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2010

FORCES & PRESSURE, HEAT

MODUL 2

PHYSICS REMEDIAL CLASS


7/12/2010
1. It is very difficult to walk on a sandy beach when wearing high-heeled shoes. This is because

A the pressure acting on the sandy ground is too large


B the force acting on the sandy ground is too large
C the area of the sole of each shoe is too large
D the person is pressing too hard on the sandy ground

2 Which of the following factors will not affect the pressure in a liquid?
A Gravitational field strength
B Density of the liquid
C Volume of the liquid
D Depth of the liquid

3 Which of the following graphs represents the relationship between the pressure, P, and the depth,
h, of a column of water?

4 When a balloon filled with helium is sealed and released in the air,
A the balloon drops lower and decreases in size
B the balloon rises and increases in size
C the balloon stays at the same height but decreases in size
D the balloon drops lower but increases in size

5 A barometer as shown in the figure is carried to the top of a mountain from a beach.

HOW would the atmospheric pressure and the length ℓ vary?

Atmospheric Pressure Length, ℓ

A Increases Increases

B Decreases Increases
C Increases Decreases

D Decreases Decreases
6 The figure shows a U-tube manometer used to measure the pressure of a gas supply.

What is the difference in pressure between the gas supply and the atmospheric pressure?
A 3 cm of water
B 15 cm of water
C 17 cm of water
D 18 cm of water

7 A bowl of hot soup covered with an airtight lid is left to cool as shown in the figure.

Why is it difficult to open the lid when the soup is cold?


A Water vapour cannot escape and condenses on the lid
B The atmospheric pressure is greater than the air pressure in the bowl
C The air molecules move faster than the water molecules
D The airtight lid prevents the air molecules to decrease in size when the soup gets cold

8 The figure shows a hydraulic pump.

If the force applied is 10 N, what is the weight of the load that can be lifted?
A 500 N
B 1000 N
C 2000 N
D 5000 N

9 A mechanic notices some air bubbles in the hydraulic brake fluid of a car. He recommends
changing the brake fluid. This is because
A the air bubbles will easily be compressed by pressure and affects the transmission of
pressure
B the air bubbles will escape from the piston and cause the brake fluid to leak
C the air bubbles will expand when they are heated up and cause an explosion
D the air bubbles will increase in size and cause the brake fluid to be incompressible
10 A light cylindrical wooden block is dropped vertically into a basin of water as shown below.

Which of the following would happen?

A The wooden block will stay afloat horizontally


B The wooden block will stay afloat vertically
C The wooden block will sink vertically to the bottom
D The wooden block will stay afloat vertically but fully immersed in the water

11 An inverted test tube with some air trapped in it is placed in a tank as shown in the figure.

When the piston is pushed inwards, the test tube


A moves to the left
B moves to the right
C rises higher
D sinks lower

12 The figure shows the cross section of an aerofoil.

If the aerofoil moves in the direction P, which of the following is true about the speed of the air
flow and the pressure of the air at point X?

Speed of air flow Pressure of air


A Low High
B Low Low
C High Low
D High High

13 A metal sheet has mass of 0.5 kg and area of 0.8 m . What is the pressure of the metal sheet
acting on a surface?

A 4.15 Pa
B 5.45 Pa
C 6.25 Pa
D 7.55 Pa
E 8.85 Pa
14

The figure above shows a block of gold with uniform cross sectional area ABCDE placed on the
surface of a floor. If the block of gold can be placed in a stable state of any of its surface, which of
the following will produce maximum pressure on the floor?

A ABCDE C CDIH
B BCHG D DEJI

15 For a pin to enter a wooden board, the pressure exerted must be greater than 5 x 107 Pa. If the
pin point has an area of 0.02 mm2, find the minimum force for the pin to enter the board.

A 1N D 4N
B 2N E 5N

16 Gas is trapped in a closed container. There is gas pressure inside the container because gas
molecules
A move randomly
B move with equal speed
C collide constantly with the walls of the container
D collide with one another

17 What will happen to the kinetic energy of gas molecules when they collide elastically?
A Increases
B Decreases
C Remains constant
D Becomes zero

18

The figure above shows a mercury column in a glass tube with trapped air in it. If the height of the
mercury column is 24 cm and atmospheric pressure is 76 cm Hg, what is the pressure of the
column in the glass tube?
A 42 cm Hg
B 52 cm Hg
C 82 cm Hg
D 1000 cm Hg
E 120 cm Hg
19 Based on the kinetic theory of gases, the pressure exerted by a gas is caused by
A collision of the gas molecules with the walls of a container
B gas molecules colliding with each other at high speed
C random motion of the gas molecules
D gas molecules being very far apart from each other

20. Which of the following instruments is meant for measuring atmospheric pressure?
A Carburetor
B Siphon
C Fortin's barometer
D Hydrometer

21

The figure above shows a hydraulic jack. The cross sectional areas of smaller piston and larger
piston are 20 cm2 and 60 cm2 respectively. If the smaller piston is pushed with a force of 15 N,
what will be the force experienced by the larger piston?
A 30N D 50N
B 40N E 55N
C 45N

22 Which of the following is not an application of Pascal's principle?


A Hydraulic jack
B Braking system of a vehicle
C Manometer
D Water bed

23

The figure above shows a man blowing hard at the opening of a metal tube. It is observed that
the polystyrene sphere is lifted to the opening of the metal tube. This phenomenon occurs
because
A the air velocity at the upper section of the metal tube is less than the air velocity at the lower
section
B the air pressure at the upper section of the metal tube is less than the air pressure at the
lower section
C the air density at the upper section of the metal tube is more than the air density at the
lower section
D the air temperature at the upper section of the metal tube is more than the air
temperature at the lower section
24 Which of the following is based on Bernoulli's principle?
A Bourdon gauge
B Insect spray
C Lift pump
D Siphon

25

Air flows through a horizontal tube as shown in the figure causing water columns to rise in three
vertical glass tubes. Which of the regions A, B or C has the highest air velocity?

TUTORIAL 2

1 1 Pa is equivalent to

A 1 N m2 B 1 m N-2
C 1 N m-2 D 1 m N2

2 Figure shows a wooden block on a horizontal surface. The block will exert maximum pressure on
a horizontal surface if it is resting on its face

A STUV B TWXU
C WXY Z D UVXY

3 An ice skater is able to glide smoothly across the surface of the ice because

A the low pressure between the edge of the metal bar and the ice melts
B the high pressure between the edge of the metal bar and the ice melts
C the low pressure between the edge of the metal bar and the ice freezes
D the high pressure between the edge of the metal bar and the ice freezes
4 A wooden block with the dimensions of 3 m x 4 m x 5 m is placed on a floor. If the mass of the
metal block is 400 kg , what is the maximum pressure that can exerted by the metal block on the
floor?

A 100 N m- 2 B 200 N m -2
C 333 N m - 2 D 480 N m -2 E 620 N m -2

5 The mass of a boy is 60 kg. The pressure exerted by the boy on a floor is 2 x 10 4 Pa. What is
the area of contact between the shoe’s base of the boy and the floor.

A 1.2 x 10 –2 m-2 B 3.0 x 10-2 m-2


C 4.5 x 10-2 m-2 D 6.0 x 10-2 m-2 E 8.0 x 10-2 m-2

6 The figure shows a school bag.

What is the function of x?

A to increase weight and to increase pressure


B to increase surface area and to decrease pressure
C to decrease weight and to decrease pressure
D to decrease surface area and to increase weight

7 The mass of a tractor is 4000 kg. The area of contact between a tractor’s tyre and the soft ground
is 0.5 m2. The tractor has four tyres.

(a) Calculate
(i) the total area of contact between the tractor’s tyre and the soft ground.

(ii) the pressure exerted by the tractor on the soft ground.

(b) Explain why a car cannot moves on the soft ground although the mass of the car is less than
the mass of the tractor?

(c) What happens to the area of contact between the tractor’s tyre and the soft ground if the air
pressure inside the tyres is decreased?
8 Figure (a) shows two different situations of a woman wearing a high heel shoes and then wearing
a flat shoes.
Figure(b) shows two different situations of a skier without wearing snowshoes and then wearing
snowshoes.

Figure(a) Figure(b)

(a) Observe the Figure (a) and Figure (b) ,state two observations about the surface area contact
, the depth of sinking and the force involved.

(b) Explain why the difference of the observations occur?

(c) Relate your answers in(a) and (b) to deduce the a concept in physics.

(d) A man wearing snowshoes applies a pressure of 2500 Pa . If the area covered by a
snowshoe is 0.15 m2,what is the mass of the man?

9 Figure(a) and Figure(b) show two ways in which a gardener moves a wheelbarrow on a muddy
road.

Figure(a) Figure(b)

(a) On Figure(a) and Figure(b) ,indicate and label:

(i) the direction of force F exerted by the gardener on the handle of each wheelbarrow to
make it move.

(ii) the direction of the vertical component F y , of the force in (a)(i).

(b) (i) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii), which of the ways is more suitable on the
muddy road?

(ii) Explain the reason for your answer in (b)(i).


(c) The wheel of the wheelbarrow exerted pressure on the muddy road . The resultant force
exerted by the wheel on the road surface is 500 N and the area of the wheel in contact with
the road is 2 x 10-3 m2.

(i) What does the word pressure mean?

(ii) Calculate the pressure exerted on the surface of the muddy road.

(iii) State one modification that could be made to the wheelbarrow to reduce the pressure
exerted on the road. Explain your answer.

10 Figure(a) shows two situations of a pencil with a load is placed on the top of the pencil sinking
into a plasticine before and after it is sharpen
Figure(b) shows two conditions a handwriting by using a pencil before and after it is sharpen.

Figure(a) Figure(b)

(a) Observe the Figure (a) and Figure (b). Compare the depth of sinking the pencil in the
plasticine, the conditions of the pencil ,the load and the conditions of the handwriting.
Relate the comparisons to deduce a concept in physics .

(b) Explain why a footballer likes Ronaldinho wearing a football boot has sharp studs?
Question 1
An object is hung from a spring.

(a) What is the buoyant force on the object in water?

(b) What is the weight of water displaced by the object?

(c) Determine the volume of water displaced by the object. [density of water = 1000 kgm-3]

(d) What is the volume of the object?

Question 2
A stone weights 2.5 N. When it is fully submerged in a liquid, its apparent weight is 2.2 N.
3 -6 3
Calculate the density of liquid if its volume displaced by the stone is 25 cm (25 x 10 m ).

Example 3
An object of mass 5 kg floats on the surface water. What is the upthrust experienced by the
object.
Example 4
The figure shows a glass tube of mass 0.012 kg with uniform diameter and cross-sectional
-4 2
area 4 x 10 m , and it is filled with sand so that it is made vertical in a beaker containing
-3
water. [ Density of water is 1000 kg m ]
Determine
(a) The upthrust
(b) The mass of sand in the glass tube.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

1. Which of the following statements about heat is not true?

A. It is the energy that flows from a hot region to a cold region.


B. It is the internal energy of a body.
C. It is the degree of hotness of a body.

2. Which of the following statements is not true about two bodies in thermal
equilibrium?

A. There is no net flow of heat between the two bodies.


B. The two bodies have the same temperature
C. There is no transfer of heat between the two bodies,

3. Which of the following statement about ‘lower-fixed- point’ in calibration of a


thermometer is not true?

A. It is equal to zero degrees Celsius (°C).


B. It is equal to 0 K.
C. It is the temperature in which pure ice melts at standard atmospheric

4. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of mercury used in a liquid-in-glass thermometer?

A. It does not wet glass.


B. It is opaque to light.
C. It has a high boiling point.
D. It has a large specific heat capacity.

5. Which of the following methods is a method that can increase the sensitivity of
a mercury thermometer?

A. Decrease the bore diameter of the capillary tube.


B. Increase the diameter of the bulb of the thermometer so that it can
C. Increase the length of the thermometer.

6. Specific heat capacity of a substance is

A. the heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by


one degree Celsius.
B. the heat energy required to change 1 kg of the substance from solid to liquid at
constant temperature.
C. the heat energy required to change 1 kg of the substance from liquid to gas at
constant temperature

7. An object has a heat capacity of 750 JK -1. How much heat energy is needed to
raise the temperature of the object by 40 ºC ?

A. 30 kJ B. 75 kJ C. 100 kJ D. 220 kJ

8. Specffic latent heat of fusion of a substance is

A. the amount of heat required to change 1 kg of the substance from the solid phase to the liquid
phase at constant temperature.
B. the amount of heat required to change 1 kg of the substance from the liquid phase to the
gaseous phase at constant temperature.
C. the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 °C.
D. the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 100 °C
9. When a substance is heated
A it gets hot quickly if it has a high specific heat capacity
B it gets hot quickly if it has a low specific heat capacity
C it gets hot slowly if it has a low specific heat capacity

10. Which of the following is the reason for using water as a coolant in the radiator of a car engine?
A. Water is colourless.
B. Water has a high specific heat capacity.
C. Water is a conductor of electricity.
D. Water is a good solvent.

11. The diagram above shows a hot metal sphere being lowered into a cooler water.
Thermal equilibrium is reached when

A. temperature of sphere > temperature of water


B. temperature of sphere < temperature of water
C. temperature of sphere = temperature of water.

X Y

12. The diagram shows two objects X and Y in thermal contact. There is a net flow of heat
from X to Y. This is because

A. The specific heat capacity of X is higher than the specific heat capacity of Y.
B. The heat capacity of X is higher than the heat capacity of Y.
C. The mass of X is higher than the mass of Y.
D. The temperature of X is higher than the temperature of Y.

13. 400 g of water at 80 °C is poured into a cup containing 200 g of water at 50 °C. Assuming
no heat is lost to the cup and surrounding, what is the final temperature of the mixture?

A. 55°C B. 60°C C. 65°C D. 70°C E. 75°C

14. The volume of a gas in a vessel is 400 cm3. The gas is compressed at constant
temperature until the pressure of the gas is doubled. What is the final volume of the gas?

A. 100 cm3 B. 600 cm3 C. 200cm3 D. 800cm3

15 A gas at a pressure of 120 kPa and a volume of 400 cm 3 is expanded at constant temperature to
a volume of 600 cm3. What is its final pressure?

A. l8O kPa B. 120 kPa C. 8OkPa D. 4OkPa


16. The diagram above shows the cooling curve of naphthalene from liquid to solid.
Which section of the graph shows solid and liquid naphthalene in equilibrium?

A. PQ B. QR C. RS D. PQ and RS

17. A neon gas in a cylinder is heated from 27 °C at constant volume so that the pressure of the gas
is tripled. What is the final temperature of the gas?

A. 54°C B. 81°C C. 627°C D. 900°C

18. An air bubble of volume 5 cm3 is produced by a diver at a depth of 6 m. What is the volume
of the air bubble when it reaches a point which is 3 m below the water surface?

[Assume the atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 10 m of water]

A 5.25 cm3 B 5.58 cm3 C 5.81 cm3 D 6.15 cm3

19. Calculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0.8 kg of copper from 35°C to
60°C.
(Specific heat capacity of copper = 400 J kg-1 C-1)

A. 6kJ B. 8kJ C. 11.2kJ D. l2kJ E. 19.2kJ

20. Heat energy is supplied at the same rate to 250 g of water and 250 g of ethanol. The
temperature of the ethanol rises faster. This is because the ethanol

A. is denser than water C. has a larger specific heat capacity than water
B. is less dense than water D. has a smaller specific heat capacity than water

21. The melting point and the boiling point of substance P are 45°C and 120°C respectively. Which
of the following shows the correct states of substance P at 38°C and 120°C?

At 38°C At 120°C
A Solid Liquid and gas
B Liquid Liquid and gas
C Solid Gas
D Solid and liquid Gas
22. The diagram above is a temperature-time graph for substance Y which is heated.
Explain the observation as indicated by QR on the graph.

A Substance Y is being heated up.


B Substance Y is boiling at its boiling point.
C Substance Y undergoes a chemical change.
D Substance Y is melting at its melting point.

23. When a liquid is heated, its temperature will remain constant when the liquid starts to

A. melt B. boil C. condense D. evaporate

24. There is no rise in temperature when latent heat is supplied to melt the ice. Which of the
following explains this observation?

A Latent heat is used to exert pressure on molecules.


B Latent heat is used to increase the vibrations of molecules.
C Latent heat is used to increase the kinetic energy of molecules.
D Latent heat is used to overcome the attractive force between molecules.

25. The product of pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature is

A. a variable B. equal to one C. a constant D. negative


Free response questions

1. Explain what is meant by latent heat of vaporization.

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________(2 marks)

2. State the changes that will take place when a fixed volume of a gas is heated slowly.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________(3 marks)

3. Freon is liquid used in refrigerators. What are the properties of Freon liquid that makes
it useful in refrigerators?

____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________(3 marks)

4. In the manufacture of cooking pots copper is preferred to iron. Explain this preference.

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________(2 marks)

5. Explain what is meant by a specific heat capacity of 4200 JKg -10c-1.

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________(2 marks)