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why we need to join ??

Suppose we need to get/retrieve the data from multiple columns which exists in multiple
tables....then we use joins..

what is the condition for doing joins??...yes at least we have one common column (or common
format column) from the both tables

Lets say EMP table has "deptno" column and DEPT has "deptno" column. So we can join both
the tables.

Better to use tables aliases/column aliases when doing joins else we get column ambiguty.


Cross Joins
Equi Join/ Simple Join/ Normal Join
Non equi Joins
Self Join
Outer Joins

Cross Joins:

Suppose we have EMP(14) and DEPT(4) tables


select e.empno, e.ename, d.deptno, d.dname

from emp e, dept d

Output we get like 56(14*4) rows internally Cartesian join performed..

So we have to analyze that, is that result correct or not??

--we have only 14 employees but we got 56 employees existing in the this is not the correct

So what should we do...

Here we need to mention the 'JOIN' condition to get the proper results..

select e.empno, e.ename, d.deptno, d.dname

from emp e, dept d

where e.deptno=d.deptno

Here we mentioned in 'where' clause that...matching deptno of both tables....


suppose table A has 5 rows and B has 4 rows..

Then what is the output for below query?

sql>select * from A,B

analyze output is correct or not..what's the reason


>select * from emp where depno=10

>select * from emp where 1=0

Here we get "no rows selected" as output. Cause 'where' condition is not satisfied. We should notice
that..if 'where' condition is correct

then only we get correct results else "no rows selected"

>select * from emp where 1=1

>select 1 from emp

here we get 14 ones(1) as 14 records are existing

>select 'srinu' from emp

>select * from emp where null=null

here we get "no rows selected" as 'null is not equal to null'...but check below one

>select * from emp where null<>null

here also we get "no rows selected" as we dont know the proper value for the null

null is not zero value. It just an empty space..

then what will be correct one??

>select * from emp where null is null

this is correct one.

We have data for both EMP table and DEPT like above.
Now we want get the dept name for each employee.

But departname(dname) existing in DEPT table and ename is existing in EMP table.

So if we want to get , we want to JOIN the tables (EMP and DEPT)

Natural Join or Equi Join

So here we need to check how oracle perform JOIN operation.

Here we joined both EMP and DEPT table..and we can see how oracle performing join.
Oracle taking deptno of both tables and comparing and print the MATCHING results

We can also write the above query in ANSI syntax (recommended)

Select e.empno empno,

e.ename emp_name,
e.sal emp_sal,
e.deptno emp_deptno,
d.deptno dept_deptno,
d.dname dept_name,
d.loc dept_loc
From emp e JOIN dept d ON(e.deptno=d.deptno)
But the above result is not the Proper(perfect result) as we have DEPTNO 40 also in DEPT table
So Oracle should display DEPT has DEPTNO 40. But no employee existing in that..Then it is
perfect result

Here OUTER JOINS comes into the picture.


ANSI example
Observe carefully the above result. As we got 15 rows
So here RIGHT OUTER JOIN giving all the results of right side table[DEPT].( see we get 40
deptno and there is no employees existing ie getting null values to the corresponding row(deptno

You can just check LEFT OUTER JOIN by placing LEFT in RIGHT place of above

You need to get the point here..that..

OUTER JOINS Gives both matching and un matching results ( Here deptno 40(DEPT table) is
the un matching record)
If we want to display left side table total info then use LEFT OUTER JOIN..

and try the below query..observe the difference.

select e.empno,NVL(e.ename,'NO EMPLOYEE')

from emp e right outer join dept d
on (e.deptno=d.deptno)

Here NVL replacing NULL value by our given value('NO EMPLOYEE')


By the name we can understand that, we are joining the same table
Suppose we have EMP table

Then SELF JOIN like EMP e1 join EMP e2)


Get the employee managers..

Here in EMP table we can observe that. Manager column is there . But they are only EMPNO of
managers. Here by doing SELF JOIN we are displaying the manager names of the employees


Here we get the clear picture....

here 1st table is EMP (E) table and joining with same ( EMP (M) ) table..see query
first one is EMP table and second one is EMP(mgr table lets say)--self join

for empno 7369 manager is 7902 and if we observe matching arrow( matching to same table
That 7902 ename is ford and he is analyst

If we check our output..

The record for employee num 7369 details come like below

like above self join done for all empnos..

But here also a mistake...

whats that??
Yes there is no employee 7839 in our result( see we got only 13 results instead of 14 employees)
So why 7839 is not comes into the 7839 is President and has no manager..(i marked
in sky blue line you can check). So 7839 is the un matching record.. there is no matching in the
other table(here in our case sama(emp) table as self join)...

so what will be the perfect output then??

we have to get like..

7839 is existing in EMP table but has no he is president..

So which comes again into our picture??? OUTER JOINS

Here we have used LEFT OUTER JOIN why???

Cause we need to have all employees...(we dont miss the employee :) ). so we get all the empno
of emp table(e)..


You can understand yourself what is that??

Just place FULL instead of LEFT in the above query....

So by FOJ we get both matching and un matching results from both the tables

What You Need to Write Efficient SQL

Understand Access Paths
Full Scans
Full Scans and Multiblock Read Counts
Full Scans and the High-Water Mark
ROWID Access
ROWIDs to Speed Searches
ROWID Ranges
Index Scans
B*Tree Structure
Index-Unique Scans
Index-Range Scans
Index-Skip Scan
Index Full Scan
Index Fast-Full Scan
Index Joins
Cluster Scans
Understand Joins
Nested Loops
Natural Joins with Nested Loops
Outer Joins with Nested Loops
Hash Joins
Hash Natural Joins
Hash Outer Joins
Sort-Merge Joins
Cartesian Joins
Full Outer Joins
Schema Matters (Physical)
Really Know SQL
The ROWNUM Pseudo Column
How ROWNUM Works
Tuning with ROWNUM
Reduce Function Calls
Join Queries
Pagination with ROWNUM
Top-N Query Processing with ROWNUM
ROWNUM Wrap-up
Scalar Subqueries
Remove an Outer Join
Use Two Scalar Subqueries
Use a Single Scalar Subquery
Use an Object Type
Aggregate from Multiple Tables
Select from Different Tables
Join Rows to a Set of Tables
Perform Lookups
Find a Specific Row in a Partition
Top-N in a Group
Transposing (Pivoting)
Prior Row/Next Row
Bin the Extents
Group the Data
Split into ROWID Ranges
Analytics Wrap-up