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KONGUNADU COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
Question Bank-MA6351 Transforms & Partial Differential equation

1.State Dirichlets conditions.

a0
Solution: Any function f x can be develop as Fourier series an cos n x bn sin n x ,where
2 n 1 n 1

a0 , an , bn are constants, Provided it satisfies the following Dirichlets condition.

(a) f x is Periodic ,single valued & finite
(b) f x has a finite number of finite discontinuities in any one period & number infinite discontinuity.
(c) f x has at the most a finite number of maxima & minima

2.State tan x whether can be expanded as a Fourier series .It so how? If not why?
Solution: tan x cannot be expanded as a Fourier Series .Since doesnt satisfy Dirichlets conditions.( tan x
has infinite number of infinite discontinuities)

3.Find the constant term in the expansion of cos2 x as a Fourier series in the interval ( , )
1 cos 2 x
Solution: W.K.T cos2 x
2

1 1 cos 2 x 1 sin 2 x
a0

2
dx

2
x
2

a0
1
0 0 a0 1
2
a0 1
contant term is
2 2

4. Find the Root Mean Square value of a function f x over the interval (a, b)
b

f x
2
dx
Solution: The root mean square of f x over the interval is defined as R.M.S = a

ba
b
(or) y2
1
f x 2
ba a

5.Find the Root Mean Square value of f ( x) x 2 , 0 x l

b

f x
2
dx
Solution: The root mean square of f x over the interval is defined as R.M.S = a

ba

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b
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(or) y 2

1
f x 2
ba a
Here f ( x) x 2 , 0 x l

x l

y
b l
x5 l4
f x
1 1 1 1 5
y 2
2
x dx
4
l 0 2

ba l 0 l 5 x 0 5l 5
a 0

l4
y2
5
6.Give the expression for the F.S co-efficient bn for the function f (x) defined in (-2,2)
1 l
nx
Solution:

bn l f ( x) sin
l
l
dx if f ( x) is an odd function

0 if f ( x) is an even function
1 2
nx
Here 2 ,2

bn 2
2
f ( x) sin 2
dx if f ( x) is an odd function

0 if f ( x) is an even fnction

7.. Find the Root Mean Square value of f ( x) x , 0 x l .

b

f x
2
dx
Solution: The root mean square of f x over the interval is defined as R.M.S = a

ba
b
(or) y2
1
f x 2 Here f ( x) x , 0 x l
ba a
x l

y
l
x3
b
l2
f x
1 1 1 1 3
y 2
2
x dx
2
l 0 2

ba l 0 l 3 x 0 3l 3
a 0

l2
y2
3

8. What is meant by Harmonic Analysis.

Solution: The process of finding the F.S for a function given by numerical value is known as harmonic
analysis. In the harmonic analysis the Fourier coefficients a 0 , a n & bn

Of the function y=f(x) in (0,2) are given by a0 = 2 [ ] y cos nx ] y sin nx

y
a n 2[ bn 2
n n n

x, 0 x 1
9.Find the sum of the Fourier series for f ( x) at x 1.
2, 1 x 2
Solution: x=1 is a point of discontinuity [ Since f(1+)= 2, f(1-)=x=1]
f (1) f (1) 1 2 3
Sum= f ( x)
at x 1 2 2 2

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10. The Cosine series for f ( x) x sin x for 0 x is given as x sin x 1 1 cos x 2 (21) cos nx.
n

2 n2 n 1
1 1 1
Deduce that 1 2[ ........]
1.3 3.5 5.7 2
Solution:

(1) n

1
x sin x 1 cos x 2 cos nx .(1)
n2 n 1
2
2

x is a po int ofcontinuity put x in (1)
2 2

(1) n n

1
sin 1 cos 2 cos
2 2 2 2 n2
( n 1)(n 1) 2

(1) n n

1
1 (0) 2 cos
2 2 n2
(n 1)(n 1) 2
1 1 1
1 2 .......
2 1.3 3.5 5.7

2 1 1 1 1
...........
2 2 1.3 3.5 1.5

1 1 1 2
............
1.3 3.5 5.7 4

11. Without finding the values of a0 , an, & bn the Fourier coefficient of Fourier series for the function
a02 2
f ( x) x 2 , 0 x . Find the value of [ an bn2 ]
2 n1
b
a 2
(a
1
Solution : By parsevals identify [ F ( x)]2 dx 0 n
2
bn 2 )
ba 4 n 1
a

a0 2 2 x5 2 5 2 4

2 2
(an 2 bn 2 ) = [ f ( x)]2 dx x dx
4
4 n 1
5 0 5 5
0 0

12. Obtain the first term of the Fourier series for the function f ( x) x 2 , x
Solution: Given f ( x) x 2

f ( x) ( x) 2 x 2 f ( x) is an even function

2 x3 2 3 2 2
f ( x) dx
1 2
a0 x dx a 0
2
3 0 3 3
0

2
(1) n 2
4
1 1 1
13. If x 2 2
. cos nx deduce that ..........
.....
3 n2 n 12 2 2 3 2 6

(1) n2
Solution: Given x 4 2 . cos nx
2

3 n2 n

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2 (1) n
Put x in (1) 2
3
4
n 1 n2
cos n

2 (1) n 3 2 2 2 2 1
n
1 1
2 4 2
(1) n 4 2
2
3 n 1 n 3 n 1 n
3 4 n 1

2 2
n
1 1 1 1
2
.........
n 1
6 12 22 32 6

14. To which value the half range sine series corresponding to f ( x) x 2 expressed in the interval (0,5)
converges at x=5?
Solution: f ( x) x 2
x=5 is a finite point of discontinuity and also it is an end point

x , 0 x 5
2
f ( x) The half range sine series corresponding to f ( x) x 2 in (0,5) converges at x=5 is

x , 5 x 0
2

f (5) f (5) 25 25
0 at x=5 the series converges to zero.
2 2

15. Determine the value of a n in the F.S expansion of f ( x) x 3 in x

Solution: Given f ( x) x in ( , )
3

f ( x) ( x) 3 x 3 f ( x)
f ( x) is an odd function hence a 0, a n 0

16. Find the root mean square value of f ( x) x 2 in (0, ) ?

b

( f ( x))
2
dx
Solution: R.M.S= a
in (a,b) here a=0, b= and f(x)=x2
ba

x
2
dx
1 x 3 2 2
= 0
=
0 3 0 3 3

1
2

Solution: Given f ( x) x in (0,2 )

1
2
2 2
x

1 1
bn = f ( x) sin nx dx sin nx dx
2
0 0
2
1 cos nx sin nx 1
=
2 ( x) n
2
cos 2n 0 0
n2 0 n n
1 1
= bn
2 n n n

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18. Find bn in the expansion of x 2 as a F.S in (-, )
Solution: Given f ( x) x 2
f ( x) ( x) 2 x 2
Therfore f(x) is an even function hence bn =0
19. If f(x) is an odd function defined in (l, l ) what are the values of a 0 & a n ?
Solution: f(x) is an odd function in (l, l ) . Hence a 0 a n 0
cos x if 0 x
20. If f ( x) and f ( x) f ( x 2 ) for all x. Find the sum of the F.S of f(x) at x=.
50 if x 2
cos x if 0 x
Solution: Given f ( x) f ( ) 50 and f ( ) 1
50 if x 2
f(x) at x= is a discontinuous point in the middle.
f ( ) f ( ) 1 50 49
f ( )
2 2 2
49
f ( )
2

21. Find the half range sine series for f ( x) k in 0 x

Solution: The sine series of f(x) in (0,) is given by f ( x) bn sin nx
n 1

bn

2
k sin nx dx
2k cos nx

n 0
2k
n
cos n cos 0 2k 1 (1) n
n

0

0 when n is even

4k 1
bn 4 k f ( x) sin nx
n when n is odd n n odd
n

22. If f ( x) x 2 x is expressed as a F. S in the interval (-2,2) to which values this series converges at x=2?
f (2) 4 2 6
Solution: x=2 is a point of discontinuity in the extremum
f (2) (2) 2 2
2

f (2) f (2) 62
f ( x) 4
at x 2 2 2

2x
1 x 0
23. In the Fourier expansion of f ( x) in ( , ) find the value of bn the coefficient of sin nx
1 2x
0 x

2x 2x 2x
1 x 0 1 ( x) 1 2 ( x) 1

Solution: Given f ( x) here
1 2 x 2x
0 x 1 ( x) 1 2 ( x)

The given function is an even function hence the value bn =0.

24. If f(x)=2x in (0,4) then find the value of a 2 in the Fourier series expansion?
Solution: Here 2l=4 l2
2l 4 4
nx nx nx
x cos
1 1
an f ( x) cos dx 2 x cox dx
l l 2 2 2
0 0 0

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4 4
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sin x cos x

a 2 x cos x dx
0
x

2

0
sin 4 cos 4 1 1 1
a 2 4 0 2 2 2
2

a2 0

25.Sum of the F.S of f ( x) x 2 x in <x< at x=

Solution: x= is a point of discontinuity in the extremum f ( ) 2
& f ( ) 2
f ( ) f ( ) 2 2
f ( x) 2
at x 2 2
26. State Parsevals theorem on Fourier series
Solution: Let f(x) be a periodic function with period 2 defined in the interval (-,). Then

a0 2 1
(a
1
[ f ( x)]2 dx n
2
bn 2 ) where a0 a n & bn are Fourier coefficients of f(x)
2
4 2 n 1

27. What is the constant term a0 and the coefficient of cos nx, a n in the Fourier series of f ( x) x x 3 in ( , )
Solution: Given f ( x) x x 3 f ( x) x ( x) 3 x x 3 ( x x 3 ) f ( x)

28. Write the formula for Fourier constant for f ( x) in (c, c 2l )

Solution: The Fourier expansion for f(x) in the interval c<x<c+2l is given

nx nx

a0
by f ( x) a n cos bn sin
2 n 1
l n 1
l

c 2l c 2l c 2l
nx nx

1 1 1
Where a0 = f ( x) dx an f ( x) cos dx bn f ( x) sin dx
l l l l l
c c c

l
29. If f(x) is expanded as a half range cosine series, express [ f ( x)]2 dx in terms of a0 and a n
0

l
a0 2

a
l
Solution: [ f ( x)] dx
2
n
2
4 2 n 1
0

30. State the Dirichlets condition for existence of the Fourier expansion of f(x) in (0,2l )

Solution: A function f(x) defined in c x c 2l can be expanded as an infinite trigonometric series of the

nx nx
a
a0
form f ( x) n cos bn sin provided,
2 n 1
l n 1
l

(i) f(x) is defined and single valued expect possibly at a finite number of points in ( c, c 2l )

(ii) f(x) is periodic in ( c, c 2l ) (iii) f(x) and f(x) are piecewise continuous in ( c, c 2l ) (iv) f(x) has no or
finite number of maxima and minima in ( c, c 2l )

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31. Write down the complex form of the Fourier series for f(x) in ( c, c 2 )

c 2

f ( x)e
1 inx
Solution: f ( x) C n e inx where C n dx
n
2
c

32. Find the root mean square value of f ( x) x in 0 x 2

Solution:

2 2 2 2

2 x 3 2x 2

1 1 1 1
Y2 [ f ( x)]2 dx ( x) 2 dx 2
x 2 2x dx x
2 2 2 2 3 2
0 0 0 0

1 3 8 3 4 3 2 4 2
2 Y
2 3 2 3

4 2
Y2
3
33. Find the RMS value of f ( x) 1 x in 0 x 1

Solution:
1
(1 x) 3
1 1
2 2

Y 2 [ f ( x)] dx 2 (1 x) 2 dx 2
2
0 1
0 0
3 0 3

2
Y2
3
34. State Dirichlets conditions for Fourier Series in(-, )

f(x) is defined and single valued expect possibly at a finite number of points in ( , )
f(x) is periodic with period 2
f(x) and f(x) are piecewise continuous in ( , ) then the Fourier series of f(x) converges to
(a) f(x) if x is a point of continuity
f ( x 0) f ( x 0)
(b) if x is a point of discontinuity
2

Solution: Given f(x)= x 2 2

2 2 2
1 x3

1 1
a0 f ( x)dx ( x 2)dx 2 x
2
2 2 2 3
2 2 2

1 8 8 1 16 4
4 4 8 a 0
2 3 3 2 3 3

a 0 2
Constant term is
2 3

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UNIT-II

FOURIER TRANSFORM

1. State Fourier Integral Theorem

If () is a given function defined in (, ) & satisfies the following conditions then
1
() = () ( )
0

2. Show that () = , < < cannot be represented by a Fourier integral.

= ()
0 =

0 |()| does not converge.

3. Define Fourier transform pair. (or) Define Fourier transform and its inverse transform.
The infinite Fourier Transform (or) Complex Fourier Transform of a function () is defined by

1
() = [()] = ()
2
The function,

1
() = [()]
2
is called the inversion formula for the Fourier Transform and denoted by 1 [(()].
[() and 1 [(()] are called Fourier transform pair.

4. Find the Fourier transform of () if

, || <
() = { >0
, || > 0,
Solution:

1
[()] = ()
2
1 1 1
= () + 2 ()
2
+ ()
2
1
= 0+
1. + 0
2
1
=
1.
2
1
= ( )
2
1 1
= ( )
2
1 1
= . 2 sin
2
2 sin
=
5. What is the Fourier Cosine transform of a function. Write the fourier Cosine transform pair of formulae.
Solution:
The infinite Fourier Cosine transform of () is defined by

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2
[()] = 0 () cos
The inverse Fourier Cosine transform denoted by 1 [ [()]] is defined by
2
() =

0 [()] cos
[()] & 1 [ [()]] are called Fourier Cosine transform.
6. Define Fourier sine transform and its inversion formula.
Solution:
The infinite Fourier Sine transform of () is defined by
2
[()] = 0 () sin
The inverse Fourier Sine transform denoted by 1 [ [()]] is defined by
2
() = 0 [()] sin
[()] & 1 [ [()]] are called Fourier Sine transform.
7. Find the Fourier Cosine transform of , > 0.
Solution:
2
[()] = 0 () cos

2
[()] = 0 cos

2
[()] = [2 +2 ]
8. Find the Fourier Sine transform of

Solution:

2
[()] = 0 () sin

2
[ 3 ] = 0 3 2 sin

2
= 3 [2 +9]
1
9. Find Fourier sine transform .
x
2
Soln: [()] = 0 () sin

Fs f ( x)
2 1 dt
x sin sx dx
0
Put sx t s dx dt dx
s

x0 t 0 1 2 s dt 1 2 1
Replace
x t
Fs
x
0
t
sin t
s
Fs
x t sin t dt
0

1 2 1
Fs Fs
x 2 x 2

10.State the Fourier integral theorem.

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Unit: III
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Part A

01. Form the PDE from z f (2 x 6 y)

Soln: Given z f (2 x 6 y)

D.w,r,to x, y weget

z
f (2 x 6 y ) (2) p 2 f (2 x 6 y ) .......... .....(1)
x
z
f (2 x 6 y ) (6) q 6 f (2 x 6 y )......... ......( 2)
y

(1) p 2
(1)divided by (2) we get , 3p q Ans: 3 p q 0
(2) q 6

02. Form the PDE from z ax3 by 3

SOln: Given z ax3 by 3 ..(A)
D.w.r.to x & y (A)we get
z p
3 a x 2 p 3 a x 2 2 . a .......... .....(1)
x x
z q
3 b y 2 q b y 2 2 . b.......... ..( 2)
y y
p 3 q
Applying (1) & (2) in (A) we get z 2
x 2 y3 Ans: px qy 3z
x y
03. Form the PDE from z 2 cot 2 ( x a) 2 ( y b) 2

D.w.r.to x,yin(1) we get,

z
2z cot 2 2 ( x a) z p cot 2 ( x a) .......... .......... ..( 2)
x
z
2z cot 2 2 ( y b) z q cot 2 ( y b) .......... .......... .........( 3)
y

Applying (2) &(3)in (1) we get, z 2 cot 2 zP cot 2 zq cot

2 2 2

1 p 2 q 2 cot 2

Ans: p 2 q 2 tan 2

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D.w.r.to x,yin(1) we get,

z y y y y
f 2 p 2 . f .......... ....( 2)
x x x x x
z y 1 1 y
f q f .......... .....( 3)
y x x x x

y
p x2
Divide (2) by (3) we get Ans:
q 1
x
px qy 0

05. Form the PDE by eliminating f from z 2 xy f ( x / z).

Soln: Given z 2 xy f ( x / z). .(1)

D.w.r.to x,yin(1) we get,

z x z x p z x p x
2z y f 2 z p y . f z .......... ...( 2)
x z z 2
z2
z x z (0) x q x q x
2z x . f 2 z q x . f z .......... ...( 3)
y z z 2
z
2

Divide (2) by (3) we get
Ans: x 2 p q(2z 2 xy) zx.
06. Eliminate the function f from z f ( x 2 y 2 ).

D.w.r.to x,yin(1) we get,

z
f x 2 y 2 2 x p 2 x f x 2 y 2 .......... ...( 2)
x
z
f x 2 y 2 2 y q 2 y f x 2 y 2 .......... ..(3)
y
p 2x
Divide (2) by (3) we get q 2 y Ans: py qx

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z
2z 2x a 0 2 zp 2 x a .......... ...( 2)
x
z
2z 2 y b 0 2 zq 2 y b.......... ..(3)
y

Applying (2) &(3) in (1) we get, ( zp) 2 ( zq) 2 z 2 1 p 2 q 2 1 z 2 1 Ans: p 2 q 2 1
1
z2
.

08. Form the partial differential equation from ( x a) 2 ( y b) 2 z.

Soln: Given ( x a) 2 ( y b) 2 z .......... .......... .....(1)

z p
D.p.w.r.to xin (1) we get, 2 ( x a ) p 2 ( x a ) ( x a ) .......... .......... (2)
x 2

z q
2 ( y b) q 2 ( y b ) ( y b) .......... .......... (3)
y 2

p2 q2
Applying (2) &(3) in (1) we get z Ans: p 2 q 2 4 z
4 4

D.w.r.to x,y in (1) we get

z
2 x( y 2 b 2 ) 2 x( y 2 b 2 ) p ( y 2 b 2 ) p .......... ..( 2)
x 2x

z q
2 y( x 2 a 2 ) 2 y( x 2 a 2 ) q ( x 2 a 2 ) .......... .....( 3)
y 2y

p q

aplying(2) & (3) in (1)we get, 2 x 2 y Ans: pq 4xyz.

10. Find the PDE of all spheres whose centres lie on the z-axis.
Soln: Let the cntre of the sphere be at a pint on the z-axis & r its radius.
2
Its quation is x 02 y 02 z c r 2 .......... .......... .(1)
Here c & r are constants.

z
Diff .w.r.to x in (1) we get 2 x 2 z c 0 x p z c 0.......... .........( 2)
x

z
Diff .w.r.to y in (1) we get 2 xy 2 z c 0 y q z c 0.......... .........( 3)
y
x
Eliminate c, r from (1) &(2) ,(3) we get, (2) z c .......... .......( 4)
p

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y
(3) z c .......... .........( 5)
q
From (4) &(5) we get , py qx 0. Ans: py qx 0.

11. Find the PDE of all planes having equal intercepts on the x and y axis.
x y z
Soln: Interceot form of the plane equation is 1 .
a b c
x y z
Given : a=b (equal intercept on the x-axis &y-axis) 1 (1)
a b c
Here a& c are the two arbitrary constants .
1 1 z 1 1 1 1
Diff .w.r.to x we get, 0 0 0 p 0 p .......... .........( 2)
a c x a c a c

1 1 z 1 1 1 1
Diff .w.r.to y we get 0 0 q 0 q .......... .........( 3)
b c y b c b c

p q
From (2) & (3) we get, pq Ans: p q
c c

Unit: IV
APPLICATION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

PART-A

1.List all the possible solutions of the one dimensional wave equation and state the proper solution.

Solution: The possible solution of one dimensional wave equation is

i.
y( x, t ) Ae x Be x ce at De at
ii. y( x, t ) A cos x B sin xc cos at D sin at
iii. y ( x, t ) Ax Bct D
The suitable solution of one dimensional wave equation is
y( x, t ) A cos x B sin xc cos at D sin at
2. Write down the three possible solutions of one-dimensional heat equation
Solution:
(i )u ( x, t ) (c1 x c 2 )
(ii) u ( x, t ) e (c3 e px c 4 e px )
2
p 2t

(iii) u ( x, t ) e (c5 cos px c6 sin px)

2
p 2t

3. Give three possible solutions of two dimensional steady state heat flow equations (or) Write all the
solution of Laplaces equation in Cartesian form. (or) Write are the possible solutions for Laplace
equation by method of separation of variables?
Solution:

(i)u ( x, y) c1e x c2 e x c3 cos y c4 sin y

(ii)u( x, y) c5 cos x c6 sin x c7 e y c8 e y
(iii)u( x, y) c9 x c10 c11 y c12
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4. Express the two solutions of the Laplace equation u xx u yy 0. involving exponential terms in x or
y
Ans:
i.
u( x, y) Ae x Be x C cos y D sin y
ii.
u( x, y) A cos x B sin x Ce y De y
5. Write the most suitable solution of the one-dimensional wave equation.

6. Write down any two solutions of one dimensional wave equation

y ( x, t ) (c1e px c2 e px )(c3 e pat c4 e pat )
Ans:
y ( x, t ) (c5 cos px c6 sin px)(c7 cos pat c8 sin pat)

7. Express the two solutions of the Laplace equation u xx u yy 0

u ( x, t ) (c1e px c 2 e px )(c3 cos py c4 sin py)
Ans:
y ( x, t ) (c5 cos px c6 sin px)(c7 e py c8 e py )
8. Write all the possible solutions of one dimensional Heat equation.
Solution: The possible solution of one dimensional Heat equation is
i.
u ( x, t ) Ae x Be x Ce
2
2t

u ( x, t ) A cos x B sin x Ce 2t
2

ii.
iii. u ( x, t ) Ax BC
The suitable solution of one dimensional Heat equation is
u ( x, t ) A cos x B sin x Ce 2t
2

9. A rod 30cm has its end A and B kept at 20o C and 80o C respectively until steady state conditions
prevail. Determine the temperature at steady state.
Solution: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l

Here a= Initial temperature= 20o C , l= length= 30

o
, b= Finial temperature= 80 C
80 20
u ( x) x 20 u ( x) 2 x 20
30
10. The ends A and B of rod 'l ' cm long have the temperature 400 c and 900 c until steady state prevail .
Find the temperature in the rod at that state.
Solution: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 40o C , l= length= 30 , b= Finial temperature= 90o C
90 40 50
u ( x) x 40 u ( x) x 20
l l
11. The end A and B of a rod of length 10cm long have their temperature kept 200 c and 800 c. Find the
steady state temperature distribution on theGet
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Solution: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0

ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 20o C , l= length= 10 , b= Finial temperature= 80o C
80 20
u ( x) x 20 u ( x) 6 x 20
10
12. An insulated rod of length 60cm has its ends A and B maintained at 20o C and 80o C respectively.
Find the steady state solution of the rod.
Ans: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 20o C , l= length= 60 , b= Finial temperature= 80o C
80 20
u ( x) x 20 u ( x) x 20
60
13. A rod 20cm long with insulated has its ends A and B maintained at 30o C and 90o C respectively.
Find the steady state solution of the rods
Solution: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
o
Here a= Initial temperature= 30o C , b= Finial temperature= 90 C
90 30
u ( x) x 30 u ( x) 3x 30
20
14. A rod 50cm long with insulated has its ends A and B maintained at 20o C and 70o C respectively.
Find the steady state solution of the rods
Solution: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 20o C , b= Finial temperature= 70o C
70 20
u ( x) x 20 u ( x) x 20
50
15. Find the steady state temperature distribution in a rod of length 10cm whose ends x 0 and x 10
are kept at 20o C and 500 C respectively
Ans: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 20o C , b= Finial temperature= 50o C
50 20
u ( x) x 20 u ( x) 3x 20
10
16. A rod 10cm long with insulated has its ends A and B maintained at 20o C and 70o C respectively.
Find the steady state solution of the rods
17. Solution: When steady state condition prevail the heat flow equation is U xx 0

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ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 20o C , b= Finial temperature= 70o C
70 20
u ( x) x 20 u ( x) 5 x 20
10

18. Write down one Dimensional heat equation and a suitable separable solution for the same.
u 2u
Ans: The one Dimensional heat equation is 2 2
t x
The suitable solution of one Dimensional heat equation is u ( x, t ) A cos x B sin x e t
2 2

19. What is the basic difference between the solution of one dimensional wave equation and one
dimensional heat equation?
Ans:
i. The correct solution of one dimensional wave equation is of periodic in nature.
ii. The correct solution of one dimensional heat equation is not in periodic nature.
u 2u
20. In the diffusion equation 2 2 what does 2 stand for?
t x
Solution: The given equation is One Dimensional Heat Equation.
k
Weknowthat 2 , where k: Thermal conductivity.C: Specific heat.t , : Density of the material.
c
2 y 2 u
2
21. In the wave equation what does 2 stand for?
t 2
x 2

T
2
Solution: Weknow that M , where T: Tension. M: Mass of the string.

22. State Fourier law of heat conduction

u
The rate at which heat flows across an area A at a distance x from one end of a bar is given by Q KA
x x
u
K is thermal conductivity and means the temperature gradient at x.
x x
23. Write down the two dimensional steady state heat conduction equation
Solution: U xx U yy 0
24. What does a 2 represent in one dimensional heat flow equation u t a 2 u xx
Solution: a 2 is known as diffusivity of the material of the bar
25. Find the steady state temperature distribution in a rod of length 10 cm whose ends x 0 and x 10
are kept at 20C and 50C respectively.
Solution:
b a
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a , where
l
a Initial temperature 20C b Final temperature 50C l Length = 10 cm.
50 20
u ( x) x 20 u( x) 3x 20.
10
26. A rod of length 20cm whose one end is kept at 30o C and the other end is kept at 70o C is maintained
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Solution: When steady state conditions prevail the heat flow equation becomes U xx 0
ba
We know that, steady state temperature u ( x) x a
l
Here a= Initial temperature= 30o C l= length= 20
o
b= Finial temperature= 70 C
70 30
u ( x) x 30 u ( x) 2 x 30
20

27. A rod 30 cm long has its end A and B kept at 20C and 80C respectively, until steady state
conditions prevail. Determine the temperature at steady state. Ans:
u( x) 2 x 20.
28. The ends A and B of a rod 1 cm long have the temperatures 40C and 90C until steady state
prevails. Find the temperature in the rod at that state. Ans:
u( x) 50x 40.
29. The ends A and B of a rod 10 cm long have the temperatures 20C and 70C. Find the steady state
temperature distribution on the rod. Ans: u( x) 5x 20.

2 u u
30. Classify the Partial Differential 4 2
x t
2u u
Ans: Given 4 0 Here A 4 B 0 C0
x 2 t

B 2 4 AC 0 This equation is parabolic

2u u 2u u
31. Classify the differential equation 3 4 6 2 u 0
x 2
xy y 2
y
2u u 2u u
Ans: Given 3 4 6 2 u 0 Here A 3 B 4 C6
x 2 xy y 2 y

B 2 4 AC 16 72 0 This equation is Elliptics

2u u u u
32. Classify the differential equation 3 4 3 2 0
x 2
xy y x
2u u u u
Ans: Given 3 4 3 2 0 Here A 3 B 4 C0
x 2
xy y x

33. Classify the differential equation f xx f yy 0

Ans: Given f xx f yy 0 Here A 1 B 0 C 1
B 2 4 AC 4 0 This equation is Hyperbolic

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Solution: Here A= 4 B=4 C=1

35. Classify the following PDE u xx (1 x)u xy 2u yy 0. Ans: (1 x) 2 8 0, the PDE is

Hyperbolic
36. Classify the following PDE 3u xx 2u xy 5u yy xu y 0. Ans: 56 0, the PDE is elliptic.
37. Find the type of PDE 4u xx 4u xy u yy 2u x u y 0. Ans: 0 0, the PDE is parabolic.
38. Classify the following PDE 3u xx 4u xy 3u y 2u x 0. Ans: 20 0, the PDE is elliptic.
2u 1 u
39. Classify the following PDE 2 . Ans: 0 0, the PDE is parabolic.
x 2
t
40. A tightly stretched string with fixed end points x 0and x l is initially in a position given by
x
y ( x,0) V0 sin 3 If it is released from rest in this position write the boundary conditions
l
Solution: The boundary conditions are (i) y(0, t ) 0 for all t 0 (ii) (i) y(l , t ) 0 for all t 0
x
(iii) y ( x,0) 0 (iv) y ( x,0) V0 sin 3 0 x l
t l
41. A string stretched fastened to two points l ' a part motion is started by displacing the string into the
x
form y y 0 sin from which it is released at time t=0 formulate this problem as the boundary
l
value problem
Solution: The boundary conditions are (i) y(0, t ) 0 for all t 0 (ii) (i) y(l , t ) 0 for all t 0
x
(iii) y ( x,0) 0 (iv) y ( x,0) y 0 sin 0 x l
t l

42. If the ends of a string of length 'l ' are fixed and the mid point of the string is drawn a side through a
height 'h' and the string is released from rest, state the initial and boundary conditions?
Solution: The boundary conditions are (i) y(0, t ) 0 for all t 0 (ii) (i) y(l , t ) 0 for all t 0
2hx
l 0 xl 2
(iii) y ( x,0) 0 0 x l (iv) y ( x,0)

t 2h(l x) l 2 x l

l

43. The ends of a string of length l a sides are fixed at both sides. The midpoint of the string is taken to a
height and then released from rest. Write the initial conditions of the string.
Ans: The boundary and initial conditions are (i) y(0, t ) 0 for all t 0 (ii) (i) y(l , t ) 0 for all t 0

2x
0 xl 2
l
(iii) y ( x,0) 0 0 x l (iv) y ( x,0)
t 2 (l x) l 2 x l

l
44. Write the boundary conditions and initial conditions for solving the vibration of string equation, if
the string is subjected to initial displacement f (x) and initial velocity g (x).

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Ans: The boundary conditions and initial condition of the string is

i. y(0, t ) 0, for all t 0

ii. y(l , t ) 0, for all t 0
iii. y( x,0) f ( x), for all 0 x l
y
iv. t g ( x), for all 0 x l
t 0

45. Write the initial conditions of the wave equation if the string has an initial displacement but no initial
velocity.
Ans: (i) y(0, t ) 0 for all t 0 (ii) (i) y(l , t ) 0 for all t 0
y
(iii) y ( x,0) f ( x) (iv)
( x,0) 0
t
46. Write the one dimensional wave equation with initial and boundary conditions in which the initial
position of the string is f (x) and the initial velocity imparted at each point x is g (x)
Ans: The boundary conditions and initial condition of the string is
(i) y(0, t ) 0 for all t 0 (ii) (i) y(l , t ) 0 for all t 0
y
(iii) y ( x,0) f ( x) (iv)
( x,0) g ( x)
t
47. In steady state conditions derive the solution of one dimensional that flow equation
u
When steady state conditions exists the heat flow equation is independent of time t 0
t
2u d 2u
The heat flow equation becomes 0 2 0 Integrating twice we get u ( x) c x c2
x 2 dx

48. What are the laws assumed to derive the one-dimensional heat equation?
Solution: (i) Heat flow from height to lower temperature
(ii) The amount of heat required to produce a given temperature change in a body is
proportional to the mass of the body and to the temperature change
(iii) The rate at which heat flows across any area is proportional to the area and to the gradient normal to
the curve.

u u
49. Solve the equation 3 2 0 given that u ( x,0) 4e x by the method of separation of variables
x y
u u
Given 3 2 0 --------(1)
x y
Let u X ( x).Y ( y) (2)
u u
Be the solution of (1) X Y & XY (3)
x y
Sub (3) in (2) we get 3 X Y 2 XY 0 3 X Y 2 XY
X Y
3 2 K 3 X KX 0 & 2Y KY 0
X Y
dX dY
3 KX &2 KY Integrating on both sides we get
dx dy

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3 log X Kx & 2 log Y Ky ky
u X .Y . e kx
Kx Ky kx ky 3
e 3
log X & log Y X e 3 Y e 2
3 2
u 2 u
2
50. How many boundary conditions are required to solve completely the equation ?
t x 2
Ans:The boundary conditions are
u (0, t ) k1 C for all t 0

i.
u (l , t ) k 2 C for all t 0

ii.
iii. u( x,0) g ( x) for all 0 x l
51. Write down the two dimensional steady state heat conduction equations. (or)
Write down the governing equation of two dimensional steady state heat conduction.

Ans: The equation of two dimensional steady state conduction is

u 2u 2u
2 2 2
t x y
52. Write the boundary conditions and initial conditions for solving the vibration of string equation, if
the string is subjected to initial displacement f (x) and initial velocity g (x).

v. y(0, t ) 0, for all t 0

vi. y(l , t ) 0, for all t 0
vii. y( x,0) f ( x), for all 0 x l
y
viii. t g ( x), for all 0 x l
t 0

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UNIT: V Z TRANSFORM

Part A

01. Find the Z transformof {n}.

Soln: Given z n n z n
n 0

z n n
1
z n =
1

2
2

3
.......... ..
n 0 zn z z z3
2 2
z n =
1
1
2

3
.......... .. , z n
1 1
1 , z n
1 z 1
z z 1
z 2
z z z 2
z2
z n Ans : z n
1 z

z 12
z ( z 1) 2
02. Find the Z transform of {n2}.

Soln: GIven z n 2 z n n = z
d
dz z 1
2
zn z d z 2 z ( z 1) 2 z4( z 1)
Ans: z n 2 z z 1
( z 1) 3
dz ( z 1)

n
03. Find the Z transformof 1
3

Soln: W.K.T z a n z
za
.
n n
Given z 1 z 1
z
z
3 1 3 z
1
z
3 3
n 3z
1 3z
z Ans:
3 3z 1 3z 1
n 1
1
04. Find the Z transformof
2

Soln: W.K.T z a n 1 1 .
za
n 1 n 1 2
Given z 1
1 1
z
2 Ans:
2 1 2 2z 1 (2 z 1)
z
2

05. Find the Z transformof n(1) n

Soln: W.K.T z n a n az
z a 2
Here a=-1

Given z n (1) n z
z 12
Ans:
z
( z 1) 2

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1
06. Find theZ transformof
n!

Soln: z 1 n!
1 n
z z
1

1 1 1 1
z 1 z 1 z 2 .......
n! n 0 n! n 0 n
z n! n! 1! 2!

1
1 1
Ans: e
z
z e z
n!

07. Find the Z transformof a n f (n)

Soln: W.K.T
z
z f ( n) a n F
a

Here z f (n)a n z f (n)z z
a

-Ans: Z a f (n) Z f (n)z
n z
a

08. Find the Z transformof 1

Soln: z n n z n
n 0

z 1 1
1 z 1 = 1 1 1 .......... ..
2 3
n0 zn z z z
1 1
z 1 1
1 z 1 z 1
Ans: z
z z ( z 1)
09. Find the Z transform of cos2 t
2

Soln: Given z cos2 t z 1 cos 2t z 1 z cos 2t 1 z1 1 z cos 2t
2 2 2 2

z cos 2 t 1 z 1 z z cos 2T

2 z 1 2 z 2 2 z cos 2T 1
Ans: 1 z 1 z ( z cos 2T )
2 z 1 2 2 z 2 z cos 2T 1

1
10. Find the Z transform of
n
1
Soln: Given z z n
1
n n 1 n

1
z
z
1 Ans: log , , if z 1
n n 1 n z n z 1

11. Prove that Z f (n 1) = zF z f 0

Soln: Given Z f (n 1) f ( n 1) z n
n 0
Put n+1 =m n m 1

Z f (n 1) f ( m ) z1 m Z f (n 1) z f (m) z m
m 1 m 1

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Z f (n 1) z f (m) z m f (0) Ans: zF z f 0
m 1

12. Find the value of Z f (n) when f (n) na n .

Soln: w.k.t z
z f ( n) a n F
a

Here z na zn
n
z
z
a

az
= z z Ans:

( z a) 2
z a a
2 2 2
( z 1) z z 1
z z a
a
a a

13. Find the Z transform of (n 2).

Soln: Given z (n 2) zn z2

z z z 2 z ( z 1) z 2z 2 2z)
2z 2 z
2 Ans:
z 12 z 11 z 12 z 12 ( z 1) 2

14. Find using z-transform z e ia t z e ia t

.1
z (1) z z e iaT
z ei aT

z
z ei t
z ei aT 1
z 1 z z ei aT z ei a T 1
15. Define the unit step sequence. Write its Z transform.
A discrete unit step function is defined as
1, n 0 z , ROC z 1
x ( n) . And Z x(n) Z u (n)
0, elsewhere z 1
16. State convolution theorem on Z transforms.
Statement:
If F (Z ) and G(Z ) are Z transforms of f (n) and g (n) respectively, then Z f (n) g (n) F ( z )..G( z ) where,

n
f (n) g (n) Is defined as the convolution of f (n) and g (n) given by, f (n) g (n) f (k ).g (n k )
k 0

17. State final value theorems on Z transform.

Statement:
If Z f (n) F z then lim f (n) lim( z 1) F ( z )
n z 1

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19. State the initial value theorems on Z transform.
Statement:
If Z f (n) F z then lim F z f (0) lim f (n)
z n 0

20. How are Z f (n) and Z nf (n) related. Ans: Z nf (n) z Z f n

d
dz
z 2 5
21. Evaluate Z 1 2 Ans: (2) n 1 (5) n 1 , n 1
z 7 z 10 3 3
22. Form the difference equation from y n a b3n.

yn1 a b3n1. yn1 a 3 b 3n ...................(2)

yn 2 a b3n 2 yn 2 a 9b3n ..................(3)
Eliminating a & b from (1),(2) & (3) w get,

yn 1 1
yn 1 1 3 0 Ans: y n 2 4 y n 1 3 y n 0
yn 2 1 9

23.Form a differev=nce equation by eliminating arbitrary constants from un a 2n 1

Soln: Given un a 2n 1 .(1)
un 1 a 2n 2 un 1 2a 2n 1 un 1 2un .(2)
u n 1 2u n 0

24.Define Z-transform of the sequence f (n)

Soln: Consider a sequence f (n) f (0), f (1), f (2) ,......... .
Which is defined for all positive integers n=0,1,2,.. .The the z-transform of f (n) is defined as

z f (n) f ( n) z n
n0
an
, for n 0
25.Find the z-transform of x(n) n
0

an
Soln: z
n
a an
z n z

az 1 n
n n 0
n n n 0 n

1
az 1

az 1 2 az 1 3 .......... ......
1 2 3
az 1 an a
=e Ans: z e z
n