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D. L.

TILALA COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT


STUDIES
MANAGED BY - SATKAR EDUCATION TRUST

SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT

Research Topic:-

“Feasibility Study of Biofuels as an Renewable


Source of Clean Energy”

Submitted to:-
Gujarat Technological University, Ahemdabad

Prepared by:-

Name :- Tushar M. Ankolia


Enrollment No. :- 97660592017
Semester :- 3rd
Training Period :- 45 Days
Place of Training :- Abellon Clean Energy Ltd, Ahmedabad.

Guided by:-
Mr.Hiren Dhulia,
Lecturer.

Morbi Road, Near S. S. Pharmacy College


At Post – Hadala, Ta. Tankara, Dist. Rajkot, Pin – 363 650
TeleFax :- (02822) 293055, Mobile No.9099063366
Web: - www.dltmba.org, E-mail:- dltcms@gmail.com, placement_dltilala@in.com

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REFACE

Industrial Training refers to work experience that is relevant to professional


development as an essential component in the development of the practical and
professional skill required of a manger and an aid to prospective employment.

Teaching gives the knowledge of theoretical aspects of management but


implementation of theory gives practical knowledge of management field. The
aim of this training is to introduce the fundamentals and the basic principles of
financial management and business accounting in real life day to day application
of business transition.

Practical Knowledge of theory is of grater important for a finance student. I am


thankful to our institute has arranged summer training before entering into the
specialization field of PGDM program. This project report is an outline of what I
have learnt during our training period at Abellon Clean Energy Ltd at
Ahmedabad , one of the prestigious energy sector companies running with
strategy values and time management.

I am thankful to Abellon Clean Energy Limited for giving me such a valuable


opportunity to work with them.

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Acknowledgment

“Expression of feelings by words makes them less significant


when it comes to make statement of gratitude”

With regard to my Project with Abellon Clean Energy Ahmedabad I would


like to thank each and every one who offered help, guidelines and support
whenever required
.
I express my deep sense of gratitude to my company mentors, M r
.D.P.Misra Sir (Head of the Dept. Biomass Collection) & Mr.Mahesh Gajjar (Exe.
Business Development) & also Mr.Anil Dube (Head Biomass Sourcing) and also our
team member Mr.Harsh Raval,Nitin Suthar, Bipin Chauhan,Chandan Thakor,Kiran
Bavaliya without whose support and cooperation this project could not have been
completed successfully.

I am also thankful to HR department of the Abellon Clean Energy Ltd,


Ahmedabad for giving me a great opportunity for my Summer Intership Project.

I sincerely express my thankfulness to our Director Mr.R.K.Balayan sir &


Mr.Hiren Dhulia principal of D.L.Tilala College of Management Studies Rajkot
for their valuable suggestions and help during the project.I am also extremely
grateful to my college guide,Mr.Piyush Chadarva (Lecturer-cum-Trainer) and all the
faculty member of my college for their valuable suggestions and able guidance.

Last, but not the least, my heartfelt love for my parents and my friends,
whose constant support and blessings kept me enthusiastic throughout this
project.

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this Summer Internship Project Report entitled


“Feasibility Study of Biofuels as an Renewable Source of Clean
Energy” in Abellon Clean Energy Ltd. Ahmedabad submitted in partial
fulfillment of requirement of Summer Intership Project to the Institute Shri D.L.
Tilala College of Management Studies Rajkot is based on primary and secondary
data founded by me in various department ,books ,magazines and websites .
This is an original piece of work and has not been submitted to any
other institution or university for any purpose

Place :- Signature of candidate


Date :-

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Executive Summary

The term "biomass" encompasses diverse fuels derived from timber,


agriculture and food processing wastes or from fuel crops that are specifically
grown or reserved for electricity generation. Biomass fuel can also include sewage
sludge and animal manure. Some biomass fuels are derived from trees. Given the
capacity of trees to regenerate, these fuels are considered renewable. Burning
crop residues, sewage or manure - all wastes that are continually generated by
society -- to generate electricity may offer environmental benefits in the form of
preserving precious landfill space OR may be grown and harvested in ways that
cause environmental harm.

In terms of capacity, biomass power plants represent the second


largest amount of renewable energy in the nation.

Because biomass technologies use combustion processes to produce


electricity, they can generate electricity at any time, unlike wind and most solar
technologies, which only produce when the wind is blowing or sun is shining.
Biomass power plants currently represent 11,000 MW - the second largest amount
of renewable energy in the nation.

Biomass power plants also divert wood waste from landfills,


which
reduces the productions and atmospheric release of methane,
another potent greenhouse gas.

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Table of Contents

S N. Contents Page No.


1. Introduction. 1
2. Company overview. 3
3. Energy Scienario of India. 9
3.1 Power Situation Of The Country. 9
3.2 Production and Consumption of 10
Energy.
3.3 Cost of Energy. 12
3.4 Sources of Energy in India. 13
3.5 Pollution Scenario 28
3.5 Power Requirement in the State of 30
Gujarat.
3.6 Need for Alternative Energy. 30
3.7 Impact Due to Fossil Fuel 31
Consumption.
3.8 Renewable Energy Scenario in 41
India.
3.9 Availability of Energy Resources. 42
4. Objectives 44
5. Research Methodology 44
6. Bio fuels. 45
6.1 Different Type of bio fuel. 46
6.2 Bio-fuel in India. 46
6.3 Jatropha Incentives in India. 49
6.4 Biofuels Production Cycle. 50
6.5 Bio-fuel production from biomass. 51
6.6 Commercial Bio-Fuel Production In 51
India.
6.7 Sustainable Bio-fuel Production. 53
6.8 Pros & Cos of Bio fuel. 57
7. Best Bio-Fuel Crops For India. 59
7.1 What is Jatropha ? 59
7.2 Possible uses of Jatropha 61

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7.3 Detail about Jatropha 63
7.4 Physical and chemical properties
of diesel and Jatropha. 64
7.5 Pictures of Jatropha 65
8. Bio-Fuel –Alternative to Transport Fuel. 66
8.1 Economic Benefit. 66
8.2 Social Benefits. 67
8.3 Economics of Jatropha Bio-Diesel. 68
9. Bio Deasel. 71
9.1 What is biodiesel fuel. 71
9.2 How Bio Deasel made ? 72
9.3 Pros & Cos of Biodeasel. 74
10. Production of Bio Deasel. 77
10.1 Environmental Effects. 77
10.2 Food, land and water vs. Fuel. 77
10.3 India’s Biodiesel Scene. 78
11. Ethanol. 79
11.1 What is Bio fuel Ethanol. 80
11.2 Ethanol as a Fuel. 80
11.3 Alcohol Through Corn, Maize, 81
Grain, Starch etc.
11.4 Ethanol in India. 81
11.5 Impact on developing countries. 83
11.6 Pros & Cos of Ethanol Production. 84
12. Strategic Implication. 87
13. Conclusion. 88
14. Bibliography. 89

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1. Introduction
A search of alternate source of clean energy is very necessary as natural
petroleum stock is depleting rapidly. Petroleum fuel lasts only for next 50-70 years
if no new sources of energy are found. The combustion of petroleum fuel releases
huge amount of air pollution. This results in global warming and causes many
diseases. Also we are dependent on foreign countries for more than 70% of
petroleum fuel, so it is necessary to search a good alternate source of energy
which can fulfill our energy needs, release less pollution, saves money and
generate more employment. Now Govt. has taken initiative to search for such fuel
which can fulfill our above said requirements. Bio-fuel is emerging as an alternate
source of energy; it has many advantages which must be utilized to fulfill
alternate energy sources requirements. Although it has some disadvantages but
we have to overcome for utilizing it as best available alternate source for
transportation energy. We have realized various needs and odds about bio-fuel,
and we shorted out them as follows:

For this we have to find out whether it is economical to switch over to Bio-fuel
from petroleum This would require a comprehensive study of all existing sources
of energy; their production; their ill effects; their sustainability; bio fuels as an
alternate source; technology; costing; marketing strategy; market potential etc.

This study examined the feasibility of the bio fuel as an alternative fuel for
transportation purposes in the India. The emphasis in this examination with
respect to alternative transportation fuels was on bio-diesel, ethanol, alcohol
gasoline mixtures, and liquid natural gas. Feasibility was assessed within the
context of environmental concerns, performance of vehicle, cost of fuel, and
associated government regulations that are driving technology to meet demands
related to air pollution control that may be able to be met though the use of
alternative fuels for transportation purposes. A heavy dependence on foreign
sources for transportation fuels continues to characterize an important
component of the supply side of the Indian energy equation. Further, our reliance
on foreign sources for transportation fuels is expected to continue to increase as
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long as crude oil remains the dominant source of transportation fuels in the India.
Additionally, environmental concerns are expected to be manifested in future
demands for a curtailment of the use of crude oil based transportation fuels. The
successful introduction of the use of alternative fuels for transportation purposes,
however, is likely to be heavily dependent up consumer acceptance. Thus, such
factors as the cost of use of an alternative fuel and the characteristics of such fuel
with respect to the operational performance of vehicles in comparison to current
fuel (petrol, diesel) must be positive. Then only it is accepted otherwise we have
stick to our present fuels or we have to search for some other options for energy.

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2. Company overview

Abellon CleanEnergy is an integrated sustainable energy solutions provider with a


vision to contribute to clean energy generation through focus on Bio energy,
including Bio pellets, Bio fuels, Bio power, and waste management, as well as
other forms of clean energy generation. Abellon's integrated bioenergy model is
based on the conversion of biomass feedstocks into higher efficiency solid and
liquid fuels using innovative physical and thermo-chemical conversion processes
and technologies.

Being derived from biomass sources, the biofuel products are carbon-neutral and
significantly reduce pollution by offseting conventional fossil-fuel consumption.
Furthermore, the bioenergy model supports inclusive-growth and sustainable
development. Our Guiding Philosophy.

• No 'Food vs Fuel' conflict


• Synergy with existing agricultural practices

Abellon has setup collection centers at various locations and procures agro and
other organic wastes for the subsequent levels in the value chain. This collected
waste is sent to the BioPower plant for energy generation as well as for the liquid
and solid biofuels production.

2.1 Group & Leadership:


The group is led by a team of first generation entrepreneurs powered by the
philosophy of innovation led 'Blue Ocean Thinking,' global focus, and values based
organization and team building. As a group, we believe in consistently adopting
new business models and innovation to build our businesses, supported by the
principles of Empowerment of Youth, Achievement & Motivation, Creativity &
Innovation, Sustainability and Excellence.
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Our leadership and senior team of entrepreneurs, management professionals, and
technical experts have extensive experience and deep capabilities of
implementing and executing large scale projects.

2.2 Focus of the Company:

2.2.1 Bio Pellets:

'BioRich' -Abellon's Eco-friendly and carbon neutral Bio Pellet, is a refined and
densified fuel that allows remarkable consistency and burn efficiency at
substantially lower particulate emissions. BioRich is a powerful replacement to
conventional fossil fuel and can be utilized in boilers, furnaces, kilns across
various manufacturing facilities and thermal power plants.

2.2.2 Bio-Power:

Abellon, with wide experience in setting up large biomass based co-


generation facilities, endeavors to generate electricity in India, and globally. We
are setting up Biomass based power plants across the world which are designed
to run on 100% biomass with direct combustion (Rankine Cycle) technology.

2.2.3 Liquid Biofuels:

Abellon os concentrating on the production of Bioethanol and Biodiesel, with an


objective of cutting down consumption of conventional petrol and diesel.

2.2.4 BioEthanol:

Focus of Abellon is on second-generation biomass-to-liquid technologies for

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bioethanol production using ligno-cellulosic (wood based residue and grasses)
feedstock. In addition to using ligno-celluosic residue, Abellon exploring ligno-
cellulosic energy crops that need less fertilizer and have a short harvesting cycle
which enable a positive impact on environment, rural incomes, livelihoods and
social capital development.

2.2.5 BioDiesel:

Abellon is focusing on mass-production of Bio Diesel from high lipid content


'Marine Algal' strains by separating lipids from it through deployment of
specialized technology of transmogrification. Abellon has initiated extensive
research and development on methods & techniques of growing algae through our
in-house pilot set-up, with a focus on the identification of algal strains with high
lipid content, which can be cultivated under diverse temperature, humidity and
geographical conditions.

Algae offers some significant benefits, including its rich oil content, which allows it
to consume nearly twice its weight of carbon dioxide, its ability to flourish in fresh
water, polluted water, seawater and farm run-offs, and to grow in any kind of
habitat. By developing our Algae Farms close to power plants,Abellon is focusing
on the dual benefits of 'Accelerated Photosynthesis' through enhanced supply of
carbon dioxide, as well as significant reduction in atmospheric carbon levels,
leading to reduction in global warming.

Through Abellon's partnerships with agricultural experts, scientists, engineers,


industries, investors and government departments, development agents and
farmers, Abellon endeavor to create a holistic and scalable model to achieve
sustainable development.

2.2.6 Wind Energy:

Wind energy offers immense untapped potential of energy generation. Abellon

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acts as an international project developer for development, construction,
operation, and maintenance of wind energy projects. Our focus includes setting
up integrated wind farms and operating in the large as well as micro-turbine
segment.

2.2.7 Solar Energy:

Abellon's key area of focus in solar energy is to develop and operate integrated
solar farms - integrating solar heating or steam generation systems with the
existing utility network of industries seamlessly. The Company is currently in the
process of developing innovative solutions to harness this energy efficiently and
economically for diverse industrial and domestic applications.

2.2.8 Waste Management:

Abellon is focusing on the entire waste cycle, including urban cleaning


services, soil and site remediation, collection, sorting, transfer, treatment, and
recycling/recovery. Through waste management, we endeavor to reduce the
pollutant load of waste, convert waste to energy through recycling and recovery,
and generate gas which can serve as fuel.

2.2.9 Water Management:

Abellon's expertise lies in designing and building solutions supported by quality


services with a focus on public health protection, leak reduction, improved
productivity (plants and pipelines) and water conservation, as well as, effective
treatment and recycling of waste water, to ensure optimal utilization of water.

Drawing from the significant group level expertise and experience in the areas of
utilities, water and waste management, Abellon offers innovation and technology
driven, holistic, end-to-end solutions in these areas, working with civic authorities,
industries, and other large customers.

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A series of four colloquies held in the first quarter of 2000 examined the expected
development of biomass commercialization in the next 2 to 5 years. Each colloquy
included seven to ten representatives from key industries that can contribute to
biomass commercialization and who are in positions to influence the future
direction. They represented:

• Corn Growers
• Biomass Suppliers
• Plant Science Companies
• Process Engineering Companies
• Chemical Processors
• Agri-pulp Suppliers
• Current Ethanol Producers
• Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers
• Enzyme Suppliers

Others attending included representatives from the National Renewable Energy


Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of
Energy’s Office of Fuels Development, the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
environmental groups, grower organizations, and members of the financial and
economic development community. The informal discussions resulted in improved
awareness of the current state, future possibilities, and actions that can
accelerate commercialization. Biomass commercialization on a large scale has
four common issues:

1. Feedstock availability from growers


2. Large-scale collection and storage
2. An economic process
4. Market demand for the products

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3. ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA

INTRODUCTION

Energy is essential to the modern society. Over 85% of our energy demands are
met by the combustion of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas, are a
nonrenewable source of energy. The fuels are burned to release the chemical
energy that is stored within this resource. Fossil fuels are excellent sources of
energy for our transportation needs; however they are also the primary source of
electrical energy in the world today. Coal power plants account for at least 60% of
our national energy and 52% of the world's demand. We, as a world, burn
approximately 1.9 billion tons of coal a year to generate electricity. A worst-case
scenario is the "Third World" scenario, which predicts that the world will exhaust
its non-renewable fuel in the very near future.

3.1 Power Situation Of The Country:-

• Current demand (2008) exceeds supply by 13.4% and peak time shortage
by 17.1%

• Current primary energy growth rate is 3.6% per annum

• To overcome the power demand-supply gap, the expected capacity


installation

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should be 2,05,000 MW in 2012 and 4,00,000 MW by 2030

3.2 Production and Consumption of Energy:

3.2.1 Crude Oil:

• Crude oil demand: 2.4-mn barrels/day in 2008. It is expected to rise to 6.0


mn
barrels/day in 2030.

• India imported about 80% crude oil in 2006 and is expected to import about
90%
by 2030.

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• The graph below shows the widening gap between indigenous production
and
consumption from the period 1990 until 2006.

• Oil accounted for one-third of the imports in April, 2008 at USD 8.02 bn.

3.2.2 Coal:

• Coal consumption is expected to triple between 2005 and 2030


• Coal imports amounted to 12% in 2005, and are expected to rise to 28% in 2030

The graph below shows that India’s coal production and consumption scenario -

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3.3 Cost of Energy:-

3.3.1 Crude Oil:

• It is predicted that crude oil prices will continue to rise


• The crude oil prices may touch $185 per barrel by 2030

crude prices were projected to touch $115/barrel by the year 2025, but it has
touched already $150 in 2008 before sliding a little. Thus rising price of crude oil
is an area of great concern to the world economy. Taking the high price case
scenario, which is more likely, the projected price per barrel of crude oil is $185.

The chart below shows the cost of generating steam of furnace oil over the last six
years.
As we can notice, this cost has been escalating too.
Note: This chart has been prepared based on our technical team’s analysis of the cost of furnace
oil.

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3.3.2 Coal
Similar to furnace oil, the cost of generation of steam has been rising for coal too.
This can be seen in the chart below:

Note: This chart has been prepared based on our technical team’s analysis of the cost of coal

3.4 SOURCES OF ENERGY IN INDIA:-

 The various energy resources used in India include fossil fuels providing
petroleum and natural gas and coal mining that cater to the coal energy
demands in India. .The sun is the source for solar energy that is converted
to electrical energy using solar panels.
 The vast water resources in and around India are utilized by conversion of
the kinetic energy from the flowing water as in waterfalls and the dams built
on various rivers intoelectric energy.
 The energy of the tides and tidal waves is also utilized for electrical energy
harvesting.
 The usage of wind energy comes in the form of windmills and huge wind
energy farms for generation of usable energy forms by transformation of the
kinetic energy of the wind into energy units.
 Other sources of energy in India include biomass energy by burning bio-
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fuels available in large quantities owing to the huge domestic cattle
population in India.
 Energy is also derived from the vast timber resources of the country. This
forms the wood energy.
 Nuclear energy or atomic energy from radioactive materials has been
developed into a vast industry in itself.
 Geothermal energy is an unlimited natural energy source that utilizes the
steam from hot water springs that acts as energy boosters to drive turbines
of power plants.
 The various chemicals are used for chemical energy generation used in
batteries. Even the hydrogen available in large quantities in the
environment has been captured and utilized as an energy source by
reacting hydrogen with oxygen.

 FOSSIL FUELS:

Nearly 90 percent of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuels. Because fossil
fuels are the
main source, they are not alternative energy sources. Fossil fuels include coal,
natural gas, and petroleum, which is often called oil. People use fossil fuels to
meet nearly all of their energy needs, such as powering cars, producing electricity
for light and heat, and running factories. Because their use is so widespread, it is
important to understand fossil fuels in order to make informed decisions about
present and future alternative energy sources.

Fossil fuels are a popular source of energy because they are considered
convenient, effective,
plentiful, and inexpensive, but a few nations have most of the world’s fossil fuels,
a fact that often causes conflicts. Nevertheless, as of 2006, there are no practical
and available alternatives to fossil fuels for most energy needs, so they continue
to be heavily used.

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Fossil fuels sources burn coal or hydrocarbon fuels, which are the remains of the
decomposition of plants and animals. There are three main types of fossil fuels:
coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Another fossil fuel, liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG), is principally derived from the production of natural gas. Heat from burning
fossil fuel is used either directly for space heating and process heating, or
converted to mechanical energy for vehicles, industrial processes, or electrical
power generation.Earth has a lot of fossil fuels. Scientists in 2005 estimated that
the ground contains about ten trillion metric tons of coal, enough to fuel human
energy needs for hundreds of years. Petroleum and natural gas deposits are not
nearly so extensive. Most scientists believe that if people keep using up oil and
gas at 2005 rates, all known petroleum and gas reserves will be used up by the
beginning of the twenty-second century.

Most fossil fuel-powered operations, however, use the burning of the fossil fuel to
power much more complex machines, such as internal combustion engines. In
many cases, other fuels could supply the necessary heat; for example,
locomotives could be powered by burning wood instead of burning coal, and
power plants can be powered by water instead of coal. The advantage of fossil
fuels in these situations is that they produce large amounts of heat for their
volume, and they are currently widely available, with some liquid and gas fuels
available at pumps.

 Pros:-
 The technology and infrastructure already exist for the use of fossil fuels.
 Petroleum energy density in terms of volume (cubic space) and mass
(weight) is superior to some alternative energy sources (or energy storage
devices, like a battery (electricity)).
 Fossil fuels are currently more economical, and more suitable for
decentralized energy use.

 Cons:-

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 Petroleum-powered vehicles are very inefficient. Only about 30% of the
energy from theb fuel they consume is converted into mechanical energy.
The rest of the fuel-source energy is inefficiently expended as waste heat.
The heat and gaseous pollution emissions harm our environment.
 The inefficient atmospheric combustion (burning) of fossil fuels in vehicles,
buildings, and power plants contributes to urban heat islands.
 The combustion of fossil fuels leads to the release of pollution into the
atmosphere. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, a typical coal
plant produces in one year. Dependence on fossil fuels from volatile regions
or countries creates energy security risks for dependent countries.
 Fossil fuels are non-renewable, un-sustainable resources, which will
eventually decline in production and become exhausted.
 Extracting fossil fuels is becoming more difficult as we consume the most
accessible fuel deposits. Extraction of fossil fuels is becoming more
expensive and more dangerous as mines get deeper and oil rigs must drill
deeper, and go further out to sea.
 Extraction of fossil fuels results in extensive environmental degradation,
such as the strip mining and mountaintop removal of coal. Since these
power plants are thermal engines, and are typically quite large, waste heat
disposal becomes an issue at high ambient temperature. Thus, at a time of
peak demand, a power plant may need to be shut down or operate at a
reduced power level, as sometimes do nuclear power plants, for the same
reasons.

 COAL:-

Nearly 63 percent of the India’s total energy requirements are met from coal. The
available coal reserves in India are sufficient to meet our needs for at least
another 100 years. India now ranks 3rd amongst the coal producing countries in
the world. Taking the above facts into consideration it is obvious that coal is one
of the potential energy substitutes in India.

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 The Advantages of Coal:-

 Coal is one of the most abundant sources of energy, more so than oil and
natural gas.
 Coal is inexpensive when compared to other fossil fuels (or alternative
energy sources)
 Coal is versatile enough to be used for recreational activities such as BBQ’s
or simply for home fires.
 Burning coal can produce useful by-products that can be used for other
industries or products
 Electricity produced from coal is reliable.
 Coal can be safely stored and can be drawn upon to create energy in time of
emergency.
 Coal based power is not dependent on weather which cannot be said for
alternative forms of renewable energy such as wind or solar power.
 Transporting coal does not require the upkeep of high-pressure pipelines
and there is no requirement for extra security when transporting coal.
 Using coal reduces the dependence on using oil, which is often found in
nations where there is unstable political regimes.

 The Disadvantages of Coal:-

 Burning coal emits harmful waste. It also emits twice as much carbon
dioxide when compared with natural gas to produce the same level of heat.
Carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels now account for
about 65 per cent of the extra carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. The
burning of coal by large-scale factories to power industry has led to acid rain
in some regions
 Coal can be cleaned and/or turned into a liquid of gas but this technology
has yet to be fully developed and adds to the expense of creating fuel via
coal

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 Coal mining can scar the landscape and the equipment used for mining is
large and noisy which may affect local wildlife
 Transporting coal can be problematic because it requires an extensive
transportation system and can also cause additional pollution in the form of
emissions from transportation vehicles such as lorries, etc
 There are limited stocks of coal remaining – they will be entirely depleted
this millennium if we continue to burn coal in the future at the same rate we
are today coal can be considered as a non-renewable energy source
 The mining industry can cause health difficulties for miners and fatalities
due to the potentially dangerous nature of the work
 Burning dirty coal can create significant pollution problems.

 NUCLEAR ENERGY:

Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of
uranium-235
inside a nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium rods, the atoms of which are
split in the process of fission, releasing a large amount of energy. The process
continues as a chain reaction with other nuclei. The energy heats water to create
steam, which spins a turbine generator, producing electricity. Depending on the
type of fission fuel considered, estimates for existing supply at known usage rates
varies from several decades for the currently popular Uranium-235 to thousands
of years for uranium-238. At the present rate of use, there are (as of 2007) about
70 years left of known uranium-235 reserves economically recoverable at a
uranium price of US$ 130/kg. The nuclear industry argue that the cost of fuel is a
minor cost factor for fission power, more expensive, more difficult to extract
sources of uranium could be used in the future, such as lower-grade ores, and if
prices increased enough, from sources such as granite and seawater. Increasing
the price of uranium would have little effect on the overall cost of nuclear power;
a doubling in the cost of natural uranium would increase the total cost of nuclear
power by 5 percent. On the other hand, if
the price of natural gas was doubled, the cost of gas-fired power would increase
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by about 60
percent. Current light water reactors burn the nuclear fuel poorly, leading to
energy waste. Nuclear reprocessing or burning the fuel better using different
reactor designs would reduce the amount of waste material generated and allow
better use of the available resources. As opposed to current light water reactors
which use uranium-235 (0.7 percent of all natural uranium), fast breeder reactors
convert the more abundant uranium-238 (99.3 percent of all natural uranium) into
plutonium for fuel. It has been estimated that there is anywhere from 10,000 to
five billion years worth of Uranium-238 for use in these power plants. Fast breeder
technology has been used in several reactors. India has run out of uranium and is
building thermal breeders that can convert Th-232 into U-233 and burn it.

The long-term radioactive waste storage problems of nuclear power have not
been fully solved. Several countries have considered using underground
repositories. Nuclear waste takes up little space compared to wastes from the
chemical industry which remains toxic indefinitely. Spent fuel rods are now stored
in concrete casks close to the nuclear reactors. The amounts of waste could be
reduced in several ways. Both nuclear reprocessing and fast breeder reactors
could reduce the amounts of waste. Subcritical reactors or fusion reactors could
greatly reduce the time the waste has to be stored. Subcritical reactors may also
be able to do the same to already existing waste. The only long-term way of
dealing with waste today is by geological storage. The economics of nuclear
power is not simple to evaluate, because of high capital costs for building and
very low fuel costs. Comparison with other power generation methods is strongly
dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for
nuclear plants.

 Pros:-

 The energy content of a kilogram of uranium or thorium, if spent nuclear


fuel is reprocessed and fully utilized, is equivalent to about 3.5 million
kilograms of coal.

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 The cost of making nuclear power, is about the same as making coal power,
which is considered very inexpensive.
 Raw material extraction is much safer for nuclear power compared to coal.
Coal mining is the second most dangerous occupation in the United States.
 For the same amount of electricity, the life cycle emission of nuclear is
about 4% of coal power.
 According to a Stanford study, fast breeder reactors have the potential to
power humans on earth for billions of years, making it sustainable.

 Cons:-

 The improper operation of a nuclear reactor with no containment vessel can


be catastrophic in the event of an uncontrolled power increase in the
reactor.
 Trans-uranic waste produced from nuclear fission of uranium is poisonous
and highly radioactive.

 Geothermal energy:-

Geothermal energy is energy created by the heat of the Earth. Under the Earth’s
crust lies a
layer of thick, hot rock with occasional pockets of water. This water sometimes
seeps up to the surface in the form of hot springs. Even where the water does not
travel naturally to the Earth’s surface, it is sometimes possible to reach it by
drilling. This hot water can be used as a virtually free source of energy, either
directly as hot water, steam, or heat or as a means of generating power.
Geothermal energy is nonpolluting, inexpensive, and in most cases renewable,
which makes it a promising source of power for the future. Geothermal energy
harnesses the heat energy present underneath the Earth. Two wells are drilled.
One well injects water into the ground to provide water. The hot rocks heat the
water to produce steam. The steam that shoots back up the other hole(s) is

27
purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators. When the
water temperature is below the boiling point of water a binary system is used. A
low boiling point liquid is used to drive a turbine and generator in a closed system
similar to a refrigeration unit running in reverse.

 Pros:-
 Geothermal energy is base load power.
 Economically feasible in high grade areas now.
 Low deployment costs.
 Geothermal power plants have a high capacity factor; they run continuously
day and night with an uptime typically exceeding 95%.
 Once a geothermal power station is implemented, there is no cost for fuel,
only for operations, maintenance and return on capital investment.
 Since geothermal power stations consume no fuel, there is no
environmental impact associated with emissions or fuel handling.
 Geothermal is now feasible in areas where the Earth's crust is thicker. Using
enhanced geothermal technology, it is possible to drill deeper and injects
water to generate geothermal power.
 Geothermal energy does not produce air or water pollution if performed
correctly.

 Cons:-

 Geothermal power extracts small amounts of minerals such as sulfur that


are removed prior to feeding the turbine and re-injecting the water back into
the injection well.
 Geothermal power requires locations that have suitable subterranean
temperatures with in 5 km of surface.
 Some geothermal stations have created geological instability, even causing
earthquakes strong enough to damage buildings.

28
 Hydro Energy:

In hydro energy, the gravitational descent of a river is compressed from a long run
to a single location with a dam or a flume. This creates a location where
concentrated pressure and flow can be used to turn turbines or water wheels,
which drive a mechanical mill or an electric generator.

 Pros:-

 Hydroelectric power stations can promptly increase to full capacity, unlike


other types of power stations. This is because water can be accumulated
above the dam and released to coincide with peak demand.
 Electricity can be generated constantly, so long as sufficient water is
available.
 Hydroelectric power produces no primary waste or pollution.
 Hydropower is a renewable resource.
 Much hydroelectric capacity is still undeveloped, such as in Africa.
 The resulting lake can have additional benefits such as doubling as a
reservoir for irrigation, and leisure activities such as water sports and
fishing.

 Cons:-

 The construction of a dam can have a serious environmental impact on the


surrounding areas. The amount and the quality of water downstream can be
affected, which affects plant life both aquatic, and land-based. Because a
river valley is being flooded, the local habitant of many species is destroyed,
while people living nearby may have to relocate their homes.
 Hydroelectricity can only be used in areas where there is a sufficient and
continuing supply of water.
 Flooding submerges large forests (if they have not been harvested). The

29
resulting anaerobic decomposition of the carboniferous materials releases
methane, a greenhouse gas.
 Dams can contain huge amounts of water. As with every energy storage
system, failure of containment can lead to catastrophic results, e.g. flooding
 Dams create large lakes that may have adverse effects on Earth tectonic
system causing intense earthquakes.
 Hydroelectric plants rarely can be erected near load centers, requiring long
transmission lines.

 SOLAR POWER:

India is both densely populated and has high solar isolation, providing an ideal
combination for solar power in India. Much of the country does not have an
electrical grid, so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water
pumping; to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water
pumps, each consuming about 3.5 kilowatts, and off-grid lighting. Some large
projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km² area of the Thar Desert has been
set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 gigawatt.
Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using
sunlight hitting
solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air, using sunlight hitting
a parabolic
mirror to heat water (producing steam), or using sunlight entering windows for
passive solar
heating of a building. It would be advantageous to place solar panels in the
regions of highest solar radiation.

 Pros:-
 Solar power imparts no fuel costs.
 Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy
will reach Earth.
 Solar power generation releases no water or air pollution, because there is
30
no combustion of fuels.
 In sunny countries, solar power can be used in remote locations, like a wind
turbine. This way, isolated places can receive electricity, when there is no
way to connect to the power lines from a plant.
 Solar energy can be used very efficiently for heating (solar ovens, solar
water and home heaters) and day lighting.
 Coincidentally, solar energy is abundant in regions that have the largest
number of people living off grid — in developing regions of Africa, Indian
subcontinent and Latin America.
 Passive solar building design and zero energy buildings are demonstrating
significant energy bill reduction, and some are cost-effectively off the grid.
 Photo voltaic equipment cost has been steadily falling and the production
capacity is rapidly rising.
 Distributed point-of-use photo voltaic systems eliminate expensive long-
distance electric power transmission losses.
 Photo voltaic are much more efficient in their conversion of solar energy to
usable energy than bio-fuel from plant materials.

 Cons:-

 Solar electricity is currently more expensive than grid electricity.


 Solar heat and electricity are not available at night and may be unavailable
because of weather conditions; therefore, a storage or complementary
power system is required for off-the-grid applications.
 Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie
inverter) when used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an
energy loss of 4–12%.
 The energy payback time — the time necessary for producing the same
amount of energy as needed for building the power device — for
photovoltaic cells is about 1–5 years, depending primarily on location.

31
 Tidal Power Generation:

Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water


turbine in a tidal current, or by building impoundment pond dams that admit-or-
release water through a
turbine. The turbine can turn an electrical generator, or a gas compressor, that
can then store energy until needed. Coastal tides are a source of clean, free,
renewable, and sustainable energy. Tides are caused through a combination of
forces created by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon, and the rotation
of the earth. Energy naturally present in water bodies or in their movement can
be used for generation of electricity.

• Indian context:-

India being surrounded by sea on three sides has a high potential to harness tidal
energy. The three most potential locations in this regard are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf
of Kutch (west coast) and Ganges Delta, Sunderbans, WestBengal (eastcoast). The
total potential of tidal energy in India is estimated at 8,000 mw with Gulf of
Cambay accounting for over 90 per cent.

 Pros:-

 Tidal power is free once the dam is built. This is because tidal power
harnesses the naturalpower of tides and does not consume fuel. In addition,
the maintenance costs associated with running a tidal station are relatively
inexpensive.
 Tides are very reliable because it is easy to predict when high and low tides
will occur. The tide goes in and out twice a day usually at the predicted
times. This makes tidal energy easy to maintain, and positive and negative

32
spikes in energy can be managed.
 Tidal energy is renewable, because nothing is consumed in the rising of
tides. Tidal power relies on the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun, which
pull the sea backwards and forwards, generating tides.

 Cons:-

 Tidal power is not currently economically feasible, because the initial costs
of building a dam are tremendous. Furthermore, it only provides power for
around 10 hours each day, when the tide is moving in or out of the basin.
 The barrage construction can affect the transportation system in water.
Boats may not be able to cross the barrage, and commercial ships, used for
transport or fishery, need to find alternative routes or costly systems to go
through the barrage.
 Maximum energy production is limited to 2.5 terawatts. This is the total
amount of tidal dissipation or the friction measured by the slowing of the
lunar orbit.

 WIND POWER:

This type of energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind
turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity.
Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms.

The installed capacity of wind power in India was 10,925 MW, mainly spread
across Tamil Nadu (4301.63 MW), Maharashtra (1942.25 MW), Gujarat (1565.61
MW), Karnataka (1340.23 MW), Rajasthan (738.5 MW), Madhya Pradesh (212.8
MW), Andhra Pradesh (122.45 MW), Kerala (26.5 MW), West Bengal (1.1 MW) and
other states (3.20 MW).It is estimated that 6,000 MW of additional wind power
capacity will be installed in India by 2012. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's

33
total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. Initial
cost for wind turbines is greater than that of conventional fossil fuel generators.
Noise produced by the rotor blades. There is interference on television signals. It
causes significant bird and other avian deaths. Wind resources might not be
available near cities and, even so, the space might be used for other purposes
that can generate larger profits. Wind cannot be stored (unless batteries are used)
Not all winds can be harnessed to meet the timing of electricity demands.

 Pros:-

 Wind power produces no water or air pollution that can contaminate the
environment, because there are no chemical processes involved in wind
power generation. Hence, there are no waste by-products, such as carbon
dioxide.
 Power from the wind does not contribute to global warming because it does
not generate greenhouse gases.
 Wind generation is a renewable source of energy, which means that we will
never run out of it.
 Wind towers can be beneficial for people living permanently, or temporarily,
in remote areas. It may be difficult to transport electricity through wires
from a power plant to a faraway location and thus, wind towers can be set
up at the remote setting.
 Farming and grazing can still take place on land occupied by wind turbines.
 Those utilizing wind powers in a grid-tie configuration will have backup
power in the event of a power outage.
 Because of the ability of wind turbines to coexist within agricultural fields,
sitting costs are frequently low.

 Cons:-

34
 Wind is unpredictable; therefore, wind power is not predictably available.
When the wind speed decreases less electricity is generated. This makes
wind power unsuitable for base load generation.
 Wind farms may be challenged in communities that consider them an
eyesore or obstruction.
 Wind farms, depending on the location and type of turbine, may negatively
affect bird migration patterns, and may pose a danger to the birds
themselves (primarily an issue with older/smaller turbines).
 Wind farms may interfere with radar creating a hole in radar coverage and
so affect national security.
 Tall wind turbines have been proven to impact Doppler radar towers and
affect weather forecasting in a negative way. This can be prevented by not
having the wind turbines in the radar's line of sight. Mainly petrol, diesel,
CNG, LPG and now bio-fuels are used for transportation purpose.

3.5 Pollution Scenario

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the use of energy in the form of fossil
fuels began growing as more and more industries were set up. This occurred in
stages, from the exploitation of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural
gas fields. In the past century, it became evident that the consumption of
nonrenewable sources of energy had caused more environmental damage than
any other human activity. Electricity generated from fossil fuels such as coal and
crude oil has led to high concentrations of harmful gases in the atmosphere. This
has in turn led to problems such as ozone depletion and global warming.

• Currently, India is rated as the 6th largest contributor of CO2 emissions


• There has been an increase of nearly 5.9% every year in CO2 emissions since
1950
• The energy sector is the largest contributor of CO2 emissions in India
• The total pollution was about 350 million metric tonnes (MMT) in 2005 and is
expected to rise to 490 MMT in 2015
35
 Indian CO2 Emmisson:

Source: ENVIS Center – Central Pollution Control Board

3.5 Power Requirement in State of Gujarat

The total installed capacity for power generation in Gujarat was about 11,051 mw
in April, 2008; while power demand in peak hours comes up to 12,000 MW and in
case of off-peak hours it is nearly 10,500 MW.

Gujarat is substantially depending on coal based thermal power station for


meeting its power requirements.

With the increase in gas prices, most of the liquid fuel based power stations are
facing a
tough time and the demand for solid fuel based thermal power stations is high.

This also means all new power initiatives in the state will come based on solid fuel
power
station. Thus our dependency on coal is rapidly increasing in generation of
electricity.

36
3.6 Need for Alternative Energy

Due to the acute power shortage, widening gap between production and
consumption of
conventional energy sources, rising cost of these energy sources and increasing
CO2
emissions, there is an immediate need for alternate energy usage.

Entrepreneurs, Academics, scientists, environmentalists, and economists have


started to
discover the alternative for the replacement of conventional energy generation
sources across the globe and which is tapered on renewable energy sources with
innovative, clean technologies.

Renewable energy sources include the sun, wind, water, agricultural residue, fuel
wood,
and animal dung. Energy generated from the sun is known as solar energy. Hydel
is the
energy derived from water. Biomass – firewood, animal dung, and biodegradable
waste
from cities and crop residues – is a source of energy when it is burnt. Geothermal
energy
is derived from hot dry rocks, magma, hot water springs, natural geysers, etc.
Ocean
thermal is energy derived from waves and also from tidal waves.

3.7 Impact Due to Fossil Fuel Consumption:

 Global Warming and Climate Change:

There are many reasons that have contributed to the environmental threats.

37
Some of the
major ones are as mentioned below.

Global warming is caused by a build up of carbon dioxide (CO2) acting like


a planetary duvet and trapping heat in the atmosphere. Climate Change refers to
the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and
oceans since the mid-twentieth century and its projected continuation. The main
cause of climate change is attributed to the build up of carbon dioxide (CO2) in
the atmosphere. While every living thing produces CO2 naturally, human activities
such as the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation have caused the
concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide to increase by about 35% since the
early 1900's. Experts believe that the increasing global temperature may cause
sea levels to rise, exacerbate the intensity of extreme weather events, and affect
the amount and pattern of global precipitation. Other effects of global warming
will include changes in agricultural yields, trade routes, glacier retreat, species
extinctions and extension in the ranges of disease vectors.

Here one can see the clear correlation between global temperature rise and levels
of CO2
in the atmosphere. The world's scientists are now in agreement that the
undisputed rise
In global temperatures has at least a contributory cause from us all and that CO2
emissions must be reduced.

 The Green House Effect:-

38
After been steady for over thousands of years, the CO2 emission over the last
couple of
decades has dramatically risen multi fold. This is the single most important reason
for the
Climate Change. The variation in CO2 emissions over the history can be seen from
the
below.

India may be a long way from melting polar ice caps, but its economy has been
among the worst affected on account of global warming as it is one of the most
vulnerable countries when it comes to effects of climate change. This is because
India has a vast coastal line and the rising sea levels caused by global warming
will cause an ecological disaster. Rising temperatures and sea level besides
insufficient rains due to global warming will take a heavy toll on India's agro-
based economy by the end of this century.

Climate changes are likely to effect India in a host of ways. India would face

39
problems because of rising sea levels. Agricultural productivity would be affected
as monsoons will be short with intense bursts. Water supply would also suffer
because of lesser snowfall in the Himalayas, which provide water for 40% of the
world’s population. The effect on GDP will be non-linear. Initially, every 2 degree
rise in temperature would result in a 5% dip in global GDP and for the next 6
degrees it would be 15-16%. Considering that twenty-five percent of the Indian
population lives in coastal areas and 27 percent of the Indian economy is agro-
based, climate change and rising sea level are desperately dangerous for our
country.

The average facade temperature of the globe has augmented more than 1 degree
Fahrenheit since 1900 and the speed of warming has been almost three folds the
century long average since 1970. This phenomenon of increase in earth’s average
temperature is called Global warming. Specialists studying the climate record of
the earth are of the opinion now that human actions, mainly the discharge of
green house gases smokestacks, vehicles, and burning forests, are perhaps the
key reasons for this. The gases append to the planet's normal greenhouse effect,
permitting sunlight in, but stopping some of the ensuing heat from radiating back
to space.

As stated earlier, the major cause of global warming is the emission of green
house gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide etc into the atmosphere.
The major source of carbon dioxide is the power plants. These power plants emit
large amounts of carbon dioxide produced from burning of fossil fuels for the
purpose of electricity generation.

40
About twenty percent of carbon dioxide emitted in the atmosphere comes from
burning of
gasoline in the engines of the vehicles. Green house gases stay can stay in the
atmosphere
for an amount of years ranging from decades to hundreds and thousands of years.
No matter what we do, global warming is going to have a major effect on Earth.
Even though climate change is on top of the agenda worldwide, problems with
local air pollution stemming from
burning fossil fuels are ever present.

Carbon dioxide is considered the most prominent contributor to the global


warming issue. The impact of global warming on the environment is extensive and
affects many areas. In the Antarctica, warmer temperatures may result in more
rapid ice melting which increases sea level and compromises the composition of
surrounding waters. Rising sea levels alone can impede processes ranging from
settlement, agriculture and fishing both commercially and for recreation.While
CO2 is a global problem contributing to global warming, emissions of sulphur
oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are impacting the
environment locally. When talking about thermal power, this means at cities and
nearby areas.

41
Sulphur dioxide is a corrosive acid gas, which combines with water vapour in
the
atmosphere to produce acid rain. Both wet and dry deposition have been
implicated in the damage and destruction of vegetation and in the degradation of
soils, building materials and watercourses. SO2 in ambient air is also associated
with asthma and chronic bronchitis. The principal source of this gas is power
stations and industries burning fossil fuels, which contain sulphur.Sulphur occurs
naturally in coal and remains even after its processing. The quantity of Sox
produced in the exhaust gases is directly related to the quantity of sulphur in the
fuel. One of the ways to reduce Sox emmission is by using low sulphur fuels like
biomass in power plants.

Nitrogen oxides are formed during high temperature combustion processes


from the oxidation of nitrogen in the air or fuel. The principal source of nitrogen
oxides – nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO), collectively known as NOx- is
emission from power stations industrial processes.

Nitrogen dioxide has a variety of environmental and health impacts. It irritates the
respiratory
system and may worsen asthma and increase susceptibility to infections. In the
presence of sunlight, it reacts with hydrocarbons to produce photochemical
pollutants such as ozone. Nitrogen oxides combine with water vapour to form
nitric acid. This nitric acid is in turn removed from the atmosphere by direct
deposition to the ground, or transfer to aqueous droplets (e.g. cloud or rainwater),
thereby contributing to acid deposition.

Acid Rain:
Acid rain is caused by release of SOX and NOX from combustion of fossil fuels,
which then mix with water vapour in atmosphere to form sulphuric and nitric acids
respectively. The effects of acid rain are as follows:

42
• Acidification of lakes, streams and soils.
• Direct and indirect effects (release of metals, eg: Aluminum, washes away plant
• nutrients)
• Killing of wildlife (trees, crops, aquatic plants, and animals)
• Decay of building materials and paints, statues, and sculptures
• Health problems (respiratory, burning- skin and eyes)

 Acid Rain:

 Fossil Fuels – Impact on Environment, Economy and


Health:-

The technical definition of fossil fuels is "incompletely oxidized and decayed


43
animal and vegetable materials, specifically coal, peat, lignite, petroleum and
natural gas". The technical
definition of fuel is "material that can be burned or otherwise consumed to
produce heat". Man’s fuel needs, since the olden times, have been met through
the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels, as its name suggests, were formed from the
organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals. In our modernized western
world, fossil fuels provide vast luxurious importance.

We retrieve these fossil fuels from the ground and under the sea and have them
converted
into electricity. They are responsible for much of the world’s electric power and
total energy demands. Approximately 90% of the world's electricity demand is
generated from the use of fossil fuels. Since 1900's, the world’s consumption of
fossil fuels has nearly doubled every 20 years.

Fossil fuels comprise mainly of coal, oil and gas. These three were formed millions
of years ago beneath the earth’s surface from the decomposition of dead plants
and animal Fossil fuels comprise mainly of coal, oil and gas. These three were
formed millions of years ago beneath the earth’s surface from the decomposition
of dead plants and animals. These are foreseen to be in short supply in the future
as man’s fuel needs continue to grow at a fast rate.

 Fossil Fuel Evolution Natural Process:-

44
 Environmental Impacts of Fossil Fuel:

Combustion of these fossil fuels is considered to be the largest contributing factor


to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In fact it is believed that
energy providers
are the largest source of atmospheric pollution today. There are many types of
harmful outcomes which result from the process of converting fossil fuels to
energy. Some of these include air pollution, water pollution, accumulation of solid
waste, not to mention the land degradation and human illness.

• Air pollution is another problem arising from the use of fossil fuels, and can
result in the formation of smog. Other than causing human illness, smog can also
affect the sustainability of crops.
• Many toxic substances are released during the conversion or retrieval process
including
"Vanadium" and "Mercury".

 Various Sources of Pollution:-

45
When coal is burned, it releases nitrous oxide. Unfortunately this remains in the
atmosphere for very long time. The harmful impact of this chemical could take up
to a couple of hundred years to make itself known. The only solution in this case is
to reduce the formation of nitrous oxide. Nearly 50% of the nitrogen oxide in the
atmosphere and 70% of sulfur dioxide are direct result of emissions released when
coal is burned.

 Health Impacts:

The byproducts that form from the burning of fossil fuels are very dangerous.
These small particles can exist in the air for indefinite periods of time, up to
several weeks and can travel for miles. The particles, sometimes smaller than 10
microns in diameter, can reach deep within the lungs. Particles that are smaller
than this can enter the blood stream, irritating the lungs and carry with them toxic
substances such as heavy metals and pollutants.

Over a lifetime of continued exposure, a person's ability to transfer oxygen and rid
pollutants
is impeded. Those affected could become afflicted with fatal asthma attacks and
ther serious lung conditions. the World Resources Institute reports that between
the ears of 2000 and 2020, 8 million deaths worldwide could possibly occur
without changing resent conditions. In 1990 alone, respiratory diseases were a
leading cause of disabilities and illnesses worldwide. This is a global problem and
requires a global solution.

 Need for Environmental Safety:-

In the process of development, the issues confronting today are achieving desired
development for economic or social reasons on one hand and safe guarding the
environment
and maintaining good quality living conditions on the other. While taking up
developmental activities, the assimilative capacities of the environmental
46
components i.e., air, water and land to various pollution are rarely considered.
Also, lack of proper land use control is resulting in poor land use compatibility. The
developmental activities being haphazard and uncontrolled are leading to over
use, congestion, incompatible land use and poor living conditions. The problems
of environmental pollution are becoming complex and are creating high risk
environment.

There are many ways by which our environment is getting polluted and unfit to
live. Our environment should be very clean and free from pollution, all fit for our
loved ones. Nowadays, the environmental issues have become so threatening that
the entire world has sat up and taken notice. There are several reasons behind
this alarming situation and condition that has cropped up in the present world. It
has become our responsibility as a citizen to save the environment from the
present risks and coming ones too. The awareness in people is essential and this
will make a great difference.

 Making Hands togather to Save Earth:

47
3.8 Renewable Energy Scenario in India:-

In today's scenario Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are being focused on as an


important
element of India’s power policy aimed to meet the power needs of remote areas
in an environmentally friendly way. India is the first country to have a dedicated
ministry for developing and promoting non- conventional energy sources (MNRE).
Certain forms of renewable energy sources (such as wind energy and small-hydro
have already been able to establish a strong presence. In response to the policy
and incentives extended to the participants, there is a strong participation seen
from the private sector. One such example is the fact that a significant share of
the wind-power based generation capacity has been set-up by the private sector.

The spread of various renewable energy technologies has been aided by a variety
of policies and support measures by Government. Major policy initiatives have
been taken to encourage private/foreign direct investment to tap energy from
renewable sources including provision of fiscal and financial incentives. These
policy initiatives are directed towards a greater thrust on overall development and
promotion of renewable energy technologies and applications. This will facilitate

48
excellent opportunities for increased investment in this sector, technology up
gradation, induction of new technology market development and export
promotion.

India is both a major energy producer and a consumer. India currently ranks as
the world’s seventh largest energy producer, accounting for about 2.49% of the
world’s total annual energy production. It is also the world’s fifth largest energy
consumer, accounting for about 3.45% of the world’s total annual energy
consumption in 2004. Since independence, the country has seen significant
expansion in the total energy use in the country with a shift from non-commercial
to commercial sources. The share of commercial energy in total primary energy
consumption rose from 59.7% in 1980–81 to 72.6% in 2006–07.

3.9 Availability of Energy Resources:-

India is not endowed with large primary energy reserves in keeping with her vast
geographical area, growing population, and increasing final energy needs. The
distribution of
primary commercial energy resources in the country is quite skewed. Whereas
coal is abundant and is mostly concentrated in the eastern region, which accounts
for nearly 70% of the total coal reserves, the western region has over 70% of the
hydrocarbons reserves in the country. Similarly, more than 70% of the total hydro
potential in the country is located in the northern and the north eastern regions.
The southern region, which has only 6% of the coal reserves and 10% of the total
hydro potential, has most of the lignite deposits occurring in the country. In India,
the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is responsible for programmes
covering renewable energy sources.

* Although potential is based on surplus agro-residues, in practice biomass power


generation
units prefer to use fuel-wood for technoeconomic reasons. A potential of 45000

49
MW from around 20 MH of wastelands assumed to be yielding 10MT/ha/annum of
woody biomass having 4000 k-cal/kg with system efficiency of 30% and 75% PLF
has not been
taken into account. In order to realize this potential a major inter-Ministerial
initiative involving, among others, Environment and Forests, Agriculture, Rural
Development, and
Panchayat Raj would be required. Further, a Biomass atlas is under preparation
which is expected to more accurately assess State-wise renewable energy
potential from agro-residues.

* Potential based on areas having wind power density (wpd) greater than 200
W/m2 assuming land availability in potential areas @ 1% and requirement of wind
farms @ 12 ha/
MW, all of which may not be technically feasible or economically viable for grid
interactive wind power. This economically viable potential could get enhanced
with higher level of land
availability than what has been assumed. Areas having lower wpds might be
suitable for off-grid applications. Further, preliminary surveys do not at this
juncture suggest a sizeable grid interactive off-shore wind power potential.
• Potential for solar power is dependent on future developments that might
make solar technology cost-competitive for grid interactive power
generation applications. However, insolation in the country varies between
4–7 kWh/m2/day. MW = megawatt; kW = kilowatt; kWp = kilowatt peak; sq
m = square metre; sq km = square kilometre; CHP = combined heat and
power.

MNES has also envisage the energy generation potential from various sources as
followed:

50
4. Objective of Project:

 To find out whether Bio-fuel is an alternate source of transportation energy


in India.
 To find out whether it is feasible to produce Bio-fuel at an economical cost.
 To find out whether Bio-fuel production has impact on food prices.
 To find out consumption of important resources in Bio-fuel production.
 To find out whether it is economical to switch over to Bio-fuel from
petroleum.

5. Research Methodology :

 For this research firstly we have to understand the requirement of


alternative energy.
 Then analyze all the available resources, their advantages, disadvantages
and their feasibility.
 Then it is required to find out whether it is economical to go for alternative
sources of energy.
 We will find the crops which are used to produce bio-fuel.
 We will also find whether producing bio-fuel on small scale is feasible or not.
 We have to collect data and secondary info. From various Govt. and other

51
websites.

6. Biofuels:

Government has also put mandate for biofuel for transportation sector. However,
due to lesser production of biofuel, India has long way to go for achievement of
blending mandates given in 11th five year plan (as mentioned below).

After stabilization of 5% ethanol blending petrol sales, the content of ethanol in


petrol would be considered for increasing up to 10% by the middle of the Eleventh
Plan, subject to ethanol availability and commercial viability of blending.
Depending upon the bio-diesel production and availability, the entire country may
be progressively covered with sale of 5% bio-diesel blended diesel by the end of
the Eleventh Plan.

Bio-fuel development and use is a complex issue because there are many bio-fuel
options which are available. Bio-fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are currently
produced from the products of conventional food crops such as the starch, sugar
and oil feed-tocks from crops that include wheat, maize, sugar cane, palm oil and
oilseed rape. Any major switch to bio-fuels from such crops would create a direct
competition with their use for food and animal feed, and in some parts of the
world we are already seeing the economic consequences of such competition. Bio-
fuels are a wide range of fuels which are in some way derived from biomass. The
term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Bio-fuels are gaining
increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price spikes
and the need for increased energy security. Bio-ethanol is an alcohol made by
fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from
sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic
biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feed stocks for ethanol
production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is

52
usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle
emissions. Bio-ethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Biodiesel is made
from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a
fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to
reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-
powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification
and is the most common bio-fuel in Europe. Bio-fuels provided 1.8% of the world's
transport fuel in 2008. Investment into bio-fuels production capacity exceeded $4
billion worldwide in 2007 and is growing.

6.1 Different Types of Bio-Fuel:-

There are many different bio-fuels available in the UK. One of the most common
worldwide is E10 fuel, which is actually a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90%
petroleum. This formula has been 39 improved in recent years with the
introduction of E15 fuel (15% ethanol, 85% petroleum); E20 fuel (20% ethanol,
80% petroleum); E85 fuel (85% ethanol, 15% petroleum); E95 fuel (95% ethanol,
15% petroleum) and E100 fuel which is ethanol with up to 4% water.There are
many other types of biofuel available including vegetable oil, which is used in
many older diesel engines; butanol, which is seen as a replacement for petroleum;
and biogas which is produced from biodegradable waste materials.

6.2 Bio-fuel in India:-

Bio-fuel development in India centers mainly around the cultivation and


processing of Jatropha plant seeds which are very rich in oil (40%). The drivers for
this are historic, functional, economic, environmental, moral and political. Jatropha
oil has been used in India for several decades as biodiesel to cater to the diesel
fuel requirements of remote rural and forest communities; jatropha oil can be
used directly after extraction (i.e. without refining) in diesel generators and
engines. Jatropha has the potential to provide economic benefits at the local level

53
since under suitable management it has the potential to grow in dry marginal non-
agricultural lands, thereby allowing villagers and farmers to leverage non-farm
land for income generation. As well, increased Jatropha oil production delivers
economic benefits to India on the macroeconomic or national level as it reduces
the nation's fossil fuel import bill for diesel production (the main transportation
fuel used in the country); minimizing the expenditure of India's foreign-currency
reserves for fuel allowing India to increase its growing foreign currency reserves
(which can be better spent on capital expenditures for industrial inputs and
production). And since Jatropha oil is carbon-neutral, large-scale production will
improve the country's carbon emissions profile. Finally, since no food producing
farmland is
required for producing this biofuel (unlike corn or sugar cane ethanol, or palm oil
diesel), it is
considered the most politically and morally acceptable choice among India's
current bio-fuel
options; it has no known negative impact on the production of the massive
amounts grains and other vital agriculture goods India produces to meet the food
requirements of its massive population (1.1 Billion people as of 2008). Seeds from
the Jatropha curcas plant are used for the production of biofuel, a crucial part of
India's plan to attain energy sustainability.
40 India's total biodiesel requirement is projected to grow to 3.6 Million Metric
Tons in 2011-12, with the positive performance of the domestic automobile
industry. The Government is currently implementing an ethanol-blending program
and considering initiatives in the form of mandates for biodiesel. Due to these
strategies, the rising population, and the growing energy demand from the
transport sector, bio-fuels can be assured of a significant market in India. On 12
September 2008, the Indian Government announced its 'National Bio-fuel Policy'.
It aims to meet 20% of Inda's diesel demand with fuel derived from plants. That
will mean setting aside 140,000 square kilometers of land. Presently fuel yielding
plants cover less than 5,000 square kilometers

 BIOMASS, BIOFUELS, AND VEGETABLE OIL:


54
Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as
corn or
other vegetation to generate electricity. When garbage decomposes, the methane
produced is captured in pipes and later burned to produce electricity. Vegetation
and wood can be burned directly to generate energy, like fossil fuels, or processed
to form alcohols. Vegetable oil is generated from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 by
plants. It is safer to use and store than gasoline or diesel as it has a higher flash
point. Straight vegetable oil works in diesel engines if it is heated first. Vegetable
oil can also be transesterified to make biodiesel, which burns like normal diesel.
Bio-fuels are renewable. They come from plants and other currently growing
organic material, so it is possible to generate new ones constantly. This makes
them more environmentally problems, such as habitat destruction and fertilizer
runoff. Farmers use large amounts of fossil fuels to grow crops such as corn, which
decreases the value of the energy made from those crops. In some cases,
producing bio-fuels such as ethanol actually uses more energy than the ethanol
yields
.
 Biomass is abundant on Earth and is renewable. Biomass is found
throughout the world, a fact that should alleviate energy pressures in third
world nations.
 Alcohols and other fuels produced by these alternative methods are clean
burning and are feasible replacements to fossil fuels.
 Since CO2 is first taken out of the atmosphere to make the vegetable oil and
then put back after it is burned in the engine, there is no net increase in
CO2. However, there is still the emissions due to fossil fuel used in growing
and producing bio-fuel.
 Vegetable oil has a higher flash point and therefore is safer than most fossil
fuels.
 Transitioning to vegetable oil could be relatively easy as biodiesel works
where diesel works, and straight vegetable oil takes relatively minor
modifications.
 The world already produces more than 100 billion gallons a year for the food

55
industry, so we have experience making it.
 Direct combustion of any carbon-based fuel leads to air pollution similar to
that from fossil fuels.
 Direct competition with land use for food production and water use. As this
decreases food supply, the price of food increases worldwide.
 Current production methods would require enormous amounts of land to
replace all gasoline and diesel. With current technology, it is not feasible for
bio-fuels to replace the demand for petroleum.

6.3 Jatropha incentives in India:

Jatropha incentives in India are a part of India's goal to achieve energy


independence by the year 2012. Jatropha oil is produced from the seeds of the
Jatropha curcas, a plant that can grow in wastelands across India, and the oil is
considered to be an excellent source of bio-diesel. India is keen on reducing its
dependence on coal and petroleum to meet its increasing energy demand and
encouraging Jatropha cultivation is a crucial component of its energy policy. Large
plots of waste land have been selected for Jatropha cultivation and will provide
much needed employment to the rural poor of India. Businesses are also seeing
the planting of Jatropha as a good business opportunity. The Government of India
has identified 400,000 square kilometres (98 million acres) of land where Jatropha
can be grown, hoping it will replace 20% of India's diesel consumption by 2011.

 Indian Railways:-

The Indian Railways has started to use the oil (blended with diesel fuel in various
ratios) from the Jatropha plant to power its diesel engines with great success.
Currently the diesel locomotives that run from Thanjavur to Nagore section and
Tiruchirapalli to Lalgudi, Dindigul and Karur sections run on a blend of Jatropha
and diesel oil. Jatropha curcas is not native to India but it was an early import form
the New World thanks to Portuguese trade links between the West and East Indies
56
and its fame as a medicinal plant

Indian Railways was virtually bankrupt in 2002 when it began investigating


Jatropha as a means to reduce its whopping diesel bill. There was no money to
send Perambur’s engineers into the lab, but train travel was free so they were
sent out to interview railway retirees and rural villagers in order to learn as much
about the history of Jatropha as possible. Though the measure was not popular at
the time, it turned out to be the key to Indian Railways’ success with
Jatropha.Jatropha curcas is not native to India but it was an early import form the
New World thanks to Portuguese trade links between the West and East Indies and
its fame as a medicinal plant—Jatropha literally means “medicinal plant” in Greek.

6.4 Biofuels Production Cycle:-

57
6.5 Bio-fuel production from biomass:-

Bio-fuel consist of two major categories of fuels-Bio-ethanol and Biodiesel,


therefore there are two different procedures of producing bio-fuel from biomass.
The methods followed have a strong impact on the end results that are achieved.
There are two key reactions that are involved in the production of Bio-ethanol, one
is Hydrolysis and the other is Fermentation.
For years, some critics have claimed that corn-based ethanol has a negative "net

58
energy balance" – that is, that ethanol requires more energy to produce than it
delivers as fuel. But as bio-fuel production efficiencies have improved, critics have
turned their focus to broader sustainability issues.

 Bio-Fuels Do Harm, Aren't They?

Bio-fuels have been hailed as a green alternative to oil by some, but in the US,
where there are massive plants converting maize (corn), it has been criticized for
making food more expensive and being environmentally unfriendly. Britain
produces about 55,000 tons a year of bio-ethanol, which is added to petrol, mostly
from sugar beet, and 75,000 tons of biodiesel, added to diesel, from tallow and
rape, soya and palm oil. Two million tons a year would be needed to meet the 5
per cent target.

6.6 Commercial Bio-Fuel Production In India:-

Cultivation of feedstock for bio-fuels can destroy habitat and contribute to


reducing biological diversity:-
 De-forestation (alarm for palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia).
Habitat stress and loss of biodiversity from spreading of mono cultures, use
of water resources and pesticides.
 Compaction and erosion of soil.
 Invasive species (often high-growth plants that need no input of fertilizers,
such as miscreants).
 Second-generation fuels: indication that some diverse systems will give
higher yields than monocultures.

 Commercial Bio-Fuel Production In India:-

59
Apart from the environmental problems, there are a few social problems as well.

 Competition for land use.


 Competition for land use.
 Increase in prices for food, feed and industrial fibres.
 Some areas, people and industries may gain – others will loose without
compensating measures.
 Working conditions at plantations.
 General agricultural industry problem – substandard wages and poor
working conditions.
 Local community conditions.
 Lack of trickle down effects.
 Increasing concentration of lands in the ownership of a few large
landowners in developing countries.
 Takeover of land for bio-fuel cultivation by large international
agribusinesses, wiping out traditional ways of living and sending people into
poverty.

6.7 Sustainable Bio-fuel Production:-

A senior scientist at the Land Institute, Cox and his organization work to develop
agricultural
systems that are both sustainable and produce strong grain yields for food.
The reason for his invitation, however, became clear to him, as food riots erupted
around the globe this year. Cox and fellow scientists argue that a "perfect storm"
has formed, one in which high petroleum prices combined with soil erosion, the
increase in price of nitrogen-based fertilizer,government waste and corruption,
crop failures in Australia, and growing food demand have strained the world's
ability to feed itself, especially in developing nations. The resulting increase in
food prices has led to violent unrest across Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin
America. The United Nations World Food Program yesterday said high food prices

60
have caused "a silent tsunami threatening to plunge more than 100 million people
on every continent into hunger." Agricultural staples such as corn and soybeans
are increasingly used to produce bio-fuels like ethanol and biodiesel, respectively,
rather than food.

The United States has ramped up its foodbased bio-fuel production in an effort to
end its dependence on foreign oil and combat global warming. According to the
White House, ethanol production has quadrupled from 1.6 billion gallons in 2000
to 6.4 billion gallons in 2007. The increased production of ethanol comes primarily
from corn, and it has made the United States the number one producer of the
alternative fuel worldwide. But this shift from producing corn and soybeans for
fuel rather than food has affected global food supplies. A 2006 paper published by
the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of
America (PNAS) said that “Neither bio-fuel [ethanol or biodiesel] can replace much
petroleum without impacting food supplies.” With increased demand for already
scarce foodstuffs, prices have soared; benefitting corn and soybean producers but
harming poor consumers internationally.

The PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) study agreed,


stating, “Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to bio-fuels would
meet only 12 percent of gasoline demand and 6 percent of diesel demand.”A
partial solution to this increasingly complex problem would be to produce bio-fuel
from nonfood sources.

Bio-fuel production from non-grain biomass such as sugarcane would be less


destructive than grain biofuels.Even then, he said, non-grain bio-fuel would not
satisfy our future fuel demand unless we sharply reduced our overall demand for
fuel across the board. 45 The following table shows the vegetable oil yields of
common energy crops associated with biodiesel production. This is unrelated to
ethanol production, which relies on starch, sugar and cellulose content instead of
oil yields.

61
The following table shows the vegetable oil yields of common energy crops
associated with biodiesel production. This is unrelated to ethanol production,
which relies on starch, sugar and cellulose content instead of oil yields.
Crop wise Statistical Information:-

62
 Advantages of Bio- Fuel:-

 Bio-fuel being produced from plants, vegetable sources, grains, corns, is a


superior fuel than fossil fuel from the environmental point of view.
 Use of bio-fuel becomes compelling in view of the tightening of automotive
vehicle emission standards and court interventions.
 The need to provide energy security, specially for the rural areas.
 The need to create employment for the rural people through plantation,
seed procurement, oil extraction.
 The plantation of the bio-diesel crops provide nutrients to soil, checking soil
erosion and land degradation.
 Rehabilitating degraded lands through greening.
 Addressing global concern relating to containing Carbon emissions as
provided in the Framework Convention on Climate Change.
 Reduce dependence on crude oil imports.

 Disadvantages of Bio-Fuels:-

 Biodiversity - A fear among environmentalists is that by adapting more land


to produce crops for bio-fuels, more habitats will be lost for animals and wild
plants. It is feared for example, that some Asian countries will sacrifice their
rainforests to build more oil plantations.
 The food V fuel debate - Another concern is that if bio-fuels become
lucrative for farmers,they may grow crops for bio-fuel production instead of
food production. Less food production will increase prices and cause a rise in
inflation.
 Burning of rapeseed or corn can contribute as much to nitrous oxide
emissions than cooling through fossil fuel savings.
 Non-sustainable bio-fuel production – Many first generation bio-fuels are not

63
sustainable. It is necessary to create sustainable bio-fuel production that
does not affect food production, and that doesn’t cause environmental
problems.

6.8 The Pros and Cons of Bio-fuels:-

 Bio-fuels are Easy to Use, but Not Always Easy to Find:-

Despite the upsides, however, experts point out that bio-fuels are far from a cure
for our
addiction to petroleum. A wholesale societal shift from gasoline to bio-fuels, given
the number of gas-only cars already on the road and the lack of ethanol or
biodiesel pumps at
existing filling stations, would take some time.

 Are There Enough Farms and Crops to Support a Switch to Bio-


fuels?

Another major hurdle for widespread adoption of bio-fuels is the challenge of


growing
enough crops to meet demand, something skeptics say might well require
converting just
about all of the world’s remaining forests and open spaces over to agricultural
land.
Replacing only five percent of the nation’s diesel consumption with biodiesel
would require
diverting approximately 60 percent of today’s soy crops to biodiesel production.

 Does Producing Bio-fuels Use More Energy than They Can


Generate?

64
Another dark cloud looming over bio-fuels is whether producing them actually
requires more
energy than they can generate. After factoring in the energy needed to grow
crops and then
convert them into bio-fuels. Producing ethanol from corn required 29 percent
more energy
than the end product itself is capable of generating. He found similarly troubling
numbers in
making biodiesel from soybeans.
 Conservation is a Key Strategy for Reducing Dependence on Fossil
Fuels.

There is no one quick-fix for weaning ourselves off of fossil fuels and the future
will likely
see a combination of sources--from wind and ocean currents to hydrogen, solar
and some use of bio-fuels: powering our energy needs. We must reduce our
consumption, not just replace it with something else. Indeed, conservation is
probably the largest single “alternative fuel” available to us.

7. Best Bio-Fuel Crops For India:-

There are a number of emerging bio-fuel crops - jatropha, algae, switch grass,
arundo donax,
camelina, chinese tallow, kudzu and more. Jatropha is the ideal bio-fuel crop for
India as it can grow on arid land and India cannot afford to divert its agricultural
lands towards energy production.

7.1 WHAT IS JATROPHA ?

Jatropha is a quick maturing plant species that starts bearing fruits within a year
of its planting and following the extraction of the oil can be blended with
petroleum diesel for use. It is a very hardy plant and grows in a wide variety of
agro-climatic conditions from arid to high rainfall areas and on lands with thin soil

65
cover to good lands. It is also not browsed by cattle and so its plantation can be
easily under taken in the farmers’ fields and their boundaries, under-stocked
forests, public lands and denuded lands facing increasing degradation. Its
plantation, seed collection, oil extraction etc. will create employment
opportunities for a large number of people, particularly the poor, and will help
rehabilitate unproductive and wastelands and save precious foreign exchange by
substituting imported crude.

Jatropha is a tall bush or small tree (up to 6 m height). The genus Jatropha
contains approximately 170 known species. The genus name Jatropha derives
from the Greek jatrós (doctor),trophé (food), which implies medicinal uses. The
seeds are toxic and they contain about 35 % of non-edible oil. The plant is planted
as a hedge (living fence) by farmers all over the world around homesteads,
gardens and fields, because it is not browsed by animals.

 Jatropha curcus is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in


marginal/poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives,
producing seeds for 50 years.
 It is found to be growing in many parts of the country, rugged in nature and
can survive with minimum inputs and easy to propagate.
 This highly drought-resistant species is adapted to arid and semi-arid
conditions. The current distribution shows that introduction has been most
successful in the drier regions of the tropics with annual rainfall of 300-1000
mm.
 It occurs mainly at lower altitudes (0-500 m) in areas with average annual
temperatures well above 20°C but can grow at higher altitudes and
tolerates slight frost.
 Jatropha seedcakes, produced as a by-product of pressing the oil, make an
excellent organic fertilizer or protein-rich livestock feed. Another by-product
is glycerin.
 Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 37%. The

66
oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear
smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The
by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, oil contains also
insecticide.
 By the year 2011 a planned 20% of the total diesel consumption is to come
from Jatropha biodiesel, with biodiesel production planned to reach around
13 million tons annually by 2013.
 Average yields quoted in their projection are 1.5 kg per plant per year, oil
recovery from the seeds is expected to be 91%, and the oil cake and
glycerol are to be sold to compensate for the cost of processing the seeds
into biodiesel.
 Because of its mineral content, which is similar to that of chicken manure, it
is valuable as organic manure. In practical terms an application of 1 ton of
Jatropha press cake is equivalent to 200 kg of mineral fertilizer.
 About one-third of the energy in the fruit of Jatropha can be extracted as oil
that has a similar energy value to diesel fuel. Jatropha oil can be used
directly in diesel engines added to diesel fuel as an extender or trans-
esterised to a bio-diesel fuel.

7.2 Possible Uses of the Jatropha:

Jatropha press cake Jatropha oil.The comparison of properties of Jatropha oil and
standard specifications of diesel.

67
The wood and fruit of Jatropha can be used for numerous purposes including fuel.
The seeds of Jatropha contains (. 50% by weight) viscous oil, which can be used
for manufacture of candles and soap, in the cosmetics industry, for cooking and
lighting by itself or as a diesel/paraffin substitute or extender. This latter use has
important implications for meeting the demand for rural energy services and also
exploring practical substitutes for fossil fuels to counter greenhouse gas
accumulation in the atmosphere.

These characteristics along with its versatility make it of vital importance to


developing countries subjected to decreasing tree cover and soil fertility because
of increasing population and development pressures. Nearly half the world’s
poorest people live on marginal lands with the number expected to increase from
500 million to 800 million by 2020. These areas are by definition isolated and
fragile, with soils susceptible to erosion and subjected to environmental stresses
of deforestation, prolonged droughts, and decreasing soil and ground water.
Although southern Africa is rich in biodiversity and production potential, large
areas are under semiarid and arid conditions with a moderate-to-high risk of
drought. Plants species like Jatropha that can grow on lands not usually attractive

68
for agriculture and supply raw material for industry, fuels for basic energy
services and improve environment are therefore an obvious choice that needs to
be assessed carefully and comprehensively

7.3 Detail about Jatropha:

69
7.4 Physical and chemical properties of diesel and
Jatropha.

70
7.5 Pictures of Jatropha:

8. Bio-Fuel –Alternative to Transport Fuel:-

In bio-diesel the country has a ray of hope. Bio-fuels are renewable liquid fuels
coming from
biological raw material and have been proved to be good substitutes for oil in the
transportation sector. As such bio-fuels: bio-ethanol and bio-diesel are gaining
worldwide acceptance as a solution to environmental problems, energy security,
reducing imports, rural employment and improving agricultural economy. Ethanol
is one such substitute that can be produced from Sugarcane, Sweet Sorghum and
used in blend with gasoline for automobiles. Similarly, bio-diesel can be produced
from oil bearing seeds of many plants grown in the wild like Jatropha curcas,
Pongamia, Neem, Mahua and blended with High Speed Diesel for transport

71
vehicles, generators, railway engines, irrigation pumps, etc. Large volumes of
such oils can also substitute imported oil for making soap. Bio-diesel is made from
virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible & non-edible) and animal fats through
trans-verification and is a diesel substitute and requires very little or no engine
modifications up to 20% blend and minor modification for higher percentage
blends. The use of bio-diesel results in substantial reduction of un-burnt
hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matters. It has almost no sulphur,
no aromatics and has about 10% built in oxygen,which helps it to burn fully. Its
higher cetane number improves the combustion. Environmentally and socially
there are significant benefits to bio-diesel over petroleum products. When oil
crops grow, they take carbon dioxide from the air and store it in their structure -
both in the plant and in the oil. When they are burnt, the carbon is released back
into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. However, no new carbon dioxide is
released; rather it is just a release of what was taken in whist the plant grew.
Therefore, on balance, very little carbon is released. This is quite different to the
burning of a fossil fuel where new carbon has been taken from its store
underground and released anew into the atmosphere.The total wasteland
available for cultivation of crops for bio-fuel is 638518.31 sq km which constitutes
20.17 percent of the total geographical area in the country. Gullied and/or
Revinous land 20,553.35sqkm Upland with or without scrub 194,014.29 sq km,
Waterlogged and Marshy land 16,568.45 km, Land affected by salinity/alkalinity-
coastal/inland 20,477 sq km, Shifting Cultivation Area 35,142.20 sq km,
Underutilized/ degraded notified forest land 1,40,652.31 sq km, Degraded
pastures/grazing land 25,978.91 sq km, Degraded land under plantation crop
5,828.069 sq km, sand-Inland/coastal 50,021.65 sq km, mining industrial
wastelands 1,252.13 sq km, barren rocky/stony waste/sheet rock area 64,584.77
sq km steep sloping area 7,656.29.

8.1 Economic Benefit:-

 Its higher cetane number improves the combustion and higher viscosity
maintains better lubrication of the engine.

72
 Bio-diesel is completely harmless to the environment; especially the
groundwater and flush point of bio-diesel is more than 100°C. So storage of
bio-diesel is simple and it doesn’t need any different infrastructure than
petro-diesel.
 Bio-diesel can fulfill need to provide energy security, specially for the rural
areas.
 educes dependencRe on crude oil import and out-go of foreign exchange for
oil import.

8.2 Social Benefits:-

 Large scale bio-diesel tree plantation (Jatropha / Karanja) can create


employment for the rural people. Besides It can also generate employment
for Seed procurement, Oil Extraction & packaging.
 The plantation of the bio-diesel crops provide nutrients to soil, checking soil
erosion and land degradation and it rehabilitates degraded lands through
greening.

8.3 Economics of Jatropha Bio-Diesel :-

 In order to promote bio-diesel and to help it to compete with petroleum


diesel, govt. of India should reward tax incentives to the bio-diesel
manufacturers at least for the first 10 years. The economics of Bio-diesel
depends highly on the cost of the raw materials / seeds. The cost of Bio-
diesel produced from Jatropha seed has been worked out as Rs.23.3 / kg or
Rs.19.80 / liter, considering the cost of 1 kg Jatropha seed is Rs.5/- per kg,
as shown in the table below:

73
 Economics of Jatropha Bio-Diesel:-

Particulars Rate (Rs./Kg) Quantity Cost (Cost)


(KG)

Cost of 2 4 8
collection &Oil
extraction

Cost of Oil 3 2.8 (-)8.40


cakeproduced

Cost of 20 .115 (-)2.3


Glycerin
produced

Cost of 6 - 6
Transesterfica
tion

Cost of bio- 23.3 1 23.3

74
diesel per kg
after
deduction of
the cost of oil
cake and
glycerin.

The cost components of Bio-diesel are the price of seed, seed collection and oil
extraction, oil trans-esterification, transport of seed and oil. As mentioned earlier,
cost recovery will be through sale of oil-cake and of glycerol. Taking these
elements into account, the price of Bio-diesel has been worked out assuming raw
material cost of Rs. 3 per kg and varying prices of by-products. The cost of Bio-
diesel varies between Rs. 9.37 per litre to Rs. 16.02 per litre depending upon the
price assumed for the oil- cake and glycerol. The use of Bio-diesel is thus
economically feasible.

 INCOME FROM 1000 HECT LAND:

1. Quantity of Jatropha seeds yield = 5000 tonnes


2. Quantity of Jatropha oil (@ 30%) = 1500 tonnes / 1.755 million liters (@ Sp. Gr.
0.85%)
3. Quantity of Bio-diesel (@ 95% of Jatropha oil) = 1.668 million liters
4. Cost of Bio-diesel (announced by the Govt. of India @ Rs.26.50 / liter) = Rs.4.42
crore
5. Cost of Bio-diesel (US$) = US$ 1 million
6. Quantity of De-Oiled cake (70%) = 3500 tonnes
7. Cost of the De-oiled Cake (@ Rs.2000/- per tonne) = Rs.70 lakh

75
8. Cost of the De-oiled Cake (US$) = US$ 0.16 million
9. Total Income from Bio-diesel & De-oiled Cake = Rs.5.12 crore
10. Total Income from Bio-diesel & De-oiled Cake (US$) = US$ 1.16 million

 Marketing framework: -

The blending of biodiesel can be taken up at the depot level of the diesel
distribution and
marketing company. However, it should be emphasized that marketing of
biodiesel blended
diesel should be done as an organized trade and this activity should be handed by
the diesel
distributing companies. The biodiesel to be blended has to mandatorily tested for
its quality. This will also keep in check any adulteration activity. The storage of
biodiesel does not need any specialized tanking and the storage tanks used for
biodiesel can also be used for biodiesel. The blending of biodiesel is also a simple
affair and the circulatory pumps generally available in any diesel storage depot
are sufficient to make a homogenous blend. Another option for marketing of
biodiesel blended diesel is for specialized fleet operations e.g. bus fleets etc. For
this blending may be taken up at these locations.

Though in few isolated instances neat biodiesel (B100) has been used primarily in
diesel engines on-board marine equipment, generally a blend 5-30% biodiesel in
diesel has been used. France, Italy and Spain for example have been using 5%
biodiesel in all conventional diesels. Biodiesel at 1-2% level has also been used as
a lubricity additive for low sulphur diesel. World experience has also indicated that
biodiesel blends were first introduced either in heavily polluted cities or in remote
areas producing biodiesel. The big fleets like bus companies and taxies were first
to introduce biodiesel.

Biodiesel mixes easily in any proportions to the conventional diesel and by virtue
of its high density it can be easily mixed in a tank containing petroleum diesel. Its

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handling and storage is just like the petroleum diesel and no separate
infrastructure is required. Therefore, the blending of biodiesel, which transported
by tankers, is carried out at marketing depots. The biodiesel blends do not need
separate dispensing and existing diesel dispensing station can also dispense
biodiesel blends.

9. BIO-DIESEL

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of


long-chain alkyl (methyl, propyl or ethyl) esters. Biodiesel is typically made by
chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat) with an alcohol.
Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from
the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can
be used alone, or blended with petro-diesel. Bio-diesel is a fatty acid of ethyl or
methyl ester made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible)
and animal fats. The main commodity sources for Bio-diesel in India can be non-
edible oils obtained from plant species such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot),
Pongamia
pinnata (Karanj), Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa), Hevcca brasiliensis
(Rubber) etc. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level
with petroleum diesel to create a Bio-diesel blend or can be used in its pure form.

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Just like petroleum diesel, Bio-diesel Operates in compression engine; which
essentially require very little or no engine modifications because 60 Bio-diesel has
properties similar to petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the
petroleum diesel fuel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. The use
of Bio-diesel in conventional diesel engines results in substantial reduction of un-
brunt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particular matters. Bio-diesel is
considered clean fuel since it has almost no sulphur, no aromatics and has about
10% built-in oxygen, which helps it to burn fully. Its higher cetane number
improves the ignition quality even when blended in the petroleum diesel.

9.1 What is biodieasel fuel ?

Biodiesel is a fuel that is made from soy beans, or waste vegetable oil (cooking
oil). It can be
used in place of petroleum diesel fuel for vehicles or heating oil for buildings.
Unlike petroleum diesel, biodiesel is a renewable resource, and it creates less
pollution than petroleum diesel. It can be used alone or in combination with
petroleum diesel, or with heating oil. Generally, no expensive modifications to the
engines are required. This makes it easier to integrate biodiesel into current
systems than other alternative energy sources, which often require new
equipment.

9.2 How is biodiesel made ?

Biodiesel fuel is made from oils or fats, which are both hydrocarbons, most
commonly soybean oil. These hydrocarbons are filtered, and then mixed with an
alcohol, which is usually methanol, and a catalyst (sodium or potassium
hydroxide). The major products of this reaction are the biodiesel fuel, which is an
ester, and glycerol, which has commercial uses, such as in cosmetics.

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Biodiesel Labeled:-

Biodiesel is designated by the letter B and a number representing the percent of


the fuel that is biodiesel. The rest of the fuel is petroleum diesel. For example, a
mixture of 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel would be labeled B20. This
ratio of biodiesel to petroleum diesel is
commonly used.

 Space-filling model of ethyl stearate, or stearic acid ethyl ester, an


ethyl ester produced from soybean or canola oil and ethanol.

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9.3 Pros & Cos of Biodeasel.

 Pros of Biodiesel Fuel:-

. Biodiesel fuel is a renewable energy source that can be made from soy beans
grown for
fuel, or from cooking oils recycled from restaurants.
. Biodiesel is less polluting than petroleum diesel.
. The absence of sulfur in 100% biodiesel should extend the life of catalytic
converters.

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. Biodiesel fuel can also be used in combination with heating oil to heat residential
and
industrial buildings. This can reduce dependence on non-renewable and
increasingly
expensive heating oil.
. Biodiesel fuel can generally be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel
engines
without modification, and it can be distributed through existing diesel fuel pumps.
This is
an advantage over other alternative fuels.
. The lubricating effects of the biodiesel may extend the lifetime of engines.
. They are non-toxic.
. Bio-fuels are biodegradable.
. Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuel.
. Biodiesel boasts of a zero total emissions production facility
. Bio-diesel have much higher flash point that makes a vehicle fueled by pure
biodiesel far
safer in an accident than one powered by petroleum diesel or the explosively
combustible
gasoline.

 Disadvantages of Biodiesel Fuel:-

. Biodiesel is currently about one and a half times more expensive than petroleum
diesel
fuel. Part of this cost is because the most common source of oil is the soybean,
which
only is only 20% oil.
. It takes energy to produce biodiesel fuel from soy crops, including the energy of
sowing,
fertilizing and harvesting.
. Biodiesel fuel can damage rubber hoses in some engines, particularly in cars

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built before
1994.
. Biodiesel cleans the dirt from the engine. This dirt then collects in the fuel filter,
which
can clog it.
. Biodiesel is not distributed as widely as traditional, petroleum diesel, but
distribution
infrastructure is improving.
. Biodiesel produced from agricultural crops involve additional land use.
. It gives out more nitrogen oxide emissions.
. Pure biodiesel doesn't flow well at low temperatures, because of its nature, can’t
be
transported in pipelines. It has to be transported by truck or rail, which increases
the cost.
. Biodiesel is less suitable for use in low temperatures, than petro-diesel. At even
lower
temperatures, the fuel becomes a gel that cannot be pumped.
. Biodiesel is that it tends to reduce fuel economy. The energy content per gallon
of
biodiesel is approximately 11 percent lower than that of petroleum diesel
. There have been a few concerns regarding biodiesel’s impact on engine
durability

 Contamination by water:-

Biodiesel may contain small but problematic quantities of water. One of the
reasons biodiesel
can absorb water is the persistence of mono and di-glycerides left over from an
incomplete
reaction. These molecules can act as an emulsifier, allowing water to mix with the
biodiesel. In addition, there may be water that is residual to processing or
resulting from storage tank condensation. The presence of water is a problem

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because.
. Water reduces the heat of combustion of the bulk fuel. This means more smoke,
harder
starting, less power.
. Water causes corrosion of vital fuel system components: fuel pumps, injector
pumps, fuel
lines, etc.
. Water & microbes cause the paper element filters in the system to fail , which in
turn results in premature failure of the fuel pump due to ingestion of large
particles.
. Water freezes to form ice crystals near 0 °C (32 °F). These crystals provide sites
for nucleation and accelerate the gelling of the residual fuel.
. Water accelerates the growth of microbe colonies, which can plug up a fuel
system. Biodiesel users who have heated fuel tanks therefore face a year-round
microbe problem.

10. Production of Bio Deasel:-

Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transmogrification of the vegetable oil or


animal fat
feedstock. There are several methods for carrying out this transmogrification
reaction including the common batch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic
methods, and even microwave methods. A by-product of the transmogrification
process is the production of glycerol. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is
manufactured, 100 kg of glycerol are produced. Originally, there was a valuable
market for the glycerol, which assisted the economics of the process as a whole.
Usually this crude glycerol has to be purified, typically by performing vacuum
distillation. This is rather energy intensive. The refined glycerol (98%+ purity) can

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then be utilized directly, or converted into other products.

10.1 Environmental effects:-

The surge of interest in biodiesels has highlighted a number of environmental


effects associated with its use. These potentially include reductions in greenhouse
gas emissions, deforestation, pollution and the rate of biodegradation. Bio-diesel
from soy oil results, on average, in a 57% reduction in greenhouse gases
compared to fossil diesel, and biodiesel produced from waste grease results in an
86% reduction.

10.2 Food, land and water vs. Fuel:-

In some poor countries the rising price of vegetable oil is causing problems. Some
propose that fuel only be made from non-edible vegetable oils such as camelina,
jatropha or seashore mallow which can thrive on marginal agricultural land where
many trees and crops will not grow, or would produce only low yields.Farmers may
switch from producing food crops to producing bio-fuel crops to make more
money, even if the new crops are not edible. The law of supply and demand
predicts that if fewer farmers are producing food the price of food will rise. It may
take some time, as farmers can take some time to change which things they are
growing, but increasing demand for first generation bio-fuels is likely to result in
price increases for many kinds of food. Some have pointed out that there are poor
farmers and poor countries that are making more money because of the higher
price of vegetable oil. Biodiesel from sea algae would not necessarily displace
terrestrial land currently used for food production and new algaculture jobs could
be created.

10.3 India’s Biodiesel Scene:-

Economic development in India has led to huge increases in energy demand,

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which in-turn has encouraged development of the Jatropha Cultivation and
Biodiesel Production Systems.
Communities in rural India need to develop alternative energy options that will be
good for the environment and help promote sustainable livelihoods in the region,
without exposing them to such adverse effects of modernization as cultural
transformations, and allowing them to retain independence in the face of
globalization. The establishment of the Jatropha cultivation and local, community-
based production of environmentally friendly biodiesel fuel can lead to income
improvement in these regions. Establishment and ongoing improvement of a
Jatropha System will benefit four main aspects of development and secure a
sustainable way of life for village farmers and the land that supports them.

11.ETHANOL:

Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic
beverages. It can be used as a transport fuel, mainly as a bio-fuel additive for
gasoline. World ethanol
production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to
more than 52 billion litres. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global

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gasoline type fuel use increased from 3.7% to 5.4%. In 2009 worldwide ethanol
fuel production reached 19,5 billion gallons (73.9 billion liters). Ethanol is widely
used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were
responsible for 89 percent of the world's ethanol fuel production in 2009.Most cars
on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and the use
of 10% ethanol gasoline is mandated in some U.S. states and cities.

Since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol
with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline
(known as E25). In addition, by late 2009 Brazil had a fleet of more than 9 million
flexible-fuel vehicles regularly using neat ethanol fuel (known as E100). Bio-
ethanol, unlike petroleum, is a form of renewable energy that can be produced
from agricultural feed-stocks. It can be made from very common crops such as
sugar cane, potato, manioc and maize. However, there has been considerable
debate about how useful bio-ethanol will be in replacing gasoline. Concerns about
its production and use relate to the large amount of arable land required for crops,
as well as the energy and pollution balance of the whole cycle of ethanol

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production.

11.1 What is Ethanol:-

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol) is a clear, colorless liquid with a


characteristic, agreeable
odor. In dilute aqueous solution, it has a somewhat sweet flavor, but in more
concentrated
solutions it has a burning taste. Ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is an alcohol, a group of
chemical
compounds whose molecules contain a hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon
atom.
Ethanol melts at -114.1°C, boils at 78.5°C, and has a density of 0.789 g/mL at
20°C. Its low
freezing point has made it useful as the fluid in thermometers for temperatures
below -40°C.

11.2 Ethanol as a Fuel:-

In the first phase of the project, ethanol- blended petrol is being supplied through
retail outlets in nine States and four Union Territories. These states are Andhra
Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and
Uttar Pradesh. The four Union Territories include Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar
Haveli, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry. Petrol blended with 5 per cent ethanol
would be supplied by petrol pumps all over the country under the second phase
towards the end of the year. The content of ethanol blending would be increased
to 10 per cent in the third phase of the programme scheduled for 2005. Ethanol is
used as an automotive fuel by itself and can be mixed with gasoline to form what
has been called "gasohol" Fuel Ethanol- the most common blends contain 10%
ethanol and 85% ethanol mixed with gasoline. Because the ethanol molecule
contains oxygen, it allows the engine to more completely combust the fuel,

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resulting in fewer emissions. Since ethanol is produced from plants that harness
the power of the sun, ethanol is also considered a renewable fuel. Therefore,
ethanol has many advantages as an automotive fuel.

11.3 Alcohol Through Corn, Maize, Grain, Starch etc.:

In India production of alcohol apart from molasses & sugarcane route the non like
maize, starch, corn grain, sweet sorghum, tapioca, and sugar beet are also
equally get importance as the climatic conditions for such type of agricultural
crops suits in India. It is a right time for the central government through ministry
of agriculture to encourage and assist state governments to introduce a policy of
using only grain Molasses based alcohol may be used for industrial use as well as
fuel blending.

11.4 Ethanol In India:-

India imports nearly 70% of its annual crude petroleum requirement, which is
approximately 110 million tons. The prices are in the range of US$ 50 purchase is
in the range of Rs.1600 billion per year, impacting in a big way, the country's
foreign exchange reserves. The petroleum industry now looks very committed to
the use of etha fuel, as it is expected to benefit sugarcane farmers as well as the
oil industry in the long run. Ethanol (FUEL ETHANOL) can also be produced from
wheat, corn, beet, sweet sorghum etc. Ethanol is one of the best tools to fight
vehicular pollution, ccomplete combustion of fuel and thus reduces harmful
tailpipe emissions. It also reduces particulate emissions that pose a health hazard.

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DEMAND SUPPLY FOR ETHANOL:-

In parts of 4 states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh & Goa
5% of
ethanol blended petrol has already been started and till 30th June 2003, it will be
fully covered. Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Union Territories of
Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli Daman and Div and Pondicherry are also
covered till end of July 2003.

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The entire country will be covered in 2nd Phase and ethanol content to be
increased to
10% in 3rd Phase. Most important R & D Studies are successful of blending ethanol
with Diesel, which itself is a very significant point in developing ethanol. All this
significance shows a definite assured market for the industry leading the project
to most viable and safe for financial assistance.

 Anhydrous Ethanol Potential for Gasoline Blending.

The statistics published by the Ministry of Petroleum the potential is as follows:


For 5% Blend in Gasoline Requirement on all India Basis – 500 million ltrs. Per
annum
Requirement in 8 States – 300 million ltrs. Per annum Requirement in UP &
Maharashtra – 40 & 70 million ltrs. Per annum respectively This statistics show a
direct potential. Due to govt. promoting ethanol to mix in petrol there is drastic
demand for ethanol, which could overcome the existing unutilized capacity and
thus creating an excess demand.

11.5 Impact on developing countries:-

Demand for fuel in rich countries is now competing against demand for food in
poor countries. The increase in world grain consumption in 2006 happened due to
the increase in consumption for fuel, not human consumption. The grain required
to fill a 25 US gallons (95 L) fuel tank with ethanol will feed one person for a year.
Several factors combine to make recent grain and oilseed price increases impact
poor countries more:- .

. Poor people buy more grains (e.g. wheat), and are more exposed to grain price
changes. . .Poor people spend a higher portion of their income on food, so
increasing food prices influence them more.
. Aid organizations which buy food and send it to poor countries see more need

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when prices go up but are able to buy less food on the same budget.

The impact is not all negative. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
recognizes the potential opportunities that the growing bio-fuel market offers to
small farmers and aquacultures around the world and has recommended small-
scale financing to help farmers in poor countries produce local bio-fuel. On the
other hand, poor countries that do substantial farming have increased profits due
to bio-fuels. If vegetable oil prices double, the profit margin could more than
double.

In the past rich countries have been dumping subsidized grains at below cost
prices into poor countries and hurting the local farming industries. With bio-fuels
using grains the rich countries no longer have grain surpluses to get rid of.
Farming in poor countries is seeing healthier profit margins and expanding.
Interviews with local peasants in southern Ecuador provide strong anecdotal
evidence that the high price of corn is encouraging the burning of tropical forests.
The destruction of tropical forests now account for 20% of all greenhouse gas
emissions.

11.7 Pros & Cos of Ethanol Production:-

 Pros:

However, there are several problems with the use of ethanol as an alternative
fuel. First,
. It is costly to produce and use.
. Ethanol has a smaller energy density than gasoline. It takes about 1.5 times
more ethanol
than gasoline to travel the same distance.
. It requires vast amounts of land to grow the crops needed to generate fuel.
. Production of ethanol itself uses energy.
. Ethanol production uses land that will compete directly with food production.
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. Another problem is that ethanol burning may increase emission of certain types
of
pollutants.
. Some of the ethanol will be only partially oxidized and emitted as
acetylaldehyde.
Aldehyde, a function of ethanol volume, is a threat to nose, eyes, throat &
possibly
causes cancer.
. Finally, ethanol production, like all processes, generates waste products that
must be
disposed. The waste product from ethanol production, called swill is extremely
toxic to
aquatic life.

 Negative technical dimensions :-

. Driving ability of ethanol is lower:-


. Lower per litre energy value (EV).
. Takes more to drive the same distance.
. Consumers have to fill their cars more often.
. And they have to pay more for ethanol fuel.
. When blended above E10, consumers:-
. Driving regular cars have to pay at least $1,200 U.S. to have their engines
adopted.
. Have to drive extra distances to special service stations to buy ethanol.
. Ethanol can absorb water and it dilutes ethanol, reducing its value as a fuel;
. It causes problems with corrosion and phase separation in the gasoline mixture.
. It absorbs and carries dirt inside the fuel lines and fuel tank, thus
contaminanting the car engine system.
. It is highly flammable and explosive compared to gasoline.
. It requires more attention to handle in daily life.

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 Cos

. Positive health and political impacts :-


. Replaces bad gasoline additives ,which are sources of surface and ground
water contamination, and dangerous to human health.
. It potentially replaces crude oil, which is a finite, non-renewable resource.
. It can be domestically produced, thus reducing dependence on oil imports.
. It can potentially cut oil import costs.
. Positive socio-economic impacts:-
. Ethanol uses agri-products as a feed-stock.
. It is a renewable source of energy, which can replace fossil fuel in the future.
. It increases value added and price of agri-products.
. Which increases net farm income.
. It creates more jobs in the rural sector.
. Strengthens rural economies.
. It can potentially reduce government subsidies to the farm sector.

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12. Strategic implications

. Changing consumer choice to ethanol can:


. Reduce dependence on foreign oil.
. Reduce local pollution and clean the atmosphere.
. Slow climate change.
. Provide a more renewable fuel source.
. The automobile industry will react to growing future demand for ethanol by
producing new engines.

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13.Conclusion

It is feasible to use bio-fuel as an alternate source of transportation energy in


India. So we must go for bio-fuels as an alternate source of energy. There are
many advantages of bio-fuel like:-
. Reducing the speed of global warming.
. Fulfilling the fuel demand of India.
. Handling the rising price of fuel.
. Reduce the dépendances on foreign petroleum;
. Provide a more renewable fuel source
. Generating more employments.
Although there are many problems in using it like :-
. Increasing the food prices that will affect negatively the food supply for the
developing
countries.
. Farmers may grow crops for bio-fuel production instead of food production.
. Producing bio-fuel actually requires more energy than they can generate.
. With high population growth rates the bio-fuels negative effects on food prices
. Biodiesel is 1.5 times more expensive than petroleum diesel fuel.

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14. Bibliography

. ARTICLE CNG vs LPG Comparision - Team-BHP.mht


. Bio fuel efficient alternative by Mesbahuddin
. Biofuel in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia_files
. Ethanol & Biodiesel (Biofuels) India Market News Useful information for Fuel
Ethanol Plants & Ethanol Conferences in india.mht
. India Renewable Energy - Project Prefeasibility Report - Wind, Solar, Biofuels -
Research, Investment.mht.
. Neil Schlager and Jayne Weisblatt, editors. Alternative Energy Volume 1
. The Market Potential of CNG as a Transportation Fuel ASPO-USA Association for
the Study of Peak Oil and Gas
. http://www.eai.in/
. http://environment.about.com
. http://www.ethanolindia.net
. http://pellets-wood.com
. http://abelloncleanenergy.com

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