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Procedures and Guidelines Page 1 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

Table of Contents

2.4.2 Scale Effect Corrections for


1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Propeller Characteristics.................6
Method .................................................... 2 2.4.3 Full Scale Wake and Operating
Condition of Propeller ....................7
1. PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE.............. 2 2.4.4 Model-Ship Correlation Factor ......8
2. DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE .... 2 3. VALIDATION .......................................9
2.1 Introduction .......................................... 2 3.1 Uncertainty Analysis ............................9
2.2 Definition of the Variables ................... 2 3.2 Comparison with Full Scale Results ...9
2.3 Analysis of the Model Test Results ..... 3
2.4 Full Scale Predictions ........................... 4 4. REFERENCES ......................................9
2.4.1 Total Resistance of Ship................. 4

Edited by Approved

Special Committee for Powering Performance


25th ITTC 2008
Prediction of 25th ITTC 2008

Date 05/2008 Date 09/2008


ITTC Recommended 7.5 02
03 01.4
Procedures and Guidelines Page 2 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method

CFC Frictional resistance coefficient


1. PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE
at the temperature of the self
The procedure gives a general description propulsion test
of an analytical method to predict delivered CNP Trial correction for propeller
power and rate of revolutions for single and rate of revolution at power
twin screw ships from model test results. identity
CP Trial correction for delivered
power
2. DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE CN Trial correction for propeller
rate of revolution at speed
2.1 Introduction identity
CR Residual resistance coefficient
The method requires respective results of CT Total resistance coefficient
a resistance test, a self propulsion test and the D Propeller diameter
characteristics of the model propeller used FD Skin friction correction in self
during the self propulsion test, propulsion test
J Propeller advance coefficient
The method generally is based on thrust JT Propeller advance coefficient
identity which is recommended to be used to achieved by thrust identity
predict the performance of a ship. It is sup- JQ Propeller advance coefficient
posed that the thrust deduction factor and the achieved by torque identity
relative rotative efficiency calculated for the KT Thrust coefficient
model remain the same for the full scale ship KQ Torque coefficient
whereas on all other coefficients corrections KQT Torque coefficient achieved by
for scale effects are applied. thrust identity
k Form factor
In some special cases torque identity kP Propeller blade roughness
(power identity) may be used, see section NP Number of propellers
2.4.4. n Propeller rate of revolution
nT Propeller rate of revolution,
2.2 Definition of the Variables corrected using correlation fac-
tor
CA Correlation allowance P Propeller pitch
CAA Air resistance coefficient PD, PP Delivered Power, propeller
CApp Appendage resistance coeffi- power
cient PDT Delivered Power, corrected
CD Drag coefficient using correlation factor
CF Frictional resistance coefficient
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Procedures and Guidelines Page 3 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

PE, PR Effective power, resistance


power 2.3 Analysis of the Model Test Results
Q Torque
RC Resistance corrected for tem- The calculation of the residual resistance
perature differences between coefficient CR from the model resistance test
resistance- and self propulsion results is found in the procedure for resistance
test test (7.5-02-02-01).
Re Reynolds number
RT Total resistance Thrust TM, and torque QM, measured in the
S Wetted surface self-propulsion tests are expressed in the non-
SBK Wetted surface of bilge keels dimensional forms as in the procedure for
T Propeller thrust propulsion test (7.5-02-03-01.1).
t Thrust deduction factor
V Ship speed TM QM
VA Propeller advance speed KTM = and K QM =
M DM4 nM2 M DM5 nM2
w Taylor wake fraction in general
wQ Taylor wake fraction, torque Using thrust identity with KTM as input data,
identity JTM and KQTM are read off from the model pro-
wR Effect of the rudder(s) on the peller open water diagram, and the wake frac-
wake fraction tion
wT Taylor wake fraction, thrust
identity J TM D M
Z Number of propeller blades wTM = 1
VM
Appendage scale effect factor
CF roughness allowance
and the relative rotative efficiency
CFC Individual correction term for
roughness allowance KQTM
wC Individual correction term for R =
wake KQM
D Propulsive efficiency or quasi-
propulsive coefficient are calculated. VM is model speed.
H Hull efficiency
0 Propeller open water efficiency Using torque identity with KQM as input
R Relative rotative efficiency data, JQM is read off from the model propeller
Water density in general open water diagram, and the wake fraction

Subscript M signifies the model J QM D M


wQM = 1
Subscript S signifies the full scale ship VM

VM is model speed.

In case of using torque identity the relative


rotative efficiency
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Procedures and Guidelines Page 4 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

R = 1.0 The form factor k and the total resistance


coefficient for the model CTM are determined
The thrust deduction is obtained from as described in the ITTC standard procedure
7.5-02-02-01.
TM + FD RC
t= The correlation factor for the calculation
TM
of the resistance has been separated from the
where FD is the towing force actually applied roughness allowance. The roughness allow-
in the propulsion test. RC is the resistance ance CF per definition describes the effect of
corrected for differences in temperature be- the roughness of the hull on the resistance.
tween resistance and self-propulsion tests: The correlation factor CA is supposed to allow
for all effects not covered by the prediction

RC =
(1 + k ).CFMC + CR R method, mainly uncertainties of the tests and
the prediction method itself and the assump-
(1 + k ).CFM + CR TM tions made for the prediction method. The
separation of CF from CA was proposed by
where CFMC is the frictional resistance coeffi- the Performance Prediction Committee of the
cient at the temperature of the self-propulsion 19th ITTC. This is essential to allow for the
test. effects of newly developed hull coating sys-
tems.
2.4 Full Scale Predictions
The 19th ITTC also proposed a modified
2.4.1 Total Resistance of Ship formula for CA that excludes roughness al-
lowance, which is now given in this proce-
The total resistance coefficient of a ship dure.
without bilge keels is
- CF is the roughness allowance
CTS = (1 + k )CFS + CF + CA + CR + CAAS k 3
1

1
C F = 0.044 S 10 Re 3 + 0.000125
LWL
where
where kS indicates the roughness of
-k is the form factor determined from the hull surface. When there is no meas-
resistance test, see ITTC standard pro- ured data, the standard value of
cedure 7.5-02-02-01. kS=15010-6 m can be used.

- CFS is the frictional resistance coefficient - CA is the correlation allowance.


of the ship according to the ITTC- CA is determined from comparison of
1957 model-ship correlation line model and full scale trial results.
When using the roughness allowance
- CR is the residual resistance coefficient as above, the 19th ITTC recommended
calculated from the total and frictional using
resistance coefficients of the model in
the resistance tests:
CA = (5.68 0.6 log Re) 103

CR = CTM (1 + k )CFM
ITTC Recommended 7.5 02
03 01.4
Procedures and Guidelines Page 5 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

to give values of CF+CA that ap- SS + S BK


CTS = [(1 + k )CFS + CF + CA ] + CR + CAAS
proximates the values of CF of the SS
original 1978 ITTC method. It is rec- + CAppS
ommended that each institution main-
tains their own model-full scale corre- There is not only one recommended
lation. See section 2.4.4 for a further method of scaling appendage resistance to full
discussion on correlation. scale. The following alternative methods are
well established:
- CAAS is the air resistance coefficient in full
scale 1) Scaling using a fixed fraction:
1 A CAppS = (1 ) CAppM
CAAS = AVS2CDA VS
2 SS
where (1-) is a constant in the range
where, AVS is the projected area of the 0.6-1.0.
ship above the water line to the trans-
verse plane, SS is the wetted surface 2) Calculating the drag of each append-
area of the ship, A is the air density, age separately, using local Reynolds
and CDA is the air drag coefficient of number and form factor.
the ship above the water line. CDA can n
Si
be determined by wind tunnel model CAppS = (1 wi ) 2 (1 + ki ) C FSi
tests or calculations. Values of CDA are i =1 SS
typically in the range 0.5-1.0, where
where index i refers to the number of
0.8 can be used as a default value.
the individual appendices. wi is the
If the ship is fitted with bilge keels of wake fraction at the position of ap-
modest size, the total resistance is estimated pendage i. ki is the form factor of ap-
as follows: pendage i. CFSi is the frictional resis-
tance coefficient of appendage i, and Si
SS + S BK
CTS = [(1 + k )CFS + CF + CA ] + CR + CAAS is the wetted surface area of appendage
SS i. Note that the method is not scaling
where SBK is the wetted surface area of the the model appendage drag, but calcu-
bilge keels. lating the full scale appendage drag.
The model appendage drag, if known
When the model appendage resistance is from model tests, can be used for the
separated from the total model resistance, as determination of e.g. the wake frac-
described as an option in the ITTC Standard tions wi. Values of the form factor ki
Procedure 7.5-02-02-01, the full scale ap- can be found from published data for
pendage resistance needs to be added, and the generic shapes, see for instance Ho-
formula for total resistance (with bilge keels) erner (1965) or Kirkman and Kletsli
becomes: (1980).
ITTC Recommended 7.5 02
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Procedures and Guidelines Page 6 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

2.4.2 Scale Effect Corrections for Propeller KQS = KQM KQ


Characteristics.
where
The characteristics of the full-scale propeller P cZ
are calculated from the model characteristics as KT = CD 0.3
follows: D D
cZ
KTS = KTM KT KQ = CD 0.25
D
ITTC Recommended 7.5 02
03 01.4
Procedures and Guidelines Page 7 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

The difference in drag coefficient CD is The wake scale effect of twin screw ships
with open sterns is usually small, and for such
CD = CDM CDS ships it is common to assume wTS = wTM.

where For twin skeg-like stern shapes a wake cor-


rection is recommended. A correction like the
one used for single screw ships may be used.
t 0.044 5
C DM = 2 1 + 2 1 2
c (Rec 0 )6 (Rec 0 )3 The load of the full-scale propeller is ob-
tained from
and
KT S CTS
2.5 = S2
t c J 2
2 DS (1 t ) (1 wTS ) 2 N P
CDS = 2 1 + 2 1.89 + 1.62 log
c kP
where NP is the number of propellers.
In the formulae listed above c is the chord
length, t is the maximum thickness, P/D is the With this K T / J 2 as input value the full
pitch ratio and Rec0 is the local Reynolds num- scale advance coefficient JTS and the torque
ber with Kempfs definition at the open-water coefficient KQTS are read off from the full scale
test. They are defined for the representative propeller characteristics and the following
blade section, such as at r/R=0.75. kP denotes quantities are calculated.
the blade roughness, the standard value of
- the rate of revolutions:
which is set kP=3010-6 m. Rec0 must not be
(1 wTS ) VS
lower than 2105. nS = (r/s)
J TS DS

2.4.3 Full Scale Wake and Operating Condi- - the delivered power of each propeller:
tion of Propeller K
PDS = 2 S DS5nS3 QTS 10 3 (kW)
The full-scale wake is calculated by the fol- R
lowing formula using the model wake fraction
wTM, and the thrust deduction fraction t obtained - the thrust of each propeller:
as the analysed results of self-propulsion test: K
TS = T2 J T2S S DS4nS2 (N)
J
(1 + k )CFS + CF
wTS = (t + wR ) + ( wTM t wR )
(1 + k )CFM - the torque of each propeller:
K QTS
where wR stands for the effect of rudder on the QS = S DS5 nS2 (Nm)
wake fraction. If there is no estimate for wR, the R
standard value of 0.04 can be used.
- the effective power:
If the estimated wTS is greater than wTM, wTS 1
should be set as wTM. PE = CTS SVS3 SS 10 3 (kW)
2
ITTC Recommended 7.5 02
03 01.4
Procedures and Guidelines Page 8 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

- the total efficiency: In such a case the finally trial predicted


N P trial data are calculated as follows:
D = P DS
PE
KT S CTS + CFC
= S2
- the hull efficiency: J 2
2 DS (1 t ) (1 wTS + wC ) 2 N P
1 t
H = With this KT/J as input value, JTS and KQTS
1 wTS
are read off from the full scale propeller char-
acteristics and the following is calculated:
(1 wTS + wC ) VS
2.4.4 Model-Ship Correlation Factor nT = (r/s)
J TS DS
The model-ship correlation factor should be K
based on systematic comparison between full PDT = 2 S DS5nT3 QTS 10 3 (kW)
R
scale trial results and predictions from model
scale tests. Thus, it is a correction for any sys-
tematic errors in model test and powering pre- (3) Prediction of full scale rates of revolutions
diction procedures, including any facility bias. and delivered power by use of a CNP correction
In the following, several different alternative
concepts of correlation factors are presented as For prediction with emphasis on stator fins
suggestions. It is left to each member organisa- and rudder effects, it is sometimes recom-
tions to derive their own values of the correla- mended to use power identity for the predic-
tion factor(s), taking into account also the actual tion of full scale rates of revolution.
value used for CA.
At the point of KT-(J)-Identity the condi-
(1) Prediction of full scale rates of revolutions tion is reached where the ratio between the
and delivered power by use of the CP - CN propeller induced velocity and the entrance
correction factors velocity is the same for the model and the full
scale ship. Ignoring the small scale effect KT
Using CP and CN the finally predicted trial on the thrust coefficient KT it follows that J-
data will be calculated from identity correspond to KT- and CT-identity. As
nT = CN nS (r/s) a consequence it follows that for this condition
the axial flow field in the vicinity of the pro-
for the rates of revolutions and peller is on average correctly simulated in the
model experiment. Also the axial flow of the
PDT = CP PDS (kW)
propeller slip stream is on average correctly
for the delivered power. simulated. Due to the scale effects on the pro-
peller blade friction, which affect primarily the
torque, the point of KQ-identity (power iden-
(2) Prediction of full scale rates of revolutions tity) represents a slightly less heavily loaded
and delivered power by use of CFC - wC propeller than at J-, KT- and CT-identity. At the
corrections power identity the average rotation in the slip-
stream corresponds to that of the actual ship
and this condition is regarded as important if
ITTC Recommended 7.5 02
03 01.4
Procedures and Guidelines Page 9 of 9
Performance, Propulsion
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Effective Date Revision
2008 01
Method

tests on stator fins and/or rudders are to be done 3.2 Comparison with Full Scale Results
correctly.
The data that led to 1978 ITTC perform-
In this case, the shaft rate of revolutions is ance prediction method can be found in the
predicted on the basis of power identity as fol- following ITTC proceedings:
lows:
(1) Proposed Performance Prediction Factors
KQ 1000 CP PDS for Single Screw Ocean Going Ships
3 =
J T 2 S DSVS (1 wTS )
2 3 3
(13th 1972 pp.155-180) Empirical Power
Prediction Factor ( 1+X )
KQ 0 K
3
= Q3 RM (2) Propeller Dynamics Comparative Tests
J J T
(13th 1972 pp.445-446 )
(1 wTS ) VS
nS = (3) Comparative Calculations with the ITTC
J TS DS
Trial Prediction Test Programme
nT = CNP nS (14th 1975 Vol.3 pp.548-553)

(4) Factors Affecting Model Ship Correlation


(17th 1984 Vol.1 pp274-291)

4. REFERENCES
3. VALIDATION
(1) Hoerner, S.F. (1965) Fluid-Dynamic
3.1 Uncertainty Analysis Drag. Published by the author.
Not yet available (2) Kirkman, K.L., Kletsli, J.W. (1980)
Scaling Problems of model appendages,
19th American Towing Tank Conference,
Ann Arbor, Michigan