predictability
and openness. (Serageldin, 1991)
According to Michael Johnston, Good governance is:
A competent management of a countrys resources and affairs in a manner that is open,
transparent, accountable, equitable and responsive to peoples needs. (Johnston, 2004)
For good governance, the presence of five variables is mandatory. These are: political
freedom, constitutional and judicial protection of individual rights, a stable currency,
provision of education and health care for all, and the executives accountability to a freely

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elected legislature. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) defines good
governance as a process encouraging staff incentives, training of civil servants,
administrative and fiscal decentralization and dialogue between governments and civil
society. (Public Sector Management M Governance And Sustainable Human, 1996) The
UNDP has further underlined following main features of good governance:
1) Political accountability and legitimacy
2) A free and fair judiciary
3) Accountability of bureaucracy
4) Freedom of information and expression
5) Infective and efficient public sector management and cooperation
6) With civil society organizations. (United Nations Development Programme (1997))
The recent worldwide governance has articulated six indicators for promotion of good
governance:
1) Accountability and Transparency
2) Free from violence and stability in political system
3) Effectiveness of governmental policy
4) Elimination of corruption
5) Quality of governance
6) Establish the rule of law. (Worldwide Governance (2014))
Dev Raj believed that decentralization of political and economic power is the core of
good governance. The power should not be concentrated at the center but needs to be
developed to the local institutions. It is assumed that decentralization will ensure democracy
and development and both are preconditions to good governance. Thus, power within a
political system characterizes good governance. (Dahal, 1996) In more specific definition
for good governance may be given by Preti, as that which,
Applies to the exercise of power in a variety of institutional contexts, the object of
which is lo direct, control, and regulate activities in the interests of people as citizen, voters
and workers. (Preti)
Thus the governance in any society, aims to ensure transparency through the exercise of
economic political and administrative authority. It basically strives to establish quality
relationship between the rulers and the ruled. In shorts it can be said that here that the good
is not a static concept. Good governance has to work for the realization of popular
aspirations. The aspirations have to be based on a sense of realism and dynamism. In more
specific terms good governance may be defined as that which "applies to the exercise of
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power in a variety of institutional contexts, the object of which is lo direct, control, and
regulate activities in the interests of people as citizen, voters and workers. Hence, it can be
said that good governance is that which fosters human development through popular
participation and social and economic equalities. The ultimate objective of good governance
Has to be to create a civil society.

Characteristics
The following parameters of good governance have been identified on the basis of
above definitions. The government should be participatory, consensus oriented,
accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient; as well as equitable and
inclusive; at the same time, it follows the rule of law. More importantly, it gives assurance
to its people that its governance would be free from corruption practices. In addition to that,
the government should give priority to the views of minorities and listen to the voice of
most vulnerable group of people in the society when it comes to decision making. See the
box.

Democratization and Civil Society


Democracy is an essential prerequisite of good governance. A democratic
government may also face crisis of governability. (Kohli, 1992) However, a democrat
system is essential because that alone can promote the ethics of economic and political
freedom and development for individuals increase the mass participation, which are features

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of good governance. (Kohli, 1992) The good governance is a situation where there is a
mutual trust between the stale and the citizen. It has been said in this context that the only
tenable normative aspiration, to modern politics can be to make states more trustworthy to
all who must live under them: to make them more graceful and civilized in their dealings
with their citizens and with one another. Relatively, it is very essential to give emphasis on
the democratic form of governance. The government must have participation from the
citizenry; both men and women in the society should take part in various activities and
organizations in the government sectors. The principle of equality is one of the most
important constitutional principles upon which the contemporary system rests. This means
that the principle of equality contained in the individual communities are equal in rights,
responsibilities and public duties that will be enjoyed by all without discrimination of race,
origin, or belief. (Bevir, 2006) It is believed by some scholar Nasir Islam and David. R.
Morision believed that human rights, civil society and democratization are essential
components of good governance. (Morision, 1996 Mustafa Kamal has further been asserted
by some scholars that the issue of building a civil society is central to good governance. It is
believed that the civil society is indeed a driving force behind political and economic
reforms which is a pre-condition towards good governance. (Pasha, 1997) In fact, good
governance has been considered as tin hall mark of a civil society: a society which ensures a
democratic political culture with accountability and popular participation in the
developmental process. In the present times, the globalized market process induced by
globalization and liberalization has laid a greater demand for civil society and human rights.
It means empowerment of people, which is possible only through good governance.

Accountability
Accountability is one of the cornerstones of good governance, which denotes
responsibility of the government towards governed and also the mechanism through which
people can exercise their influence over the- government. The accountability is complex
and multi-faceted concept that is difficult to define in precise terms. However, broadly
speaking, accountability is the process via which a person or group can be held to account
for their conduct. Normally, accountability is applied on political and civil executive (public
officers) who are responsible before the citizens. They exercise their powers and functions
in the name and interest of the peoples, In the case of political accountability, peoples hold
their representative accountable through the election. (Ebrahim, 2003)

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Accountability can be categorized in terms of Horizontal, Vertical, social and
political mechanisms. Horizontal accountability is a method or capacity towards structure
accountability that relies on institutions such as legislature (parliament or congress) and the
judiciary, or other autonomous institutions that can call into question, and ultimately punish
to any public officer because of inappropriate ways of performing their assigned
responsibilities. Horizontal accountability normally refers to internal mechanisms within
government. It consist of formal relationship with in state and government itself .It focus on
internal check and oversight process. For instant executive must explain their decision to
legislature. In other words, horizontal accountability is the ability of state institutions or
government to check the abuses by branches of government, public agencies or other public
officers. Vertical accountability/Social Accountability usually link citizen and state through
formal mechanisms, most obviously through local and national elections. In vertical forms
of accountability through which citizens , media, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
and Civil Society Groups (CSG) play directly or indirectly roles in holding the powerful to
account. In short Accountability is one of the foundations of good governance. Both types
of Accountability plays significant role to achieve the goal of good governance.

Rule of Law
It is widely political consensus that the rule of law is a necessary foundation for
efforts to achieve the goal of good governance. Justice is valued as central in governance.
Therefore, it values justice as most important for establishing a just society in which people
from all walks of life, from different faiths can live in peace and harmony with no
discrimination. Equally important, good governance requires fair legal structure that must
be applied objectively in order to give full protection to the human rights of the people,
most especially those minorities. And, to implement this effectively, there must be unbiased
implementation of laws that require independent judiciary and an impartial, as well as
corrupt-free police force.

Transparency
Transparency is the provision, which makes it possible for the people to know about
the' decision making process of the government. It is also one of the significant elements of
the good governance.

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Today, transparency or openness in governance is significant ant in the process of
development. The government must have complete transparency with all its decision
makings; as well as with its implementations of laws and policies that should be aligned to
the rules and regulations of good governance. Additionally, all information must be easily
accessible and understandable by the media as well as by the ordinary citizens. By doing
this, disseminating important information about the activities and real status of the
government would be easily monitored and understood by the entire citizenry.

Meritocracy and Absence of Corruption


Government is the most vital actor of good governance. It is necessary for the
survival for every state that government official should be appointed on merit. Similarly, a
system of strict accountability should be in place to monitor their performance so that they
stay on the right track and do not deviate from their main role as specified by the
constitution of the state. Corruption has unfortunately almost become the norm today. Its
dimensions include, among others, the inflation of contracts in return for kick-backs, frauds
and falsification of accounts in the public service, and the taking of bribes and perversion of
justice and fairness at various levels. Needless to say, corruption creates a grave obstacle in
the way of good governance.

Consensus Oriented
Society consists of various stake holders. It is required for good governance to
mediate among these different interest base stake holders in case of conflict of interest. It is
responsibility of government to make consensus oriented decision making. Today,
governance signifies a transformation from a type of relationship where a limited group of
people have the ultimate authority to rule others to a set of relationships where mutual
interaction takes place in order to make desirable choices for all stakeholders. It involves
the mechanism, processes and institutions that individuals, corporations, groups and
societies utilize in joint decision-making and implementation among social actors as well as
in solving conflicts. (Bevir, Encyclopaedia of Governance)

Effectiveness and Efficiency


Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the
needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of
efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural
resources and the protection of the environment. Decision maker should have a broad and

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long term vision on how to better the process of governance to ensure continued economic
and social development. Process must be in place to ensure the most productive use of
resource. (Bevir, Encyclopaedia of Governance)

Equity and Inclusiveness


Good governance involves guarantee the right of all individual to opportunities to
improve or maintain their well-being in an equitable and inclusive manner. This last point
perhaps the most important principle of Good governance because it require that all
decisions of an organization be made within frame work that is outward looking and future
oriented.

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CHAPTER # 4

CAUSES OF BAD GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN

Political System/Leadership
Parliamentary system in Pakistan suffers from variety of problems. These problems
start from electoral process and aggravate further in the policymaking. In Pakistan
parliament is often perceived to be nothing more than collection of those people who bought
their way to the power. This kind of electoral system has resulted into an absence of
national leadership. Legislation is always regarded as secondary job. Prime minister and his
cabinet hardly attend parliamentary proceedings. Opposition parties prefer to embarrass the
government by concentrating on scandals rather than on substantive issues. (Chene, 2008)

Parameters of a Leader
Money is the only criteria for becoming a political leader in Pakistan. It is a biggest
drawback of the political system. In the past almost one third of Pakistani cabinet have been
mainly occupied by the feudal and about one fifth by rich businessmen.

Political Power Struggle


Amongst the existing realities of the political environment of Pakistan, the most
important to note is sharing of political power by feudal, bureaucratic and other elite groups.
It is evident that from last 60 years, bureaucrats, as well as feudalist, have grown, expanded
and consolidated their dimensions and power far more than the political institutions where
growth has remained weak, underdeveloped and stunted.

Political Parties
Political parties are the most vital political institutions, which if collectively focus
on the path of national prosperity can pay rich dividends. Coupled with poor leadership
criteria, as mentioned earlier; poor organization of the political parties compounds the
problems which hinder the free function of the political system. Pakistani political parties
are mostly dominated by only a couple of families and party portfolios are given on the
basis of nepotism. This results in election of in-competent individuals to very responsible
national offices. It is not the merit but the party loyalty that makes some one suitable for a
given portfolio. (Javaid)

18
General Elections
There cannot be a disagreement on the fact that the same politicians with few
exceptions come into power number of times who do influence public sector institutions as
per their vested interests. Therefore, holding of such elections without required electoral
reforms is meaningless. Had it been done objectively it would have helped in eliminating
corruption from public sector institutions.

Effective Opposition
In a democratic system of government, the opposition has highly important
constitutional role. It acts, as a good system of check and balance and the government,
cannot do things at will. Unfortunately dilemma with Pakistani system is that opposition is
only for the sake of opposition. During entire stay in assembly, opposition maneuvers to
oust the ruling party from power. They dont take part in any healthy discussion. This
results into stagnant legislation thereby directly affecting public institutions. (Kaufmann,
1999)

Public Money
Since various development programs like Peoples Works, Banizer Income Support
and Tameer-e-Watan Programs are executed through elected representatives, a large portion
of the public money allotted for these programs is hardly expended judicially for the
specified purpose by these public servants. As such, no independent audit of these programs
have ever been disclosed if conducted at all.

Lack of Education
As the people are not well educated, they have a lack of vigilant opinion thus,
lacking in understanding the hidden motives of political leaders, political parties. Leaders
have used the masses as an instrument to fulfill their requirements. Besides, our leaders are
not well educated due to which they lack vision. Over all in the South Asia, education level
of parliamentarians is very low. Pakistan also falls into same category.

No Legislative Functions
Assemblies hardly meet in sessions for legislation or discussion on national maters.
This state of affair is detrimental to institutional growth due to non-initiation of required
remedial measures for improvements in public sector institutions. (Kohli, 1992)

19
Judicial System
The legal frameworks that is not biased and implementable on all living in a state
and independent judicial system helps in the building up a society where everyone in that
system would consider him/herself being safe. In the past many examples have been seen
when the decisions by the courts were manipulated through pressures by the government.
Appointments of judges were made at the whim and will of executive and not based on
criteria or eligibility. Another deficiency of judicial system is the lack of effective access to
justice for large sections of population. Judiciary in any state cannot be efficient unless it is
Independent. The basic principles on the independence of judiciary endorsed by the United
Nations include; The constitution and law should provide an independent judiciary that has
jurisdiction over all issues of a judicial nature, can decide such matters without any
restriction, improper influences, inducements, pressures, threats or interference from any
quarter. No discretion can be allowed in selection, appointment, transfer and promotion of
judges. No judge shall accept judicial office on the basis of an appointment or election or
perform services that are inconsistent with basic principles. When Pakistans judicial
system is examined in relation to these basic principles, many causes for concern become
apparent. (Husain)

Politicization of Justice
Military and civilian governments in Pakistan have, over the last 62 years, been
accused of interfering with the judiciary and of appointing judges who are sympathetic
towards their political aims. Under successive Pakistani constitutions the judiciary is
supposed to be independent, but in practice that has seldom been the case. Soon after
acceptance of constitution Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto made 7 amendments in it, between 1974 and
1977, which undermined the independence of judiciary. In 1981, General Zia was able to
orchestrate the dismissal of the Chief Justice, Anwar-ul-Haq, by not inviting him to an oath
taking ceremony in which various judges pledged their allegiance to his government. Over
the years various governments have attacked the credibility of courts by manipulating
constitutional provisions regarding appointment, tenure, transfer and promotion of judges.
These interferences have affected overall performance of our judiciary. Mauro survey in
1995 has rated Pakistan judiciary at the lowest.

20
Lack of Judges
Although countrys population along with public institutions has increased at a rapid
pace in past years, this has not been matched by commensurate capacity building of judicial
system to deal with this rising demand. According to one survey of 1996, there is one judge
for 85038 personnel in Pakistan.

Complex Political System


1973 constitution amply covers the fundamental rights of citizens. However,
practically when we observe in the masses we find that judicial system is kept so complex
that ordinary lawyers sitting outside city courts dictates his terms to the poor citizen.
Citizens are left with two options, either follow a normal procedure and then wait for years
till he get a final verdict of court or pay a heavy fee to a lawyer and get his job done in
much lesser time. Same is the case with public institutions. If at all any case of mal-practice
is challenged in the courts, it takes years for necessary decision against the defaulter.
(Dahal, 1996)

Substandard Law Education


Lawyers form the prestigious group in any country. Unfortunately in Pakistan the
one who is rejected from all other institutions ends up in Law College. This results into un-
professional and low quality of lawyers and judges. Public Institutions also hire lawyer from
same faculty. This substandard education is the major cause of malpractice in judiciary
system.

Civil Service
All successive regimes of Pakistan covertly or overtly politicized the bureaucracy in
varying degrees for advancing their partisan agenda. They have often applied the carrot and
stick policy to coax the arms of useful sections of public officials. The institution of civil
service implements government policies and oversees administrative functions of the state,
lending stability to otherwise unstable political systems. To ordinary citizen, civil service
most tangibly embodies the government. It is this institution they must approach on daily
basis for access to public services, the payment of services and disbursement of
development funds. As such, the institution wields immense power and controls the
destinies of millions. The civil service in Pakistan has been neither very efficient nor
effective in discharging its prime function of serving people. If we trace back the

21
performance graph of this institution we find many reasons for its gradual decline. Some of
them are discussed in subsequent paragraphs.

Politicization of Civil Service


As civil service implements government decisions, it had to face intense political
interference in the form of both coercion and patronage. As stated earlier India act of 1935
provided security to civil servants which was maintained in first two constitutions of
Pakistan as well. However, this provision was neglected in 1973 constitution. Direct
political involvement in Pakistan first time appeared when President Ayub in 1959
dismissed 1300 civil servants by a single order. General Yahya and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
repeated same act when they dismissed 303 and 1400 personnel respectively. This
involvement of government has curbed the independence of this elite institution. Politicians
have used various method to ensure loyalty, including the demotion of officers; political
appointments to civilians posts; provincial quotas; lateral entry; adhoc transfers, promotions
and demotions; and the constant bureaucratic shuffle that accompany political change.
Under such circumstances, the civil service has lost its traditional neutrality and has been
gradually eroded and demoralized. This interference is not one sided. If we see other side of
picture, bureaucrats also exert powerful influence on politicians at all level of governance.
This is due to lack of sufficient maturity of political institutions, parties and legislators.
(Khawaja, 2011)

Defined Roles
Roles of civil service in Pakistan are not well defined. It must be clearly under stood
that role of civil service is to implement government policies and not to make policies
themselves. The institution doesnt restricts itself to main functions of maintaining law and
order, providing a regulatory framework for economic activities and promoting human
development by improving the quality and quantity of basic social services. Due to
unnecessary interference of bureaucrats in political decisions they have forgotten their
original function of serving the masses. It has resulted into poor governance.

The Quota System and Bureaucracy


The distribution of positions in the civil service on the basis of regional quotas was
due to growing consciousness of regional and ethnic pluralism in the in society, together
with variations in term of economic and political development. The quota system was
introduced

22
Initially for 5 years and despite various recommendations it still continues and is
still controversial; especially in urban areas like Karachi and Lahore. Quota system is
vulnerable to corruption, manipulation and reverse discrimination. Although it ensures
trans-regional representation but, compromises on the quality. (Husain)

Concentration of Powers
Presently power is centralized. All decisions whether related to law and order or
flow of revenue or development programs are taken at the whim and will of bureaucrats.
The strategic position of civil servants and comparatively weakness of ministers have been
the main reason for concentration of power. Due to professional weakness of ministers and
extra pressure of work, they have to heavily rely on the advice of senior civil servants, and
particularly on their own secretary. The ministers role is largely confined to choosing
between alternative presented to him, unless he is exceptionally astute or has outside
advisers. Unless this is the case he is not likely to be aware of alternatives, which have been
rejected during the policy analysis stage .Pakistani minister have to rely on civil servants
mainly for two reasons: Firstly he is the only source of advice for him and secondly civil
servant is always in a best position to carry out inter departmental negotiations and liaison
with treasury which may be necessary for the implementation of policy. Under such
circumstances it has been seen that whosoever comes in a power as minister, real power lies
with the office of the minister.

The Structure of Organization


The structure of an organization is considered as an important variable which affects
the efficiency and performance of the institutions. John M. Ivancevich ET. Al (1996:254) in
their book Management: Quality and Competitiveness contend that to organize or
structure is the course of structuring human and physical resources for the purpose of
achieving organizational objectives. It includes dividing tasks into jobs, specifying the
appropriate department for each job, determining the best possible number of jobs in each
department, and delegating authority within and among departments. One of the most
critical challenges facing lodging managers today is the development of a responsive
organizational structure that is committed to quality.

Organizational Culture/Participative Corruption in Public Sector


Corruption is one of the malaises of public sector affecting their efficiency and
performance. The institutionalized corruption is characterized by providing protection and

23
immunity by a government organization to its own corrupt officials; while, participative
corruption involves collusion between the bureaucracy and the private sector. Participative
corruption is particularly prevalent in Pakistans tax administration, where the complexity
of taxation laws, excessive taxation rates, lack of proper documentation in the private sector
and widespread tax evasion make the income tax and customs and excise departments
among the most corrupt in the country. Surprisingly, people/employees involved in
corruption and money laundering/wrong doing with public money are identified but evade
punishment as a result of inefficient political and judicial system. According to the World
Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report (2007-08) corruption has been identified
as the third greatest problem for companies doing business in Pakistan, after government
bureaucracy and poor infrastructure. Approximately 40 percent of companies in Pakistan
feel that corruption is one of their major concerns. Transparency International (TI)s Global
Corruption Barometer 2007 shows Pakistan to be one of the countries most affected by
petty bribery. More than 44 percent of respondents reported that they have paid a bribe to
obtain a service. Half of all those surveyed (52 percent) perceive government efforts to
reform corruption as ineffective and nearly two-thirds (59 percent) think that corruption is
likely to increase within the next three years. Despite of all these problems government is
not willing to reform the public sector and practice good governance principles in their
organizations. (Khan, 2002)

Historical Perspective
Pakistan inherited British structure of judiciary, civil service and military but a
relatively weak legislative oversight at the time of its independence. Over time the
domination of civil service and military in the affairs of the state disrupted the evolution of
the democratic political process and further weakened the legislative organ of the state. The
institutions inherited from the British rule, were quite relevant for the requirements of the
rulers of those times. Following independence, those requirements expanded in scope and
demand while the level of expectations from the public and their elected representatives was
heightened. But these inherited institutions failed to adapt themselves to meet the new
challenges of development and social changes and respond to the heightened expectations.
(http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/resources.htm)
The continuation of legacy made the whole system malfunctioned. The stigma of
malpractice, bribery, corruption and law breaking for personal gains started to become a

24
norm for politicians, military rulers and government officials which were against the spirit
of governance in Pakistan.

25
CHAPTER # 5

HISTORY AND CURRENT SCENARIO OF GOVERNANCE


IN PAKISTAN

History of Governance in Pakistan


Pakistan inherited a well-functioning structure of judiciary, civil service and military
but a relatively weak legislative oversight at the time of its independence. Over time the
domination of civil service and military in the affairs of the state disrupted the evolution of
the democratic political process and further weakened the legislative organ of the state. The
judicial arm, with few exceptions, plodded along sanctifying the dominant role of the
military and the civil service. (Khawaja, 2011)

The institutions inherited from the British rule, were quite relevant for the
requirements of the rulers of those times. Following independence, those requirements
expanded in scope and content while the level of expectations from the public and their
elected representatives was heightened. But these inherited institutions failed to adapt
themselves to meet the new challenges of development and social changes and respond to
the heightened expectations and aspirations of a free people. The business as usual mode
of functioning, the approach and attitudes of the incumbents holding top and middle level
positions in the bureaucracy and manning these institutions did not endear them to the
political leaders or to the general public. Several Commissions and Committees were
formed in the first twenty five years after independence for reform of the administrative
structure and civil services. Some changes were introduced during Ayub Khans regime in
the 1960s to improve the efficiency of the Secretariats but the tendencies for centralized
controls and personalized decision making got worse in this period. The reluctance to grant
provincial autonomy to East Pakistan the most populous province of the country - so
remote physically from the hub of decision making i.e. Islamabad led to serious political
backlash and eventual breakup of the country into two independent nations. (Jabbar, 2011)

Pakistan continued to suffer from what has been termed as Confused federalism in
which weak local and provincial bodies are unable to match the ability of the Central
Government to mobilize resources and provide services. Whether it is health or education
or highways or agriculture the Federal Government has much larger programs under

26
implementation than the Provincial or local governments. Although the money is spent in
the provinces or districts the inability to identify, design, approve and implement these
projects caused resentment among the provincial governments.

In 1973, a populist government headed by Mr. Z.A. Bhutto took the first step to
break the steel frame of the Civil Services by taking away the constitutional guarantee of
the security of the job. He also demolished the exclusive and privileged role of the Civil
Service of Pakistan (CSP) within the overall structure of the public service. (Khawaja,
2011)

The next twenty five years witnessed a significant decline in the quality of new
recruits to the Civil Services as the implicit tradeoff between the job security and low
compensation ceased to operate and the expanding private sector including multinational
corporations offered more attractive career opportunities. The erosion of real wages in
public sector over time also led to low morale, demotivation, inefficiency and resort to
corrupt practices among the civil servants at all levels. The abuse of discretionary powers,
the bureaucratic obstruction and the delaying tactics adopted by the government
functionaries are all part of the maneuvering to extract rents for supplementing their pay. In
real terms the compensation paid to higher civil servants is only one half of the 1994
package. The low wages mean that the civil service no longer attracts the most talented
young men and women. Some of the incumbents of the Civil Services, in their instinct of
self-preservation, fell prey to the machinations of the political regimes in power and many
of them got identified with one political party or the other. They also benefited from the
culture of patronage practiced by the politicians. During the 1990s the replacement of one
political party by the other in the corridors of power was followed by changes in top
bureaucracy. This growing tendency of informal political affiliation for tenaciously holding
on to key jobs was also responsible for the end of an impartial, neutral and competent civil
service responsive to the needs of the common man. Loyalty to the Ministers, the Chief
Ministers and Prime Minister took ascendancy over the accountability to the general public.
The frequent takeovers by the military regimes and the consequential screening of hundreds
of civil servants led to subservience of the civil service to the military rulers, erosion of the
authority of the traditional institutions of governance and loss of initiative by the higher
bureaucracy. (Khawaja, 2011)

27
The 2001 devolution plan put another major blow to the Civil Service of Pakistan as
the posts of Commissioners, Deputy Commissioners (DC) and Assistant Commissioners
(AC) were abolished and the reins of District Administration were transferred to the elected
Nazims. To ordinary citizens, the government was most tangibly embodied in these civil
servants. It was the DC and AC that they approached on a daily basis. The substitution of
the civil servant by an elected head of the administration is quite a new phenomenon and
will take some time to sink in. While this transition takes place the checks and balances
implicit in the previous administrative set up have become redundant. The police as a
coercive force has therefore assumed greater clout. The opportunities of collusion between
the Nazim and the police have multiplied and in many instances alienated the common
citizens and diluted the impartiality of the administration at grass roots levels. The sanctity
of private property rights has been threatened in several cases when the Nazims have given
orders to make unauthorized changes in the land records in the rural areas in collusion with
the government functionaries to benefit themselves and their cronies. The District
Administration is yet to grow as autonomous institution in face of a hostile environment of
centralizing administration, and inequitable resource distribution.

Current Scenario
Governance is generally conceived of as the exercise of economic, political and
administrative authority in the public and private spheres to manage a countrys affair at all
levels to improve the quality of life of the people. It is a continuing process where divergent
opinions and desires are satisfied through compromise and tolerance in a spirit of
cooperative action for the mutual benefit of the larger whole. It has three dimensions:
firstly, the political regime; secondly, the systems and procedures for exercising authority;
and thirdly, the capacity of governments. (Husain)
The present situation of Pakistan is not very good as it faces dangerous threats from both
external and internal forces which directly and indirectly are affecting the cause of good governance
in Pakistan. Where it is engaged in the deadly war against terrorism, the country also faces crises in
energy, food and unemployment. The situation has weakened by a great deal in almost all sector of
the country be it Education, Health, Industry etc.
South Asian countries have had democratic governments installed but the state of
governance has become a matter of serious concern nowadays. The region, home to over one-fifth of
the world Population is the region with about 437 million people living below one dollar a day and
80 per cent of the population survives below two dollar a day. South Asias share in the global

28
income is only 7 per cent while its share of global poverty is about 43 per cent. (Poverty in South
Asia: Challenges and Responses , Human, 2007)
Pakistans journey for democracy has been very difficult and frustrating. The current
civilian government was elected in 2008 after ending another military rule. However, the concept of
the Democratic Dictatorship prevails in the country as the previous elected government faced
enormous corruption and political turmoil. Currently Pakistan is ranked as Partly Free in the
overall freedom ranking in comparison to the previous government which was ranked Not Free by
Freedom House which is an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of
freedom around the world.

Source: Freedom in the World, Report 2013


There is a reduction in the ranking of civil liberties and political rights which shows
that the previous government for the first time finished a complete cycle of tenure in
Pakistan is rated high by the independent body.
Pakistans position in military establishment can be seen below.
Ranking in terms of Civil Liberties and Political Rights in South Asia, 1999-2007

29
Note: Rank 1 means most free and 7 means least free
Similarly the status of governance in Pakistan according to the World Governance
Indicators in South Asia for various areas is as follows:

30
31
32
Source: World Governance Indicators for South Asia
The above table for Pakistan does not show a good picture in South Asia and needs to
improve a great deal in the journey towards good and effective governance framework.

Political earth quake and issues of governance in Pakistan


Javed Jabbar in his book Pakistan: Unique Origins, Unique Destiny highlights that
Pakistan is unique in the sense that it is the only country in the World which got
disintegrated after World War II (1939 1945) , created in 1947 and then again
disintegrated in 1971. (Jabbar, 2011)

33
The division of Bangladesh is taken as a huge setback for the country as it gave birth to a lot
of political instability. The emergence of the Quota system was the after effects of this
divide which we feel has been one of the major causes of the failure of good governance in
Pakistan as it has given birth to influential political appointments and nepotism at every
level of the function of state.
The term political earthquake is not new to researchers and politicians as it has
been used many times to explain the devastating results it can bring to a nations progress
and development. This has been the case for Pakistan as it has gone through a number of
changes in system due to military coup or by the president dissolving the assembly well
before its allocated time period.
When the system of government transforms from democracy to dictatorship, the
regime shift can cause tidal waves that have drastic repercussions on the process of
administrative reform in a country. Or when after winning the elections the opposition party
becomes the government, administrative reform may also experience tidal waves. Or when
there is a change of the person or agency in charge of administrative reform, one is likely to
see big waves in the making despite the fact that governments official reform policies
remain unchanged. This has been the case with Pakistan as frequently numerous
governments have abolished the old system in trying to establish their own favored systems
and policies which causes delay in process, encourages lack of justice, misuse of funds etc.
Decisions made on time and effectively enforced make the governance good. Red-
tapism, bureaucratic mindset and delay in processes lead to inefficiency. The absence of
good governance leads to corruption which prevails quickly unless tackled with authority
Corruption defined as misuse of entrusted power for private benefit is unfortunately
endemic in Pakistan. No structure, no tier and no office of public sector are immune from it.
Its spread is enormous. It has reached every organ of state beyond executive it has put its
Claws on judiciary and legislature even. It would be no exaggeration to say that the whole
body of the state of Pakistan is suffering from this malaise and wailing under its dead
weight. (Javaid)
The roots of corruption in Pakistan date back to the colonial period when the British
rewarded lands and titles to those who were their loyalists leading to nepotism and
corruption. The legacy continued after independence as well as the feudal continued to
manipulate the system successfully be ensuring that there is no agriculture reform placed in
the system so that they continue to benefit from their corrupt agendas. Pakistan since its
inception has been ruled by few feudal lords who have continued to ensure that there is no
34
awakening of the poor in terms of their rights by not proving basic necessities such as
education, food and shelter to them. This unawareness has led to having a rural and urban
divide in place in the electoral system as well thus ensuring that only few parties will
continue to rule.
Corruption manifests itself in various forms in Pakistan, including widespread
financial and political corruption, nepotism, and misuse of power. Both petty and grand
corruptions are prevalent in the country (Chene, 2008)
South Asian Countries Rank in Corruption Perception Index 2010

The current ranking for Pakistan is 139 in the CPI (http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2012/)


which has reduced and is an indication of improvement in systems and accountability due to
democratic government.
The scale of corruption is highest in development projects and procurement
(including defense and public sector corporations) and the bank loan write offs. Whereas
mega corruption is mainly in development projects, bank loans and procurements which
rock the Foundation of the economy, the common man is more interested in the petty and
middle level corruption that he encounters in the daily dealings in the government offices.
According to one estimate the loss made to the national exchequer is over Rs. 200
billion per annum. This loss is caused collectively by all the government departments but
the most prominent amongst them as per the Perception Survey carried out by Transparency
International Pakistan are:
1) Power Sector
2) Tax and Customs
3) Police and Law Enforcement

35
4) Judiciary and Legal Profession
5) Health and Education
6) Land Administration
The same survey highlights the following reasons for corruption:

The first serious attempt to fight corruption at national level was witnessed during
the caretaker period after the dismissal of 2nd Benazir government in November 1996 when
President Farooq Leghari established Ehtsab Commission headed by a retired senior judge.
The effort was intensified by the next government, i.e. the 2nd Nawaz government in 1997
through the aegis of Ehtsab Bureau headed by Mr. Saif Ur Rehman. The exercise was
however taken as one sided and led to the erosion of moral authority for so pious an
exercise.
The military government of 1999 started accountability with a lot of fanfare. It
established National Accountability Bureau (NAB) with necessary investigation and
judicial structures. It announced National Anti-Corruption Strategy (NACS). NACS was a
three-pronged strategy, viz.
1) Prevention
2) Awareness
3) Enforcement
The point to consider is that Pakistan is not the only country which is involved in
corruption. There are many other countries and comparing them with our situation will help
us devise better strategies to counter this menace.

36
CHAPTER # 6

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
The concept of good governance has not emerged from outside mankinds
experience throughout the ages. It is based on a lesson from history which records both the
downfall of nations resulting from bad governance, and also lessons of how nations have
risen to great heights as a consequence of good governance. In general, opportunities for a
fair governance, true democracy and civil society in Pakistan can only flourish when
democratic practices are allowed to prevail under the supremacy of the constitution,
unchanged democracy and safe environment for foreign investment.
Almost all major development institutions believe that promoting good governance
is an important part of their agendas. The difficulty however is in the understanding of good
governance as a universal solution for problems around the world. The diversity in skills,
knowledge and attitude around the world makes it difficult for people in implementing best
practices of good governance. The question of how to improve governance? is, of course,
the most pressing from a policy perspective but it can be achieved through collective efforts
in Pakistan by taking various steps.
In order to take steps towards effective governance, key decision makers will have
to develop strategies and frameworks that suit best according to local conditions. A similar
type of framework has been produced by Syed Imran Sardar, Assistant Research Officer at
the Institute of Regional Studies who has suggested the following strategies that need to be
incorporated in our existing system. He explains it in his framework Way to Good
Governance

37
Recommendations

38
From the above discussion it should be clear that good governance is an idea which
is difficult to achieve in its totality. Plato is generally considered an all-round philosophical,
mathematical and scientific genius, perhaps best known for his work The Republic; a
treatise on society, governance and justice. Little did Plato would have known that his ideas
would be adapted by future generations for effective and stable GOVERNANCE?
Plutocracy government in which a small group of ultra-rich oligarchs rule
millionaires and billionaires that serve only money working directly at the top of the
political system and also anonymously through 3rd party proxies, lobbyists and through
financing (not at all representatives of the people, but using their money to further their
power. The scenario for Pakistan for decades now is been under the philosophy of
Plutocracy.
The kind of government Plato recommends in The Republic is the aristocracy. Rule
by the best, not necessarily land-owners, or the richest, but those trained specifically in the
arts and sciences of governance. Although this may take decades for Pakistan but by
finishing a full five year term by the present government , perhaps we as a nation have taken
the first step. Below are some concluding thoughts that can be considered to improve Good
Governance in Pakistan.
1) Strengthening Institutions not individuals - but empowering individuals to
participate in the process of improvement for sustainability.
2) Decentralization of Power - from the center but also from the elite politicians and
feudal lords for ensuring grass root improvements.
3) Right person for the right job continuous professional development throughout for
accountability and sharing of responsibility.
4) Sustainability by building on success The trend in Pakistan is to abolish the
previous governments good efforts and re-invent the step which causes hurdles in
sustainability. Governments should build on previous success irrespective of whose
initiative was it for Sustainability in governance.
5) Learning from likeminded countries and cultures as opposed to western systems.
Pakistan has inherited the system from the British and has continued to follow the
same system which has caused problems in managing it due to lack of knowledge
and capacity of human resources. Culture and tradition play a role and perhaps
Pakistan can better learn from similar developing countries like Malaysia as opposed
to European countries which have been the case in the past.
39
6) Respecting and accepting diversity. Encouraging and promoting diversity as strength
for attaining success. Creating and respecting diversity as a dividend not divide.
7) Urbanization in rural areas to manage and facilitate population. Too much migration
in urban cities for employment causes issues of management and population influx.
Rural areas should be developed in order to maintain and encourage good
governance through decentralization.
8) Do it Yourself (DIY) As opposed to waiting for donors and other agencies to help
us in various sectors which perhaps in normally considered a hindrance as donors
have their own set objectives. A mindset that will be difficult to change but possible
through strong campaigning. Spreading the notion of Khudee / Self Actualization
and believe in oneself.

40
CONCLUSION
The term good governance is a multi-dimensional which occupies a central stage
in the development discourse. It is considered as the crucial element to be incorporated in
the development strategy. However, the development experts in recent years have
emphasized good governance as a prerequisite for development. It is clear from the above
discussion that good governance mean the art of government, in which all public decisions
and other affairs are dealt transparency and the government official are made responsible
and appointed on merit, and the gap between the government and people is bridged. All
these aspects of good governance are complimentary to each other. Scholars and experts
have also paid attention to the way of achieving good governance. Scholars tend to link
good governance with a democratic polity. Governance becomes good when the decisions
and actions of the government are based on peoples consent, legitimacy and accountability.
Good governance has got the great importance in every state as the problem of corruption,
red-tapism and in-efficiency has gradually crept into administrative structure of the country
and the development has stood still and the gap between rulers and ruled has widened. The
Lack of understanding between them has always stood in the way of building a system that
espouses the elements of accountability, transparency, and responsiveness. The paper can be
concluding that good governance is that which fosters human development through popular
participation and social and economic equalities. The ultimate objective of good governance
has to be to create lea civil society. It may also be pointed out here that the good is not a
static concept. Good governance has to work for the realization of popular aspirations. The
aspirations have to be based on a sense of realism and dynamism. Today, good governance
not only occupies central place in the development discourse but is also considered as a
crucial elements in building the nation.

41
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Bevir, M. (2006). Encyclopaedia of Governance. Berkeley: SAGE.

Bevir, M. (n.d.). Encyclopaedia of Governance.

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