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TSL3113 ACTION RESEARCH I - XXX PENDIDIKAN RENDAH (KAEDAH)

TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION

1.1 Sinopsis

This course provides knowledge of research methods in action (Specialization) Primary


Education. This course is an introduction to the various methods in educational research,
research, features, quantitative and qualitative approaches and ethics in research in education
that describes the important aspects of education and a code of ethics.

1.2 Learning Outcomes

At the end of this topic, you will be able to:

1. Describes research in education

2. Explain the characteristics of research in education

3. discuss research approaches in education

4. Describes ethical aspects of educational research

1.3 The conceptual framework of Title 1

Introduction to action research


in education

Research Objectives Characteristics of


Research

Research Approach Ethics in Research

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1.4 introduction to Research Methods in Education

Research in education can be defined as the process of acquiring new knowledge


through the collection of data and information to solve problems in education and thus
be used to improve the quality and practice of education.

1.4.1 Purpose of Research in Education

Action research has three objectives:

a. to improve the understanding of the practice and the practice situation do;
b. to involve researchers in all stages of research.
c. to study the behavior patterns of students, teachers, administrators, and employees of
the school or educational institution.

1.4.2? Characteristics of Research in Education

a. Encourage the involvement / participation for those who want to improve the quality of
work / practice them.
b. Requires collaboration (collaborative effort) between the parties involved.
c. An orderly process of learning.
d. Forming communities that are critical to the environment and yourself.
e. Encourage an open mind.
f. Assist in the development of theory and practice simultaneously.
g. Creating a group of people and critical work in the research process.
h. Developed through self-reflection cycle (self-reflective spiral)? a circle containing the
survey, planning, action and observation and reflection.
i. Involving researchers keep records or personal records (personal journal)
j. Started on a small scale - perhaps the only one in the beginning, later involving small
groups and then larger groups.

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1.4.3 Research Approaches in Education

1.4.3.1 Approach? Positivist? (Quantitative)

Positivism or known? Analytic empirical? is a philosophy that embodies the genuine or


authentic knowledge which is based on actual experience only. Speculation metafezikal
not be taken into account. This philosophy is the philosophy of the school of behaviorism,
which only takes into account the behavior that can be seen anywhere. (COACH Pardi
and Shamsina Shamsudin. 2012)

Quantitative research is the systematic scientific studies regarding the quantitative


properties and phenomena and the relation between them using a hypothesis or theory.
The objective of quantitative research is to develop and use mathematical models,
theories and hypotheses related to and compatible with the natural phenomenon.

Data is collected and made analysis to explain, anticipate and control the phenomena of
concern. Hence the current situation will be clarified, investigated the phenomenon of
communication with the quantitative data and reviewed the causes and effects of
education.

Characteristics of quantitative research

a. The data collected will be evaluated using statistical analysis is represented by a


number.
b. To test the hypothesis using formal procedures
c. Use controls to minimize the effects of the factors that may affect the findings.
d. Using many of the subjects.
e. The objectives of the study.
f. Using a pencil and paper test questionnaires and other
g. Using deductive approach.

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1.4.3.2 Interpretive approach (qualitative)

Qualitative research is a method of inquiry in a variety of academic disciplines,


traditionally in the social sciences, including the study of marketing. It starts in the social
and behavioral sciences: sociology, anthropology and psychology. The purpose of
qualitative research is to gather a deeper understanding of human behavior and the
reasons that cause the behavior.

Qualitative methods to investigate why and how decisions are made, not just what, how
and when. Qualitative research is used to gain insight about human behavior, perception,
behavior, value system, caring attitude, motivation, aspirations, culture and lifestyle.
(COACH Pardi and Shamsina Shamsudin. 2012)

Characteristics of qualitative research

a. Objective: To seek an understanding of the human interpretation of the


phenomenon.

b. The real world is perceived as a dynamic change in human perception.

c. Control values: the visible effect and should be understood and taken into account
when conducting and reporting research.
d. Focus holistically: overview wanted.
e. Orientation discovery: theory and hypotheses developed from the data collected.
f. Subjective Data: Data is the human perception of the environment in which they
reside.
g. Instrumentation: a human is the ultimate tool to get information.
h. The analysis was done inductively.

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1.4.4 Ethics in Research in Education

Ethics in research in education is a matter relating to the conduct of researchers and how
researchers associate or treating samples made during the investigation. It is related to the
norms and standards and behave berperlakuan standard to be observed by the researchers.

1.4.4.1 Important aspects of research ethics

There are three important aspects of research ethics;

a. Conduct their professional work with the honest and sincere, and in a way that will
not jeopardize future research.
b. Respect the rights and dignity of all those involved or affected by their research
c. Ensure as far as possible the welfare of the physical, social and psychological
participate in research or those who would be impacted

1.3.4.2 Code of ethics

Researchers should respect the personal rights of research participants. Researchers


need to build a relationship with a person or group before they joined the investigation.
Between codes of ethics are:

a. Research professional honesty.


b. Respect the rights and dignity of participants and get free consent.
c. appreciate their time and effort.
d. consultation with the communities involved
e. ensure participants are always informed
f. terminate the relationship in a good way after the study is completed.
g. Privacy

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summary

This chapter describes the general background of the research is the history related
shows an increase and a decline in research. Similarly, there are notions that are almost the
same meaning given by the leaders of the research. The main approach has been discussed in
the research is qualitative and quantitative approaches each of which requires a certain etiquette
that must be observed by the researchers.

Exercise

Create a summary of research by understanding the views of leaders of research.

OLL

Create a table showing the differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. Send to
your lecturers by OLL or email.

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TYPES OF RESEARCH AND INTRODUCTION TO VARIOUS DESIGN


TOPIC 2
RESEARCH

2.1 Sinopsis

This course explains the various types of research, the introduction of a variety of research
design measures, which consists of quantitative research that is experimental, quasi-
experimental, survey, correlation studies, while qualitative research is ethnographic studies, case
studies and the study of history.

2.2 Hasil Pembelajaran

a. Explain the concept of basic research, applied research, action and penilaian.

b. Study the various types of quantitative and qualitative research design.

2.3 Framework Concept Heading 2

Type of Research Introduction to Various


Types of Research
Design

Basic research

Quantitative research
Applied research

Action research Qualitative Research

Research ratings

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2.4 Type of Research

2.4.1 Basic research

Basic research is also known as pure research. This research could improve understanding of
the principle? The basic principles of the new science regardless of the benefits, in the long
term. It is done when there is a curiosity about things. In basic research, the theory is provided
and applied to produce a concept that can be used when solving problems in education.

2.4.2 Applied research

Applied research is research that is made to access or use some set theory, knowledge,
methods and techniques of research communities, with a view to reviewing its effectiveness in
solving practical problems. Applied research presents a re-formation theory. For example, the
study of the adjustment range of learning styles while teaching moral education.

2.4.3 Action research

Action research is a reflective process that combines action and research to solve the problems
of a particular problem, issue or phenomenon. It was carried out in a progressive and
controlled by an individual or a group of researchers with the assistance of professional
researchers.

2.4.4 Research ratings

Evaluation research is the research conducted to gauge the effectiveness or performance of


a project, program, concept or campaign. It is performed to determine the project or program
in accordance with the steps and follow the objectives that have been defined.

Aktiviti 1 Perbincangan
Nyatakan jenis-jenis penyelidikan dan bincangkan secara ringkas salah satu daripadanya.

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2.6 Introduction to Various Types of Research Design

This chapter aims to provide exposure to the type of study design that can be done to enable the
researcher to answer the research question. In fact there are various types of research design.

2.5.1 Quantitative research

Quantitative research is objective and formal research and using statistical methods.
Quantitative research is characterized by the use of a large sample, standard
measurements, deductive approach and a structured interview tool to collect data for
testing the hypothesis (Marlow, 1993)

2.5.1.1 The experimental study

The experimental study was an experimental design study that brings the practice of
collecting information, either with full control over the variables or not. It is characterized by
direct manipulation or control of the variable (the cause), so the effect can be seen in other
variables (consequences) of this causal relationship is important from the perspective of
problem solving. Interest described by Van Dalen (1973). As a necessity of causality is to be
submitted to enable scientists to achieve the goal of explaining, predicting and controlling
behavior, incidents and events. or not.

a. Experimental Methods

Experimental method is the use and adaptation of scientific research methods. This method is
the most accurate method but a bit complicated to run. Some features of this method include:

i. Using the notion that if there are two situations that are similar to the treatment given to
each of those situations, the difference obtained (if any) caused by the treatment.
Thus, the experimental method involves control of all factors except the treatment
effect to be studied.
ii. This method is suitable for use in the classroom that some conditions can be controlled.
iii. Because human subjects in the experiment were not all features can be controlled.
Features such as interests, abilities, mental and emotional health it is difficult to

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determine. Therefore, the results of experiments in educational research is not as


accurate as a result of scientific experiments.
iv. In the classroom, the researchers wanted to control factors such as age, achievement,
intelligence, reading ability, social status, race, and so on. These factors will change
the characteristics of the subjects in the group and the experimental group.

b. Langkah-langkah Penyelidikan/ research stages

i. Designing Making Experiment

(A) Assess why it is necessary to experiment and state the problem to be studied.
(B) read the writing and the research results on the problems to be studied.
(C) Determine the factors involved in the experiment.
(D) Determine the experimental method to be used.
(E) Planning for the place, time, and tools to conduct an experiment.
(F) Make a preliminary trial.
(G) Select the required subjects.

ii. Conducting Experiments


(A) Controlling factors not included in the experiment.
(B) Record the measures undertaken.
(C) Record the results obtained.
(D) Welding, analyze and interpret the experimental results.
(E) Make a decision.

iii. Make a Report

Types of Experiments

One method commonly used to classify the type of experiment is in accordance with the
accumulation of subjects. There are three types of experiments that can be done by raising
the subject.

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One set of experiments

In these experiments, the effect of treatment to be studied is given to one group of


subjects. Results of the treatment was determined. Steps to carry out the experiment
one group is:
(A) Provide pre-test.
(B) Controlling for all factors except treatment (independent variables).
(C) Implement treatment at a certain time.
(D) Provide post-test to determine the effect of treatment on the dependent variable.
(E) Discuss the impact of other factors on the dependent variable.

In summary, the steps to run a lot of experiments are as follows:


A set of subjects
R1 = Result pretest
R2 = post-test results
X = Treatment
R1 - R2 = Results of treatment

Begitu juga halnya jika kita menggunakan faktor-faktor lain (X1, X2, ).
Nilai R2 R1, (R3 R2), boleh dihitung.
X
A R R
1 2

The advantage of using a set of experimental methods,


(A) The implementation is easy. ]
(B) Rotation of the group or the control group is not necessary.

However, this method has some drawbacks. These include

(a) the effect of any one method will be carried away from one phase to another phase of
the experiments.
(B) significant changes in reading ability among the subjects of one phase to another

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phase.
(C) An error generated by maturity of the subject.
(D) The units of measurement are not equal.

Parallel Group Experiment

In these experiments, two or more groups of subjects were similar or parallel use. One of
the group was used as a control group and the other as the experimental group.
Treatment effects to be studied is applied to the experimental group. Differences in the
measurement results for both groups before and after treatment ditentukan.Secara
summary, the steps run parallel experimental groups were as follows:

A set of control
A R
B = set of experiments

B X R R1= R = Results of treatment X


R = Post-test? Pre-test (control group)
R1 = Post-test? Pre-test (experimental group)

If more than two parallel groups was used and more than one treatment (X, X1, X2, ...) is
used, the steps to carry out the experiment as follows:

A R
R1 R = Results of treatment X

B X R1

X1 R2 R = Treatment outcome X1
C R2

R3 R = Results of treatment of X2
X2
D R3
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The first step in this method is to select the line. This step is a little more complex reasons
for the existence of individual differences within the group. Although there are several
variables that can be measured objectively, such as age, gender, race, physical condition,
past performance, intelligence, and so on, there are also other factors that are difficult to
quantify, such as reading habits, personal characteristics (such as creativity, curiosity, and
so on).

Therefore, to equate the groups used in several ways, including:

i. Select subjects randomly (choose subjects for each group at random from a large
population)
ii. Choose subjects according to mean and standard deviation (choose subjects for each
group according to scores in IQ, age, and so on).
iii. Using matched pairs, (choose two or three subjects that are quite well together and
dividing it into two or three groups).

Experimental Group Round

This method uses the experimental and control factors simultaneously and take turns.
Suppose X factor experiments, and Y, the control factor. The following figure shows how
to control experiments using the spin group.

Rotation I A. X R
B Y R1

Rotation II A Y R2
B X R3

R + R3 = Results of treatment X
R1 + R2 = Treatment outcome Y
(R + R3) (RI + R2) = Treatment difference of X and Y

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This method is able to control the timing as in the experimental group and the group as
needed to equalize in the experimental group in parallel.

2.4.1.2 Quasi-experimental

What is quasi-Experimental? This study is commonly used to evaluate the effectiveness of a


program when the respondent can not be randomly assigned. Two groups were selected to
be unbalanced and does not have the same characteristics.

Quasi-experimental design was used to replace the original design of an experiment when the
process of selecting respondents, a random distribution can not be done by the researchers
(Chua, 2006). Furthermore, this study was carried out on individuals who are constantly
exposed to the external errors such as gender, age, background, experience, existing
knowledge, environment and so on. All of these factors can affect the outcome of the
experiment.

In other words, researchers are not sure whether a change in the treatment group
respondents at the end of the experiment is due to the treatment given to him or external
factors other. This study is commonly used by researchers in psychology, sociology and
education (Neuman, 2000). For example, a researcher has conducted a study on the
effectiveness of counseling programs for students with discipline problems in a school. This
study uses the method of selecting respondents for the purpose of sampling.

This sampling using behavioral characteristics of discipline problems. Treatment group is


students with discipline problems while the control group is the group of students performing
disciplines. Differences can be identified from the two groups regarding sex, race, age, IQ
level, education level, the views and attitudes. Therefore, this study can not be a pure
experiment but researchers may conduct a quasi-experiment.

Quasi-experimental study using sampling procedures coincidence / sampling willingness


(accidental or convenience sampling) and Sampling (purposive sampling). Sampling by

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chance, the researchers choose any respondents who met or those closest to him.
Selection of respondents in this study will lead to an error that can not be expected because
the sampling procedures by chance rather than through random sampling (Chua, 2006).

Purposive sampling in this study is used to get the group of respondents who have certain
characteristics in accordance with the requirements of researchers. For example, a study of
student discipline problems. The sample was students with discipline problems. This sample is
not a random sample. There are many different designs of quasi-experimental studies, but the
explanation is given to the design of three commonly used among researchers in the field of
education. According to Chua (2006), there are three design quasi-experimental studies that are
commonly used are:

Pre-post test groups disproportionately (nonequivalent groups pre-post test


design),
Design of multiple unconnected (regression-discontinuity design)
Design of time series (time series design).

The design of the pre-post groups disproportionately are the most popular design used in
the study of the effectiveness of education. This design has two groups of respondents, the
treatment group and the control group. Both groups have characteristics similar.

In this study design, analysis, test and ANOVA test was used to determine differences
between the two groups of respondents. Design regression is not connected commonly
used in studies involving special groups such as evaluating the effectiveness of
rehabilitation programs and test the effectiveness of counseling programs on the attitudes of
students with discipline problems.

Tests using regression analysis. The design of the time series is long-term studies that
require a lot of time and energy. This design does not have a control group. Researchers
were unable to compare whether the treatment provided will result in the desired change or
not (Mohd. Majid, 2000).

Post-tests will be repeated throughout the treatment. For example, studies on the

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development of the academic achievement of students who are exposed to mathematics


education. Analyses were performed with better test performance.

2.4.1.3 Kajian tinjauan


Review of reviews

This survey is the process of observing human behavior do routines in their natural
environment in a particular context. The main survey instrument is recording video.
Researchers can collect as much information as is recorded depending on the information
and research needs. Some researchers are working systematically to analyze and interpret
the data collected.

2.4.1.4. the correlation study

Correlation studies involving the relationship between explanatory variables were


significant variables in the phenomenon. Researchers will look at the things that have
existed, and to determine the association between two quantitative variables and how
these variables relate to each other.

There are two types of correlation of positive correlation and correlation nagatif. In a
positive context, if the value of one variable increases, the second variable increases. In a
negative correlation, if the value of one variable increases, the second variable decreases,
if the value of one variable decreases the value of the second variable increases.

2.5.2 Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is a comprehensive study of a situation.Data were collected through


observation, interviews, writing diaries and document analysis. Qualitative research is a
study to answer questions regarding why and how. Researchers will be directly involved
in the study. The qualitative research approach is the case study, ethnography and
grounded theory. Samples taken usually use purposive sampling. According to Miles

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2.5.2.1 Ethnographic Study

Introduction The term is derived from the Greek word Ethnos, which means people,
nation or Culture. According to Agar (1986) in Sabitha Marican, (2005) stated graphy?
Means an explanation of something. Ethnography is a field study in the form of
observations that are often used in the study of sociology and anthropology and is
referred to as a natural scientific research (field research).
This opinion is agreed upon by the two masters of Berg (1995) and Guy et al.
(1987) in Sabitha Marican, (2005). According Sabitha Marican (2005), ethnography is
also regarded as a study? The most basic social research. Sometimes it is also defined
as an explanation? Writing of a culture of customs, beliefs, behavior based on the
information gathered from field studies. It is a descriptive study of the culture, sub-
culture, institutions or groups of society.

Questions are often raised and focused on ethnographic research like? What is it ??
cultural groups. So what do ethnographic portrait of a society in their daily lives. It is a
photograph or picture of the man. Thus, an ethnographic research study focuses on
detailed and accurate depiction and not hate relationship (Sabitha Marican, 2005).

According to Creswell (2005), ethnography is a form of practical research? Studying a


group like education, beliefs, behavior and language.

Ethnographic research is a form of qualitative research used to describe, analyze and


meinterpretasi form? Culture-sharing? a lot like the behavior, beliefs, languages,
economics, political structures, interactions, life and style in? relationships. To
understand the? Culture-sharing? a researcher must spend time in the field to
interview, monitor and medokumentasi to understand.

Time taken, the data can be recorded with terperinci.Kajian Ethnography is the branch
of anthropology that in relation to give specifically to human culture. It started late 19th
century and early 20th century, and studies using ethnographic methods was first

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published in the 1920s and 1930s by the Chicago School of Sociology (Pole

Around 1950, an ethnographic study is still new and under Hammersly (1998) about the
1960 study using anthropological and sociological approaches to wane but the study
using an ethnographic approach is growing and more digunakan.Kajian is still limited,
but it continues to grow around the year 1980s. Beginning in the 1980s, ethnographers
have identified and only focus on the cultural group, control, monitoring, data analysis
and writing of the study (Creswell, 2005).

Ethnography is the study describes and analyzes a part of the culture and the
community to identify and describe the beliefs and daily practices of the respondents.
Ethnographic studies also need to examine the two groups of respondents and where
they interact simultaneously. Topics in ethnographic research is not specifically stated
in the beginning of the study. Studies conducted on a small scale with a limited number
of respondents and the context of the study is small. Ethnographic researchers have
conducted a study on the nature of the respondents in a certain period of time to collect
data.Sanders (2004), states involves ethnographic overview and learn about the?
Human culture.

Social researchers using ethnographic methods to better understand? Cultural and


social relations through interpretation and practical. Effectiveness of ethnographic
studies is not dependent on the perspective of the researchers, but to summarize the
data. Ethnography was originally used in the anthropological discipline of spending time
with the locals to make observations on the life and practices. Usually traditional
ethnographic studies done individually and takes from several months to years to
complete. Ethnographic research methods with the application leads the user to see
the form and development of new products and services to enhance the? Production.
Ethnographic application made by a small group and is usually done in a short period of
a few days to several months. Sabitha Marican (2005),

2.5.2.2 case study

A case study is included in a study of descriptive research methods. Made an intensive study

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and detailed by researchers on a small social unit such as an individual, a family, a


class, an institution, such as a branch of the Institute of Teacher Education or the public.
For example, a study of the reactions of lecturers and students of the class of electronic
learning (e-learning). A case study is also made in detail to the top of the program, an
event, an activity, and one group at a time.

2.5.2.3 Study history.

Study history were obtained by researchers through the information, data and
knowledge by researching the things or events that have occurred. Through data
analysis and detailed historical information, researchers can determine, to some
extent, about causality. Researchers can also help teachers managers and users
of research from the same mistakes.

Activity 2-Discussion

Is the research design appropriate to study a comparison of two methods for


teaching the Quran / (in their respective fields) to the student level 1? (More than
one design permitted).

Question OLL

Create a table that shows the steps to make an inquiry.

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TOPIC 3 EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH PROCEDURES

3.1 Sinopsis

This course describes the procedures of educational research, Stating the research problem,
setting objectives, developing research questions, developing hypotheses, conducting literature
reviews, planning the design of the study, to determine the sampling procedures, instrument
building, stating the validity and reliability of the instrument, determine the procedure data
collection, collect data, analyze and explain the data, discuss and report on the findings.

3.2 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the lesson, students can:

1. Identifying educational research procedures


2. Explain procedures of educational research
3. Synthesize information from multiple sources to gain an understanding of the research n
study

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3.3 Draft Framework for Title 3

Menyatakan masalah kajian


Determine sampling
procedures

Setting objectives
Developing The study
instruments
Develop research questions
The study instruments
Stating the validity and
Procedures for
reliability of the instrument
Educational Research
Forming hypotheses

Conducted a literature
review Determine data collection
procedures

Designing the study design

Collect data

Discuss and report findings Analyze and explain the


data

3.4 Education Research Procedures

Educational research conducted in a manner similar to the process of scientific research using
systematic measures of problem formulation studies to collect data until the results
of a study based on the analysis of the study coincided with the data.

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3.4.1 Stating the research problem

a) Introduction

In this section you will introduce the research problem with little elaboration about the main
focus, the variables involved and the purpose of the study. You should also highlight some
significant research in the field of study you choose. It should be about 200 words long.

b) Background Study

In this section, you should describe the research problem you have identified and explain why
they need to study.? You should also sketch the current situation or the issues that need to be
addressed, and explain how your research will yield the required solutions or explain the
problems that exist. Here you can also explain the literature related to your research and to
produce a significant discovery.

c) Statement of the Problem

The problem statement can be written as a general purpose of the study or in the form of
research questions. In general, this statement is very specific and contain variable of the study.
If you are using a hypothetical, as was common in quantitative research, it is also necessary to
specify. Here are examples of the research problem statement in the form of questions.

(I) What professional needs of a particular group of teachers of Islamic Studies


(II) Do they need a course of pedagogical, Stabilization of Revelation, the content of
Islamic education, controlling class or any other courses?
(III) Are professional courses should be distinguished for teachers based on monthly
salary
(IV) Did the disciples? The following classes have the ability Fard Ain reading skills,
mobility and appreciation pray better than students who do not attend classes Fard
Ain?

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3.4.2 Setting the objectives

Statement of the specific objectives of the study are listed before susuatu study.? Listing
specific objectives of this study are important to researchers because it allows researchers to
collect appropriate data and the type of equipment to be used. To develop the questionnaire
items, you need to refer to your study objectives. In the same context, while conducting
observations, interviews and document analysis, you will also be guided by the objectives.

Here is an example of a teacher's objective of excellence.

The objective of the study is:

1. Identify approaches in teaching Islamic education, including teaching strategies and


methods and techniques used
2. Identify strategies used by teachers in the room j-QAF
3. Getting the students 'perceptions of teachers' personalities and relationships of teachers
and students.
4. Rates the performance of teaching from the perspective of an observer and student.
5. Provide information about the skills of reading, movement and appreciation of prayer is
delivered and how it is presented, implicitly or eksplisit.

3.4.3 Develop research questions

Questions and objectives in close contact with each other. Research questions are questions
that are built according to the study objectives. Which answers to these questions help the
researcher to be objective and purpose of the study.

Below are some examples of research questions.

(A) What teaching strategies, methods and techniques used by teachers to excel in the
classroom?
(B) Practical learning how teachers handle Prayer Breakfast j-QAF
(C) What reading skills, and an appreciation of the prayer movement is controlled implicitly
or explicitly?

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(D) Are the students? their teachers as friends, an authoritative, an informer or a


beneficiary?
(E) Is the performance of the teacher in teaching is valued by educators and students?

3.4.4 Forming hypotheses

Hypothesis is a statement that is expected to be the solution to a problem. Features hypothesis


is the following:

A statement which is expected to have a value to answer the research questions.


An expectation that the relationship between several variables or the effect of one
variable to another variable.
Hypothesis can be tested specifically.

3.4.4.1 The difference between the study hypothesis and statistical hypothesis

Hypotheses are statements about the expected results, but statistical hypothesis is a statement
about the assumptions that there is no relationship between the variables studied. No
assumptions should be made in this connection because of a statistical method used to test the
hypothesis must assume? No relationship? between the variables. For example:

Ho : 1 = 2 (hipotesis statistic/nol)

Ha : 1 2 (hipotesis kajian/alternatif)

1 = min populasi 1

2 = min populasi 2

For any hypothesis / statistic is constructed, there should be alternative hypotheses /


research, if the null hypothesis is rejected. So there is a set of hypotheses. The null hypothesis
is usually expressed in the form ?? no difference? .In Addition, a hypothesis can not be tested if
the size of the dependent variable is not quantitative. Qualitative data that do not use the size of
the numbers can not be analyzed statistically. So the hypotheses should not be built, but the
question should be answered in a descriptive study with no evidence of a point.

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3.4.5 Conducted a literature review

John Creswell (2008) defines a literature review as a summary of the written articles taken from
journals, books and other documents that provide an overview of information on the past and
present. Organize the literature according to the research topic. The literature review also in
accordance with the documents required for an investigation. The literature review should be
made to allow researchers to gain a deep understanding of the relevant research problems. The
literature review can provide to penylidik whether the study has been done by previous
researchers or sebaliknya.Langkah-step review of the literature:

a. Identify keywords

b. Get a variety of literature sources

c. Critically evaluate

d. Grade level literature

e. Write a review literitur

3.4.6 Designing the study design

Research design is the plan of how the sample is divided into groups, what treatment (if any)
given to these groups as well as what data and how the data is collected. There are 8 study
designs used in educational research. Of the study is whether quantitative, qualitative, or
sometimes a combination of both.

1. Quantitative Research Design

Experiment
Quasi-Experiment
Correlation
Review

2. Qualitative Research Design

Grounded Theory
Ethnographic
Narrative

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Case Study

3. Combined Quantitative Research Design

Mixed Methods
Study Measures

3.4.7 Determining Sampling Procedure

The first step in writing an academic research draft research proposal, which is a systematic
summary of the documents comprising the rough sketch of your research will be run. Complete
research proposal usually contains information about the research problem, research questions,
literature review, research methodology, and a list of references.

Why Writing a Research Proposal

A research proposal is a plan of study consisting of the conceptual framework of the research,
the goals and objectives of the research, research questions and hypotheses, the importance of
research and the limitations, the study of literature and previous studies as well as research and
data analysis methods.

Researchers will conduct research based on this proposal, with the end result a research paper,
dissertation, thesis or project. By preparing a research proposal the researchers will be able to
identify issues to be assessed and declared a set of questions to be answered in the research.

Review of literature related to the research problem (indicating the status of academic
knowledge in the field), and to identify areas that are still unexplored or have not been
addressed by researchers. Hypothesis (predicted answer to the research question, if
applicable); Build research methodology corresponds to test hypotheses or answer the research
questions; Build appropriate research design and data collection techniques; Identify
procedures appropriate data.

3.4.8 Building Research Instruments

Generally, the instrument is any device or method or methods for obtaining and collecting data.
The study instruments are the way they are / copyright by the researcher based on the research
questions and create custom instruments pengakaji previous studies and uses existing standard
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instruments. Instrum quantitative study using questionnaires (BSS), a variety of tests and
checklists

Tujuan Kajian

Purpose of the study & Quantitative Research Design is:

1. Creating a perception, opinion or trend of the issues.

Example: student perceptions of the importance of research PISMP . (The design of the study
survey (Survey)

2. Review the effectiveness of the treatment. Example: efficiencies of cooperative learning


methods (study design of Experiment) Note: Random Sampling

3. Assess the effectiveness of the treatment. Example: The effectiveness of cooperative


learning methods (study design of quasi-experiments) Note: Sampling was not random

4. Examine the relationship between variables (correlation study design type) Example:
Relationship between Practical Method to control the reading of prayers in the prayer.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

The main features:

1. Participants were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control
group.

2. An intervention applied to one or more groups.

3. Consequences? (Outcomes) are measured at the end of the experiment - can determine the
cause and effect in the study.

4. The procedure is designed to deal with threats to validity.

5. Statistics used to make comparisons

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Example 1

Review Title: Learning styles among Year 6 pupils in the school district of Kinta Utara.Latar
Back Review

1. Academic achievement? is essential to the direction and future students

2. Students do not know to choose the learning style that suits their learning style and likes to
practice at times before the exam begins.

3. The survey study was conducted to assess learning styles practiced by pupils in Year 6 in the
school district and its relationship with North Kinta academic achievement by four models /
styles of learning, founded by? Dunn and Dunn? (1978) in: -

a) Stimulus Environment

b) Emotional Stimulus

c) Stimulus Physiology

d) Stimulus Sociology

4. This study used a questionnaire scale of 4 points in this study.

3.4.9 Declaring the validity and reliability of the instrument

Validity and reliability of the instrument is very important for maintaining the accuracy of the
instrument is exposed to a defect. The higher the value, validity and reliability, the more
accurate the data obtained to produce good-quality studies.

1. Validity of Survey Instrument (quantitative).

Validity is defined as the accuracy (appropriateness), truth (truthfulness), meaning


(meaningfulness) and usability (usefulness) instruments that enable data diinferenkan. Validity
also means; agreement between two attempts to measure the same trait to the maximum with
different methods. Usually the questionnaire, a researcher using Criterion? Evidence Related to

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gather data (collecting evidence) against the validity of the instrument by a group of consultants
(expert judgment). With that researchers will appoint experts to validate the instrument.

Validity of Interview and Observation Instrument (qualitative)

The study used qualitative research through interviews, observations and documents in
an effort to gather as much research information or data, the use of triangulation technique itself
has been able to strengthen the validity of the study. Use triangulation techniques
(questionnaires, interviews and observations) were used simultaneously in a study should be
made in the form of equivalent form (criterion and construct the same item in different types of
instruments).

Use triangulation techniques such as collection of data obtained through the source
documents can not only support and add data from various other sources, but also helps to
confirm the information obtained from interviews and observations. Validity in qualitative
research (the use of interviews, observations and documents as instrumentation) not only
focuses on the study results, but the entire research process.

For a survey research method, the internal validity (internal validity) and criterion validity
(criterion validity) were used simultaneously for the purpose of making a mistake on the
instrument interview. Internal validity of the views of the manipulative aspects of control in the
relationship variables. Thus, the technique morale ballot and cross-checking is used both
simultaneously to strengthen the validity of the data, particularly in the interview. On the call,
usually the researchers will use two informants (one male and one female) for each study for
the purpose of the interview.

While the validity of the criteria in the interview is through interviewing individuals who
actually have the knowledge and information on the field of study. Usually for this purpose, the
researcher will be interviewing several informants in the different studies provided the same
features and attributes. While the validity of the observations made by the technique of
construct validity (construct validity), by way of categorizing events observed on a number of
groups (clusters) of the desired variable, then compare the observations with the present
observations. Interest researchers is to ensure the validity of the instrument validity items
(instruments) to be;

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o Defensibiliti (untenable- Findings accurate and useful)

o Accuracy (accuracy?-Question)

o Appropriatetness (relevance-Relevant to the purpose of the study)

o Meaningfulness (mean-Give meaning to the data by the score)

o Usefulness (usability- to the results of the assessment can provide meaningful


information about the title and the variables to be measured for menginferenkan
data).

3.4.12 Analyze and parse data

Typically quantitative research tool will generate a large data size. As a researcher, you are
responsible for processing the data to a format compatible with the methods of data analysis
and interpretation later.

You need to process the data into categories, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Here
are the measures in the data analysis:

(A) the pre-analytical phase

(b) phase of the reduction in the size of data

(c) phase of the data

(d) data validation phase

(e) Phase insights

In the pre-analytical phase, the details of the study are to be read and understood,
updated, and improved. You must be sure that the key variables / key labeled correctly
according to the type or category. They shall be prepared in accordance with the requirements
of the theory of order analysis.

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Data Processing

As mentioned in the previous topic, the data collected and cleared by the following
procedure:

(A) A letter requesting permission to conduct studies to be sent to school administrators along
with a letter of authorization from the Ministry Muridan.

(B) After the approval of the principal, an appointment be made with the classroom teacher to
discuss a timetable for you to review. Background information on the class need to know before
starting the study.

(C) When the sample was identified, questionnaires / inventories distributed and asked them to
be mengisikannya.

d) Before the analysis made, the raw data collected shall be processed prior to background
subjects, for example, the percentage of students by gender, socio-economic level of the
principal baps, salaries and school location.

(e) Data from the study, such as questionnaires / inventories, should be amended to score the
variables of the study. This is usually done by using a calculation, such as counting the number
or mean certain items to calculate a score for the variable "attitude". If the scores
obtained manually, then review the accuracy to be done.

(F) After all the background information about the subjects and all the scores obtained by the
study variables, researchers can begin to analyze the data to answer questions and / or
hypotheses of the study.

3.4.13 Discuss and report findings

If someone wants to write in a style that is clear, the better it has a clear idea as well; and if
someone wants to write in a style that is commendable, let himself have thought of admirable.
(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe). In discussing the findings, we shall review the results critically.
According to experts and Shamsina (2011), we also need to ask some questions to ourselves,
namely:

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1. Are the criteria that have been shown the quality of legal content? Do we have to leave any
important criterion or criteria have entered is not valid?

2. If we carry out treatment (treatment) and to make comparisons between groups or time, then
the following questions should be asked:

3. Are there significant differences between the groups, relevant content before and after
treatment?

4. Other treatment measures are similar conditions for each group (eg, direction, ability)?

5. Do other things have happened than the planned treatment, which may affect the findings?

6. Is there a difference in motivation between the groups before or during the study?

The Institute of Teacher Education (ITE), writing research reports along with the format / style
according to the American Psychological Association (APA).

Activities discussion
Research is defined as the acquisition of facts systematically through the collection,
analysis and interpretation of results (Khalid, 2003). 4 Explain why the research is being
conducted?

Question OLL
How to address the findings in educational research?

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TOPIC 4 ACTION RESEARCH: CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

4.1 Sinopsis

This topic explains the definitions and concepts, the importance of action research, action
research characteristics and diversity of models of Action Research.

4.2 Learning Outcomes

Di akhir topik ini, anda seharusnya dapat:

1. Explain the definition of the concept and importance of action research

2. Analyze the characteristics of action research vary

3. Comparing the action research model

4.3 Title Framework 4

DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS


THE IMPORTANT
OF RESEARCH

ACTION
RESEARCH

FEATURES OF RESEARCH
RESEARCH MODEL

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4.4 Action Research

4.4.1 Early History

Introduced by Kurt Lewin in 1946.


GET THE Attention from colleagues like Stephen Corey, Kenneth,
Benne and Hilda Taba (Teachers College, Columbia) to conduct education on the
curriculum and professional development of lecturers.
This idea is expanded until the end of the 1950s.
In the 1970s, action research is gaining international attention.
In the UK, the idea of \u200b\u200baction research resurfaced through the efforts of
Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) who introduced the concept as a researcher and lecturer
saw action research as an important element in the development of the curriculum.
According to Stenhouse, Lecturer active involvement in the research process is an
important factor that can lead to a renewal of the curriculum.
Example Page: Ford Teaching Project (John Elliott, 1974-1976), investigating the use of
inquiry teaching methods.
Elliott subsequently founded the Classroom Research Network (Carn) to support the
lecturers involved in the Ford Teaching Project.
The concept of PT then began to seep into the Malaysian education system.
One way to improve the professionalism of perpensyarahan is to conduct action
research on teaching and learning practices
Research is systematic self-critical inquiry atau penyelidikan adalah suatu inkuiri
kendiri yang kritis yang sistematik (British Journal of Educational Studies, 29(2) Jun
1981.
AR was a reflection of self-inquiry carried out in social situations, aims to improve
practices in the social and educational context.

4.4.2 Definition of Action Research

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Action research is a form of self-inquiry, reflection done collectively; conducted by participants


who are in a social situation in order to improve the rationality and justice practices and
education in their own community, while enhancing their understanding of these practices and
the situations in which the practice is carried out (Kemmis and McTaggart, 1988) According to
them research, action moves in a continuous cycle involves four stages, reviews, planning,
implementation and reflection.

Action research is a type of research in the form of self-reflection and self-review practices
involving researchers commonly do in their job. In education, action research involves
researchers as lecturers, teachers, principals, or students (they can be as researchers or
participants surveyed) to improve in terms of social practice and self-education, self-
understanding of the practice, the situation in where the practice is carried out.

Definisi yang lain:

Mengikut Kurt Lewin (1947)

Action Research is a three-step spiral process of (1) planning which involves


reconnaissance; (2) taking actions; and (3) fact-finding about the result of a action

Mengikut Stephen Corey (1953)

Action Research is the process by which practitioners attempt to study their problems
scientifically in order to guide, correct, and evaluate their decisions and actions.

Mengikut Carl Glickman (1992)

Action Research in education is study conducted by colleagues in a school setting of the


results of their activities to improve instruction

Mengikut Emily Calhoun (1994)

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Action Research is a fancy way of saying lets study whats happening at our school and
decide how to make it a better place.

Mengikut Blum

Penyelidikan tindakan mempunyai dua peringkat iaitu peringkat diagnostik di mana


permasalahan dikaji dan membentuk hipotesis, dan peringkat terapeutik yang digunakan

untuk menguji hipotesis.

Mengikut Stenhouse (1975)

Penyelidikan tindakan bukan sahaja menyumbang kepada pengajaran dan pembelajaran


tetapi kepada teori pendidikan dan pengajaran yang boleh diakses oleh guru-guru lain.

Mengikut McNiff (1988)

Penyelidikan tindakan sebagai satu pendekatan untuk memperbaiki atau meningkatkan


kualiti pendidikan melalui perubahan dengan menggalakkan guru-guru menjadi lebih
sedar tentang amalan mereka sendiri, menjadi kritis terhadap amalan-amalan tersebut
dan bersedia untuk mengubahnya. Ia melibatkan guru dalam inkuiri yang dijalankan oleh
mereka serta melibatkan guru-guru lain secara bersama.

Mengikut Somekh (1989)

Penyelidikan tindakan sebagai satu kajian terhadap situasi sosial yang melibatkan
peserta dalam situasi sosial itu sendiri sebagai penyelidik dengan niat untuk memperbaiki
kualiti amalan masing-masing.

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4.4.3 Concept of Action Research

A form of self-inquiry, reflection done collectively; conducted by participants who are in a social
situation.

Tujuan:

Purpose:

i. improve the rationality and justice practices and education in their own community
ii. enhance their understanding of these practices and the situations in which the practice
is carried out (Kemmis and McTaggart, 1988)

Action research moves in a continuous cycle involves four stages, reviews, planning,
implementation and reflection.
4.5 Characteristics of Action Research

1. To reflect and improve their own work.

2. Relate reflection with action.

3. Spread and share their experiences with the participants and those who interested

4. Participation in data collection and empowerment.

5. Collaborate with the creation of a community of critical thinking - done by the


teacher in the context of the budget.

6. Self-assessment and reflection, and is committed to enhance the practical


understanding to improve educational practice.

7. 7. Learning progressive continuously in a loop.

4.6 The importances of action research

Get important information to understand the practice of teaching, pupils' learning


practices, the students, the atmosphere in the classroom, and so on;

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Description of the subjects were able to design more effective;

Can vary the methods of teaching and learning to facilitate the achievement of their
objectives and can also understand, change and improve their own practice;

To improve the use of material and spatial working actively and effectively;

Can provide teachers as critical researchers, rich with new ideas, willing to accept
the changes and be able to make an assessment of the curriculum and co-
curriculum;

Can establish a culture of research as a basis for making any plans for action; and

Closer ties among teachers involved through collaborative partnerships.

4.7 Action Research Model

There are several models of action research proposed by researchers that can help teachers to
conduct research in the classroom.

Kemmis action research process begins with a reflection on the teacher doing the
teaching and learning of the issues to be addressed.
Then the teacher provides an appropriate plan to address the problems it faces.
There are teachers implement the resulting plan and the implementation process of
the teachers had to monitor the progress of the actions performed.

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4.7.1 Model Stephen Kemmis

Refleksi

KITARAN 1 Peran-
cangan
Pemerhatian

Tinda
kan

Refleksi

Semakan
semula
KITARAN 2 peran-
cangan
Pemerhatian

Tindakan

4.7.1.1 Fasa Perancangan/ plan phase

The first phase is the phase of the action plan to improve teacher practice after obtaining
information and criticism about the practice ineffective or problematic. Reconnaissance
(reconnaisance) and criticism of colleagues can help teachers to focus on an issue that is a
problem. After getting the issues, teachers need to plan how to carry out the inquiry. Planning

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built should be flexible to allow for adaptation performed on the effects and obstacles that can
not be seen. This planning will help teachers define what they want attention. Among the key
questions to be asked yourself is:
1. Whether or not the person who can help provide information or data relevant to the
inquiry
made?
2. Who and what is to be referred?
3. Is there a way to get this information can be implemented?
4. How much time do you have?
5. How time will be divided?

4.7.1.2 Phase Actions

After the teacher can answer all these questions, the teacher needs to make a decision
on what action should be taken to solve the problem. Teachers should not be worried about the
actions to be taken to solve the problem either immediately or otherwise. If teachers try to solve
it quickly, there is a chance the teacher will become rigid and fail to act further. What is more
important is that the teacher will do something that might be able to help solve the problem.
Actions must be strategic actions that will result in a change in practice. Might arise in the next
issue that requires a second cycle study.

4.7.1.3 Phase Observations

Observations will be made on anything new practices to allow evidence obtained and
evaluated. Observations need to be designed and journal entries made for the purpose of
documentation and referral. Process actions and their effects in the context of the situation need
to be made individually or in groups of observations. Teachers need to use more than one
method to collect data to enable created triangulation. Triangulation is the power to acquire the
data in a study.

4.7.2 Grundy and Kemmis (1981)

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1. Make a study of the social practices that are seen as a strategic move that can be
repaired.

2. Based on a revolving cycle consists of a sequence of activities to plan, act, observe


and reflect.

3. Performed by persons who are responsible for all activities and gradually involving
research subjects without losing control over the research process.

4.7.3 Henry and Henry (1982)

Shaped collaborative between teachers and teachers, teachers and students or teachers
and parents

Shaped activity cycle - plan, act, monitor and reflect and generate the next round (more
than one round? Elliot (1991), said at least three cycles, or one year of study

Contribute to the advancement of the process of teaching and learning

4.7.4 Model John Elliott

John Elliott telah mengemukakan satu model seperti berikut:


Mengenal pasti idea umum
Mencari atau mendapatkan persetujuan
Peninjauan (reconnaissance) iaitu meneliti amalan dengan lebih terperin

Kitaran Tindakan 1
Perancangan umum
Memantau pelaksanaan kesan pelaksanaan tersebut
Peninjauan (meneliti pelaksanaan dan kesannya)

Kitaran Tindakan 2
Menyemak semula perancangan
Memantau pelaksanaan dan kesannya
Peninjauan (meneliti pelaksanaan dan kesannya)

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4.7.4.1 Model John Elliot digambarkan seperti gambar rajah di bawah

Kitaran pertama

Kenalpasti idea permulaan

Reconnaissance
Kenalpasti dan analisis data

Pelan Umum
Langkah Tindakan 1 Melaksana
Pelan Tindakan 1
Langkah Tindakan 2
Langkah Tindakan 3

Memantau pelaksanaan dan


kesan

Reconnaissance Pengkajian semula


(Menerangkan sebarang idea umum
kegagalan untuk
Pelaksanaan & Kesan) Pelan Diubahsuai
Langkah Tindakan 1
Melaksana Pelan
Langkah Tindakan 2 Tindakan 1
Langkah Tindakan 3

Memantau Pelaksanaan
& Kesan
Ke Kitaran ketiga
Reconnaissance
(Menerangkan
sebarang kegagalan
untuk Pelaksanaan &
Kesan)

Model Penyelidikan Tindakan 42


John Elliot (dalam Ebbutt, 1985)
TSL3113 ACTION RESEARCH I - XXX PENDIDIKAN RENDAH (KAEDAH)

4.7.5 Model Dave Ebutt

Idea umum Perancangan umum


General idea yang diubahsuai
Tinjauan
Tinjauan
Perancangan Semakan semula Perancangan
umum yang Perancangan keseluruhan
diubahsuai keseluruhan Perancangan
Semakan Keseluruhan baru
TINDAKAN 1 semula
TINDAKAN 2 Perancangan TINDAKAN 2
keseluruhan
Tinjauan
Dan seterusnya dan atau Dan seterusnya
atau pemantauan

Sama ada

TINDAKAN 2

Dan
seterusnya

Penyelidikan Tindakan menurut Ebbutt (dalam Hopkins, 1985


Action Research by Ebbutt (in Hopkins, 1985)

Ebbutt model starts with a general idea as a first step. The general idea of
\u200b\u200bit made a literature review to generate to generate research questions. The overall
design is created and followed by the research questions. Review and monitoring are made for
the second or subsequent action revisions back to return to the overall design. The third option
can be made by changing the design and returned to the general idea. The process will be
repeated for further action.

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4.7.6 Model Jack Whitehead


Whitehead (1989) has formulated an action-reflection cycle using the following
statements:
o Practice what should I pay attention / what I want to fix it
o What will I do about it?
o What data do I need to enable me to make a justification of the effectiveness of
the practice?
o Acting and collect data
o Evaluation of the effectiveness
o Modifications practice attention, ideas and actions
o Submit a description and explanation of? How do I fix my practice? made to a
group of people who will confirm

4.7.7 Model Jean McNiff (1988)

As Whitehead and McNiff take the basic steps of the research process actions as set out in
writing with Lomax and Whitehead, 1996 as follows:

Review current practices


Identify aspects to be studied
Imagining steps forward
Try these steps
Note what happens
Making modifications to practice and continue to try (try again with another new way if it
does not give a positive effect)
Monitor what is done
Review and make an assessment of the action or practice that has been modified
And then enters the second circle

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According to McNiff, there are two processes that occur during that action researchers
systematically through the steps above and the learning process. Actions include the learning
process and the learning that occurs is then obtained through the practice of reflection on
action. Therefore, when making a report, both the process should be reported.

Steps above have been formulated by McNiff (2001) in the model as follows:

Identify areas of practice that would make the research


Imagining a step / solution (solution)
Implement measures progress
Assess progress made
Change practice based on assessment information

This action research cycle will form the second and subsequent cycles when the field or new
problems began to emerge at the same time. Thus forming a spiral or cycle to allow researchers
to take steps to resolve the new one. This process is illustrated by the diagram below:

Model Jean McNiff

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4.7.8 Model Kurt Lewin

Lewin (1946) explains that an investigation should be followed by social action. He


presents a model and a spiral staircase or lagkah cycle contains the steps of planning, action
and reconnaissance or fact-finding on the effects or results of an action (Lewin, 1948). The cycle
can be seen by the diagram below:

Identify common
ideas or initial idea

Opinions or fact-
finding
tinjauan

Take the first action Plan


step

Menilai
evaluate

Pembetulan
perancangan
Correction scheme

Mengambil langkah
tindakan kedua
The second course of
action to take

Model Kurt Lewin (1948)

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According to Lewin, the first step is to research and identify an idea or practice. This was
followed by a fact-finding related to the situation required. If this initial step can be performed,
the overall design will be made and the results will be considered as the first step of an action.

The next step consists of the steps of planning, implementation and review or fact-finding
with a view to make an assessment of the results of this second step. Next, the basis for the
third step is made which may involve corrections, enhancements or modifications to the overall
design earlier.

Tahniah, kerana anda telah berjaya menamatkan pembelajaran unit


ini dengan jayanya!
.

LATIHAN

1. Huraikan definisi, konsep dan kepentingan penyelidikan tindakan

2. Bagaimana Menganalisis ciri- ciri penyelidikan tindakan

Buat banding beza model penyelidikan tindakan Model Stephen


OLL Kemmis dengan Model John Elliot.

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TOPIC 5
ACTION RESEARCH: THE PROCESS

5.1. Sinopsis

This chapter describes the process of action research, which includes four stages. because
action research is a process of spinning (cyclic) (see Figure 2) at all levels should be seen as a
whole and in stages. process described here merely a guide, at least to allow small penyelidikaii
carried out on selected themes. This process should also be viewed in terms of its ability to
bring about change that requires immediate action to investigate and modify actions.

teamwork in the same interests is necessary to reform through modification actions in the
process. how one group of researchers developing action research can be started at any stage,
but a more systematic way starting with a review. at this stage, the focus of the theme is set,
before moving to the planning, implementation and reflection.

5.2 Learning Outcomes

Describe the process of conducting action research and the problems they faced.

5.3 Framework

The process of action research: -

Identify areas practices for improvement


Plan of action
Build strategy
Implementing actions
Collect data
Analyzing the data
Reflection on action (before, during and after the action)
Designing the second cycle
Take action

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5.3.1 Identifying the Problem

The main steps are important in action research is to identify problematic practices in the
classroom issues of concern. For example, the level of achievement among students outside,
the ability of students to read the Quran, keitka students' interest in learning the Quran and
pelnbagai problems identified by teachers when teaching Islamic education. According Kemsis
and Mc Taggart, 1982. Teachers need to choose the topics and issues that are issues that are
important to you as a teacher. Problems that would have been needed for the problem can be
solved or an improvement to the daily practice. Hopefully, through action research, we can
affect or impact on the learning of students and teachers to change habits.

Method of identifying a problem, the teacher needs to make the observation, questioning and
reflection about the real situation (the whole class or a part of the students in the class to
investigate and find a solution to the problems faced by them). By comparison with the level of
student achievement performance standards that should be achieved as outlined by the Ministry
of Education Malaysia. To the researchers proposed to collaborate with other colleagues, the
chief or head of the field panatia before doing action research.

Some open questions below can help teachers identify areas fatherly and practices that are
likely to be made in an action research study.

- I want to correct weaknesses or deficiencies found in? ..


- I am confused as to the method used.
- Most of the teachers or the students are not interested in.
- I would like to know more about?
- Currently my area of interest is?
- I want to try to use the idea?

The idea gained it needs to be changed in the form of research questions. But before the
teacher should take into account a number of things related to the research to be undertaken in
order to research that will be meaningful and beneficial.

- How do I get an explanation?


- Do the research can be managed and completed within the time available?

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- Does this study will provide insight into yourself?


- Do you have the opportunity to disseminate the findings of this action?
- Are these issues related to your practice as a teacher, and so on?

After that research questions are constructed and shaped. Sample questions are as follows:

- How do I make the students feel good about learning.


- What is the most suitable method for lowering the head teach Islamic education as an
example?
- Explanation of how to approach writing a reflective impact on student writing and
feelings?
- How to ensure that students are always right in practice?

To solve the problems identified, this should be stated purpose of the proposed
research, educational objectives, content standards, equipment, materials, constraints,
strengths and help, activities and expectations in the classroom environment. Statement
of the problem can be expressed in terms of the background research and the research
questions. Background of the study will be explained about the work setting such as the
role of teachers, parents and students, the culture of learning at school or in the
classroom, and the author can state the problem to be studied. Literature review was
conducted to obtain information from the researcher-penyeludik previously on issues
related to the problem that you want to examine.

5.3.2 Plan of Action

Once researchers identify problems and set the research, researchers need to make plans to
build a framework for action research. To succeed in doing something, there must be the one
doing careful planning before taking action. Get information in advance about what? ? How? ?
Why? ? Who? and? when ?. Researchers can review the results of research conducted by other
researchers. With this research will refine more topics and research questions identified
stratergi next new or new treatments that are appropriate in solving the problem. Term of this
research is the backbone of the study.

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5.3.3 Building Strategy

To answer the question outlined, researchers need to build stratergi the right to review the goals
achieved. For example, researchers want to study the involvement of parents to ensure the right
to practice his obligatory prayers at home. Researchers need to think about each part of the
question.

- What is parent involvement?


- How do researchers get a response from the parents?
- What a way to contact the parents?
- How to measure and evaluate the data?
- How do researchers know whether his actions will affect it or not?
- Have researchers get permission from the teacher education committee and the teacher
or principal about the design you want done?

5.7 Implementation of the Action

Before performing an action, researchers must make preparations in various aspects. Among
them are:

- You have to get permission from the relevant parties to the inquiry to carry out the
research activities.
- Instrument provides a means to collect data.
- How to recall the actions to be carried out.
- How to ensure the consistency of action.
- Method of storing data to ensure its safety.

During the execution of the action, researchers are actually collecting data. Each planning and
research questions need to be reviewed. In addition, researchers have studied the field
menerusakan readings. Likely to be some changes and improvements.

5.3.4 Collecting Data.

Various data collection techniques can be used as writing diaries, questionnaires, many video
and audio, observation, interviews and documentary evidence. The technique of choice
depends on the research questions being asked. Triangulation is necessary to prevent the

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occurrence of personal bias. It is important when forming methods in collecting data. Data
should have validity and reliability. The validity of the data refers to the extent to which it actually
measures the specific phenomenon under investigation. While the reliability of the data refers to
the accuracy of the data collected as required in the study.

Researchers need to set a timeframe for the implementation of data collection. Use of logbooks
and journals of learning will help provide the necessary data.

5.3.5 Data Analysis

Most of the data obtained through more qualitative action research. This means that
researchers must use discretion to analyze and interpret information and data collected. The
process of qualitative data analysis, including critical reading skills, how to find the relationship
between the data obtained and the skills to determine the answer to complex research
problems.

Data analysis was performed during and after the data are collected. Analysis of data collected
during the period beginning on the first interaction with the respondent. It involves data gathered
informally to make a comparison between the existing data with new data and help researchers
determine where the data is more important. Analyzing the data after it is collected will involve
large amounts of data and requires a lot more data is managed, administered, coded,
categorized by themes and patterns of the data.

5.3.6 Creating Reflections on Action

Research needs to consider whether the lessons learned from the study. Record the process
that can be shared with friends researchers, colleagues, chairman of the committee, teachers
and school administrators. Schein (1999) suggests a reflection stratergi involves observation,
reaction, judgment and intervention models:

a. Observations: explain what we see


b. Reaction: exploring emotional reactions to what has been observed.
c. Reasoning: analyze, process, and make judgments based on observations and feelings
with the goal of identifying what are the things that are based on feelings and what are
the things that are based on the analysis of the events that occurred.
d. Intervention: designing the next approach.

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5.3.7 Designing the Second Cycle.

As has been made clear that action research is an ongoing process and is a recurring cycle.
After completion of the first round of research, there is likely to be prepared in the second cycle
when there are new issues that arise during the process in the first cycle. Try researchers using
other approaches to research can innovate new and effective teaching. For the second and
subsequent cycle should begin redesigning of conduct, carry out, analyze, and reflection.

5.3.8 Creating Followup.

After the completion of the research process, researchers need to look at the data objectively
whether these data support the issues raised. If there is a change, whether the change is
significant? If the findings are missed expectations, the researchers need to conduct follow-up.
Actions aimed at improving the error that occurred.

5.4 Contoh Penyediaan Kertas Kerja Cadangan Untuk Menjalankan Kajian Tindakan.

5.4 Sample Preparation Worksheet To Run Action Research.

Before conducting action research, the researcher must obtain permission from the
administrator or supervisor to enable penelidik BIDEN support and assistance in the form of
information sharing, technical and financial contributions. The following example formats the
submitted paper works.

I. Fokus kajian/ masalah kajian.


II. Menerangkan isu atau masalah yang berlaku dalam bilik darjah.
III. Maklumat tentang data pelajar yang terlibat dengan masalah tersebut.
IV. Kemungkinan punca isu dan masalah.
V. Penyelidik mengemukakan cadangan untuk melakukan penambahbaikan
terhadap amalan di bilik darjah yang hendak dilakukan.
VI. Soalan kajian.
VII. Sumber literatur.
VIII. Reka bentuk kajian
IX. Subjek kajian.

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X. Pelan tindakan.
XI. Stratergi pengumpulan data.
XII. Analisis data.
XIII. Jadual kerja.
XIV. Perbelanjaan.
XV. Sumber rujukan

SOALAN

Huraikan proses-proses yang perlu dilalui oleh para guru dalam melaksanakan penyelidikan
tindakan.

Describe the processes that need to be taken by teachers in conducting action research.

OLL

Sebelum melaksanakan sesuatu tindakan, penyelidik perlu melakukan beberapa persediaan.


Jelaskan persediaan-persediaan tersebut.

Before implementing an action, the researchers need to do some preparation. Describe the
preparations.

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TOPIC 6 RESEARCH ACTION PLAN AND PROPOSAL

6.1 Sinopsis

In implementing an action research process, requires a plan and a backup starts at an early
stage. Plans and proposals are good and will carefully determine the effectiveness of the
process of action research to be undertaken. This chapter will discuss the planning process and
the proposals in the action research. If teachers are doing action research in the classroom or
school setting, a proposal should be made to submit to the school board. Paper proposals
should have the support of school administrators and higher superiors to allow the support and
assistance in the form of sharing of information, or to become a research assistant, or technical
and financial donations will be given. The proposal must be developed in accordance with a
specific format that will be executed in sequence.

6.2 Learning Outcomes

1. At the end of this topic, you will be able to:

Describe the recommendations and action research program

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6.3 The conceptual framework of Title 6

Action Research: Design


Proposals

Focus / aspects of Designing a plan of


practice for improvement action Schedule

Melaksana pelan
tindakan Perbelanjaan
Research questions Implement an action Expenses
plan

Mengumpul data Sumber rujukan


Sources of literature Collect data
Reference

Subjects Reflections: The


description and analysis
of data

6.3.1 Focus / aspects of practice for improvement


Researchers need to provide a description of the issues and problems that have been
identified classroom. How do you identify the problem? Tell me about the students
involved and the likelihood of the possible causes of the issues and problems. If the
focus of the study is not a problem in its classrooms, but researchers simply want to
learn more about a change that can be done or the desire to improve a practice, it also
aims to explain the desire, alteration or improvement to be achieved.

6.3.2 Research Questions


Guided by focus or issue, the researcher must build questions asked. Make sure that
the questions are relevant to the focus of the study. Explanation has been made under
the title The Study above measures.

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6.3.3 Sources of literature

Thorough search of the literature using the library resources including virtual libraries
such as databases, texts, journals, theses and research reports, newspapers, official
publications, internet or experts. The information obtained will help and support the
research needs. The literature review should be made widely and deeply, and be able
to explain the issue or issues in a comprehensive manner. Writing a review of literature
derogatory in style and formatting. For example, the format APA (American Psychology
Association) or MLA

6.3.4 research subject


Sampling method to select a sample or study subjects consisted of people, events,
concepts (such as motivation) or object (such as a computer) that needs to be studied.
The sample is part of the population, while the subject is an individual who is directly
involved with the study. Subjects can be taken of the entire population in a class.
Examples of the subjects were all 29 students 4B. Samples were selected part of the
population of a school. Random sample selection strategy or technique will allow
researchers to target data collection. Is it necessary to determine the size of the sample
selected whether all the samples in a small group or a number of populations. The
sample size was made using specific formulas.

6.3.5 Designing a plan of action

Researchers need to explain in detail about the planning blueprint. This includes explaining the
goals of the action plan associated with the problem to be solved, the reasons for the proposed
action plan is taken on the basis of ideas or theories, and lists the actions or proposed activities.

6.3.6 Implement the action plan

Researchers have explained the process of the implementation of the action plan is
carried out in detail. This description should include how the implementation of action
plans, the observation of the activities carried out, reflections on teaching, how to
administer the tests and analyze the data.

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6.3.7 Mengumpul data

Researchers need to explain in detail the strategies and techniques that will be used to
collect data. For example, observations, interviews, checklists, questionnaires or
experiments. Appropriateness of strategies and techniques depending on the purpose,
situation, and the skills of researchers. Three data collection techniques should be used
for the purpose of triangulation.

6.3.8 Refleksi: Analysis and description of data


Specify how the data collected will be analyzed and made interpretations. Are SPSS use?
If SPSS is used, specify the full version. There is a difference between analyzing the
data, and this depends on whether the investigation is qualitative or quantitative
research. The data collected can also be qualitative or quantitative. So please tell me the
details.

6.3.9 scheudule

The work schedule should be designed and constructed to allow research to be


conducted in accordance with the schedule and time. Examples of work schedule is as
follows:

BIL AKTIVITI TARIKH


1 Mengenalpasti masalah dan pengumpulan data awal Feb Mac
2 Menulis proposal kajian April
3 Merancang tindakan April
4 Melaksanakan tindakan 1 2 31 Mei
5 Analisis tindakan 1 4 6 Jun
6 Analisis pencapaian murid dalam peperiksaan 5 8 Julai
pertengahan tahun
7 Melaksanakan tindakan 2 1 30 Ogos
8 Analisis tindakan 2
9 Analisis pencapaian murid dalam ujian setara 2 10 12

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Oktober
10 Refleksi kajian 15 Oktober
11 Menulis laporan kajian

Jadual 1 Contoh jadual kerja

6.3.10 Budget

Outline the proposed expenditure will be used during the investigation and the action to
be performed. Here is an example of the expected expenditure.

BIL BAHAN KOS (RM)


1 Kertas A4 (5 rim) 50.00
2 Bahan cetakan riso 50.00
3 Dakwat setakan komputer 150.00
4 Lain-lain 50.00
JUMLAH RM300.00

Jadual 2 Contoh perbelanjaan

6.3.11 Reference

List of references or bibliography should be made to declare the sources of reference


that have been taken to support the research. This list allows the reader to make a
recommendation on the matter that is written according to the views of others or the
original authors of reference materials. It is also a way of showing that the researchers
responsible for the matters raised in the side to avoid the practice of plagiarism. If the
review of the literature written in the style and format of the APA, the resource must also
be written in APA format.

6.3.12. The design of the test

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Penyelidk must submit a detailed research design used was a qualitative design
(ethnography, phenomenon, case studies) or quantitative (correlational, ex post facto)
or experimental (actual experimental, quasi-experimental or pre-experiment). If
researchers use experimental investigations, the state is also a form of treatment that
will be used.

Latihan

Apakah yang anda faham mengenai cadangan dan rancangan penyelidikan tindakan
dan sejauh mana ia dapat membantu anda dalam mengatasi masalah penyelidikan tindakan
anda.

What do you understand about the proposals and action research program and to what extent it
can help you in overcoming your action research.

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TOPIC 7 ACTION RESEARCH: METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

7.1 Sinopsis

Titles are arranged to enable students to understand the methods that can be used to
collect data in the study measures. Each method has strengths and weaknesses. It is
used as appropriate based on the focus of the research conducted.

7.2 Hasil Pembelajaran

i. Describes methods of action research


ii. Applying Action Research in the field of education.

7.3 Kerangka Konsep Tajuk 7

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7.3.1 Method of Data Collection

There are several methods of data collection in action research as contained in


the conceptual framework.

7.3.1.1 Observations

Observation is an important research method. The method requires the


researcher to have the background knowledge and a broad understanding of the
situation to make the observation of the actual situation.

Typically, observation involves not only examine the situation or event activities
but also activities original and critical thinking. It requires the researcher to have
an efficiency of detecting significant events. Thus, it is an activity where the
researcher was required skills.

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7.3.1.1.1 Benefits of observation

(A) Aspects of the essential character can usually be determined more effectively
through observation. Any conduct by a direct comparison study through
questionnaires or interviews.

((B) the physical aspects of a building, a student, or a teacher can usually be


assessed by examination, measurement, assessment, and comparison with
a standard via direct observation.

(C) direct observation is needed to study the physical activities such as games,
sports, and practical work.

(D) Observation of classrooms can be used by researchers to analyze the


effectiveness of teaching and how to fix it.

7.3.1.1.2 Pemerhatian secara langsung (direct observation)

Observations may be made with or without the help of technical equipment such
as take notes on the movement of teachers and students to record observations
or by using instruments such as observation forms; electronic devices such as
video recorders, cameras or audio tapes. Material support or assistance
observations can be used as a useful resource to analyze the data after the
observations. aspects that need to be before making an observation

7.3.1.1.3 The focus of observation

Several issues should be considered before making an observation. Among them


are:

Who will make observations?

Who or what would be considered?

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In places where the observations will be carried out? (Lovely observation


held in several places and situations to get a variety of information)

When observations are carried out? (Lovely observation held at different


times to get a variety of information)

What observations will be recorded or recorded?

What procedures should be followed to ensure that the observations are


reliable (reliable) and there is validity (valid)?

What techniques are most suitable for observation of classroom review?


(That's good valuable data collected during the observation must be
recorded immediately at least in the form of a note)

7.3.1.1.4 Guidelines for Implementing the Classroom Teaching Observation.

Explain precisely the following items:

What is said by the teacher or the student?

What do the teachers or the students doing?

What are the duties given to the students and the pages of textbooks
used?

Use abbreviations for words that are always used (for example: P for students,
for teachers G).

In this method, observers often use diagrams or specific form. For example,
observers provides a form of what would be considered during the process of
teaching and learning takes place whether the attitudes of students, teachers,
teaching methods and techniques, or the like, and this form will be signed by the
observer himself during the P

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After observation, the review should be done to correct a mistake made or to


make a comment. Additional notes notes appropriate to express the feeling of
going to an event or a new idea. Differentiate notes describing what actually
happened and interpretation based on a situation.

7.3.2 Dokumen

Documents are all written materials or films that are already available in certain places
(Thung, 2000; Nana, 2005; Sudarwan, 2005). Analysis of documents used to help
researchers get the data objectively through documents and does not require the
presence of the informant and also can provide consistent data for all data obtained
explicitly and can be used to obtain the validity of an answer is obtained from the
analysis of the questionnaire (Frankel, 2007). Use of this document is to support
research and add to the evidence from other sources.

There are three methods in the investigation documents: -


a) Help examine the data that has been collected
b) Can add special details to support other information from other sources, if the
documentary evidence to the contrary and without support, researchers have
reason to investigate further about the research being conducted
c) Inference can be made of the documents (Robert, 1996).

7.3.3 Interviews

Interviews are a method of study is important because it helps the researcher to explore
and obtain information in-depth study.

Often in the study, there is a lot of information that can not be obtained through
observation, documentation or records diaries one. Researchers need to get in touch to
have "face-to-face"

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In the study measures, participants were interviewed key

1. school pupils,
2. teachers who teach the same subjects,
3. colleagues who schoolmate,
4. the administrator of the school (eg teachers, assistant principals) and
5. observers who participated in the study.
They need to be interviewed to find out their feelings and opinions as well as their
attitudes toward research and action. For example, when researchers want to know the
feelings of the students in depth or explore their ideas, it is important that the researcher
in relation to the participants for questions and answers; chat or talk.

7.3.3.1 Kebaikan Menjalankan Temu bual / the benefits of interview

a. Suitable for respondents who can not read or who have limited intelligence.

b. One would usually prefer to talk rather than write.

c. Easier for researchers to explain the purpose of a question to get the right
answer from the respondent.

d. Sincerity a respondent to answer can be seen from the discussion face.

e. Respondents were unable to re-answer that is given in advance if the


following questions can encourage respondents to modify the answers given.

7.3.3.2 Planning to interview

a. Define the purpose and the information to be obtained from? respondents.

b. Provide proper order questions and comments can be? induce respondents
to issue information

c. Decide how to record the answers.

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7.3.3.3 Perkara yang Dititikberatkan Semasa membuat Temu bual/Current areas


of concern to Interviews

a. Securing the cooperation of groups or individuals interviewed. Therefore,


researchers need to develop a good relationship with the respondent. It
requires skill and an art.

b. Ask questions and interesting can that be? induce respondents to comment
and explanation

c. The instrument used to record the answer should not be? distract
respondents.

7.3.3.4 Cara Mencatat Atau Merakam Jawapan Temu bual /How To Record Or
Record Results Interviews

a. Using a recording device that can maintain the authenticity of the answers of
the respondents as either a broadcast voice? emotional or not.

b. Note responses can be made simultaneously or after the interview? do. Both
methods have advantages and disadvantages.? How can a member of the
first complete record but can interfere responder while the latter can give?
the impact? otherwise. Either way, the researcher must make a number of
training.

c. Interviewers? may not need to record the answers? given by the respondents
but? make an assessment of their opinions. In this case ,? is better if the
assessments were made after the interview? After running or re-hear
recordings made.

7.3.3.5 Jenis-jenis Teknik Temu bual/Types of Interviews

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Typically, there are two techniques of interviews and structured interviews and
unstructured interviews.

i. Structured Interview Techniques

Structured interview is a conversation and activity questionnaires in which form


and content of the questions that would be asked is limited to a particular topic or
area basis. For example, the sin question aimed at getting information on how to
correct the spelling of student teachers formed or composed in advance so that
the researcher can ask participants or respondents systematically.

For example:

Do you correct all spelling mistakes students

did you ever penalize students who make spelling errors?

if so, what penalty do you use?

students who were always fine?

ii. Unstructured Interviews technique

Unstructured interview is a conversation and activity questionnaires and


conscious exploration of ideas or feelings more than to get certain facts. Open-
ended questions (open-ended questions) submitted and offered a variety of
responses and participants or respondents.

For example:

is there anything you want to tell us

what are your feelings at that time?

why do you think so?

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whether the opinion or your opinion?

Advantages of this technique are unstructured interviews is to give researchers


the opportunity to explore in depth and give an opportunity to the participants to
take the time to think, talk and make interpretations about their own feelings and
ideas. Sometimes, participants can ask for an explanation and the researcher or
the researcher asked.

Unstructured interviews were usually held in an informal situation. At the time of


the interview, the researcher can also make observations about the behavior of
the participants and provide comments and ask questions spontaneously, ie not
using questions prepared in advance.

7.3.3.6 How to Record Interviews

During the interview it is important that researchers have to take action to record
dialogue or conversation with a certain way.

Researchers can use the audio recording tape if it does not interfere with activity
or interview situation.

Researchers can also take the time to make notes Briefly words or responses of
participants and if necessary a transcript of the interview can be found later as
support materials for a more thorough interview study. Records of the date,
circumstances and content of the questions and answers in the interview should
be recorded in the diary study.

Can occur either as an individual observer, the student or teacher or group that is
made up of 3 or 4 people to facilitate interviews. Recordings should be done or
can only be recorded on paper.

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7.3.4 Checklist, Survey and Inventory

Checklist is another example of an inquiry form. The checklist contains a list of items to
be examined by the respondents. Respondents do not need to give consideration. They
just need to provide the actual facts. The checklist is a series of answers to questions.
Checklist to be used must be open and less structured. The questionnaire was a set of
questions given to someone else and ask them to answer. In the questionnaire, there
are some questions and choice of answers or questions. While inventory is a list of
statements about the situation that may agree or disagree. Among the categories within
it are: strongly agree - agree - not sure - disagree - strongly disagree.

7.3.4.1 Free building checklist

a. Study some checklist that was designed by the researchers played and specify
the required details in the study.

b. Arrange items according to categories that are classified based on the logical
structure or psychological. Relevant details are classified together.

c. Four ways to arrange the details of the checklist are:

List all items appearing in one. For example:

Mark (^) in the space of activities available in the school tuan.sukan, gardens,
theater, music, debate, and so on.

Ask respondents to answer yes / no. For example: Does your school have a
student union? Yes! No!;

Asked respondents to mark (^) for positive statements.? For example:


"Some of the girls at this school are Muslims .... (?)"

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Circle or underline the appropriate answer for the statements made. For
example: "Music Association meets: weekly, biweekly, monthly, not of
time."

(C) Details featuring separation (discrimination), for example: Does your school have a
library/;

Corrected to:

Does your school have a library that contains at least one book for a student?

(d) Senarai semak mestilah lengkap dan komprehensif./The checklist must be


complete and comprehensive.

7.3.5 Rakaman Pita Video Dan Transkrip/ Tape Recording Video And Transcript

Recording is very useful when you need a specific recording data such as the details of
the conversation between student and teacher during the lesson.

Filming the video for Action Research requires the help of a friend research (research
partner) to implement the shoot. Filming videos can track data such as teacher
behavior, student behavior, or other facts that failed to be detected by the teacher.

Tape recordings are also useful for measuring and evaluating the activities of an
individual or group in an activity.

Transcripts of conversations students is an effective indicator to assess students'


understanding of the understanding of a concept.

Proposal To Make Transcript

Listen to the recording to get an overview.

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Listen to the recording for the second time and write short notes and write
down the number on the tape / ribbon for easy reference again..

Of short notes, select parts important to the research question and make a
complete transcript.

7.3.6 Log

Log ialah catatan peristiwa atau aktiviti mengikut turutan kronologi yang dicatatkan
seara ringkas dan bersifat fakta.

Log is a record of events or activities listed in chronological order and a brief statement
of facts.

7.3.7 Nota lapangan/ field note

Catatan yang dibuat semasa menjalankan temubual atau pemerhatian.

Records created in the course of an interview or observation.

7.3.8 Foto

Rakaman gambar sebelum, semasa dan selepas sesuatu aktiviti untuk dilihat
perbezaannya.

Recording images before, during and after the activity to see the difference.

7.3.9 Portfolio

Satu koleksi bahan-bahan termasuk contoh dan sampel kerja merangkumi skop
program atau aktiviti.

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A collection of materials including examples and samples of work encompasses the


scope of the program or activity.

7..3.10 Rekod Anekdot / Record Anecdotes

Anecdotal record is a record of only one event. It is also a short note about an event or
behavior that important. It describes in fact where, how, when, what, and who
objectively the events / kejaidian happened. Some of the information that must be
included in the record of anecdotes is the name, date, time, place, events, comments,
suggestions or action by teachers.

Matters to be considered when writing:

a) Observation of events, although not planned.


b) Students are advised not to be determined.
c) Problem is an important and significant aspect of student growth.

Example: the development of language and literacy, social interaction, problem solving
skills, and so on.

7.3.11 Slaid

Slaid yang menunjukkan perubahan yang telah berlaku dalam tempoh penyelidikan
seperti perkembangan pembelajaran.

Slides showing the changes that have occurred within the research such as the
development of learning.

7.3.12 Jurnal

Jurnal ialah catatan berkala dan berterusan mengikut persepsi seseorang berfokus
kepada sesuatu isu tertentu, maklumat yang dicatatkan bukan hanya perihal peristiwa

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penting tetapi juga merangkumi segala pemerhatian, perasaan, reaksi, pandangan,


interpretasi, hipotesis, hasil refleksi, analisis dan komen.

The journal is a record of periodic and continuous perception of a focus on a particular


issue, the information is recorded not only the story of an important event, but also
includes all observations, feelings, reactions, opinions, interpretations, hypotheses,
results of reflection, analysis and comment.

7.3.13 Menulis Diari / Writing Diary

Diary is an important way to collect data in the study measures. Notes on observations,
feelings, actions, and completion of a hypothetical situation can be made. We can use
their own ways to diaries.

There are two types of records diaries: diary of a teacher and a student diary. Here is a
guide to writing a diary:

1. Note Diary Teacher

Diaries have always done. For example, after a lesson that a special strategy has
been used or after a meeting of the class in question.

In practice diaries, leave a margin of LEAs to record all changes, additional notes
or references to other parts of the diary.

Each diary entry must have: Date event occurred and the date the record was
created.

Information about the time, location, respondents focused study and others that
are important to the study.

Diaries should be no headlines, subheads, and underline the important parts to


facilitate cross-reference.

Essential materials such as pictures, documents, works of students and others


can be pasted in the diary for reference.
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From time to time diary analysis should be performed to determine whether the
issue can be addressed through the study of data collected and what data they
have collected.

Analysis of records will be helpful in the follow-up action plan

Discussion diary with a friend of the study will allow us to explore the situation /
issues studied.

2. Student Diary Notes

Student diary is an interesting source of data or information.

Note students will give different views of teachers' views on the same issue.

Student diary also provides teachers with honest feedback about the classroom
and the progress of students.

However, the students will write about teachers freely if they believe the teacher.

7.4 CONCLUSION:

success of a research carried out not only depend on the progress that has been
carefully thought out, but it also depends on the coordination and supervision of all
activities as well.

LATIHAN

1. Jelaskan bagaimanakah kajian tindakan dilakukan melalui kaedah pemerhatian.


2. Bincangkan apakah kekuatan kaedah pemerhatian

OLL

Hasilkan dalam bentuk grafik kekuatan dan kelemahan menggunakan kaedah


mengumpul data melalui catatan diari.

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TOPIC 8
RESEARCH ACTION: CONSIDERATION IN COLLECTING DATA

8.1 Sinopsis

Once we identify the methods used in collecting the data, we need to make appropriate
judgments made while collecting data.

8.2 Learning Outcomes

iii. Explaining due consideration do when collecting data.


iv. Describes the sampling, bias, validity and reliability.
v. Explain ethics when collecting data.

8.3 Conceptual Framework Title 8

Pertimbangan
Pengumpulan Data
Considerations for
Data Collection

Persampelan Kebolehpercayaan Keesahan Etika Bias


Sampling
Reliability Validity Ethics Refraction

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework Five Title 8.

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8.3.1 Population and Sampling

Gay and Airasian (2003) defines population as "the population of the target group
of researchers, the group to whom the results of the study will be generalized".
While the sample is the survey respondents were selected to represent a population.
Fixing study population is important in the study because the population will determine
how and how many samples we will choose and research expenses.

For example: We want to select a sample of students at a school in one. You as a


teacher, first of all need to determine the population of the study, the pupils in Year 1.
After that, you need to determine the size of the sample, for example, of the 200 pupils
in Year 1, you need to have 30 per cent, of which 60 were students. For the third step,
you need to select the 60 students of the 200 people randomly. You can use one of the
four (4) methods described earlier. Such methods are described in the following section.

Figure 2: Selection of samples.

a. Simple Random

Simple random sampling (PRM) is a process of selecting a sample in which all


individuals in a given population has an equal chance to be selected as sample.
Random sampling is the best method to get a representative sample of the population.
Technically, it is necessary to follow some specific measures, such as the following:

a. Identify the population and provide a definition (for example, pupils in Year 1).

b. Determine the number of members of the population and list their names (eg,
250).

c. Give the number (in sequence) to each member of the population (eg, 000 to
249).

d. determine the sample size (misalnya, 50 orang, iaitu 20% daripada populasi).

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e. Take the number of random number table (JNR) and select members of the
population are numbered the same as the number of JNR as a sample, and
repeat this method to obtain 50 samples.

b. Stratified random

Stratified random sampling (PRS) is a process of selecting a sample in which the study
population was divided into strata / small [eg, smart boys (MLP), the boys camp (MLL),
smart girls (MPP), women's camp (MPL )], and all individuals in each stratum has an
equal chance to be selected as sample. PRS advantages compared to the use of PRM
PRM is more convincing us to get a representative from every strata of the population as
a percentage of the number of members in the strata. Technically, it is necessary to
follow some specific measures, such as the following:

(i) & (ii) similar to the PRM technique.

(iii) Divide the population into strata (eg, MLP, MLL, MPP, MPL).

(iv) Determine the number of members of the population in each stratum (eg, MLP 50,
70 MLL, MPP 100 people, consists of 30 people).

(v) ) Give the number (in sequence) to each member of the population in each stratum
(eg, MLP 00-49, 00-69 MLL, MPP 00-99, 00-29 MPL).

(vi) Determine the sample size for each stratum (eg, 10 MLP, 14 MLL, 20 people MPP,
MPL 6, which is 20 percent of the population in each starata).

(vii) Take the number of random number table (JNR) and select members of the
population of each stratum to obtain the desired sample size.

c. Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling (PS) is a process of sampling, where each member of the


population should be numbered consecutively, and the sample was selected by taking
the members of the population, numbered at certain intervals; for example, the number
5, 10, 15, 20, so that the sample size required to obtain. PS advantages compared to
MRI and PS PRS is more easily implemented, however, this method does not provide
the same opportunities to every member of the population to be selected. Technically, it
is necessary to follow some specific measures, such as the following:

(i), (ii), (iii) & (iv) similar to the PRM technique.

(v) To get an interval of numbers, we divide the population by the sample size (eg,
250/50 = 5).

(vi)) To get a sample, we can choose the members numbers 4, 9, 14, 19, ..., 249;
eventually we will be able to sample 50 students.

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d. Group Sampling

Cluster sampling (RB) is a sampling process, where members of the population in certain
groups, and the selection of the sample was made with; first select a random group, and
second, to take all the members of these groups as a sample. PK advantages compared to
MRI, PRS and PS is that it is more easily implemented, however, this method does not
provide the same opportunities to every member of the population to be selected.
Technically, it is necessary to follow certain steps, as follows:

(i) Just like PRM.

(ii) Determine the number of members of the population, and members of the sample (eg,
250 population, 50 samples).

(iii) Determine the number of population groups and give a number to each of them (for
example, 10 classes, each containing 25 students).

(iv) Determine the number of population groups should be selected as a sample and select
the groups by using a random number (for example, we need two sets for 50 samples).

(v) Take all of the members of each group were selected for further study.

8.3.2 Reliability

Issues relating to the trust study are in terms of:

(1) Tools used in the study;

(2) Process of collecting data; and

(3) Methods of data analysis.

The formula used is: reliability and validity of both process-oriented.

There are three (3) types of reliability; stability (stability), equality (equivalence) and
internal consistency (internal consistency), as shown in this diagram.

Figure 3 : types of reliability.

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a. stability

Reliability is a measure of the stability of consistency (consistency) over time for the
same sample. This means that the tool / reliable test would give the same score over
time for the same respondents. The reliability index of stability is the correlation between
test scores and the test scores for the first time the second time.

The reliability can help us determine the extent to feel confident to predict the score will
be obtained by the students at a time to come. R value also depends on the length of
time the test was given

b. Equality

Reliability is a measure of equality equality between the scores of the two (2) tests are
similar, the different tests, but measure the same content.

This means reliable test will give the same score if the same respondents take two (2)
test different but similar. Reliability index of equality is a correlation between the scores
of the first test with test scores.

c. Internal consistency

Internal consistency reliability is a measure of the consistency between the part of the
other half of the test with a score test for testing the same.

This means reliable test will give the same score to the same respondents, if the test is
divided into two (2) sections.

Internal consistency reliability index is the correlation between test scores and the test
scores of the first part of the second part.

8.3.3 Validity

There are 4 types of validity, namely:

Kesahan kandungan (content validity), Content validity

Content validity is a measure of how / where a test can accurately measure the content
area to be measured. Content validity of a test is important in the study because, if the
validity of the content, the lower the test scores are not showing the real capabilities of
the respondents for the content being measured. Content validity can be improved by
comparing the test items with the objectives and content areas.

Kesahan hubungan kriteria (criterion-related validity),

The validity of the criterion consists of two (2) forms, concurrent validity (concurrent
validity) and predictive validity (predictive validity). Concurrent validity is the extent to
which a measuring instrument is capable of producing a score that has a relationship

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with a score generated by other tools were taken simultaneously. For example, a test
designed to measure the same thing, said to be easier and quicker to use than the
existing tests. Concurrent validity can be calculated by finding the correlation between
the two scores for these tests.

Predictive validity is the extent to which a measuring instrument is capable of producing


a score that has a relationship with a score generated by other tools were taken. For
example, a test designed to measure mathematics achievement, is said to predict the
results of SPM Mathematics. predictive validity can be calculated by finding the
correlation between test scores and grades M.

Kesahan konstruk (construct validity)

Kesahan konstruk ialah ukuran sejauh/setepat mana sesuatu ujian dapat mengukur
sesuatu konstruk/gagasan berasaskan teori psikologi tertentu. Contohnya, alat yang
dibina untuk mengukur konstruk "rajin" sepatutnya dapat mengukur konstruk ini dengan
baik. Kesahan konstruk boleh ditingkatkan dengan memahami maksud konstruk tertentu
(misalnya, maksud "rajin") dan mengetahui ciri-ciri orang yang mempunyai konstruk ini
(misalnya, ciri-ciri orang yang "rajin").

Construct validity is a measure of how / where a test can accurately measure a construct
/ concept based on certain psychological theories. For example, a tool designed to
measure the construct "hard" should be able to measure this construct well.
Construct validity can be improved by understanding the meaning of certain constructs
(eg, the meaning of "hard") and know the characteristics of those who have
this construct (eg, the characteristics of a "hard").

Kesahan muka (face validity).

Kesahan muka bukanlah kesahan seperti yang dijelaskan, tetapi lebih kepada suatu alat/ujian
"nampak pada permukaannya" dapat mengukur apa yang hendak diukur. Contohnya, bagi alat
yang mengukur konstruk rajin", kita sepatutnya nampak item-itemnya berkait dengan ciri-ciri
orang yang "rajin". Kesahan muka akan memberi keyakinan kepada responden terhadap item-
item yang hendak dijawab, bagaimanapun, kesahan muka mempunyai kelemahan tertentu,
disebabkan responden boleh meneka jawapan yang "positif" kepada konstruk yang hendak
diukur.

Validity Face validity is not as described, but more of a tool / test "appears on its
face" to measure what is to be measured. For example, a tool that measures the construct
of diligence, "we should see the items will relate to the characteristics of a" hard
". The validity of advance will give confidence to the respondents on the items to be
answered, however, the validity of the advance has certain drawbacks , because respondents
can guess the answer to the "positive" to the construct to be measured.

8.3.4 Ethics

According to experts Pardi and Shamsina Shamsuddin researchers should be aware of three
things related to research ethics:

1) The relationship between society and science.

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a. Should researchers doing research that are important to the community (schools) in a
timely manner?
b. Should the government or the school administration gave the funding to enable research
to be made?
c. Should researchers deny the public's attention?

2) Issues of professional

a. Ethical issues that mean the fraudulent activities such as changing the result.
b. Is an iterative, which publishes the data and the findings of more than one journal or
place, should be avoided.
c. Is an integral part of the publication of several articles of the data obtained in the
investigation.

3) Services to research participants.

a. Research participants should not be threatened with physical or psychological course of


the study.
b. Participants should be treated well informed about the investigation to be carried out.

8.3.5 Bias/Refraction

Bias occurs when the negligence of individuals who are dealing with the unconscious action in
the control group have influenced the findings. This bias can be overcome when implementing
an action research group participants were not aware of either the control or study.

8.4 Kesimpulan

In conclusion, when making judgments in data collection, the five aspects that need to be
addressed, namely; sampling, reliability, validity, ethics and bias.

Aktiviti 7 OLL
Berikan contoh bias yang berlaku semasa mengumpul data dalam penyelidikan tindakan.

Give an example of the bias that occurs when collecting data in action research.

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TOPIC 9 RESEARCH ACTION: DATA ANALYSIS

9.1 Sinopsis

Data collected should be entered into a computer data file and checked that nothing has
been entered correctly, before analysis of the data generated. The qualitative and
quantitative data need to be analyzed differently. Qualitative research requires different
methods of data interpretation, which does not use numbers to represent ideas, but write
a long narrative description, which is then knotted and classified according to certain
variables.

9.2 Learning Outcomes

vi. Explaining due consideration do when collecting data


vii. Explaining pensempelan, bias, validity and reliability
viii. Explain ethics when collecting data.

9.3 Draft Framework for Title 9

Analisis Data
Data Analysis

Kuantitatif
kualitatif Quantitative
qualitative

Descriptive
Frekuensi
Peratusan
Min
Contents Mod
Category Median
Encodes Standard
Compile deviation(sisihan
Identify piawai)
korelasi
Determine follow-
up study

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9.3.1 Data Kualitatif /Qualitative Data

Qualitative researchers analyzed the data using the measures below:

1. Menyedia dan menyusun data untuk dianalisis. Prepare and organize data for
analysis.
2. Menghurai dan membina tema daripada data. Describe and construct the theme
from the data.
3. Melaporkan dapatan kajian/Report findings.
4. Menafsirkan (interpreting) dapatan kajian./Interpreting (interpreting) findings.
5. Mengesahkan ketepatan dan kebolehpercayaan dapatan kajian/Verify the accuracy
and reliability of the findings.

Creswell (2002: 258) summarizes the general procedure for the analysis of qualitative
data, as shown in Figure 5.5. According to this procedure, after researchers collect data,
he needs to provide data for diananlisis by rewriting (transcribing) the notes field (field
notes) in ordinary language, the "clean up" the notes so that it is easily
understood. The second step is to read all of this data to get a general idea of
\u200b\u200bit. Next, a lot of data has to be given a specific code so that it easily
referenced during the analysis or writing of mangoes. This code is given to find parts
(segments) in the text and give a specific code to it.

The analysis involves the process of compiling the data. You need to compile the
original data collected in forms, categories and basic descriptive unit. Regardless of the
method you use to collect the data, five (5) steps to be followed in the data analysis:

(i) Tahap pra-analisis;/Pre-analysis;


a. All the notes read, reviewed, ranked and complete.
b. All notes are labeled by type. All notes are arranged according to a certain
order.
c. Data are recorded as required.
d. Prepare two copies of all records, including the original.
e. Encode and decode the response back is open and documented data.
f. Computer data are included in a folder.
g. Start taking note of themes and forms.
h. Make sure the data is easily accessible

(ii) Packaging level data;


a. At the finish level data (data reduction),
b. transcribed data in word processing or format textual analysis using a
computer.
c. The data have been transcribed simplified and focused nature.

(iii) Exhibition stage data;

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a. Data is displayed in tabular form, sheet marks (tally) and formulations.


b. The data displayed should explain the analysis or additional actions that need
to be made.

(iv) Level data verification;


a. Triangulation of data used for verification of various analytical measures
taken to reach a conclusion.
b. All of the procedures that led to the conclusions stated with precision.
c. The process of documenting all of the research process described accurately.

(v) Level findings (including interpretation).


a. Review and interpretation of findings
b. Melibatkna interpretation gives meaning and significance to the analysis.
c. It involves clarifying and defining the relationship between descriptive and
determination Sesame shape.
d. Looking back meaningful activity during the interpretation and disiminasi

(vi) Interpretation
a. Free interpretation of favoritism (bias) you
b. Interpretation based on the theory
c. Interpretations based on information
d. Interpretation is subject to strict ethical principles

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9.3.2 Analisis Data Kuantitatif / Quantitative Data Analysis

Typically quantitative research tool will generate a large data size. As a researcher, you
are responsible for processing the data to a format compatible with the methods of data
analysis and interpretation later. Here are two processes in menganaliss data:

(A) Processing of the data from the questionnaire

(B) Processing of inventory data

You need to process the data into categories, percentage, mean and standard deviation.
Here are the measures in the data analysis:

i. Fasa pra-analisis/Pre-analytical phase

the explanation of the study should be read and understood, updated, and
improved. You must be sure that the key variables / key labeled correctly
according to the type or category. They shall be prepared in accordance with the
requirements of the theory of order analysis.

As mentioned in the previous topic, the data collected and cleared by the following
procedure:

(A) A letter requesting permission to conduct studies to be sent to school


administrators along with a letter of authorization from the Ministry of Education.

(B) Upon approval of the principal, an appointment be made with the classroom
teacher to discuss a timetable for you to review. Background information on the
class need to know before starting the study.

(C) When the sample was identified, questionnaires / inventories distributed and
ask them to be put in.

(D) Prior to the analysis made, the raw data collected shall be processed prior for
more background research subjects, for example, the percentage of students by
gender, socio-economic level of the principal baps, salaries and school location.

(e) Data from the study, such as survey / inventory, must be altered to score the
variables of the study. This is usually done by using a calculation, such as counting
the number or mean certain items to calculate a score for the variable
"attitude". If the scores obtained manually, then review the accuracy to
be done.

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(F) After all the background information about the subjects and all the scores
obtained by the study variables, researchers can begin to analyze the data to
answer questions and / or hypotheses of the study.

ii. Phase reduction in the size of data

Often, researchers have tried to explain the distribution of data using only a few
key measures such as the following:

(I) Measures of central tendency: mean, mode, median, quartiles, deciles and
percentiles, and others.

(Ii) Measures of dispersion: Range, interquartile range, standard deviation,


variance, coefficient of variation, and others.

iii. Phase data display

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iv. Data validation phase


v. Finding phase

Figure: Data Analysis Quantitative Study\

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Figure: Quantitative Study Design

Aktiviti 7 OLL

List of reference materials and reference sources that you use to review the analysis of the
data.

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TOPIC 10 DATA INTERPRETATION IN ACTION RESEARCH

10.1 Sinopsis
Dalam bab ini kita akan mempelajari bagaimana menghurai semua data yang telah dikumpul
dalam sesuatu kajian.

In this chapter we will learn how to parse all the data collected in a study.

10.2 Hasil Pembelajaran

1. Mengintegrasi pelbagai sumber data./Integrating multiple sources of data.


2. Menghubungkaitkan data dengan literatur./Correlate the data with the literature.
3. Membuat rumusan data./Summarize the data.

10.3 Mengintegrasi pelbagai sumber data /Integrating multiple sources of data

Source data obtained from actual experience during the observation, interviews and analysis of
documents produced by students should be integrated so that all data can be translated into
meaningful insights. Areas of concern through action research is the sharing of information and
experience of the researchers involved to improve and enhance the program. Practice reflection
form the basis of the findings and reports of action research. Thus, when integrating data over
the experience and feeling of researchers, explaining the exact details necessary according to
personal investigators. In addition, researchers also need to submit the reasons that
researchers looking. Next, researchers need to make improvements to enhance the
effectiveness of teaching and learning process (PDP) or a running program.

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10.4 Menghubungkaitkan Data dengan Literatur/Data relate to the literature

Information is the result of data processing. This means that the data will only be information
that can be used to make a decision after the data is processed. The data will be more
meaningful if supported by the findings by reading literature from other researchers. Sometimes
conflicting research findings with the literature review findings of other researchers. This led to
the finding is not consistent with previous studies of reading. Therefore, the justification for new
research data should be strengthened as this may happen due to several factors such as
setting different respondents. Support the theoretical basis of the findings is needed.

10.5 Membuat rumusan data/Summarize the data.

10.5.1 Menyusun data./Compiling data.

If the data obtained is a little planning, data can be done manually, but if the amount is large, the
use of computer software needed to compile and analyze the data. For non-numerical data,
coding and categorization should be made to facilitate the transaction. A lot of data is good, but
sometimes can be difficult to understand if presented in a large data group. Therefore, data
identification must be made after the presentation of the report and implemented in order to
avoid the difficulty to understand the data presented. Benefits to the conclusion not only reduces
the amount of data that needs to be understood, but to improve the ability to build an
interpretation of the data.

10.5.2 Merumus data. Formulation data.

Before making any conclusions, the data needs to be cleaned by making a correction for the
qualitative data are unclear or inaccurate, which may interfere with the decision making process.
For example, there are male respondents who answered the question that was intended only for
female respondents only, or there are two answers to that question had an answer or response
beyond categories (pupils make their own answer because did not like the options available or
answers Other current while calling The answers are included in one of the categories provided.

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Next make a list of appropriate and made the comparison before entering the data into the
chart. Scheduling and various forms of graphical presentation (line, bar or pie) can be used to
get an overall picture more clearly. Graph must be complemented with data to make it more
bermakna.Data percentage in the table or in the form of a graph is easy to understand but do
not explain the whole story. Therefore, the formula also includes narrative interpretation dove
made of data that can be seen.

Rumusan/ SUMMARY

In this chapter we have learned how to parse all the data collected in a study. In addition, we
have also been learning about how to integrate data with personal experiences, and connecting
the data with the literature, as well as how to summarize data.

Exercise
Nyatakan kepentingan pengintegrasian data kepada kajian tindakan.

State the importance of the integration of data to study.

OLL
Buat satu jadual yang menunjukkan hubungan antara dapatan kajian dan literatur. Hantar
kepada pensyarah anda melalui OLL atau email.

Create a table that shows the relationship between the findings and the literature. Send to your
lecturers by OLL or email.

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TOPIC 11 WRITING ACTION RESEARCH REPORT

11.1 Sinopsis

This topic is structured to enable students to learn and understand how to write a research
report anything. Students will be guided to understand the format and content of the writing of
the report. This topic covers the context of the study, literature review, aspects of practice
improvement, action plans and implementation, data collection, analysis and description of data,
reflections and implications, and plans to follow up and referral sources in a specified format.

11.2 Learning Outcomes


i. Memperoleh kemahiran menulis laporan dan artikel penyelidikan tindakan.
Acquire the skills to write reports and articles on action research.

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11.3 Draft Framework for Title 11

Sumber rujukan: American


Psychological Association Konteks/ latar belakang kajian
(APA)
Context / background of the Tinjauan literatur
Source reference: American study
Psychological Association Review of the literature
(APA)

Fokus/ aspek amalan bagi


Pelan bagi tindakan susulan penambahbaikan

Plans for follow-up Focus / aspects of practice for


Writing a research
report improvement

Refleksi dan implikasi Writing a research


Reflections and implications
report
Writing a research
Pelan tindakan
report tindakan The action plan

Analisis dan huraian data

The description and analysis


Pelaksanaan pelan tindakan
of data
Implementation of action plan
Pengumpulan data

Data collection

11.4 Introduction Writing Action Research Report

Writing an action research report takes into account several aspects and important part to
ensure the reporting standards have been recognized by all. Writing should include items
specified in the framework of the above concepts. Writing descriptions are briefly described
below.

11.4.1 Context / Background Study

In action research, researchers should explain the context or background of the study whether
the study was made in the context of the classroom, school, or pedagogical practices in other
contexts more broadly.

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11.4.2 Literature Review

Review of the literature using the resources available, such as libraries, texts, journals, theses
and research reports, press releases, and others. Writing literature reviews should follow the
style and format of the American Psychology Association (APA), or certain pre-defined format.

11.4.3 Focus / The Practice of Improvement

The focus of the study should be clearly written on the focus problem. In writing the focus of the
study, the sample and the sample should be noted. For example:

Kajian ini berfokus kepada murid yang amat lemah dalam bacaan tulisan jawi walaupun
perkataan suku kata terbuka-terbuka.

11.4.4 Action Plan

Researchers should explain the process of research that has been conducted. This process
involves the strategies implemented by the issue being studied. For example, explain how the
conduct of students who can not differentiate alif alif lam lam the solar qamariah and reading the
Quran.

11.4.5 Implementation of Action Plan

Researchers need to explain all of the action steps that have been taken in relation to the
question of the review, including measures such as early reflections and get a review of the
literature on exercise dates. Enter also measures the performance of administrative actions
such as research tools, data collection and analysis, conduct surveys and remedial treatment or
intervention performed on samples to perform an action. Describe the method and type of data
collected (COACH and Shamsina, 2012).

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11.4.6 Data Collection

Researchers need to explain in detail the strategies and techniques used to collect data. For
example, observations, interviews, checklists, questionnaires or experiments. Appropriateness
of strategies and techniques depending on the purpose, situation and research skills. Three
data collection techniques should be used for the purpose of triangulation (COACH and
Shamsina, 2012).

11.4.7 Analisis dan Huraian Data/Analysis and Data Encryption

In this section, lay on a major new discoveries and inventions, followed by another. Explain
whether the hypotheses have been met or the findings do not support the hypothesis. Specify
how the data will be analyzed and interpreted. Does SPSS or NVivo use? The data is subject to
research whether qualitative or quantitative. All items mentioned the need to explain in detail
(COACH and Shamsina, 2012).

11.4.8 Refleksi dan Implikasi/Reflections and Implications

In this column, specify in detail how the reflections made to improve their own practices
or to improve their professionalism. State also the next steps to be taken if further
studies need to be done or a change needs to be done (COACH and Shamsina, 2012).

11.4.9 Pelan bagi Tindakan Susulan/Plan for Follow-Up

Researchers have clearly defined actions that can be performed by yourself or other
researchers. Plans for follow-up action is based on the findings or things that still need to be
improved or that they have not been studied, but are related to the current study.

11.4.10 Sumber Rujukan: American Psychological Association (APA)/ Sources: American


Psychological Association (APA)

All references used must be written in APA format. Some studies using specific reference
format that has been set.

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11.4.11 Summary
In total there are 10 parts that need to be addressed to ensure the quality of research reports.
The students have to expose themselves to undertake a study and make the writing standards
set.

Activity 11 Discussion
State strategies that can be used in data collection study.
Get some books and write down the referred content that shows you how to register a
source of reference.

OLL 11- Slaid
Individually, you are required to send the file in the form of a slide to your lecturer
about the elements that should be included in this study.

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TOPIC 12 ARTICLE WRITING IN ACTION RESEARCH

12.1 Sinopsis

This topic is structured to enable students to learn and understand how to write a research
article action. In this topic, students will be guided to understand the format and content of this
article which includes an abstract action research, the context, the focus of the study, an action
plan, the implementation of the action plan, the method of data collection, analysis and
description of the data, reflections and implications, follow-up and referral sources . Article
writing action research will expose students to the writing of a research article to be published or
broadcast. It is an important summary of the results of the full investigation.

12.2 Learning Outcomes


ii. Acquire the skills to write reports and articles on action research.

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12.2 Conceptual Framework Table Title 12

Sumber rujukan
Abstrak
reference
Abstract
Konteks
Context

Tindakan susulan
Penulisan Artikel
Penyelidikan
Follow-up Tindakan Fokus Kajian
Article Writing IN
Action Research
Research Focus

Refleksi dan implikasi

Reflections and Pelan tindakan


implications The action plan

Analisis dan huraian data

The description and analysis


Pelaksanaan pelan tindakan
of data
Implementation of action plan
Kaedah Pengumpulan data

Method of data collection

12.4 Introduction to Article Writing Action Research

Writing a research article should act in accordance with a predetermined format and content of
the order set. Things that need attention in the literature is discussed below.

12.4.1 Abstract.

Write a brief summary of the main points made in the research. Abstracts should contain a
research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis and
conclusions. The study may also be included, and future studies may be associated with the
findings. Abstract written in a paragraph with two lines. Summary written is approximately
between 150 to 250 words. Authors are also required to include the keywords that need to be
typed in this section by using italics. Summary placed before the first chapter of the report
(COACH and Shamsina, 2012).

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12.4.2 context

In the , action research article writing, the researcher should write context in which the study
was made either in the classroom, school, or in other contexts more broadly. It also involves
pedagogical practices or practice-Malan other education required to be disclosed.

12.4.3 Research Focus

State the focus of attention by the research problem. Samples and sample selection methods
should be specified also in the focus of the study. Examples of research focus are as follows:

This study focuses on the students who are less focused on memorization activity when
implemented.
12.4.4 Action Plan

Researchers should explain the process of research that has been conducted. Explanations can
be made in the form of a table showing the stages of implementation, along with the date and
time selected.

12.4.5 Implementation of Action Plan

Researchers need to explain all of the action steps related issues studied. Such measures
include measures such as early reflections based on past experience and review of the
literature. Implementation dates are reflections and get the literature should be mentioned. Enter
also measures the performance of administrative actions such as research tools, data collection
and analysis, conduct surveys and remedial treatment or intervention performed on samples to
perform an action. Data collection methods and data types should also be described.

12.4.6 Kaedah Pengumpulan Data/Method of Data Collection

Researchers need to explain how the data collected by the state as well as measurement tools.
Measuring instruments used in the study of the action is a test, survey observations, interviews,

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checklists or experiments. Strategies and techniques used to suit the purpose, situation and
research skills. To get a high validity, triangulation can be performed using at least three data
collection techniques.

12.4.7 Analisis dan Huraian Data/ Analysis and Data Encryption

In this section, expand on new discoveries or research results that were obtained in the last
cycle. According to the model of action research McKernan, each study must act through at
least two circles (Fish, 2010). Then followed by a presentation of the findings of others. Explain
whether the hypotheses have been met or the findings do not support the hypothesis. We
recommend that researchers should try to focus on a problem or issue in the study can be
completed. Therefore the study is likely to take longer and involve up to tens of circles.
According to experts and Shamsina (2012), researchers must specify how the data will be
analyzed and interpreted. Does SPSS or NVivo use? The data is subject to research whether
qualitative or quantitative.

12.4.8 Refleksi dan Implikasi / Reflections and Implications

Effects that occur in a positive research can still be improved even further. This can be done
through reflection that can help researchers identify weaknesses in diagnostic tests can not
detect specific weaknesses in students' (Fish, 2010).

Create reflections for each action step is executed. There is a possibility requires further
research should study the new problems or require more detailed study involving the new
variables, and so on. State also the implications for their own practice, as well as educational
institutions as a whole (COACH and Shamsina, 2012).

12.4.9 Tindakan Susulan / Follow up

By reflections and implications for researchers to write ideas to address retention problems
understanding anyway, and this will lead to another round of new research that needs to be
planned for the next action (Fish, 2010). Researchers have clearly defined actions that can be
performed by yourself or other researchers. Plans for follow-up action is based on the findings

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or things that still need to be improved or that they have not been studied, but are related to the
current study.

12.4.10 Sumber Rujukan/ references

Referral sources are the same as in other investigations, such as journals, books, magazines,
the Internet and many others. Any reference to using printed materials or electronic books either
be included in the reference list. All references used must be written in APA format.

12.4.11 Rumusan/summary

To produce a good article and interesting read, the students not only in the format stated
otherwise above, but the language and preparations need to attract and structured.

Aktiviti 12 Perbincangan
Dalam kumpulan, bincangkan bagaimana anda akan menganalisis dan menghurai data
kajian yang akan dilaksanakan.
In a group, discuss how you will analyze and explain the data that will be
implemented.

OLL 12 Words
Secara individu, anda dikehendaki menghantar fail dalam bentuk words kepada
pensyarah anda tentang bagaimana menulis refleksi dan implikasi dalam kajian tindakan.

Individually, you are required to send the file in the form of words to your lectures about
how to write reflections and implications of the study.

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TOPIC 13 CARA-CARA MENYEBARKAN DATA PENYELIDIKAN TINDAKAN


HOW TO SPREAD THE ACTION RESEARCH DATA.

13.1 Sinopsis

This topic is structured to enable students to learn and understand how to deploy the action
research data. Students will be guided to understand the ways of dissemination through
seminars, publications and networking.

13.2 Hasil Pembelajaran / Learning Outcomes.

1. Acquire the skills to write reports and articles on action research.


2. Explains how to disseminate such data action research findings.

13.3 Framework of Topic 8

Spread the Action Research Data

Seminar Publication /Chain/network

13.4 Introduction on how to spread the action research data

Ways of distributing data action research can be carried out by several methods. The method
described below.

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13.4.1 Seminar

Educational seminars are educational activities that are often held in Malaysia. Through
seminars and workshops, papers and research findings will be presented to be shared to the
participants. Papers and research findings will be debated and subsequently distributed to the
gaze of the participants (experts and Shamsina, 2012).
.

13.4.2 Penerbitan/ publications

There are many publications that include the results of educational research and action
research to individual researchers or teachers either within or outside the country of issue.
Researchers can publish their research findings in the journals concerned. Among the
institutions that actively publish research findings in education is a local university, the Institute
of Teacher Education and the Department of Education states (COACH and Shamsina, 2012).

13.4.3 Rangkaian/Chain/network

Action Research Network is a tool that has been designed for teachers in their career field and
also for the students to be able to share the research that has been done and provides a view of
the findings that have been obtained by other researchers. This site provides an online template
to be filled in by the researcher. Information provided will enable the operator (web master) to
document the various aspects of the research that has been done (COACH and Shamsina,
2012).

13.4.4 Summary

Transmission of data is important to publicize the findings of the investigation so that it can be
shared and criticized by readers and other researchers. Such partnerships can generate a new
idea that can be used as a guide for future research than the data can be used to guide the
operations or practices.

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Aktiviti 12 Perbincangan
Dalam kumpulan, bincangkan bagaimana anda akan menganalisis dan menghurai data
kajian yang akan dilaksanakan.

In a group, discuss how you will analyze and explain the data that will be
implemented.

OLL 12 Oline
Secara individu, anda dikehendaki menulis secara online kepada pensyarah anda tentang
bagaimana penyebaran data dapat dilaksanakan secara berkesan.

Individually, you are required to write online to your lecturer about how the distribution of data
can be effectively implemented.

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