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Anopheles (Cellia) flavirostris (Ludlow, 1914)

The majority of bionomic information on this species has come from the Philippines.

A. Habitats
Anopheles flavirostris is quintessentially a foothill, stream-breeding species but is
by no means entirely restricted to such lotic environments. In the Philippines, An.
flavirostris can be found from the coastal plains near sea level to elevations up to 1500m,
although it is more commonly found no higher than 600m elevation throughout its range.
Characteristically, this species has a high preference for clear, slow-moving fresh-water
habitats that are typically partly shaded by surrounding overhead vegetation and with
margins containing emergent plants. In the foothills of western Java, An. flavirostris has
been commonly collected from margins of forested streams with moderate to high flow
rate. It can also be found at the edges of seepage pools, slow-flowing grassy river edges,
canals and irrigation ditches. It has been reported from natural wells and occasionally
stagnant pools, and very rarely from rice fields or ponds and pools in stream beds. It
typically has a low tolerance for salinity and prefers more alkaline (7.3-8.2) water. Larval
habitats have been described as being relatively close to human habitation compared to
many other species. In western Java, An. flavirostris has been shown to be associated with
lower elevation foothill sites, lower water temperatures with less acidity, greater water
depth, higher water current, rocky substrate, higher canopy cover, greater forested riparian
vegetation and higher amounts of low emergent vegetation compared to most other
anopheline species in the area.

B. Resting and feeding preferences

dult females are primarily zoophilic, preferring to feed on larger animals (e.g. water
buffalo, cows), although they will readily attack humans both indoors and outdoors. This
species has been described as primarily human-biting and endophagic in Sabah.
Elsewhere, it is regarded as exophagic, but this varies depending on the circumstances and
season. Overall, this species appears opportunistic in feeding habits and can show a
varying preference for biting location that appears dependent on the availability of hosts.
Females blood-feed throughout the evening with lower numbers in the early evening
gradually increasing to peak biting frequency on humans nearer midnight and for several
hours afterwards (22:00 to 03:00), with a sharp drop off in activity before dawn. Females
are strongly exophilic, resting during the day on low vegetation, often near cool, damp
overhanging stream banks close to larval habitats. Very seldom are they found resting
indoors during daylight hours, although pre- and post-feeding indoor resting does occur,
but rarely for long periods before exiting the house.

C. Vectorial capacity

This species has been incriminated frequently as a vector of human malarial

parasites in the Philippines and is regarded as the primary vector throughout much of the
country. Under favourable circumstances low infective rates remain sufficient to maintain
endemic transmission or cause outbreaks. It has been implicated in malaria transmission
above 1000m elevation in Luzon. It is a confirmed malarial vector in Sabah (Malaysian
Borneo) along the eastern coast (Banggi Island, Semporna, Pitas). In Indonesia, this species
is seldom encountered in human landing collections and is regarded as only an incidental,
focal vector. Only a few historical records of natural infections are known from Indonesia,
specifically in western Java, Sulawesi and Palau Laut in southeastern Kalimantan (Borneo).