This
sagtension calculating program has been
written to determine which of the limits
Digital Computer controls, and for convenience in curve
plotting, a span close to the location where
a change in limits occurs has been deter
mined. A flow chart for accomplishing
B. M. PICKENS this is shown in Fig. 1. The range of
ASSOCIATE MEMBER AIEE
spans required is obtained by using a
shortest span (SPNX), longest span
ALCULATIONS of the sags and ten 1. Design or final sags and tensions. (SPNM), and interval between spans
sions in conductors used in overhead
(SPI) routine. Tensions and sags are
2. Initial or stringing sags and tensions. first calculated for the shortest span
systems are a timeconsuming and seem Final sags and tensions are used to specified, then the span interval is added
ingly neverending task. Over the past and the tension and sags are calculated
30 or more years, thousands of calcula determine clearances to ground, other
power or communications circuits, over for this new span. This continues until
tions have been made, notably those the maximum span specified is reached
by the Copper Wire Engineering Associa roads and railroads or other locations
which are overbuilt. when the program stops.
tion, in addition to those made by the con Initial or stringing sags and tensions
ductor manufacturers, and there are still The sagtension routine (R) calculates
many conductors for which sagtension are used primarily as a guide to the actual both design and initial sags and tensions
information has not been prepared, at installation of the conductor and are used for the loading conditions and tempera
least for some tension limits and loading in determining possible uplift at supports. tures specified for a given span, and
conditions. There are five generally This program for sagtension calcula punches this information in output cards.
recognized loading districts (heavy, me tions covers both final and initial values At the same time, the routine enters into
dium, light, California heavy, and Cali for a series of spans of the range required. a memory location the one of the three
fornia light) and special loadings to meet Usually three limits to the possible ten tension limitations which was found to be
local conditions, hundreds of conductor sions are imposed. They are controlling. This location is identified
designs, each with several commonly 1. The maximum tension under the as TS in the program; see Table II.
used tension limits, with the result that sumed storm loading conditions shall not As each span interval is added to the
the number of possibilities for which sag exceed a specified maximum value in previously used span length to give a new
pounds. This may be given as a per cent span, and the sags and tensions are cal
and tension values may be needed are al of the rated strength or as a specific value
most endless. When done by desk cal in pounds. culated and punched for the new span,
culator and tables, or by some graphic 2. The final tension at some selected the resulting controlling tension is com
method, each problem is a timeconsum temperature but without ice or wind load pared with the previous controlling ten
ing operation. ing shall not exceed a given per cent of the sion. If they are the same the machine
The use of a digital computer for this rated strength. proceeds to the next span. However, if
work seemed to offer promise of remov 3. The initial tension at some selected the tension limits are not the same a pro
ing the drudgery involved. Some years temperature shall not exceed a given gram is started to determine the span
per cent of the rated strength. length where the change inlimitsoccurred.
ago an attempt was made to program an
IBM (International Business Machines These last two limits are imposed to This is done by adding a fraction of the
Corporation) 604 computer for this work. protect the conductor from possible vibra span interval to the span length used be
While a program was worked out which tion damage. The commonly used limits fore the change occurred and checking by
could be used for coppertype conductors, are shown in Table I. means of a special routine to see if there
it lacked many desirable features. would be a change in limits. This con
With the introduction and more com Main Program tinues until the span length where the
mon use of the stored program machines, change would occur is determined. The
such as the IBM 650, it was possible to For any given span there is usually no determined span length is then used in
develop a program for calculating sags and way of knowing in advance which of the the routine (R) to obtain a set of sag
tensions in which most of the work is
done by the computer.
Table 1. Limiting Working Tensions
General Initial Final
Sagtension data fall into two main Before Maximum Load,
No lce or Wind
After Maximum Load,
No Ice or Wind
divisions:
Per Cent Per Cent
of Rated Tempera of Rated Tempera
Paper 58109, recommended by the AIEE Com
Materla Loading District Strength ture, F* Strength ture, F
puting Devices Committee and the Transmission
and Distribution Committee of the Power Appara Copper type .all . ............... 35 . ... 60 25 .. 60
tus and Systems Division, and approved by the heavy .. 331/... . 0. 25 . 0
AIEE Technical Operations Department for pres Aluminum ...... medium .. 33/ .. 15. .25 15
entation at the AIEE Power Industry Computer light .. 331/ 30. 25 . 30
Application Conference, Toronto, Ont., Canada. ACSRt California heavy....... 331/* .. 0.25.. 0
September 1157, 1958. Manuscript submitted I California light.,,
..... ....
331/s. 2 . 2.25
May 28, 1958; made available for printing Augut
4, 1958. * Degrees Fahrenheit. t Aluminum cable steelreinforced.
B. M. PrcKxs Is with the Anaconda Wire and Maximum tensions for power line conductors of all types are usually 60(%, 50 %, or 40% of the rated trength
Cable Company, HastingsonHudson, N. Y. or some specified zusimum tension such as 2,000 lb (pounds) for distribution conductors.
Acceau6ator
Data Instr. Upper Lower Distributor
Location Over. Address Address 8001
Sub. 1 STD EXIT
RAU SPN 200 200
HP! w 366200 .1831
SLT 0004 3662000000
DVR T .0274102 13366
RAU 8002 .0274102
MHP 8003 .0007 5131906404
SRD 0006 .0075132
STL SWT2 .00075132
RAU 8001 .0075132
MP! cci .00000284 1674359968 .0037822424
SRD 0008 Z0000028417
AIO CC2 .0109403417 .0109375000
SLT 0007 .0109403 417
R&U 8003 .0109403
HFP SWT2 .00000 8219666196 .00075132
SRD 0005 0000082197
ALO CC3 .0416748863 .0416666666
SLT 0007 .0416748 863
RAU 8003 .0416748
MPY SWT2 .00003 1311110736 .00075132
SLT 0004 .000031311 110736
AUP ONE 1 000031311 110736 lDODOOOOO
STU LF 1000031311
RAU SWT2 .00075132 .00075132
MPT CC4 .00000273 9187474956 .0036458333
SRD 0008 .0000027392
ALO CC3 .0416694058 .0416666666
SLT 0007 00416694 058
RAU 8003 00416694
MPY SWT2 .00003 1307053608 .0075132
SLT 0004 .000031307 053608
AU? HONE  .999968692 946392 1aoo000000
R&U 8003  .999968692
MPY T  1335 .9581738480 13360
DER AZ .0009681501 1379908.
SRT 0001 .00096850
Fig. 1. Flow chart for main program ALO LF EXIT 1 .999063161 I900031311
a. SW/T ...... (span X weight)/tension WEWB ... bare weight, lb/ft (lb per foot) . 0.1831
ASE ..AE ...... area X modulus WRW ...... WR.resultant weight, lb/ft 1.2350
AE.. ..AEI ...... areaXinitial modulus W. WI* ......... .... iced weight, lb/ft ........................... 0.7719
BY( ) ....... instruction address A .. A .......... crosssectional area, square inches............. 0.1219
a. COEF ... coefficient of expansion Tp. F T .tension, final limit, lb. 1,336.0
CULP(N)... corrected unstressed length TR .TR ......... tension, resultant limit, lb ............... 2,672.0
factor . T TI. tension, initial limit, lb. 1,781.0
D. D( . ) .. finalsag
DIX( ).....initial sag Conductor Data, Type 6/1 ACSR
EXIT( ) .... instruction address mE.! . MES .... steel modulus......... 4,000,000
Ecs . ECS ... secant modulus nEa.N NEA.. aluminum modulus .7,320,000
fa . PA .. .. stress in aluminum EF . EP... final modulus .11,320,000
fam. FAM ...... apparent maximum stress E lEI...... Initial modulus.10,830,000
fc. FC .. .. critical stress (Zs+Za) as . COEPS .... coefficient of linear expansion, steel.0.00000640
fm. FM .. maximum stress
..
ar .COEFI ..... ...... coefficient of linear expansion, initial .......... 0.00001032
FIN ........ instruction address .COEFF
a .... coefficient of linear expansion, final. . 0.00001053
H . H .. horizontal component of gcr ... GCR .......... c...constant from elastic curve ................... 0.00015300
tension t. TEMB . data temperature, P. 70
K1. Ki1 .. . calculated constants .C1 ...c........... constant, stressstrain equation ............... 0.000165
K.  mEs X as(IBSR) C2 .. C2.................. constant, stressstrain equation ........... 0.003450
K2 . K2.. calculated constant C., ..... 0C21.... C21 ................. constant, stressstrain equation ............. 0.532000
Kg gcr + (tBIR) X C . ......... C3 . ... constant, stressstrain equation ............... 0.0000061
(2asai) C .C4 .... constant, stressstrain equation ............... 0.0000551
Ks . K3 .. calculated constant C ..C5 . ... constant, stressstrain equation ...... ......... 0.0094420
Ks  EF/nEA C . C6..... constant, stressstrain equation ............... 0.01530
K4 . K4. calculated constant Variable Data, Temperatures, Heavy Loading
K asmEt
K5.
K. . calculated constant . TEMP .... temperature for TF, F ....................... 0
K. nEA/(mEsEP) R. TEMR. temperature for TR, P . 0
Ks K6 .. calculated constant tt TEMI ....................................... temperature for TI, P.
tn........... TEM32 ............ temperature, F ............................
0
32
K. WB(AmEs)
LFP.........length factor In .TEMN(x) ....... temperature, P ........ 20, 0, 30, 60
LOP( ).. . instruction address (x 1 to 6) 90,120
LOOP( ) .... instruction address Variable Data, Spans
P  .. data to be punched
Q ........data to be punched S . SPN .. span being used in program
R(ROUT) .. main routine address SPNA............... span being used in program
RI ......... instruction address SPNY............... span being used in program
SKP( ) .. instruction address S. SPNX.... shortest span, ft. 200
SUB( )...subroutine Sm .SPNM .... l ongest span, ft ............................. 2,400
a . SWT2 .. (SWT) (SWT) Si .SPNI.... span interval, ft ...................... 100
T. T .. tension SN
.SPNN ... SPNM+SPI ............................... 2,500
TS..........controlling tension Constants
TEMP......temporary storage CC. C . . 224/64,2............................ 0.0037822420
TEM(. ).....temperature CC . CC2 . . 7/640 ... .............. 0.0109375000
TH( ) ....... instruction address CCs .... .. CC3 . . 1./24 .......... 0.0416666667
TIX( ) ...... trial tension CC4
C..
. ..7/1, 920 ......... . .. 0.0036458333
TmT..TM.... maximum tension CC CC5. 241/46, 080. 0. 0052300347
TMX( ). . trial tension . CC . . CC6. 7/384 .............................. 0.0182291666
TEMD... temperature difference CCM ..... CC7.. 1/8 ............................. 0.1250000000
ULF.... ULF ... unstressed length factor M. M2 ..... 1/40, 320 ..... 0.0000248016
Un . UN . .. length factor correction M. M1 . 1/720 0.0013888889
W . W( ) .. weight of conductor 1/2 . HALF... 1/2 0.5000000000
Z. . Z1 .. calculated constant ONE ..... 1 1.0000000000
Z1 faKu
................................
TWO ......... 2 2
Zs . Z3 .. calculated constant
..............................
MONE I ..... 1 1
ZsJ (tnSR) K
.............................
(B)
Fig. 4. Flow charts for initial tension calculations
ASubroutine 4, ACSR BSubroutine 4C, copper
Fig. 3. Subroutine 2: Row chart for determin.
ing tension corresponding to given corrected Fig. 5 (right). Typical ACSR
unstresd length factor sd*ssain chart 30
INITIAL TENSIONS
In calculating initial tensions for copper
and similar conductors the procedure is
to use a virtual initial modulus and a
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1312 PickensSag Tension Calcukzion Program for Digital Computer FEBRUARY 1959
fan =fm+(mEsas) (tB ti)
The initial stressstrain curve (Fig. 5) is
represented by equation 10 for computer
operation. The secant modulus used
for E in subroutine 1 to obtain the initial
unstressed factor is
=
Ec,s fin
Ba(TB tB) (2asat) gcr
The initial unstressed length factor is then
corrected for temperature and used in
subroutine 2 to obtain initial tension
values. El is used in this operation.
FINAL TENSIONS
Calculation of final tensions for ACSR
conductors requires a special routine.
The method follows that described by
Jordan' except that values for the alu
minum stress are obtained from an em
pirical equation
fa = CJfam +CJifam"+ C2ifam (11)
A flow diagram for determining final
tensions for ACSR is shown in Fig. 6.
Above some critical temperature the
aluminum wires of ACSR lose their ten
sion and the steel core carries the entire
load. In this range the relation between
stress and strain is that for the steel core.
A critical tension is determined for each
temperature and compared with the ten
sion obtained assuming the cable is op
erating as a unit. If the critical tension
Fig. 7. Flow chart For ACSR sagtension routine is larger, than the corrected unstressed
length factor is reduced by a factor U and
a new tension, calculated by using mE,
permanent set value read from a stress pirical equation instead of being read rather than Ef in subroutine 1 where used
strain curve. from a curve. This equation has the in subroutine 2.
The Copper Wire Engineering Associa form The critical tension To corresponds
tion published a number of permanent set to a critical stressfc
(PS) curves for copper and copper Ba=astrain = Cfa,n' + C4fam" + Ctfai + C6
(10) TCfcA
covered steel conductors. These curves
were an approximate average of several Constants for a number of ACSR con and
test curves. They can be closely repre structions are shown in Table V. Table
sented by an empirical equation of the V also shows constants for equation 11. fc Z2 +Z.
form Flow diagrams for determining initial where
tensions are shown in Fig. 4.
PS= Cl1.f+Clep+C1Lp+C14f (9) The apparent maximum stress used in Z3 (tn tr) co8mEs

Table IV shows values for the constants obtaimnng the stress and strain values Z2 fm (faEF)I/nEa
Cui through C14 for several commonly used from the stressstrain curve for a given
conductors as well as elastic modulii and ACSR is The aluminum stressfa is obtained from
coefficient of thermal expansion values.
The permanent set value PS is sub
tracted from the unstressed cable length
factor corresponding to fi, the maximum
stress in the conductor, giving the cor
rected unstressed length factor to be used
in calculating initial sags and tensions.
For calculating initial tensions of
ACSR, a "secant modulus" and apparent
maximum stress as described by Jordans Fig. 8. Subroutine cTx
are used. Here again, the strain value 7: Row chart for
corresponding to a given apparent maxi determining control
mum stress fai is obtained from an em ling tension
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