FOREWORD !!

Grace be upon Allah the Almighty, with HIS blessings, the chemistry folio are ready. Thank you to our SMK Pandan headmistress, Puan Rohany binti Saat,because allow me to use all types of method to finish this folio completely.

Also thank you to our Chemistry teacher, Puan Badariah binti Ali Bajraj, because give me the explanations and help me to finish this folio. Thank you to my parents because of their supported to me to successful this folio.Also thank to my friends that have always help me to finish this Chemistry Folio.

Lastly, I want to thank to all person that help me to finish this folio successfully. Thank you very much.

INTRODUCTION !!

The discovery of chemical manufactured for consumers such as cleaning agents,food additives and medicine has helped us improve our help and standard of living.Today,different types of these chemicals are produces to meet the needs and preferences of consumers.Therefore,understanding the chemistry of these chemical will help a consumers select and use them wisely.

Medicines,soaps and detergent, we use these chemicals ever so often.Additives in food make it last longer.Giving it nice colour, smell or flavor.Making simple food tastes so grand!

In this task,all people must know the use of food additives,soap and detergent and also understand medicine.So,all people must always appreciate the existence of chemicals because they are so important in our daily life.

OBJECTIVE !!

The objective for making this Chemistry Folio are :

1. We have know the cleaning agents,food additives and medicine has helped us improve our help and standard of living.

2. We able to know that additives in food make it last longer giving it nice colour, smell or flavor and making simple food tastes so grand!

3. By this project also,we have know the use of food additives,soap and detergent and also understand medicine.

4. We will know and understanding the chemistry of these chemical will help a consumers select and use them wisely.

5. Students will appreciate the existence of chemicals because they are so important in our daily life.

(1.0) SOAP AND DETERGENT

Introduction
What is soap

-

The general formulae of a soap can be written as

R is an alkyl group usually containing 12-18 carbon atoms.It can be saturated or unsaturated. EXAMPLES OF SOAP: 1)Sodium palmitate, 2)Potassium stearate,

Soaps are sodium or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids.

CH3(CH2)14COO-Na+ . CH3(CH2)16COO-K+.

Soaps are made from natural resources.

:

-

RCOO-Na+ or

RCOO-K+

Detergent are usually made from synthetic resources such as petroleum fractions.They were developed during the 2nd world war in responds to a shortage of animal fats and vegetable oils.

Sodium alkyl sulphate R – O – S – Oˉ Na⁺ O O || ||

General formulae for two common detergents are :

Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate O O || ||
WHAT IS DETERGENT??

R–

– S – Oˉ Na⁺

SOAP PREPARATION PROCESS !!
1. Made from animals fats and vegetables oils.
2. Prepared by hydrolysing fats or oils under alkaline condition.

3. The reaction is called saponafication.

Boil fats or oils with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution or concentrated potassium hydroxide solution by saponafication process .

Used concentrated potassium hydroxide solution instead of concentrated sodium hydroxide solution to form potassium soap, potassium palmitate Poatssium soaps are softer, milder than sodium sooaps and are usually used for bathing

Then, react the acid with an alkali to form corresponding sodium or potassium salts Glycerol and salts of fattyacids which are the soap are produce

Hydrolysed fats or oil to form glycerol or fatty acids.

• CLEANING ACTION OF SOAP

ADDITIVES IN DETERGENT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS !!

ADDITIVES Biological enzyme Whitening agent Optical whitener Builder

EXAMPLES
Amylases, proteases, cellulases and lipase Sodium perborate

FUNCTIONS
To remove protein stains such as blood To convert stains into colourless substances To add brightness and whiteness to white fabrics

Fluorescent dye

Sodium tripolyphosphate

To enhance the cleaning efficiency of detergent by softening the water

Suspension agent

Carboxymethylcellulose

To prevent the dirt particles removed from redepositing onto cleaned fabrics

Filler

Sodium sulphate, sodium silicate

To add to the bulk of the detergent and enable it to be poured easily

Foam control agent Fragrance

Silicones

To control foaming in detergent

-

To add fragrance to both the detergent and fabrics

COMPARISON BETWEEN SOAP AND DETERGENT !!
SOAP
Soaps are effective cleaners in soft water soaps from scum in hard water Soaps form scum in hard water Soaps are made from natural resources ( animal fats or vegetable oils ) Soaps form precipitate in acidic water Soaps are biodegradable and do not cause any pollution

DIFFERENCES
Effectiveness Formation of scum

DETERGENT
Detergents are effective cleaners in both hard and soft water Detergents do not form scum in hard water Detergents are made from synthetic resources such as petroleum fractions Detergents do not form precipitate in acidic water Non – biodegradable detergents give thick foams that kill aquatic lives

Sources Formation of precipitate Effect to environment

STRUCTURAL FORMULAE OF SOAP AND DETERGENT

DISCUSSION !!
1) Soap are cleansing agent or natural detergent made from fats and oils of animals and vegetables. 2) Soap form scum in hard water while detergent do not scum in hard water. 3) Soap are biodegradable and do not cause any pollution while detergent are nonbiodegradable and cause pollution.

CONCLUSION !!
The discovery of chemicals manufactured for consumers such as soap and detergent has helped us improve our standard living.both are surfactants (able to reduce surface tension of water to emulsify oils and grease).This will help us use it and easier for our daily life. Therefore, understanding the chemistry of these chemicals will help a consumer select and use them wisely.

SOURCES OF REFERENCES !!
1) Chemistry Form 5 Text Book, Lim Eng Wah, Low Swee Neo, Lim Yean Ching, Eng Nguan Hong, Umi Kalthom Bt Ahmad, First Published 2006, Runz Creative Sdn. Bhd. 2) SPM Revision Series Grade A Chemistry, Grace Lee, Phoon Pooi Lan, Fok Poon Lih, W.S.Tham,

First Published 2009, Cerdik Publication.
3) http://www.sdahq.org/soapchemistry 4) www.googleimage.com/soap 5) www.googleimage.com/detergent

(2.0) FOOD ADDITIVES

Introduction of food additives !!
-Improve nutritional value of foods and improve their taste, texture, consistency or color. -substances added to food to preserve flavour or improve its taste and appearance. Salt , sugar, vinegar, fenugreek,clover, aniseed, cinnamon, buah pelage, turmeric etc.

From natural resources

defination

FOOD ADDITIVES

OBJECTIVE !!
1. We are should be able to :

2. State the type of food additives and their examples. 3. State the function of each type of food additives. 4. Justify the use of food additives.

Types of food additives and their function !!
FOOD ADDITIVES
Antioxidants Stabilizers Thickness Dyes Preservative Flavourings

EXAMPLES
Ascorbic acid ,citric acid, sorbic acid. Lecithin Jelly, starch Sunset yellow, tatrazine, indigo, caramine Sodium nitrite, benzoic acid, sulphur dioxide. Monosodium glutamate, aspartame, pentyl ethanoate

FUNCTIONS
Preventing oxidation that causes rancid fats and brown fruits. Prevent emulsion from separating out Thicken foods Add or restore the colour in food in order to enhance visual appeal. Slow down or prevent the growth or microorganism. Improve the taste of food and restore taste loss.

DISCUSSION !!
1. Food additives have been used by mankind for centuries.

2. Improve nutritional value of foods and improve their taste, texture, consistency or color.

3. Substances added to food to preserve flavour or improve its taste and appearance.

CONCLUSION !!
The discovery of chemicals manufactured for consumers such as food additives has helped us improve our healthy and standard living. The, different types of these chemicals are produced to meet the needs and preference of consumers. Therefore, understanding the chemistry of these chemicals will help a consumer select and use them wisely.

SOURCES OF REFERENCES !!
1) Chemistry Form 5 Text Book, Lim Eng Wah, Low Swee Neo, Lim Yean Ching, Eng Nguan Hong, Umi Kalthom Bt Ahmad, First Published 2006, Runz Creative Sdn. Bhd. 2) SPM Revision Series Grade A Chemistry,

Grace Lee, Phoon Pooi Lan, Fok Poon Lih, W.S.Tham, First Published 2009, Cerdik Publication.
3) http://www.sdahq.org/chemcuisine 4) www.googleimage.com/foodadditives

(3.0) MEDICINES

modern medicine !!
MODERN MEDICINE - Made by scientist in laboratories base on the subtances found in nature - Forms such as liquid, tablets, powders and capsules

ANALGESIC

ANTIBIOTICS
PENICILLIN - Most widely used in antibiotics -Extracted from fungus Penicillium notatum - Use to cure bacterial disease such as tuberculosis (TB), and pneumonia.

-Given by injection -Side effects are: Headache Allergic reaction Diarrhoea

- Used to treat tuberculosis, whooping cough and some forms of pneumonia. - Produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces STREPTOMYCIN

-Broken down by acid in stomach

PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC MEDICINES
Psychotherap medicines eutic Stimulant To reduce fatigue and elevate mood Examples Methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, amphetamine Side effects High does or excessive use of stimulants over long periods of time can lead to anxiety, hallucinations, severe depression, or physical and psychological dependence Tranquillisers cause drowsiness, poor condition or lightheadedness. Overdose of these drugs can lead to respiratory difficulties, sleeplessness, coma and even death Barbiturates cause addiction. People who rely on barbiturates to fight against insomnia sometimes kill themselves accidentally by taking an overdose Antipsychotic medicines cause drowsiness, rapid heartbeat and dizziness

Antidepressant

To reduce tension and anxiety

Tranquillisers

Barbiturates

Antipsychotic

To treat psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia

Chlorpromazine, haloperidol, clozapine

Traditional medicine !!
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

Base on effectiveness without knowing chemicals.Effectiveness depends on practices and belief without scientific proof.

GINSENG Use for the treatment for weakness and general fatigue Increases resistance to stress.

ALOE VERA Use to treat skin condition such as sunburn and insects bites. Decrease the inflammation and pain caused by burn.

GARLIC
Can repel by thing insects. An antioxidant and be able to lower high blood pressure.

PEGAGA
Use as herbal tea, provides extra vitality, increase brain power and improve blood circulation.

DISCUSSION !!
Medicine is the science of diagnosing, treating and preventing disease.

Medicine is use to treat and cure disease.

Modern medicine are made by scientists in laboratories and are based nature.

on substances found in

Traditional medicine are usually not processed.

CONCLUSION !!
The discovery of chemicals manufactured for consumers such medicine has helped us improve our healthy and standard living.Good medical practice help people live longer, have more meaningful and active lives.Therefore, understanding the chemistry of these chemicals will help a consumer select and use them wisely.

SOURCES OF REFERENCES !!
1) Chemistry Form 5 Text Book, Lim Eng Wah, Low Swee Neo, Lim Yean Ching, Eng Nguan Hong, Umi Kalthom Bt Ahmad, First Published 2006, Runz Creative Sdn. Bhd. 2) SPM Revision Series Grade A Chemistry, Grace Lee, Phoon Pooi Lan, Fok Poon Lih, W.S.Tham, First Published 2009, Cerdik Publication.
3) http://www.sdahq.org/modernmedicine 4) www.googleimage.com/medicine

5) www.googleimage.com/traditionalmedicine

NORAZLINA BINTI DELIUZAR

930911 – 06 – 5480

5 CANGGIH

PUAN BADARIAH BINTI ALI BAJRAJ

SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN PANDAN

CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMERS

CHEMIST RY FOLIO
ASMIDAR BINTI MOHAMAD 5 CAKNA 930518 - 06 - 5214 SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN PANDAN PUAN BADARIAH BINTI ALI BAJRAJ

CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMERS

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