You are on page 1of 27

Carriage of grain safe procedure - bulk carriers recommended guideline

Carrying Grain :One of the most difficult and dangerous cargoes to carry in bulk are grain cargoes.
Most grains have an angle of repose (slip angle) of about 20 from the horizontal, which means that if
the ship rolls more than 20 the cargo will shift. When this happens the ship will develop a large list,
lying on her side and still rolling will obviously cause a greater shift of cargo which in turn will capsize the
vessel.

Most authorities therefore request that the master proves that his ship is capable of remaining stable
even if the grain cargo shifts. This is done by the compiling of the Grain Loading Form which fully
outlines the ships stability at the worse condition on passage.

Fig: Bulk grain loading


Because grain cargoes are liable to shift, heavy emphasis is placed on the stability of ships that carry
them. The main reason is the variation in the types of grain, including its size and its ability to develop a
free flow state when loaded in bulk. Each ship carrying grain has to provide grain specific stability
information, including grain heeling moments, to the terminal. This section looks at various problems,
methods and precautions that must be taken when carrying grain cargoes. Grain cargoes carried in bags
are not considered as bulk cargo.

The bulk carriers' grain loading manual contains Volumetric Heeling Moments (VHM), which are values
based on an assumed surface grain shift of 15 (for a full compartment) and 25 (for a partially full
compartment).

1. To avoid shifting of cargo, the grain surfaces must be reasonably trimmed:


a) Filled compartment, trimmed the cargo should be trimmed so that all spaces under deck and
hatch covers are filled to the fullest extent possible.

b) Filled compartment, untrimmed the cargo should be trimmed within the hatchway but may be
left at its natural angle of repose on the surrounding area of the hatchway. The same can be applied
for a filled compartment, trimmed if:

o dispensation is granted from trimming by the authority issuing the Document of Authorisation
on the basis that the cargo can flow freely to underdeck empty areas through feeder ducts,
perforated decks, etc, or

o The compartment is designated a `Specially Suitable Compartment', in which case exemption


may be granted from trimming the compartment ends.

2. If the cargo is stowed only in the lower compartment, the lower compartment hatch covers should be
secured in the approved manner.

3. If the cargo is stowed in the upper compartment above a tween deck whose covers are not grain-
tight, the covers should be made grain-tight using sealing tape, tarpaulins or separation cloths.

4. In partly filled compartments, the surface of bulk grain should be secured by over-stowing except in
cases where heeling moments due to grain shift have been calculated and taken into consideration for
stability of the vessel.

5. Longitudinal divisions may be fitted to reduce heeling moments due to shift of grain in filled
compartments, trimmed, filled compartments, untrimmed and partly filled compartments, provided that
each division:
a. Is made grain-tight.
b. Is constructed according to the Grain Code standards.
c. Extends from deck to deck in tweendecks.
d. Extends downwards from the underside of the hatch covers.
6. The Master shall ensure that the ship:
a. Before loading, can comply with intact stability criteria at all stages of the voyage.
b. Is upright before proceeding to sea.
c. Has all the paperwork completed and onboard.

Fumigation requirement

Charterers and shippers may require the cargo to be fumigated. If this is to be done during the voyage
or before or after loading, full and clear instructions should be received from the charterers and shippers.
These instructions should refer to product data sheets and the correct procedures and safety advice,
application dangers, method of handling, and requirements for personal protective equipment and
monitoring equipment. Refer to IMO Recommendations on the Safe Use of Pesticides on Ships. Always
carry out a risk assessment.

A qualified fumigator should be engaged by the charterers when fumigation is to be done in port.

All spaces should be padlocked and sealed to prevent anyone from entering the space. No-one should
enter a space that has been fumigated until after it has been thoroughly ventilated. It is recommended
that an expert chemist declares whether the space is safe to enter. If the cargo requires ventilation after
fumigation, advice should be sought from fumigation experts in respect to crew safety.

Fuel oil tanks precautions

masters and officers must be aware of the location of the heated fuel oil tanks

masters and officers should monitor the tank top temperature above the fuel oil tanks as this can
affect the integrity of certain cargoes particularly grain cargoes

fuel oil temperatures can be monitored on the fuel oil transfer pumps
masters and chief engineers should manage the fuel oil onboard to reduce heat damage to cargoes
loaded in holds above heated fuel oil tanks

heat only fuel oil tanks in use

Grain securing methods


Following are recommended methods for securing grain as per international grain code

Shifting boards (Filled/partly filled)


Saucers (Filled)
Bundling of bulk grain (Filled)
Overstowing arrangements (Filled/partly filled)
Strapping or llashing (Filled/partly filled)
Feeders (Filled)
Securing with wire mesh (Filled/partly filled)

Shifting Board
Longitudinal divisions (called shifting board), which must be grain tight may be fitted in both
"filled" and "partly filled compartments".
In "filled compartments, they must extend downwards from the underside of the deck or
hatchcovers, to a distance below the deckline of at least one-eighth the breadth of the
compartment, or at least 0.6m below the surface of the grain after it has been assumed to shift
through an angle of 15
In a "partly filled compartment', the division, should extend both above and below the level of
grain, to a distance of one-eighth the breadth of the compartment.
Figure: Shifting boards

14 Saucers

14.1. For the purpose of reducing the heeling moment a saucer may be used in place of a
longitudinal division in way of a hatch opening only in a filled, trimmed, compartment as defined in
A 2.2, except in the case of linseed and other seeds having similar properties, where a saucer may
not be substituted for a longitudinal division. If a longitudinal division is provided, it shall meet the
requirements of A 10.9.

14.2. The depth of the saucer, measured from the bottom of the saucer to the deck line, shall be as
follows:

.1. For ships with a moulded breadth of up to 9.1 m, not less than 1.2 m.

.2. For ships with a moulded breadth of 18.3 m or more, not less than 1.8 m.

.3. For ships with a moulded breadth between 9.1 m and 18.3 m, the minimum depth of the saucer
shall be calculated by interpolation.

14.3. The top (mouth) of the saucer shall be formed by the underdeck structure in way of the
hatchway, i.e. hatch side girders or coamings and hatch end beams. The saucer and hatchway above
shall be completely filled with bagged grain or other suitable cargo laid down on a separation cloth
or its equivalent and stowed tightly against adjacent structure so as to have a bearing contact with
such structure to a depth equal to or greater than one half of the depth specified in A 14.2. If hull
structure to provide such bearing surface is not available, the saucer shall be fixed in position by
steel wire rope, chain, or double steel strapping as specified in A 17.1.4 and spaced not more than
2.4 m apart.
Fig: Saucers

15. Bundling of bulk grain

. As an alternative to filling the saucer in a filled, trimmed, compartment with bagged grain or other
suitable cargo a bundle of bulk grain may be used provided that:

.1. The dimensions and means for securing the bundle in place are the same as specified for a
saucer in A 14.2 and A 14.3.

.2. The saucer is lined with a material acceptable to the Administration having a tensile strength of
not less than 2,687 N per 5 cm strip and which is provided with suitable means for securing at the
top.

.3. As an alternative to A 15.2, a material acceptable to the Administration having a tensile strength
of not less than 1,344 N per 5 cm strip may be used if the saucer is constructed as follows:

.3.1. Athwartship lashings acceptable to the Administration shall be placed inside the saucer formed
in the bulk grain at intervals of not more than 2.4 m. These lashings shall be of sufficient length to
permit being drawn up tight and secured at the top of the saucer.

.3.2. Dunnage not less than 25 mm in thickness or other suitable material of equal strength and
between 150 mm and 300 mm in width shall be placed fore and aft over these lashings to prevent
the cutting or chafing of the material which shall be placed thereon to line the saucer.

.4. The saucer shall be filled with bulk grain and secured at the top except that when using material
approved under A 15.3 further dunnage shall be laid on top after lapping the material before the
saucer is secured by setting up the lashings.

.5. If more than one sheet of material is used to line the saucer they shall be joined at the bottom
either by sewing or by a double lap.

.6. The top of the saucer shall be coincidental with the bottom of the beams when these are in place
and suitable general cargo or bulk grain may be placed between the beams on top of the saucer.
Figure: Bundling of bulk grain

16. Overstowing arrangements

16.1. Where bagged grain or other suitable cargo is utilized for the purpose of securing partly filled
compartments, the free grain surface shall be level and shall be covered with a separation cloth or
equivalent or by a suitable platform. Such platform shall consist of bearers spaced not more than 1.2
m apart and 25 mm boards laid thereon spaced not more than 100 mm apart. Platforms may be
constructed of other materials provided they are deemed by the Administration to be equivalent.

16.2. The platform or separation cloth shall be topped off with bagged grain tightly stowed and
extending to a height of not less than one sixteenth of the maximum breadth of the free grain
surface or 1.2 m, whichever is the greater.

16.3. The bagged grain shall be carried in sound bags which shall be well filled and securely closed.

16.4. Instead of bagged grain, other suitable cargo tightly stowed and exerting at least the same
pressure as bagged grain stowed in accordance with A 16.2 may be used.
17 Strapping or lashing
. When, in order to eliminate heeling moments in partly filled compartments, strapping or lashing is
utilized, the securing shall be accomplished as follows:

.1. The grain shall be trimmed and levelled to the extent that it is very slightly crowned and covered
with burlap separation cloths, tarpaulins or the equivalent.

.2. The separation cloths and/or tarpaulins shall overlap by at least 1.8 m.

.3. Two solid floors of rough 25 mm x 150 mm to 300 mm lumber shall be laid with the top floor
running longitudinally and nailed to an athwartships bottom floor. Alternatively, one solid floor of 50
mm lumber, running longitudinally and nailed over the top of a 50 mm bottom bearer not less than
150 mm wide, may be used. The bottom bearers shall extend the full breadth of the compartment
and shall be spaced not more than 2.4 m apart. Arrangements utilizing other materials and deemed
by the Administration to be equivalent to the foregoing may be accepted.

.4. Steel wire rope (19 mm diameter or equivalent), double steel strapping (50 mm x 1.3 mm and
having a breaking load of at least 49 kN), or chain of equivalent strength, each of which shall be set
tightly by means of a 32 mm turnbuckle, may be used for lashings. A winch tightener, used in
conjunction with a locking arm, may be substituted for the 32 mm turnbuckle when steel strapping
is used, provided suitable wrenches are available for setting up as necessary. When steel strapping
is used, not less than three crimp seals shall be used for securing the ends. When wire is used, not
less than four clips shall be used for forming eyes in the lashings.

.5. Prior to the completion of loading the lashing shall be positively attached to the framing at a
point approximately 450 mm below the anticipated final grain surface by means of either a 25 mm
shackle or beam clamp of equivalent strength.

.6. The lashings shall be spaced not more than 2.4 m apart and each shall be supported by a bearer
nailed over the top of the fore and aft floor. This bearer shall consist of lumber of not less than 25
mm x 150 mm or its equivalent and shall extend the full breadth of the compartment.

.7. During the voyage the strapping shall be regularly inspected and set up where necessary.
Feeders
It may be assumed that under the influence of ship motion underdeck voids will be substantially
filled by the flow of grain from a pair of longitudinal feeders provided that:
the feeders extends for the full length of the deck and that the perforations therein are
adequately spaced.
the volume of each feeder is equal to the volume of the underdeck void outboard of the hatchside
girder and its continuation.

Fig: Feeders
18. Securing with wire mesh

. When, in order to eliminate grain heeling moments in partly filled compartments, strapping or
lashing is utilized, the securing may, as an alternative to the method described in A 17, be
accomplished as follows:

.1. The grain shall be trimmed and levelled to the extent that it is very slightly crowned along the
fore and aft centreline of the compartment.

.2. The entire surface of the grain shall be covered with burlap separation cloths, tarpaulins, or the
equivalent. The covering material shall have a tensile strength of not less than 1,344 N per 5 cm
strip.

.3. Two layers of wire reinforcement mesh shall be laid on top of the burlap or other covering. The
bottom layer is to be laid athwartships and the top layer is to be laid longitudinally. The lengths of
wire mesh are to be overlapped at least 75 mm. The top layer of mesh is to be positioned over the
bottom layer in such a manner that the squares formed by the alternate layers measure
approximately 75 mm x 75 mm. The wire reinforcement mesh is the type used in reinforced concrete
construction. It is fabricated of 3 mm diameter steel wire having a breaking strength of not less than
52 kN/cm2 welded in 150 mm x 150 mm squares. Wire mesh having mill scale may be used but
mesh having loose, flaking rust may not be used.

.4. The boundaries of the wire mesh, at the port and starboard side of the compartment, shall be
retained by wood planks 150 mm x 50 mm.

.5. Hold-down lashings, running from side to side across the compartment, shall be spaced not more
than 2.4 m apart except that the first and the last lashing shall not be more than 300 mm from the
forward or after bulkhead, respectively. Prior to the completion of the loading, each lashing shall be
positively attached to the framing at a point approximately 450 mm below the anticipated final grain
surface by means of either a 25 mm shackle or beam clamp of equivalent strength. The lashing shall
be led from this point over the top of the boundary plank described in A 18.1.4, which has the
function of distributing the downward pressure exerted by the lashing. Two layers of 150 mm x 25
mm planks shall be laid athwartships centred beneath each lashing and extending the full breadth of
the compartment.

.6. The hold-down lashings shall consist of steel wire rope (19 mm diameter or equivalent), double
steel strapping (50 mm x 1.3 mm and having a breaking load of at least 49 kN), or chain of
equivalent strength, each of which shall be set tight by means of a 32 mm turnbuckle. A winch
tightener, used in conjunction with a locking arm, may be substituted for the 32 mm turnbuckle
when steel strapping is used, provided suitable wrenches are available for setting up as necessary.
When steel strapping is used, not less than three crimp seals shall be used for securing the ends.
When wire rope is used, not less than four clips shall be used for forming eyes in the lashings.

.7. During the voyage the hold-down lashings shall be regularly inspected and set up where
necessary.

Carriage of Grain in Bulk

Carriage of Grain Safe Procedure - Bulk Carriers Recommended Guideline


Grain

One of the most difficult and dangerous cargoes to carry in bulk are grain cargoes. Most grains have
an angle of repose (slip angle) of about 20 from the horizontal, which means that if the ship rolls
more than 20 the cargo will shift. Then this happens the ship will develop a large list, lying on her
side and still rolling will obviously cause a greater shift of cargo which in turn will capsize the vessel.

Most authorities therefore request that the master proves that his ship is capable of remaining stable
even if the grain cargo shifts. This is done by the compiling of the Grain Loading Form which fully
outlines the ships stability at the worse condition on passage.

Because grain cargoes are liable to shift, heavy emphasis is placed on the stability of ships that carry
them. The main reason is the variation in the types of grain, including its size and its ability to
develop a free flow state when loaded in bulk. Each ship carrying grain has to provide grain specific
stability information, including grain heeling moments, to the terminal. This section looks at various
problems, methods and precautions that must be taken when carrying grain cargoes. Grain cargoes
carried in bags are not considered as bulk cargo.

The bulk carriers' grain loading manual contains Volumetric Heeling Moments (VHM), which are
values based on an assumed surface grain shift of 15 (for a full compartment) and 25 (for a
partially full compartment).

1. To avoid shifting of cargo, the grain surfaces must be reasonably trimmed:

a) Filled compartment, trimmed the cargo should be trimmed so that all spaces under deck and
hatch covers are filled to the fullest extent possible.

b) Filled compartment, untrimmed the cargo should be trimmed within the hatchway but may be
left at its natural angle of repose on the surrounding area of the hatchway. The same can be
applied for a filled compartment, trimmed if:

Dispensation is granted from trimming by the authority issuing the Document of Authorisation
on the basis that the cargo can flow freely to underdeck empty areas through feeder ducts,
perforated decks, etc, or

The compartment is designated a `Specially Suitable Compartment', in which case exemption


may be granted from trimming the compartment ends.

2. If the cargo is stowed only in the lower compartment, the lower compartment hatch covers should
be secured in the approved manner.
3. If the cargo is stowed in the upper compartment above a tween deck whose covers are not grain-
tight, the covers should be made grain-tight using sealing tape, tarpaulins or separation cloths.

4. In partly filled compartments, the surface of bulk grain should be secured by over-stowing except
in cases where heeling moments due to grain shift have been calculated and taken into consideration
for stability of the vessel.

5. Longitudinal divisions may be fitted to reduce heeling moments due to shift of grain in filled
compartments, trimmed, filled compartments, untrimmed and partly filled compartments, provided
that each division:

a. Is made grain-tight.

b. Is constructed according to the Grain Code standards.

c. Extends from deck to deck in tweendecks.

d. Extends downwards from the underside of the hatch covers.

6. The Master shall ensure that the ship:

a. Before loading, can comply with intact stability criteria at all stages of the voyage.
b. Is upright before proceeding to sea.
c. Has all the paperwork completed and onboard.

Terminology Used in the Carriage of Grain in Bulk Carrier

The following definitions are from the IMO International Grain Code
The term grain covers wheat, maize (corn), oats, rye, barley, rice, pulses, seeds and processed forms
thereof, whose behaviour is similar to that of grain in its natural state.

The term filled compartment, trimmed, refers to any cargo space in which, after loading and
trimming as required under A 10.2, the bulk grain is at its highest possible level.

The term filled compartment, untrimmed, refers to a cargo space which is filled to the maximum
extent possible in way of the hatch opening but which has not been trimmed outside the periphery of
the hatch opening either by the provisions of A 10.3.1 for all ships or A 10.3.2 for specially suitable
compartments.
The term partly filled compartment refers to any cargo space wherein the bulk grain is not loaded in
the manner prescribed in A 2.2 or A 2.3.

The term angle of flooding (1) means the angle of heel at which openings in the hull, superstructures
or deckhouses, which cannot be closed weathertight, immerse. In applying this definition, small
openings through which progressive flooding cannot take place need not be considered as open.

The term stowage factor, for the purposes of calculating the grain heeling moment caused by a shift
of grain, means the volume per unit weight of the cargo as attested by the loading facility, i.e. no
allowance shall be made for lost space when the cargo space is nominally filled.

The term specially suitable compartment refers to a cargo space which is constructed with at least
two vertical or sloping, longitudinal, grain- tight divisions which are coincident with the hatch side
girders or are so positioned as to limit the effect of any transverse shift of grain. If sloping, the
divisions shall have an inclination of not less than 30 to the horizontal.

The Document of Authorisation certifies that a ship is capable of loading grain in accordance with the
requirements of the International Grain Code.
Grain Loading Standards for Seagoing Bulk Carriers - Limitations Involved

Grain is the collective name for the edible seeds of various plants. Many of them are also called
cereals, e.g. wheat, barley, although products like maize and rice are also considered under this
heading. Most grain, especially wheat and maize (corn), is carried in bulk.

Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat
flour is produced than any other flour. Wheat varieties are called "clean," "white," or "brown" if they
have high gluten content, and they are called "soft" or "weak" flour if gluten content is low. Hard
flour, or bread flour, is high in gluten, with 12% to 14% gluten content, and has elastic toughness
that holds its shape well once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer
or crumbly texture.[1] Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and
pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.

Contaminants

Contaminants are defined individually in these Standards and consist of the following:

1) Bread wheat (in durum deliveries only)

2) Cereal Ergot

3) Chemicals not Approved for Wheat


4) Chemicals in excess of the MRL

5) Earcockle

6) Earth

7)Foreign Seeds

8) Insects Large

9) Insects Small

10) Loose Smut

11) Objectionable Material

12) Other Non-Objectionable Material

13) Pickling Compounds

14) Ryegrass Ergot

15) Sand

16) Snails

17) Stored Grain Insects and Pea Weevil Live

18) Contaminants may be referred to as foreign material, being all material other than whole or
broken seeds or hulls of the wheat being assessed.

Defective Grains
Defective grains refer to wheat that has been damaged to some degree, as outlined in these
Standards. They include the following:

1)DryGreenorSappy
2) Field Fungi
3) Frost Damaged
4) Heat Damaged, Bin Burnt, Storage Mould Affected or Rotted
5) Insect Damaged
6) Non vitreous kernels (Durum only)
7) Over-Dried Damaged
8) Pink Stained
9) Smut
10) Sprouted
11) Stained

Take all Affected

Hazard: It may sift when aerated. This cargo is non-combustible or has a low fire risk

Hold cleanliness: Clean and dry as relevant to the hazards of the cargo

Stowage & segregation: No special requirement

Ventilation: The cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall not be ventilated during voyage.

Loading
The ship shall be kept upright during loading of this cargo. This cargo shall be so trimmed to the
boundaries of the cargo space that the angle of the surface of the cargo with horizontal plane does
not exceed 25 deg. This cargo shall be kept as dry as practicable. This cargo shall not be handled
during precipitation. During handling of this cargo, all non working hatches of the cargo spaces into
which the cargo is loaded or to be loaded shall be closed

Precautions

Appropriate precautions shall be taken to protect machinery and accommodation spaces from the
dust of the cargo. Bilge wells of the cargo spaces shall be protected from ingress of the cargo. Person
who may be exposed the dust of the cargo shall wear protective clothing, goggles or other equivalent
dust eye protection and dust filter masks, as necessary. Bilge wells shall be clean. Dry and covered
as appropriate, to prevent ingress of the cargo.

Carriage

After completion of loading of this cargo, the hatches of the cargo spaces shall be sealed as
necessary. All vents and access ways to the cargo spaces shall shut during the voyage. Bilges in the
cargo spaces carrying this cargo shall not be pumped unless special precautions are taken.

Discharge

No special requirement

Clean up
In the case that the residues of this cargo are to be washed out, the cargo spaces and the other
structures and equipment which may have been in contact with this cargo or its dust shall be
thoroughly swept prior to washing out. Particular attention shall be paid to bilge wells and framework
in the cargo spaces. The fixed bilge pumps shall not be used to pump the cargo spaces, because this
cargo may make the bilge system inoperative.

Example :
Loading Port - Geraldton / Australia

Discharging port - Phu May/ Vietnam

PnI Case

Members should be aware that there is a strong risk of spurious cargo claims being made on grain
cargoes in Iraq. During the discharge of an Argentinean wheat cargo at Umm Qasr, the Iraqi
receivers claimed that cargo in one hold was contaminated with e-coli bacteria. The cargo was
analyzed three times by a local health authority laboratory and on each occasion the tests were
positive. The Member had a cargo sample analyzed by Solomon and Seaber in the UK and the result
was negative.

Storage / Transport
Grain is usually shipped in bulk, but also in bags, especially seed grain. Grain is liable to damage by heating, infestation, sweat
and contact with water. When grain gets wet, growth immediately starts, not only in the grain itself, but in the mould spores,
yeast cells and bacteria, which are always present, causing respectively germination, fermentation and putrefaction.

Treatment for water damage is somewhat theoretical because of the necessity to apply treatment before deterioration sets in, and
this is usually impossible, but when the condition of the grain is such that the cost of drying would be justified by the result, this
is the only manner in which damage of this nature can be minimized.
If wetting is caused by salt water, drying out to recover the grain would not prove to be a financially viable exercise.
Contamination by water causes deterioration and local heating, but general heating in grain is due to inherent vice as a result of
the moisture content in the grain being too high or the period in the ships hold being excessive. Moisture levels for grain should
be between 10% and 16%, but not exceeding 13% for maize.

Heating in dry materials may also be caused by the activity of bacteria. As a result of the feeding of bacteria, together with
breathing in of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour are emitted into the air. In the process, heat is produced and the
temperature of the commodity rises. The higher the temperature, the more active the bacteria is in breaking down the food
material into carbon dioxide and water vapour and thus more heat is produced. This may continue until the temperature reached
is harmful to the bacteria and this moves outwards from the hot spot. Thus the heating and the damage become widespread in
the commodity.

When heating within a bulk of a commodity takes place, due to bacteria activity, air convection currents carry water vapour
upwards from the hot spot, this then condenses in the colder surface layer, raising its moisture content. This process may be
carried far enough to cause the growth of moulds and bacteria and, in the case of grain, to cause sprouting. This type of water
damage is essentially a surface phenomenon and is confined to the top few centimeters of a stack or bulk.

Delay in transit may of itself give rise to heating and so cause the grain to have the appearance of damage arising out of
insufficient ventilation, but this condition may have arisen entirely as a result of delay. High temperatures in stowage can
activate and cause infestation to develop. Grain in process of fermenting may give the appearance of having been in contact
with oil, especially by reason of the odour.

Weevils impair the quality of grain, especially in the case of maize to be used for the manufacture of breakfast cereals.
Damaged grains should be disposed of as quickly as possible to avoid further deterioration. Apart from damage from an external
cause, there is also the possibility of heat-damaged grain which occasionally occurs in grain stored against engine room
bulkheads.