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Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials xx (xxxx) xxxxxxxx

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Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jmmm

The friction control of magnetic uid in the Couette ow



O.N. Labkovich , A.G. Reks, V.A. Chernobai
Belarusian National Technical University, Nezavisimosty Ave., 65, Minsk 220013, Belarus

A R T I C L E I N F O A BS T RAC T

Keywords: In the work characteristic areas of magnetic uid ow are experimentally determined in the gap between the
Dipole-dipole interaction between magnetite cylinders: the area of strong dipole-dipole interaction between magnetite particles 0 < Ta < 8, the laminar ow 8
particles < Ta < 41,2, the area of Taylor vortex ow Ta > 41,2. For areas with high ow losses in viscous friction is shown
Vortex ow the possibility of reducing the introduction of magnetic uid of carbon nanotubes and creating a rotating
Viscous friction
magnetic eld.
Magnetic uid
Carbon nanotubes
Rotating magnetic eld

1. Introduction Character of uid ow in the gap between cylinders is dened by


the dependence of the measured friction moment on the rotation speed
The viscous friction in magnetic uids is dened by following V of the cylinder (Fig. 1).
mechanisms: Einschteins mechanism of dissipation, viscous friction, On Fig. 1 typical dependence of the friction moment fr on
dened by the dipole-dipole interaction between magnetite parti- dimensionless speed of rotation - Taylor's Ta number is given at the
r
cles [15,7,8] and the magnetic moment of the particles and the ow of the magnetic uid MO 70. Here, Ta = Re( R )0,5, where
rV
external magnetic eld [9,10]. Re = , coecient of the kinematic viscosity. Character of change
The experimental research of the mechanisms dening a viscous of the friction moment from the dimensionless speed Ta allowed
friction at the ow of the magnetic uid in a wide range of speeds and assuming an existence of three areas of ow: the area of strong
possibilities of its decrease is of interest. inuence of processes of structurization on viscous friction Ta < 8, a
laminar ow - 8 < Ta < 41, 2 and a vortex ow at which a sharp growth
2. Experiment of the friction moment - Ta > 41, 2 (curve 1) was observed. And,
transition of the laminar ow of the magnetic uid to the Taylor vortex
Researches were carried out on the modied viscosimeter HAAKE one was observed at the critical value of Taylors number 41,2, what is
Viscotester VT 550. The magnetic uid lled a radial gap between typical for usual uids - mineral oil and water. In the absence of the
coaxial cylinders, the internal cylinder in radius R rotated. magnetic eld the magnetic uid MO - 70 behaves as Newtons uid
The radial gap changed from 0,31 mm. The axial size of the with transition of the laminar ow to Taylor vortex one at Tacr = 41, 2
magnetic uid layer l =20 mm. The temperature of the magnetic uid (curve 2).
changed from 20 to 60 by the thermostat and was measured by In the radial magnetic eld (H =400 kA/m) time dependences of
means of thermocouples. The magnetic uid on the mineral oil and structurization in the magnetic uid and their inuence on the viscous
magnetite with magnetization of saturation of 70 kA/m (MO - 70) friction were studied. The magnetic uid held in the radial gap at rest
was used. The curve of magnetization of the uid was of Langevenovs from 0 till 140 h, then the moment of start o 0 was measured, by
character, diameters of magnetite particles did not exceed 15 nan- which pressures 0 (Fig. 2) were dened. Growth of pressures 0 was
ometers (nm). In the gap r the radial magnetic eld was created by observed till 120 h, and then the tendency to saturation (curve 1) was
means of the constant ring magnet, two magnetic lines and the visible. The long characteristic times of structurization are connected
magnetic internal cylinder. with high viscosity of the uid-carrier (mineral oil).
The radial magnetic eld on the circle was homogeneous (H Besides, as shown in work [3], structurization in the magnetic uid
=400 kA/m), in the axial direction its change did not exceed 4%. has a complex character: at rst chains are formed, then at their
In experiments the rotating magnetic eld which was created. approach granules, and the further hold leads to transformation of


Corresponding author.
E-mail address: olji@tut.by (O.N. Labkovich).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.11.072
Received 13 September 2016; Received in revised form 15 November 2016; Accepted 16 November 2016
Available online xxxx
0304-8853/ 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Labkovich, O.N., Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (2016),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.11.072
O.N. Labkovich et al. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials xx (xxxx) xxxxxxxx

the sharp decrease in viscosity of the uid-carrier (mineral oil), and the
contribution of dipole-dipole structurization in the viscous friction
decreased because of the destructive inuence of Brownian motion.
Measurements of the friction moment at the constant increase of
velocity of rotation to Ta =20 and then its decrease found out its
hysteresis - the friction moment had lower values at the velocity
decrease (Fig. 3).
This result conrms a destroying inuence of hydrodynamic forces
on the structures of magnetite and denes an area of essential inuence
of dipole-dipole interaction of magnetite particles on the viscous
friction - Ta 8. In the eld of laminar ow of the magnetic uid
(8 < Ta < 41, 2) with magnetic eld increase in the gap the pressures of
the shift increased and at the maximum value of the magnetic eld H
=400 kA/m its contribution to viscous friction did not exceed 15%
Fig. 1. Character of the magnetic uid ow.
(Fig. 1).
In work [9] it is shown that in this case the viscous friction can
dene a rise in the ow of structures from several particles which
besides a rotary motion make uctuations relative to a circular
trajectory, and, oscillatory dissipation makes more than a half of all
dissipated energy.
For the area of expected Taylor vortex ow Ta > 41, 2 a strong
inuence of the magnetic eld on viscous friction is typical. So, the
increase of the radial magnetic eld from 0 to 400 kA/m leads to
growth of the friction moment for 30% (Fig. 1).
The possibility of control - friction decrease in these areas of the
ow was studied experimentally. Small additives of single-layer carbon
nanotubes (CNT) were brought into the magnetic uid. Nanotubes are
hollow nonmagnetic cylinders in diameter ~ 5 nm and length to
10000 nm. In this case the solution of nanotubes in the magnetic uid
is not colloid one and nanotubes do not participate in Brownian
motion. A dening role in the structure formation here plays forces
Fig. 2. The dependence of shift pressures on curing time.
of electrostatic interaction (Van-der-Vaals forces) of nanotubes which
are characterized by parameter :

= U / kT ,

where U = A /6(2/(S 2 4) + 2/ S 2 + ln[(S 2 4)/ S 2] - energy of forces of


electrostatic attraction [6]. Here S = (2r l )r , l distance between
nanotubes.
In this case the condition of structure formation of magnetite
particles will look like:

= 1

Thus, introduction of nanotubes into the magnetic uid leads to the


occurrence of electrostatic forces of Van-der-Vaals in the suspension,
these forces of order of are superior to magnetic forces of the
interaction between the magnetite particles, which prevents structure
Fig. 3. The hysteresis of the friction moment. formation of magnetite and reduces a viscous friction.
At the laminar ow (8 < Ta < 41,2 ) nanotubes do not inuence the
granules into spatial structures. This structurization, as seen in Fig. 2, friction moment as structures from magnetite particles are absent, and
leads to increase of friction force. Degree of magnetic interaction of nanotubes are easily deformed in the ow (Fig. 1, curve 3).
magnetite particles is characterized by dimensionless parameter: In the eld of vortex ow Ta > 41,2 an eect of decrease of friction
by additives of carbon nanotubes ~ 25% is found out, and optimum
m = m 2 /(a3kT ) concentration of nanotubes was 0,01%. This eect, probably, is
connected with elastic properties of nanotubes which damped pulsa-
where m 2 / a3 - energy of dipole-dipole interaction of particles, kT - tions of speeds and pressure of vortex ow.
thermal energy of Brownian motion of the particles, preventing Use of this eect is of interest for friction decrease at a ow of the
formation of structures. Here m - the magnetic moment of the particle, magnetic uid in the gap between cylinders. The magnetic eld was
a the distance between the centers of the nearby particles, k created by constant magnets, it periodically changed on a circle from
Boltzmanns constant, T - absolute temperature. 120 to 90 kA/m and rotated in step with the internal cylinder on which
As follows from quoted above works, structurization processes were magnets were xed. As it seen in Fig. 1 (curve 3) creation of the
observed at m 1. In our case for magnetic uid MMO - 70 with the magnetic eld rotating in step with the internal cylinder, allows to
magnetite particles size d ~ 15 nm and its concentration of 15% - lower a viscous friction in all studied interval of speeds essentially.
m 1. Thus, typical areas of the ow of magnetic uid in the gap between
At heating the magnetic uid in gap from 20 to 60 the time of cylinders are researched, possibilities of decrease in the viscous friction
reaching curve 2 (Fig. 2) the saturation was reduced in connection with that can have applied value, are shown in the work.

2
O.N. Labkovich et al. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials xx (xxxx) xxxxxxxx

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