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By: Cikgu Ambrose

Soalan ini berada di dalam Section B. Cadangan dan alasan dalam soalan ini juga boleh digunakan di dalam Soalan
Section C Making Decision. Dengan contoh yang diberikan ini akan berupaya meningkatkan kemahiran berfikir
pelajar di dalam membuat modifikasi dan membuat keputusan bagi situasi yang diberikan di dalam soalan


1. Suitable ruler to use in laboratory

Suggestion Explanation
Smallest size scale 0.1 cm More accurate
High accuracy Less error in measurement
High consistency Low relative deviations
Plastic material Avoid parallax error
Thin thickness Avoid parallax error


2. Explain the suitability feature of arm exercise equipment.

Suggestion Explanation
Spring made of steel Can withstand higher force
Two // more spring arrange in parallel The spring system is stiffer
Spring with ticker wire Wire will not easily break
Smaller diameter coil of spring The smaller the diameter coil less elastic the spring, so the arm
exercise would not so hard
Choose large force constant spring Will make strong spring, the spring will stiffer and not broken

3. Suggest the suitable cloth , equipment and techniques to improve high jumper athlete and their safety .

suggestion Explanation
Use tight and light suit Less air fraction
Use spikes shoes Better grip support while running and prevent slippery
Use thicker mattress Increase time impact , reduce impulsive force . prevent back
The athlete have to sprint before jump Can increase kinetic energy
Athlete have to bend the body during fall Increase the time impact , reduce impulsive force

4. Explain the characteristic of spring to make babys cradle.

Suggestion Explanation
Choose large force constant spring Will make strong spring, the spring will stiffer and not broken
Choose large diameter of wire The larger diameter the stiffer the spring is.
Large diameter coil of spring The larger the diameter coil more elastic the spring is
The spring is made of steel or alloy Steel and alloy is stiffer than iron
The arrangement of spring is two or more line in The spring is stiffer

5. Explain the most suitable design of spring for shock absorber for motorcycles.

Suggestion Explanation
Small diameter of spring coil Enough space for the spring
Choose large diameter of wire The larger the diameter the stiffer the spring
Force constant is more than 1000N Can support motorcyclist and passenger up to 100kg
Higher spring constant Small compression of the spring
Small natural frequency To reduce bumping, comfortable for user
By: Cikgu Ambrose

6. Explain the simple characteristic of the rocket than can travel with greater acceleration.

Suggestions Explanations
Choose metal with high strength and hardness Even under pressure the shape will not change easily
Frame of rocket is made of low density metal Lighter, can increase acceleration
Multistage rocket invented Each stage has burning fuel, pump and combustion chamber. It
will slip off when fuel of each chamber completely burn. When
the mass decreases, the acceleration increase
Rocket need to carry a tank of oxygen To enable the combustion of fuel in space
Silver color rocket Reflect light efficiently so the temperature of the rocket will
not rise
Cover the body of rocket with heat insulator Friction between air and body will increase heat. The insulator
will reduce heat conductivity
Aerodynamic shape Reduce air friction, move faster

7. Suggest and explain the build of water bottle rocket in school competition to move higher altitude and has
longer time on the air.

Suggestions Explanations
The body of rocket must be tough Do not break easily in high pressure and when landing
Smaller mass Rocket will accelerate faster
The shape is streamline/aerodynamic Reduce air resistance
Nose cone or bullet shape on top of body To improve the aerodynamic of rocket
45 angle of launching The rocket can travel maximum distance
The volume of water is half or 1/3 from the To increase momentum and impulsive force
whole volume
Attach 3 or 4 fins at the tail of rocket space Rocket will move smooth and stable
Attach parachute will make the rocket floating and has longer time on the air
before landing//decrease the speed of falling due to air

8. Give suggestion to improve the design of jet engine so that it can be use for larger airplane at the higher speed.

Suggestions Explanations
Increase more fuel injectors More fuel to be burnt to produce greater force
Increase the size of the combustion chamber More space for fuel to burnt
Decrease the diameter of the nozzle Exhaust gas ejected at higher velocity
Increase the speed of blade/use bigger blade Increase the air intake
Blade and engine made of strong materials Can withstand strong pressure and wont break easily

9. Base on the physic principle, suggest the design of roller skate track so it can be use to oscillate skate

Suggestions Explanations
Semi circular curve shape Exchange between kinetic energy and gravitational potential
Smooth surface Reduce frictional force/easy to slide
The slope slightly increase and decrease Easy to oscillates cause by changing of energy
Use strong material such concrete of foundation Withstand high impact such as high force of jumping and
of the track landing
Soft layer at the surface Reduce impulsive force when landing, low risk if accident

10. Explain the most suitable design of motorcycle that can move fast, safe and save time in racing.

Suggestions Explanations
Lower seat height Lower center of gravity or more stable or safer to turn.
Bigger width of tire Bigger surface area, better support or low pressure acts on the
tires or more friction when breaks.
Less thread pattern To decrease friction of tires to the road, can move fast
Smaller mass Lighter, can move faster or low inertia
By: Cikgu Ambrose

With ABS Motorcycle does not stop immediately or can be controlled if

direction changes or does not move sideways or more friction
with ABS

11. Suggest and explain how to make suitable beach motorcycle which able to move on the sand smoothly and

Suggestions Explanations
Deep thread patter // more definitive pattern Better grip on sand, able to move smoothly on sand
Large tire (big surface contact with ground) Reduce total pressure of car, increase stability and the car would
not get stuck in the sand
Soft seat and water resistance Comfortable for cycles and would not get wet easily
Excellent resistance to rusting Everlasting. Would not rust easily
Attach shock absorber with higher spring Reduce bumping, comfortable to cycle with
constant and small natural frequency.
Low density body Lighter, would not stuck in sand

12. Suggest the suitable cloth and the best techniques to catch ball to prevent injury for goalkeeper.

Suggestion Explanations
Wear glove Reduce painful of the players hands when touching the ball
with big impulsive force.
Use soft material for glove Lengthen the time impact, reduce impulsive force.
Wear cloth which is made from material with The cloth can absorb more heat when the player is sweating to
moderate specific heat capacity maintain the temperature of player.
Base of shoes has stud Player give great pressure to make stud sink into ground and
give stronger support without slipping.
When catching the ball, the goal keeper should This action lengthen the time impact between ball and hand, so
move his hand backwards it reduce the impulsive force.
The ball should have enough air pressure inside Shorter the time impact between foot and ball, so impulsive
force increase then the ball will has high speed and travel far

13. Using physics concept, suggest and explain suitable athletes attires, running, jumping, landing techniques and
other aspects to help the long jumper can jump further.

Suggestion Explanation
Use tight and light suit Less air friction
Use spike shoes Better grip support while running and prevent slippery
The athlete have to sprint before jump Can increase the kinetic energy//momentum
The athlete have to push the body infront while Increase the elastic potential energy//able to increase longer
jumping distance of jumping
Athlete have to bent the body during fall Increase the time impact, reduce impulsive force, less injured

14. Safety feature in car

Characteristic Explanation
The bumper of car is prone to crash It will increase the time impact, the impulsive force will reduce
The sitting space of the passenger is reinforced To protect the passenger
Use safety belt During collision, safety belt will hold the passengers from
thrown infront due to inertia
Use air bag Will inflate when accident occurs, the driver safe from hitting
Antilock breaking system(ABS) Allow car to stop quickly on slippery road and prevent from
Strong steel struts Give good protection from side on collision
Tire with tread Can stays contact with road, prever slippery
By: Cikgu Ambrose

15. Explain the suitable loaded lorry which can carry liquid, such as petrol

Suggestion Explanation
The load of lorry should be divided into many To reduce effect of inertia
smaller tank
The load must be tied So it will no fall of from the lorry
Far gap distances between tractor and trailer Prevent collision between tractor and trailer, easier when
Use more tire for lorry Pressure will be separate to all tires, able to carry more loads.
Lower pressure better support and stability
Small belt behind lorry To discharge spark, safety reason to prevent from burning the
Use antilock break system (ABS) The lorry can stop easily without skidding

16. Explain the design of and how kayak which can travel faster and safer.

Suggestion Explanation
Streamline /aerodynamic shape of body Reduce water resistance
Smooth surface body /coated with wax Reduce friction of body towards water
Low density material Lighter , easier to float, easy to carry and sail faster
Strong material body and peddle Everlasting , not easily broken
Wider peddle surface Greater force because more water are peddled up
Wear safety jacket Passenger can float and safe if they fall into water.

17. Give suggestion to design a sail boat which can travel faster and smooth.

Suggestion Explanation
Streamline /aerodynamic shape of board Reduce water and air resistance,can increase lifting
Smooth surface board/coated with wax Reduce friction toward water
Low density material Lighter, easier to float and sail faster
Strong material Withstand strong wind, not easily damage
Wider sail Greater lifting force because more wind are captured

18. Modified the ship that can carry more and heavier load, move faster and safe while travelling.

Suggestion Explanation
Strong material Can withstand great force
Low density material Light weight
Has more than two stage,plimsoll line Safe to travel on the fresh and salt water
Big size Can place more goods
Aerodynamic/streamline shape Reduce water friction.
Waterproof sail Sail would not get e=wet easily.

19. Suggest how to increase the safety for motorbike racer to reduce injuries / accident

Suggestion Explanation
Use helmet To protect the head
Use helmet with hard outer casing and soft Helmet reduce head injuries in a crash by spreading the
inner liner impact with hard outer casing and absorb energy with soft
inner linear of styrofoam
Use safety jacket To protect the from injuries , cut ,burn
Use gloves To protect the hand
Use padded leathers suit Will soften any impact and protect the skin from abrasion
By: Cikgu Ambrose

20. An earth-monitoring satellite falls into the earths atmosphere at a high velocity and reaches a high
temperature. This is caused by the earths gravitational force and air resistance.Using the appropriate physics
concepts, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to protect the satellite and its equipment:

Suggestion Explanation
Aerodynamic shape To reduce air resistance
Heat shield / material that is hard to burn To protect the capsule
High melting point //ceramic Do not melt
Landing in water // air bag Increase time of impact// Reduce impulsive force
Light material / / small mass // low density -Reduce the inertia // -reduce the momentum //
-reduce impuls
Paracute / /Retro rocket To reduce speed
Hard material // stiff composite Not easy to bend

21. Explain how you would design the pile driving system.[the ram hammer is lifted to a height by the crane and
allowed to fall on the pile.

Modification Reason
Large hammer weight Large momentum when it hit the pile
Ram hammer made from hard material such as Not break easily/last longer
Hammer raised at higher position Inrease the gravitational potential energy
Stronger End of the top of the concrete pile To avoid break at the top couse by the hammer
Sharp End of the bottom of the concrete pile To increase the pressure


22. Efficient brake system

Suggestions Explanations
Type of liquid: oil Uncompressible
Thickness of brake line :high To counter the high pressure from the liquid
The ratio of cross sectional area for wheel piston To produce larger force on wheel piston
and master piston :high
The chosen of type of brake for front rear wheel: Disc brake is more efficient than drum brake
Front wheel - disc
Rear wheel - drum

23. Explain the design of hydrometer which can be use to determine a wide range of densities of liquid.

Suggestions Explanations
Small stem and long Increase sensitivity where the scale division are far apart so that
small changes in density can be detected
Glass wall Do not erode and small adhesive force
Large diameter of bulb High up thrust / displaces more liquid / able to float easily
Scale can be made bigger or smaller than the Ability to measure a wide range of densities of liquids.
density of water.[calibration]
- The hydrometer is floated in alcohol. The
liquid level at the stem is marked (upper
- Then, the hydrometer is floated in higher
density liquid like mercury and marked
(lower level)
Lead shots Hydrometer can stay upright
By: Cikgu Ambrose

24. Describe the suitable design to build mobile tent for Sure Heboh event which will be construct at open space
for a week. Using appropriate physics concept, suggests and explain.

Suggestion Explanation
Choose low density metal for frame Light weight and strong
Use hollow rod which can assemble easily Hollow rod is not heavy, but equally strong, easy to mobile
anywhere, faster to build, can reduce the cost of
construction and transport
Water proof canvas If raining, would not getting wet
Anti rust rod Can withstand rain and long lasting
Sharp end rod Small surface area, so higher pressure to ground, yet the
tent can be planted into ground firmly and stand still

25. Explain the necessary modification for the structure of dentist chair for children that are suitable and save for
the adult.

Suggestion Explanation
Increase the cross-sectional area of big piston and To increase the output force acting on big piston / to lift
decrease the cross-sectional area of small piston havier adult / to increase force multiplier of system
The wall of pipe is made up of strong alloy to hold To withstand the strong pressure that might cause cracking
the fluid in the channel
Change the less control into electric touch control To lift or lowered the chair to the desire weight more easily
and safety
The surface area of the seat enlarged To support the people with the large bodies
Use non-corrosive oil in jack So that the wall of the pipe will not be controlled and cause

26. Explain the build and design of hot air ballon wich can fly higher altitude faster and suggest some safety aspect.

Suggestion Explanation
Large ballon Produce bigger buoyant / upthrust force, increase the
volume of air displacement
Many hot air burner Heat up the gas inside faster
Synthetic nylon ballon Air proof, light weight and strong material
Gas temperature is high Reduce the density of air in ballon
Total of mass is low Ballon move upward faster
Rattan basket Longer the time impact, reduce the impulsive force to
passanger when landing
Fly on early morning or late afternoon The temperature outside the ballon is cooler compare to
the inside of ballon, so the ballon will rise higher

27. Explain the basic structure of small submarine that can be use for underwater exploration.

Suggestion Explanation
Strong material Does not break easily
Aerodynamic shape Reduce water resistance
Thick wall Water pressure increase with depth
High density materials Increase mass / can submerge easily
Ballast tank To increase or reduce weight
Sonar transmitter and receiver To estimate and depth

28. Suggest the design of submarine which can submerge and float in the sea.

Suggestion Explanation
Ballast tank are partially filled with water The submarine will partially float
Aerodynamic // streamline body To reduce water resistance
Use hard and stiff materials for body To overcome the pressure of water in the sea
Attach periscope To view surrounding area when submarine float
Use nuclear power sources to generate power Cheap and lasting power
By: Cikgu Ambrose

29. Explain the characteristic of material to be use for making the sole of jungle trekking shoes.

Suggestion Explanation
Rubber sole Good impact absorber
Low density Light weight
Many stud Give extra grip
Low expansion effect Not loose easily
Excellent ability of stretch Comfortable to feet, foot can move unstressed

30. Using physics concept, explain necessary deep sea diving suit and other accessory to carry.

Suggestion Explanation
Choose strong helmet with thick metal and glass to To withstand high pressure of water and protect the head
cover head
Use thick glass in front of diver face Enable the diver to see surrounding and at the same time
able to withstand the pressureof water

Use water proof suit and able to withstand pressure Due to depth, the pressure under water is very high

Bring along gas containing mixture of oxygen To provide oxygen to diver for breath

Use very heavy suit The diver enable to stand on the floor of ocean and able to
fight buoyancy of water

31. Modified the passanger airplane to cargo airplane that needs to carry more laod, less use of fuel, effenciency
and safety to travel.

Suggestion Explanation
Increase the size of the body To increase the space
Increase the length of the wing To increase the upthrust
Increase the thickness of the body To stand higher pressure difference
Use a more powerful engine To overcome bigger inertia and do more work per unit time
Increase the number of tyres To support higher mass or pressure while landing
Protective bar between the cabin and the pilot To prevent moving object to knock at the pilot while
Pilot has ejected seat during emergency To save the pilot if plane crash happened

32. Design Vacuum Cleaner

Suggestion Explanation
Large fan driven Inrease the spped and amaunt of airflows
Powerfull of lectric motor Inrease the spped and amaunt of airflows
Narrower inlet opening Inrease the velocity/decrease air pressure
Using a very large filter to block dust particles while To have a lots of surface area and many pores for air to
allowing air moleculs to pass through flow through
Larger spaced for depositing and collecting the dust Ensure that the air flows through the filter is not block by
particles too many dust particles

33. Design paint sprayer

Suggestion Explanation
Large size of air vessel Compress more air/can exert large pressure
Rubber material for the vessel More elastic/easier to squeeze
Narrow shape of the tube Air can move with high speed
Fibre glass material for the rod Stronger and last longer
Size of nozzle is narrow at the end The paint can be sprayed evenly
By: Cikgu Ambrose

34. Design hidraulic jack

Suggestion Explanation
Bigger crossectional area of slave piston(big piston) Produced higher force
Small crossectional area of master piston(small Less forced is needed/produced bigger pressurre
Longer handle Less forced is needed to press small piston(master
Low density of a body Lighter
Oil for liquid Non-compressable
Release valve between small and main Liquid can flows into small reservoir easily when push
reservoir(reset) the reset button.

35. Design hydrometer

Suggestion Explanation
Bulb with lead shot at the lower section To submerge the hydrometer and not overturn
Cylinder with bigger diameter at the bottom not overturn/increase stability
Cylinder with smaller diameter at the upper section A small reading scale can be incorporated/inrease the
Smaller scale inrease the sensitivity
Filled with air Inrease the beyoncy force
Glass wall Not corrode easily


36. Most suitable design of thermometer to use in Antarctica

Suggestion Explanation
Use alcohol as liquid in glass thermometer Freezing point of alcohol is -115oC .So , it will not freeze
at low temperature
Use thin wall of bulb So it will sensitive to the change of heat
Use small diameter of capillary tube Alcohol can expand at high rate for the small change in
Use thick glass wall The loss of heat to surrounding is small
Use round glass stem Can act as magnifying glass , so the alcohol level can be
seen clearer

37. Most suitable design of clinical thermometer

Suggestion Explanation
Use mercury Easy to read because it colour and opaque
The scale range from 35oC to 42oC To measure human body heat
Small diameter of capillary tube// extra fine bore Mercury can expand at high rate for a small change in
tube temperature
Use thin glass wall of bulb Sensitive to change of temperature
Use round glass stem and wall Can act as ,magnifying glass. So, mercury can be seen

38. Explain the design and the characteristics of the cooking pan

Suggestion Explanation
Base is made of a copper Copper has a lower heat capacity it become hot very
High density of base Heavier base make the pot stable and not topple over easily
Body is made of aluminium Low specific heat capacity becomes hot very quickly but it
low density make it overall weight of weight lighter
Handle is made of wood or plastic High specific heat capacity so the handle do not become
hot . Safe
Choose low density material for handle Does not add much to the total weight of pot
Transparent pot cover Able to cooker to see the food. Food cover will trap the
By: Cikgu Ambrose

39. Suggest and explian the design of water heater to boil a large quantity of water faster ,efficient and safely

Suggestion Explanation
Use tungsten High melting point,high heat energy
Coiled Longer wire,increase the resistance
High melting point Not easy to melt at high temperature
Lower rate of rusting Does not get rust easily
Use thermostat When temperatures reach 100 Celsius, the water heater
will automatically turn off

40. Determine the modification to be made for container,so the cut fruit will keep cool, remain fresh and easily
seen by customers.

Suggestion Explanation
Use container with high specific heat capacity Able to slow down the loss of heat from the container
Place small ice packet below the bottom of the cut The cut fruits is chill and juicy, ice able to absorb a large
friuts amount of latent heat when melt
Add salt to the packet of ice Foreign matter will increase the freezing point of ice, so
this will slow down the ice from melting
White wall colour of container Can avoid absorbtion of heat from the surrounding
The container has double wall Avoid heat from surrounding transferred easily to
container. The inside container remains cool
Transparent wall of container in front of customer The customer can see and choose the cut fruits easily

41. Investigate the most suitable liquid that can be use as coolant for car engine using physics concept.

Suggestion Explanation
Low freezing point liquid Will not freeze easily during winter weather
High boiling point liquid Do not easily boil when absorbing heat from the engine
High specific heat capacity liquid Can transfer large contain of heat with a small rise in
temperature. Able to cool up the engine
Low ability to react with metal The metal part of the engine will not corrode easily

42. Most suitable thermometer for laboratory to measure the temperature of ice and boiling point of water

Suggestion Explanation
Size of the bulb is small Does not need a lot of heat to heat up the mercury to
Use thin wall of bulb So it is sensitive to change of heat
Use mercury Freeezing point of the mercury is -39 degree celsius and
boling point 357 degree celsius . Able to has a range from
-10 to 110 degree Celsius. Mercury can expand a high
rate for small change of temperature
Use thin wall capillary Able quick heat transfer from the surrounding to the
mercury. So, the thermemeter is more sensitive
Has minimum size scale with small division Making thermometer a sensitive instrument

43. Modified and explain the design of an efficient solar water-heating system on the roof.

Suggestion Explanation
Pipe embedded in plate must be long Longer pipe will has greater surface area which can
absorb heat faster
Use metal pipe as pipe inside the plate Metal is good heat conductor , so heat will easily
transmit to water
Use insulator behind the absorber panel Insulator will prevent the heat loss
Use black absorber panel Black is good heat absorber
Cover the top of the panel with glass Heat will trap inside due to green house effect
Put the tank at higher level To give higher pressure
By: Cikgu Ambrose

44. Explain the build of solar cooker oven that been use in science month competition at your school to boil 500ml
water in short time.

Suggestion Explanation
Build the solar cooker with shiny// silver colour The light will reflect to the cooker and heat up the water
reflector inside
Use metal cooker Good conductor
Paint the outside part of the solar cooker and the To absorb
cooker ( contain water ) with black colour
Wrap the cooker with plastic or glass Avoid heat from release to sorrounding
To trap heat, the temperataure will increase To absorb heat, the water boil faster

45. Suggest the design of heating system in the house and characteristics of heating agent. The house use central
heating system with boiler, radiator and pipelines.

Suggestion Explanation
Use strong material Not easily break
Use metal pipe with good heat conductor Increase the rate of heat transfer
Increase length of cooling coil Can transfer the heat faster to surrounding
Use greater boiling point liquid Liquid not easily change into vapour
Low rate of rusting material Long lasting, not easily rust
The bigger size of radiator fan Can blow and cool down larger area
Pipe in coil structure is used Increase the time of floe and increase the quantity of haet

46. Suggest the characteristic of material to build food container which can keep the food warm.

Suggestion Explanation
Food container should made of low density Lighter , the container able to be move from one place
material to another.
Melting point of container should be high To prevent the container from melting up when hot
food is store inside
Specific heat capacity should be high So the container will not get hot easily. Safe to touch
and handle.
Thermal conductivity is low.i Good heat insulator , to ensure the heat not loss and
the food remain hot.
Double wall To prevent hest loss.

47. Explain the characteristic and design of thermos flasks to maintain hot water.

Suggestion Explanation
Use hollow plastic stopper Able to trap air as air is poor heat,less heat
loss through stopper.
Vacuum space Prevent heat loss through conduction or convection
Has double wall Has vacuum in between heat not easier pass through the
wall of thermos.
Double walled tube coated with shiny paint Shiny surface reflect heat from the wall of thermos flasks
back to the water remain hot.
Double walled made of glass Glass is bad will reduce heat loss.

48. Explain how the design of radiator of the car and characteristic of cooling agent which can absorb heat at short

Suggestion Explanation
Increase the length/area of cooling coil Can transfer the heat faster to the surrounding
Increase the number of fin blades Can cool down faster
Use larger fan Can cool down larger area
Use cooling agent liquid with greater boiling point It wont boild easily in high temperature
Use cooling agent liquid with higher specific heat Able to absorb large amount of heat
By: Cikgu Ambrose


49. Determine and explain in the build of magnifying glass to be use for enlarging the image of stamp

Suggestion Explanation
Choose convex lens The image will magnify
Excellent clarity of lens The image is clearer
Small focal length Able to focus nearer
Medium diameter of lens Able to be hold by hand to identify the stamps
The object is place less distance than focal length The image form is magnify, virtual and upright

50. Explain the suitability of the mirror that be use in shop to watch over the customer

Suggestion Explanation
Use convex mirror Wider field of view
Greater reflectivity of material Clearer image
Choose a bigger size of mirror Enable wider view and sharper image
Place the mirror at the corner of shop ceiling Easier to look at and wont disturb the customer pathway
Low density Lighter to hang up

51. Design fibre optic

Suggestion Explanation
Use refractive index of outer layer is less than the So that total internal reflection can happen in the fiber
refractive index of inner layer optic.
Use high flexibility material so that it can be bend easily
Use strong material do not break easily
Use thin material Lighter // can be use in small area
Low density material Lighter

52. Determine and explain the build of microscope using lens P and Q with focal length of 15 cm and 5 cm
respectively. Suggest modification that need to be done to get brighter ang bigger image.

Suggestion Explaination
P as eye piece and Q as objective lens Focal length of P is longer than Q
Fo < u <2fo To produce real, inverted and magnified image
Adjusted so that u < fe To produce virtual. Inverted and bigger image// to acts as
a magnifying glass
Distance between lenses > fo + fe To produce bigger image from the eyepiece // to increase
the magnification
Store in a cool and dry place To avoid formation fungus at the lenses
Use more powerful// shorter focal length lenses To produce bigger image
Use a lamp near the object// use bigger diameter To produce brighter image
of objective lens

53. Explain the suitable characteristic of the mirror to be use as outdoor safety mirror at the corner of the road

Suggestion Explanation
Use convex mirror Wider field of view
Excellent weather resistance Able to withstand bad weather
Excellent impact resistance of material Save cost, everlasting
Bigger size mirror To enable a wider view and sharper image
Greater reflectivity of material Clearer image even in bad weather
Place at the sharp road corner , at bending road To minimize from accident occur, to enable motorist see
the oncoming traffic
Small roof Protect from rain drop for better image
By: Cikgu Ambrose

54. Detemine and explain the build of Astro disc using appropriate physics concepts.

Suggestion Explanation
Choose convex curve parabolic The signals come can be focus at one point
All signal are focus on focal point Better reception
Smooth surface of disc Better reflection
Locate the disc at high and facing towards satellite No obstacle, better signal
Clean surface of disc, no water drop or dirt Better reflection, almost 100% reception receive by feed

55. Modified the slide projector that need to be place in school hall and can be seen by many student with clearer

suggestion Explaination
Use higher power bulb Higher intensity of light or more light produced
The filament of the bulb is at the focus point of the The light focuses at one point. // parallel ray can be
concave mirror obtained after reflection by concave mirror
More curvature More light to be reflected (upward) // less light toward
other direction other than upward
Lens between f and 2f To produce real ang enlarge or bigger images
Increase the distance or further away the screen Larger image produced
Electric fan operates during and after the lamp is Cooling system to stabilized the temperature (heat energy
switches on produced by filament bulb) to increase the projector
Use condenser mirror To concentrate more light to the slide
Use a concave mirror instead of plane mirror Focus the light directly to the lens // increase the
intensity og light
Place the filament at centre of curvature of the Light goes directly from the lamp and reflect back on the
converging mirror // use high powered lens same path // increase the intensity of light toward the
transparency // to get brighter image
Use heat filter To absorb excess heat to the transparency

56. Determine and explain the build of telescope using lens J and K with lens K is thicker than lens J which produce
bigger and clearer image.

Suggestion Expalanation
C hoose lens K as eyepiece lens Light ray is refracted more in lens K than lens J, focal
Lens K is thicker than lens J length of lens K is shorter than lens J
Therefore the thickerthe lens, the greater the
refraction of light and with that the shorter the focal
length of a lens will be
Choose lens J as objective lens Characteristics of objective lens for telescope is
Use bigger diameter lens as objective lens Has larger surface area which allow more light
Has a longer focal length
Use low power convex lens as the objective lens Magnification of telescope =f0/fe
Low power lens has a longer focal length ,fo higher,
magnification higher
Use high power convex lens as the eye lens High power lens has a shorter focal length,fe higher,
magnnification higher
Use bigger diameter of objective lens More light permitted to enter the telescope and a clearer
image is seen
By: Cikgu Ambrose


57. Design a good beach

Suggestion Explanation
near the bay divergence of the waves energy /calmer
High retaining walls Over flow
To reflect the waves from the shore
Reduce direct impact of the waves on the shore
Wall from concrete reduce erosion are built
Concrete barrier structure with a gap Waves passing through the gap will be diffracted in the
childrens area.
-reduce amplitude
Tambak laut supaya lebih cetek Reduce speed
More number of tree Diffraction occur will reduce tha amplitude
Uneven surface of retaining wall Reduce energy

58. Suggest and explain how ordinary fishing boat can be upgrade to the new boat which complete equipment to
detect the crowd of fish.

Suggestion Explanation
Attach radar system to the ship This equipment needs to detect crowd of fish and for
measurement the depth of the crowd of fish
a) Ultrasonic transmitter -Use to produce ultrasonic pulses
a) Microfone reciever To detect ultrasonic pulses
b) CRO -To measure the depth of fish by calculating d=vt/2;
d=depth, v=velocity, t=time
Use ultrasonic wave -Ultrasound not produce sound
-Ultrasonic wave has higher frequency, more energy, so
it can move further
Use high energy wave The penetrating power is higher

59. Explain the suitable design or method to build quality concert hall.

Suggestion Explanation
Cover the hard wall with soft board or thick curtain Soft surface can absorb sound and reduce reflection of
Place the wall with hole or egg carton design Can reduce reflection of sound so sound will be
clearer/reduce echo
Fixed 2 loud speaker in concert hall Loud speaker can act as coherent sources for
constructive inteference
Arranged the sit at antinodal place Strong sound can be heard
Use glass or mirror hall which is the type which are Sound with high frequency might break the glass
not easily broken
Use special computer to generate sound wave Audience can enjoy better presentation without
which produce destructive inteference disturbance

60. Explain the suitable design of retaining wall to protect the ship at the harbor

Suggestion Explaination
Build concrete retaining wall Can withstand impact of the wave, difficult to crack
Retaining wall should be curved and uneven surface Prevent reflection of wave back to the ship
Build retaining wall in front of the bay The wave are calmer at thr region
Retaining wall has gap Diffraction will occur
The gap at retaining wall is narrow( smaller than The greater the curvature of wavefront will occur.
wave length) Amplitude after passing gap is smaller
There are slope at the bottom of retaining wall At shallow region, the wavelength of wave is smaller, so
the velocity of the wave smaller
Retaining wall should be build higher To ensure no spill over of wave
Build the jetty at bay The wave at bay is calmer
By: Cikgu Ambrose

61. Explain the characteristics of parabolic radar system to detect signal from satellite communication.

Suggestion Explanation
Large diameter size of parabolic disc Able to receives more electric signal
Type of wave transmited is Microwave Has high frequency, high energy, short wavelength so it
is easy to be reflected
The distance of the signal receiver from the centre The signal can be focus to the centre of the parabolic
of parabolic disc is the same as the focal length disc
Place parabolic disc higher from the ground The signal with not be block by trees or anything and the
signal easy to be detected
Place parabolic disc at clearplace No signal disturbance


62. Suggest the suitable lamp that can be use in the library, cheaper yet become the room brighter

Suggestion Explanation
Lamp with parallel circuit If any lamp were burn out, others can still be used
Attach shiny reflector Can reflect light more, no need to install more lamp, the
room will become brighter.
Low power lamp Safe cost
High efficiency lamp // fluorescent The room looks brighter
Long life span lamp No need to replace often
Low price lamp Save money

63. Explain the modification of menthol bulb lamp to efficient lamp to be use in study room.

Suggestion Explanation
Use the fluorescent lamp not a filament bulb Fluorescent lamp use less power and economic (consume
less power) compare to filament bulb.
Bigger cover with white colour Less reflection on eyes and absorb less heat energy and good
heat reflector
Use the adjustable stand or portable The height of the lamp can be adjusted can be used
Connect with the earth wire Avoid short circuit and damage on the bulb
Use an energy saver lamp Produce same brightness with less power consumption

64. Suggest the suitable design of fuse to protect an electrical equipment which is label 240V,2400W

Suggestion Explanation
Thin fuse wire Less space/to carry a limited electrical current/less mass
hence low heat capacity/shorter time to heat up to melting
point and blow
Ceramic cartridge Can withstand higher temperature because spark created by
high voltage.240V can be huge
Fuse rating is 13A Maximum rating must be sligthly higher than normal current
Low melting point For fast blow/melting faster when excessive current
flow/easy to cut the current flow
Low specific heat capacity The fuse wire easily heated,melt and break the circuit
Metal is used Good electric conductor
Resistance to oxidation Does not interface with other function

65. You have to choose one of the cables to be used in the National Grid Network. Explain the suitability of each of
the characteristics of the cables.

Suggestion Explanation
Diameter should be large To reduce the resistance of the cable
density should be low The cables will be lighter and can be supportedsecurely
The rate of expansion should be low So thre is less expansion and less sagging in the cables during
hot days
By: Cikgu Ambrose

The melting point should be high So the cables does not melt in high temperature

66. Explain the characteristic of electric pylon and the cable taht been use for electric transmission

Suggestion Explanation
Material: steel alloy Strong,will not break easily
V shape steel alloy Not too heavy
Trust and supprt join Can support bigger weight
Made from small diameter and laminated wire Reduce addy current
Cable made from low density material Cable is not heavy/ light weight

67. Investigate the characteristic of electric oven that can toast more cupcakes at less time

Suggestion Explanation
The space inside oven is build bigger It can fil up 180 slices of bread
Increase the number of resistance heater at the top So it can supply enough heat
and bottom
The wall is made of good insulator Tyhe heat will not lost to surrounding
Fix a fan inside the oven Heat energy releaswed can spread uniformly in oven
Internal space of oven is painted silver So the heat will radiated at wall and reflected back
Fix the step up transformer Oven can receive higher voltage and can function with
higher power

68. Explain the designof electric kettle

Suggestion Explanation
Material of heating is made from nichrome To produces high heat energy
High number of loop To increase surface area so that more heat is released
Use high power To produce more heat energy in the coil
High melting point coil Nit easy melt under high temperature
Low rate of rusting Does not get rust easily
Use thermostat When temperatures reach 100oC
3 plug in If short circuit the overload current flows to earth(for
safety reason)

69. Design incubator used to hatch eggs

Suggestion Explanation
Parallel circuit When one bulb damage the another bulb still function/heat can
distributed uniformly
Multi storey rack More eggs can be arranged
Using fan heat can distributed uniformly
Bulb with same brigthness and power heat can distributed uniformly
Using alarm To ensure that correct timing is employed in the hatching of

70. Design circuit for cabin or house

Suggestion Explanation
connected in parallel Allow each electric appliances to be switched on and off
Fit fuse at the live wire in the fuse box To stop the flow of current by melting when a high voltage
of electric current flows through the circuit // switches itself
off very quickly if the current exceeds e.g. 15A (for 15A mcb)
Earth connection to the metal case of Earth wire connected to earth, so that when a fault occurs and
electrical appliances a current flows through the live wire and the earth wire, the
fuse in the live wire will blow and cut off the supply. It will
protect a person who may touch a faulty or live appliance
Use low power lamps / install fluorescent To save the energy
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Regularly cleaning and removing dust from To save the energy

the air filters of air conditioners// Do not put
more water in a kettle than needed for hot


71. Suggest modification that need to be done on dc motor to increase efficiency of the motor.

Suggestion Explanation
Low density material Coil hass smaller mass/ lighter
Increase the number of turns in Can increase magnitude of force/ higher electromagnetic field strength
the coil
Use high strength of magnets/ Increase the strength of magnetic field
Add more magnets
More segments Coil rotates smoothly
Increase the magnitude of Can increase the magnitude of force/ can increase the strength of magnetic
current field

72. Investigate the design and the characteristic to improve the efficiency of transformer.

Suggestion Explanation
Use soft iron core Easy to magnetized and demagnetized
Laminated core Less eddy current or reduce energy lost
Use thick wire Reduce the resistance or more current flow
Use copper wire to make coil Low resistance or reduce the lost of heat
Wind the secondary coil on top of the primary coil Reduce leakage of field lines

73. How to design a moving coil ammeter that can function better and able to detect small change of current?

Suggestion Explanation
Use stronger magnet Strong magnetic field or larger rotation
Use curve magnet or concave Produce radial magnetic field/to get linear scale
Use cylindrical core To supply uniform magnetic field
Use soft iron core To concentrate the magnetic field
Use linear scale The angle of rotation is linear
The sensitivity of moving coil Increase the force between the current carrying coil and magnetic
galvanometer can be increased by field
increasing the strength of the radial
magnetic field
Using hairspring of lower stiffness Smaller opposing force to stop turning of coil
Use lighter pointer Smaller inertia easier to move
Use a coil of a lighter mass Smaller inertia able to move easily
Increase the area of coil More changes of magnetic flux,a bigger force are produce

74. Suggest and explain the build of adaptor to charge the 8V handphone from 240V power supply.

Suggestion Explanation
Use step down transformer Able to reduce voltage
Ratio of turns 30 : 1 // 240V:8V Can reduce voltage from 240V to 8V
Use four diodes Full wave rectification
Full wave rectifier To convert au current to dc current
Using a capacitor To smooth output current (steady direct current


75. Suggest and explain the build of adaptor to charge the 8V handphone from 240V power supply

Suggestion Explanation
Use step down transformer Able to reduce voltage
Ratio of turns 30 : 1 // 240V:8V Can reduce voltage from 240V to 8V
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Use four diodes Full wave rectification

Full wave rectifier To convert au current to dc current
Using a capacitor To smooth output current (steady direct current

76. Consult and modified the automatic switch light (diagram A) above which can switch on at night and switch off
during morning to be automatic switch on fire alarm when there are fire , explain using diagram and the
function of component.

Suggestion Explanation
Change R1 to termistor Thermistor can be detect heat from fire
Change LED with alarm// siren Able to produce sound of alarm if fire is detected
Change LDR with R1 During fire, R1 has greater resistance compare to LDR so,
no current flow
When the temperature is high, the resistance of thermistor is low. This will increase the voltage acroos R1. So,
currnt will flow to the base of transistor , than the transistor is switch on followed by greater increase in collecter
current. The alarm will switch on.


77. Suggest the modification need to be done to the circuit in Diagram C so that it can function as automatically
fire alarm switch that need high voltage.

Suggestion Explanation
Replace LDR with thermistor To detect heat when temperature is high
Replace bulb with siren/bell To produce sound
Connect relay switch to output transistor To switch on the siren
Interchange the position of resistor R and To increase base voltage//voltage across R//base
thermistor current
Use 240 V power supply Siren is function as high voltage

78. Modified the circuit 240V and Np = 4000 turns circuit to switch on 12V d.c radio.

Suggestion Explanation
Step-down transformer Capable of reducing potential difference / voltage
Ratio of turns 20 :1 // 240:12 Np = 4000 turns and Reduce potential difference 240V to 12V
Ns = 200 turns
Using four diodes Full wave retification
Using a capacitor To smooth out output current // produce output to
steady direct current.

79. Moving coil microphone

Suggestion Explanation
use thin diaphragm Easy to vibrate
Use strong material Not easy to break
By: Cikgu Ambrose

More number of turns of coil Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage // The
magnitude of the induced current or is also increased
Thicker diameter of wire of coil reduce the resistance of the coil
Using more powerful magnet to increase the strength of the magnetic field.//Increase the rate
of change of magnetic flux linkage//The magnitude of the
induced current or induced electromotive force is also increased


80. Explain the suitability of characteristic of radioisotopes to be used as treatment in brain tumor radiotherapy?

Suggestion Explanation
Short half life Radioactive is dangerous substance, short half
lfe can decay faster
Gamma ray radiation Gamma can kill cancerous cell and can
penetrate skin of patient
Low ionozing power Minimum damage to tissue organ
Liquid state of matter Easy to dissolve
High penetrating power Can penetrate easily

81. Suggest and explain the safety ways, which are required when handling radioactive substance.

Suggestion Explanation
Use thick lead box Radioactive rays evem gamma cannot pass through
Use forceps / robotic hand Avoid direct touch
Wear photographic film Able to detect exposure radiations
Wear plumbum safety suit To protect the body from expose to radiation
Use siren Faster warning when leakage
Packed into concrete drum and buried underground Prevent the radioactive waste discharge to environment
Always place GM detector nearby To detect the amount of radioactive nearby, for safety
Label the radioactive container with symbol Easy to detect radioactive substance

82. Explain the suitability of characteristic odf radioisotope to be use in controliing the population of pest

Suggestion Explanation
Use gamma ray Able to mutate the insect
Solid state of matter Easy to handle
Long half life Last longer
High penetrating power Able to penetrate thick object/material
High ionizing power Able to change// mutate the biology of insect

83. . Explain the suitability of characterisitc of radioisotopes to be used in th trace of water pipeline.

Suggestion Explanation
Short lhalf life Radioactive is dangerous substance, short half life can
decay faster
Few hour half life - Enough time for worker to detect the pipe
- Radioactive uis dangerous
Beta particle or Gamma ray radiation Can penetrate pipe and soil, can be detected
Liquid state Can be inject and dissolve into water

84. Suggest the design of nuclear reactor.

Suggestion Explanation
Use uranium-235 Use as nucler fuel
Nuclear fission A lot of heat will produce
Boron or Cadmium rad use as control rods To control the rate of nuvlear fission and to stop the radiation
Use moderator (graphitr) To slow the motion of neutron to the best reaction rate. So
the rate of nuclear fission can be controlled
Bulid thick concrete wall Lead or thick concrete wall can prevent the escape of
radioactive rays, keep the radiation inside the reactor
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Coarbon dioxide or water is use as coolong agent To remove heat of reaction for turbine generator. This
produce steam as heat carrier
Use steam To turn the turbine and able to generate current

85. Explain the suitability of charactersitic of radioisotopes to be used in sanitiza medical equip,ent

Suggestion Explanation
Gamma ray Able to kill ant virus/ bacteria
Longer half life No need to change radioactive frequently
Silid state of matter Easy to handle
High penetrating power Able to penetrate any equipment to sanitize

86. Explain the suitability of characteristics of radioisotope to be used in detecting the position of blood clot in
veins (Deep vein thrombosis)

Suggestion Explanation
Use liquid state of matter Able to inject into patient body, dissolve easily
Short half life Active in body in short time
Use beta ray Able to penetrate skin
Low ionizing power Minimum damage to tissue organ

87. Explain the suitability of characteristics of radioisotope to be use in the trace of blockage in the kidney patient.

Suggestion Explanation
Use Iodine-123 Used as nuclear imaging tracers to evaluate the anatomic
and physiologyc function
Gamma ray Able to penetrate trough body, bones and be detected
Low energy Do not cause serious damage in cells
Liquid state of matter Easy to inject to patient body
Short half life Active in body in short time

88. Explain the suitability of characteristics of radioisotope to be use in control the thickness of paper in factory
Suggestion Explanation
Long half life Can be used for long time, no need to replace frequently so,
it save cost
Beta ray Can penetrate paper and be detected
Solid state of matter Easy to handle

89. Explain the suitability of characteristics of radioisotope to be use in control the thickness of aluminium sheet in

Suggestion Explanation
Long half life Can be used for long time, no need to replace frequently7
so, it save cost
Gamma ray Can be penetrate aluminium sheet and be detected
Solid state of matter Easy to handle, does not spill
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Soalan ini berada di dalam Section C. Cadangan dan alasan dalam soalan ini juga boleh menggunakan contoh
jawapan dalam soalan Modification.

90. The transmission of electricity over the National Grid Network uses high voltage cables. You are assigned to
study the characteristics of cables which could be used as transmission cable. Table 12 shows the
characteristics of four transmission cables. Determine the most suitable transmission cable to be used and give
reasons for your choice.
Cable Resistivity /m-1 Density / kg m-3
Cost Rate of thermal expansion
P 3.0 x l0-7 5 x l05 Low High
Q 1.8 x l0-8 2 x l03 Medium Low
R 7.5 x l0-7 8 x l02 High Medium
S 7.0 x l0-8 4 x l03 Medium High

Characteristic Explanation
Low resistivity To reduce heat loss in the cables
Low density The cables will be lighter
Low cost Cost of project will be lower
Low rate of thermal expansion The cables will not expand under hot weather
Cable Q Low resistivity, low density, medium cost, low rate of thermal

91. You are required to build a hydrometer that can be used to measure densities of concentrated acids.Table
11.1 shows the characteristics of 4 types of hydrometers L, M, N and O. Decide which hydrometer is most
suitable and give reasons.

Hydrometer Type of material Diameter of capillary Density of shots/ Diameter of bottom

of hydrometer tube/ cm kgm-3 bulb/ cm
L Plastic/Plastik 0.5 1000 1.0
M Plastic/Plastik 2.0 1300 3.0
N Glass / kaca 0.5 9800 3.0
O Glass/ kaca 2.0 8000 1.0

Characteristic Explanation
Material made from glass Glass does not corrode with acid
Small diameter of capillary tube To increase the sensitivity of the hydrometer
High density of shots Makes the hydrometer stays upright
Big diameter of bottom bulb To obtaine a bigger upthrust.
Choose N N is made from glass, has small diameter of capillary tube, high
density of shots and a big diameter of bottom bulb

92. As a researcher , your duty is to study the characteristics of a material to make a water heater. You are given
four choices of metal type T, U,V and W. The table below shows the characteristics of the four
metals.Determine the most suitable metal to be used as the material to make the heater and give your
Metal The cross sectional area Melting Point Specific Heat Capacity Length
T Smaller Low High Long
U Larger High Low Short
V Smaller High Low Long
By: Cikgu Ambrose

W Larger High Low Short

Characteristic Explanation
Smaller surface area the resistance is higher
High melting point not easy to melt
Low specific heat capacity the temperature arises shortly
Long (coiled) metal to increase the resistance
Choose V because it has,smaller surface area, high melting point, low
specific heat capacity and long metal

93. You are given four choices of metals P, Q, R and S. The table below shows the characteristics for the four
metals. Determine the most suitable metal to be used as the material to make the boat and give your reasons.

Specific Heat
Metal Shape Density Strength
P Streamlined 900 Low High
Q Oval 452 High High
R Circle 387 Low High
S Streamlined 500 High High

Characteristic/cirri Reason/Sebab
Streamline / larus reduce the resistance of water/
Density /ketumpatan rendah higher buoyant force/ daya apungan tinggi
Specific heat capacity high / absorbs heat slowly/serap haba dengan perlahan
High strength / Kekuatan tinggi Difficult to damage / sukar rosak
Choose S because its streamline,low density, high specific
heat capacity and high strength

94. A student plans to fix a lamp in his room. Table 12.1 shows the features of 4 different types of lamps. Explain
the suitability of each feature in Table 12.1 and then determine the most suitable lamp to be used. Give a
reason for your choice

Type of lamp Power Efficiency Life Span Price

Compact fluorescent lamp 18 W 50 % 7000 hours High
Filament lamp 75 W 12 % 1000 hours Low
Long fluorescent lamp 20 W 45 % 14000 hours Medium
Round fluorescent lamp 24 W 40 % 10000 hours High

Characteristic Explanation
Low power lamp Safe cost//electric bill
High efficiency The room looks brighter//high output power//less power
Long life span No need to replace often
Low price Save money/cost
Long fluorescent Low power with highest efficiency, long hours of life span and
low price

95. Table 11.1 shows 5 materials which can be used to make an optical fibre. You are asked to investigate the
characteristics of the materials in Table 11.1 which could be used to make the optical fibre.
Explain the suitability of each characteristic and hence, determine the most suitable material to be used to
make the optical fibre. Give a reason for your choice.

Material Refractive index % of light energy absorbed Rigidity Strength

P 1.75 2% Strong Weak
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Q 1.80 10 % Weak Strong

R 1.70 2% Weak Strong
S 1.52 3% Strong Strong
T 1.48 10 % Weak Weak

Characteristic Explanation
High refractive index Total internal reflection can occur easily
Small amount of light energy being absorbed The object under observation can be seen clearly // more light
by the material can be transmitted
Material with weak rigidity The optical fibre can be bent easily
Material with great strength The optical fibre can last longer/not easily spoil
Material R High refractive index, low % of light energy absorbed, weak
rigidity and great strength

96. You are asked to investigate the characteristics of hot air balloon as below. Explain the suitability for each
characteristic for the hot air balloons and then determine which hot balloon will move up the fastest into the
air. Give a reason for your choice

Characteristic Explaination
Volume of the balloon is high Displace a larger amount of air/
Produce a higher buoyant force.
Density of the balloon material is low Lower mass/Light
Gas temperature is high Produce a maximum expansion of balloon.
Total of mass is low Upwards resultant force is higher/ Balloon move upwards faster.
Because it has a high volume,the density of the balloon material is
Choose Q
low,the gas temperature is high and the total mass is low.

97. Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of five types of materials that can be used for making the soles of the
trekking shoes. You are asked to study the characteristics of the materials shown in Table 11.1. Explain the
suitability of each characteristics in Table 11.1 and then determine the most suitable material to be used. Give
a reason for your choice.

Type of Density Number of studs x Area of 1 Expansion Ability to

material (Kg/m -3) stud effect stretch
P 820 6 x 30 cm2 Low Good
Q 700 8 x 30 cm2 Low Good
By: Cikgu Ambrose

R 720 5 x 30 cm2 Medium Average

S 750 4 x 30 cm2 High Poor
T 880 3 x 30 cm2 High Poor

Characteristic Reasons
Low density Small mass/light
Many/fewer/very few studs Gives extra/higher grip
Expansion effect is low Always fits/Does not loosen when hot.
Ability to stretch is good Less stress on the feet/Can be pushed in all directions/
Can walk on uneven surface.
The most suitable material is Q Because it has a low density,many studs,low expansion effect and
good ability to stretch.

98. Table 12.2 shows the characteristics of five radioisotopes P, Q, R, S and T. As a factory engineer, you are
required to determine the most suitable radioisotope that can be used by the system to ensure the volume of
guava juice is uniform.Study the characteristics of all 5 radioisotopes and explain the suitability of the
aspects.Determine the most suitable radioisotope and give the reason for your choice.

Characteristics Explanation
Has a long half-life Can be used for a long time hence save cost
Emits beta Can penetrate box and liquid and is less
dangerous than gamma
Solid form Easy to handle and contain.
Low ionising power Does not change the state and taste of juice.
Radioisotope T It has long half life, emits beta, in solid form and has low ionising power.
Half life Types of ray State of matter Ionising power
Separuh hayat Jenis sinar Keadaan jirim Kuasa pengionan
P 7 hours alfa solid high
Q 10 days beta liquid moderate
R 100 days gamma solid low
S 10 years gamma liquid high
T 30 years beta solid low


99. You are assigned to investigate the design for the location to keep the boats andthe characteristics of the
retaining wall as shown in Diagram 12.2 based on the following aspects:
- the location to keep the boat
- material used for the retaining wall
- the height of retaining wall
- size of slit
Explain the suitability of the location and the characteristics of the retaining wall and determine the most
suitable design to keep the boat safely.
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Characteristic Reasons
Bay Wave is calmer
Concrete retaining wall Stronger/ / lasting
High wall Prevent high wave
Smaller opening/aperture / slit of Diffraction obvious //low wave energy
retaining wall
Choose P At bay, concrete retaining wall , high wall and smaller slit

100. Diagram 11.4 shows five designs of Newtons Cradle, P, Q, R, S and T, with different specifications. You are
required to determine the most suitable design to make the ball at the end swings up to higher level and at
bigger speed. Study all the five designs from the following aspects:
The arrangement of the balls The type of material used to make the balls
the number of string used to hang the balls the position of the ball to start the oscillation
By: Cikgu Ambrose

Characteristic Reasons
The balls touch each other This will reduce losses of energy which will reduce the speed of the
The type of material used to make the Steel balls are hard and produce highly elastic collision. Energy can
balls is steel easily propagates through the intermediate balls.
Two strings used to hang each ball This string arrangement restricts the balls movements to the same plane.
the position of the ball to start the oscillation
High position of the ball High potential energy and will change to high kinetic energy. The last end
ball will swing at bigger speed.
because the ball s touch each other, made from steel, use two strings
The most suitable design is Q
attached to each ball and the initial position of the ball is high