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1 IADCISPE 27486 Simple in Deviated Charts To Determine Wells Hole Cleaning Requirements Yuejin Luo,’ P.A.

IADCISPE

27486

Simple

in Deviated

Charts

To Determine

Wells

Hole Cleaning

Requirements

Yuejin

Luo,’

P.A. Bern, ” B.D, Chambers,’ .

.

IADCMembers

=

.ePE Members

and D.S.

Kel[ingray,

BP Exploration

Q3vW11$S%IADC:6PE Dtilllng Cm fem”c,,

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was P,ewnd

{or Prem”tatim

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U.S.A. Telex, 188245 SPEUT.

SPE, P.O. BOY.833836, Richardson, TX ‘/5083.9836.

ABSTRACT

Optimization & hole cleaning remains one of the major challenges when planning and drilling high angle and extendsd reach wells. In U& papr, a simple rf@ts gmphicsl technique is presented for determining hole oleaning requiremenfafor a rsnge of hole sizsa. The method usss a aat of ahaife whkfr have been derived from a computer modei bsssd on both Isboralory and field messuremenb?.

Access to the technology at the rig-site has been greatly improved by the development of the simplified charts. Exsmples sre pressntsd whidr illudrate how tie charfa can

be applied to determine the influence of the major drilling variables on hole cleaning requlremenfa. Mud rheology is shown to b a key varisble for opfimising hole cleaning irr

devia~ wdlB,T& ~ar@ ~ alw

effect of hole enlargement which adversely affeofa hole cleaqing.

&e USGS!to quantify fhs

In addition, the paper dieousses the detailed methodology behind the development of the charts from the original phyaioslly+ased mcffel. The charts presented in the paper are valid for the lyplcsl North SSa drillingcocditicms.

INTRODUCTION

When planning or drilllng a deviatsd well, one of the key parameters which must bs determined ia the minimum ffcw rste required to frsnsport drilled cutffngs up to surfa~ an-d

Referenms and illustrationsat end of paper

499

keep fhs the hole deam This minimum flow rate k aelled the “critical flow rate” (CFR). If inadequate flow rate is used, cuffings will seltle on the low-side hole and form a large afdionery bed whloh may resuk in severe drilling problems such ss highdrsg awl tcque, hole packing-offand etuck pipe.

All these may subsequently

operations ad thus incurs.ubatmtlsl inweaaas in drillingamt.

It is efucial to know the CFR when planning and drilling a

deviafsd well so that tk

and ecamamicsl drilling

equipment can be selaoted and optimum parameters determined. This haa beoome increasingly impdsnt over recent years ss the demands of field developments have

dictated more higher angle snd exferded.reaah wellst

require expensive

remedial

adsquate

Hole cleaning ha~ been investigated by numerous researchers. In the esdy dudie.s[lW}, the effects of a rsnge of variables on cuttings transport and bed formation in’ deviated wells were investigated. The later studies havs tended to concentrate upon developing mathematical modds(&&7c-1 for prsditi”ng the CFR. Most of tfw models have been bsaad on smail+cale sxpsrlmenfs.

In a previouspapa$’o), a phyaica.llybsssd moddfor predictng the CFR in deviated wells was pres+ntsd. TMS wsa developed baaed on the analysis of forces aceng upon tl-a cuiflngs ad the associated dimensionless groups. The model was veliiated initiallywith experimental dsfs obfsirwd frcm sn 8- welibore simulator, and furher validated with actual drilling data from six cMfelenfSzsd hales from %1/2 up to 17.1)2’.

In+& psper a ast of dmrfa is prsssnted. Thess can be ussd byddlllrrgengineers at the rfg.siteto o@rrriaehole clesdng fof drillingva”ous hde eedfons C4a detiated weil. The% ehmfe have been dsrived bsssd on the typical North Sea ddling

2

.

SIMPLE CHARTS TO DETERMINE HOLE CLEANING REOUIREMEfJrS

IN DEVfATED WEUS

L4DC/SPE 27486

conditior!sby L@

tie previouscompti’dr model[’q.

DERIVATION

OF HOLE

CLEANING

CHARTS

Itwas shown(’o that tie hole cleaning model can accurately

predictthe effects of a numbar of drillingvariables. Among the

variables,

controlledduringdrilling,whild others can neither be designed

nor controlled The former are called tie mntiollable which includw

some can be designed during planning andlor

vatfabl-

1.

Mud tiOWrate

2.

Rate of penetiaticm(ROP)

3.

Mud rheology

4.

Mud flow regime

5.

Mud weight

e:

Hole angle

7.

F!& size

lhe

inclucfw

latter grcup 1scalled tie

uncontrollablewmfabfeswhich

1.

DrillpipeEcwmtrldty

2.

Cuttings Density

3

Cuffings size

[n order to keep the hole cleanirrgcharts relatively simple, tie above uncontrollable variables have been fixed at default values based on the typical North Sea conditions.

T,he controllable variables listed above can be fur:har categorized. by considering whether or not they can be adjusted easily at rig-ske In order to combat a hole cleaning problem. The adjustable variables are considered most impoftantand these indude:fhe flow raw ROR mud rheolcgy and flow”regime. The remaining controllable variables are rib-thally fixed because they are dlcfated by other drillirig wndderatiom. However, since they have major influence on hole cleaning, they are also ind~ed in the

In the originalmcdal, the mud riwology has been doscdbad by using the pcwer-law model based on the Farm viscameter readings. In,the current hole cleaning charts however, the conventional mud plastic viscedfy (~ and yield point (YP) have hen mad. ThLmIs based on the considerationfbat PV and YP tie tfw simplest and mod cummonly used parameters

are also easiest

10 describe mud rfmoiogical properties.They to @#rOl at fherlg-si@

The influence of drillpipe rotation has not been modelled explicitlyin either the original model[’o)or the charts. However since the field data.used for the validationof the originalmcdei were’ gathered under normal rotary drilling conditions, the Influence of drillpipe rotation has in effect already been ac~~nted for. Experimental studies I& shown that hole

500

cleaning fn deviated wells can b+ improvwd by increasing

drillpipe

obsarvaffons(il.la. Therefore, Kthe drillpipeis not rotated(e.g.

during

umderpradicfhofe cleaning requirements. Under these special oircum8fance8,Incraasad flow rate or changes In opembnd practices (e.g. rofatywipertrips) maybe nacessaryto improve hole cleanlng.

speed( 1.2A.7.1o). Tfi=

oriented

drilling),

i= aISC.supported

and charts

by field

may

the model

Hole Cleanlng Charts

Based m fh typicaldrilllng conditiotw in the BP’s operatfng

are-

w“ng the fuflmodel to examine tfw key varidk+ whkh can k acjusfed during the planning or drilling etage of a deviated wall. Basad on tha analysis, the effects of each of the variables on hole cleaning was established for each of tie

hofe dzes.

Sea, sendtiviiy andyds was ca.nkal out by

in h

Noti

For the mud PV ad YP, k was found that a shgle parameter called ffie Rheolcgy Factor (RF)* ba used to describe their effects. The higher the RF, the more effective the mud rheologyfor hde deanlW. In order to determine ftw value of the RF from the mud PV and YP, a sat of charts was derivad for each of tie hole sizes. Tfwse charts we shown in Figs.1a, 2a and 3a for 17-112-, 12-114-d 8-W? holes, respetivdy.

The affect of the hola angle was approximated by a group cd factorscalled the Angle Factw (AF) which are 8hown in Table 1. The higherthe hole angle, the lower the AF value, the more difficuiithe hole deaniW. The effect of the mud weight (MW) was cambined together with the RF and AF to form .ssingle parameter catled the Transpott Index (Tf~

Tf=RFx

AFx MW

(1)

whew MW is in eg w #cms. The RF %d AF are obtainedfrom Figs.1 a, 2a, 3a and Table 1 and can be considered as dimensionless. it can be sean”that, at a given set of drilling mndiions “@desize, angle, mud weighfand mud PV and YP), 7f is a direct indication of the hole cleaning condition when tiiling the well. The higher the Tf, tie easier the hole cleaning, and w“ceversa.

The remaining controllable variables are the ROP and the criticalflow rate (CFR). The interactionbelween the ROP and

a chart~ linkage to thi-ll should

b+ edabliied

vwiable% This has b+en done by a set of chatta for each of the

hole sizes, which are shown in Fg.lb, 2b ard 3b for 17-1/2-, 12-1/4- and 3-1/2- holes, respectively.

the effects of all the other

ha CFR can be mapped M

in waler to rdlad

.

.

.~

lADtYSPE 27466

~ Y. LUO, P.A. BERN, B.D. CHAMBERS, D.S. KELLINGRAY

3

EFFECTS

OF MAJOR

DRILLING

VARIABLES

Effect of ROP

:. Effects of Mud Rheology and Flow Regime

It has been disc&%sed[n the previous paper{lq tiaf cutlfngs removal in deviated wells occurs through a mmblnafion of salfation twd bed slldlng. l%e driving mechanism resuhsfrom

the flu~ lift and the drag_f.yces which act m t% cuffings bed. In Iaminar flow, the drag fora dominates, whereas in turbufmf flow flw tiff for- is more-important. Thii determines Ihat the effects of the mud rheology and the flow.mgirnbare rngually dependent. his is illustratedin Fig.4. In turbulentflaw, a lower YP results In a Mgher turbulent intensity and thus a higher Iii force for transportiW cuttings by salfafion. 2-a reducing YP In tutbulent flow will reduce tie CFR and improve hole cfeanlng. In Iaminar flow, however, a higher YP ~responds fa a higher

didkW bad. Emhigh hole deanlng.

fluid drag,force w~ch remove cuttings as VP Muds are pfeferred in Iarnlnarflow fw

Based on the above discusdon$ if becomes clear that the YP value c.arresfmrdiig to the flow regime Iminsitionprovidesthe worst hole cleaning and therefore should b avoided. Solh increasing or reducing YP from this point will improve hole cleaning. For the ~ shown in Rg.4, this is around a VP of

conditionschange, this point will shift either

to a lower or a higher YP. For example, as the hole size

increases, the flow will b-e more and more doml.nafedby laminar flow under normal drillingocmdfions,so tie worst YP

point muves towards the left.

17lbf/100#

As

This effect of the mud rfwolcgy has ~en

in the rheology factor (RF) chart% From Fig.3a for 2-1/2-

holes, for example, it can be seen that tiere Is a minimum RF line frcin which both lncfe~”cg or red”dng YP will iweasa the”RF value and thus Improve hole clead”g. A similar effect can be als.aseen in Fig.Za for 12-1/4” holes. For”t7-1/2” holes however, the annular flow Is dominated by Iamlnar flow under normal drillingccmditicns.Here the RF increases confinucus[y fmm a YP of about 16 lbf/1OGff(as shown In Fig.1a) and there is no minimum RF limaIn this range of YP.

accurately depicted

From the above discuasi~” it can k se~i ihatfhe rhe.d~y factor (R5 is a direct indication of how effective the mud rhec.fogyIs in terms of hole deani~ tie higher the RF, tie more effective the mud rheology. So one can maximi~ RF in order to improve hole dea.nlng. Therefore the RF charts cm

b

used as a useful fool to optimise the

mwJ rheolcgy. Froii

the

RF charts (Figs.la, ~ and 3a), it can be afsoseen that the

RF

value is much more sensitiveto the change of YP than PV.

This indicates that YP has much greater effect on hole cleanlng in deviated welfs. This is consistent with in-how expefimenfs and field experience that if is much more effecfiti to adjust mid YP rather thiriPV in walerto prevent or mmbat hole cleaning

l%e effect of ROP on hole deanlng has been shcwn as cm of the key parameters in the hole deanirig charts. From the ROP charts (Fig.lb, 2b and 3b), it can b -en that the rdafionsMp between the ROP and CFR is approximately linear. ff can k also seen hat, at a given ROP, lnmeadng the Tratqott Index

11- will reduce the CFR and ffierefore lmprwe hole cleaning.

At a given maximum mud flow rate, as is oflen the casn when drilling a deviated well, increasing TI will Increase the maximum allowable ROP at which the well can be safely drll[ed.Therefore, ROP charts can be used as a usefultool for opffmidng hofe cleaning and at the same time maxlmising drillingehlde~y.

Effect of HoIe Washout

The hole cleaning chats have been dmived fcf Uweedflemnt hole sizes. However, ft is %xmdlmes the case that the part of the open hole saction is enlarged (washed out) and to frar+a-t cuttingsthroughthis washout, a higher mudflow rate will be required. Eg.5 shows the CFRs when an &l&” hole is washed out to various sizes. ft can be seen that, if we are drilling an 2-1/2” hole but transport cuttings through a 14” wash-auf,the flow rate for hole cleaning will increaas from 33o to about 970 gpm. This 8hows the impottan~ of minimizing the risk of an enlarged hole.

In order to determine the hole ckaaningrequirementwhen the hole is washed out, a group of oarrectionfactors have been derived for various gauge hole sizes based on the +i”d model predicdoma Table 2 fists these cc.tmctlcn factors. To obtainh flowrate for a washout section, the flow rate fur the gauge hole sh.au!dbe multipliedby the correctionfacfoc

c~

-ax

CF~.

(2)

where a is the mrrection factor as obtained from Table

RIG SITE APPLICATIONS

OF CHARTS

2.

Procedures of Using the Charts

Followingsteps can be followed to determine the CFR or the maximumsafe ROP based on the hole cleaning charfx

1.

?.

I 3.

Enter the appropriate Rheokgy

Factor chart, Le. Flg.la;

% or 3a, WW mud PV and YP, read off the vafue of the

rheol~ factor, RR

Get the Angle Fa”tir AF frcm Table 1;

Cafculate fha Transport Index Tf udng Eq.1 based on

RF, AF ad

w

501

factor, RR Get the Angle Fa”tir AF frcm Table 1; Cafculate fha Transport Index Tf udng

.

.

.

4

SIMPLE CHARTS TO DETERMINE HCLE CLEANING REQUIREMENTS IN DEVIATSD WELLS

fADCiSPE27488

4.

Enter

ths appropriate ROP cha~, i.e. F@lb, 2b w 3b,

with “Tl=* the desfred ROP (or maximum flow rate), read off the CFR for hale cleaning (or h maximum safe ROP);

5.

If the hole is washed out, fit-d tie

flow rate correcOon

factor a from Table 2. Then use Eq.2 to calculate the

CFR for the washout hole eaction.

Example

The followingIllustrateshew to apply tie charts during drilling operations. Assume a horizontal 3-1/2- hole b drilled wiffr a

1.45 ss mud. Tfw mud PV 1s25 CPand YP Is 18 lbf/100@. We

want to Iumw

a

W

Is tie

maximum safe ROP if the mud pumps can

deliver a maximum 450 gpm?

 

b.

[f il i5 anticipated that we can drill at a ROP of 20 nuhr, what flow rate will be required to clean tfw hole?

0.

If we suspect the hole has been washed out to 10-, what floy rate should we pump?

a.

Fr6”mthe RF chaif

of Fig.3a,

N may be found that

RF-O.91. From Table 1, the Angle Factor AF-1 .0.20 tfw

tramsportindex n can be obtalnad as:

 
 

T[_o.91

xl.0Xl.45_l

.32

 

Then frrxn the ROP dlaft of Fig.3b at a TI of 1.32: h CM be found that, if the maximum flowrate achievable Is 454

gp’m,

the maximum ROP which can b

drilled without

ca.udng hde cleaning problems is shout 23 nuhr.

b.

If we anticipate we can drillat a ROP of 20 mfnr,then the flow required to clean the hale is 440 gpm.

o.

However; if the hole is suspected bel”g washed out to

10” and we still plan to drifla.ta ROP 0f26 nvhr, it may be

frond from Table 2 that the flow rate 4WUB IM ccwecfed

by a factor of a-l .3S, i.e.:

CF~ti.

1.38x 440.

S07 gpm

Under Hi circumstance, measures mud k taken either

to increase the maximum achievable flow rate (e.g. by

using larger drillpipe), or to adjust drilling parameters

(e.g. mud YP).

For other areas however, the error can be significant, depending on the lmaf cordiins. Under ttis ckcumefacee, the charts must be modified based on the local drilling cardiiorw by using tfw original rmxfel.

CONCLUSIONS

1.

A

set of simple hole cleaning charts has ken derived for

various hole dz~s based on the original hole cleaning

mcdel. The chartscan be used at fiw rig-dfe to detennina

h

hole cleardng requirement when drilling a deviated

weli. As the reeult, accesa to the tecfwwlcgyet the rfg-dfe

 

has

been greatly improved.

2.

The

charkaincludea number of majw contrdlab4edrilling

 

variables such as hele angle, mud flow rate, ROP, mud rfw.dcgy,mud weight and ftcw rsgime. The urcanfrdlabfe

variables such as drillpipe eccentricity, cuff@s density

tmf

size, have bsn

ignoredfor sfmprlcny.

3.

The

mud rheolcgylsshown to be one oftiw key variables

 

in

the charts which rmn b-s optimised by maxlmising a

parameter cafied the Rheology Factor (RF). It is afso shownthatfhe dfectof the mid rheologydepemtsonthe

 

flow

regime.

4.

Sas8d on the Rheology Factor charts lt is shcwn that il is much more effective to adjust the mud YP, ratfwr than

PV,

In order to improve hole cleaning at the rig-site.

5.

A

method

Is derived

to quantify

the hole cleaning

requirement in the hok washout section. h k shown fh~ the tlcw rate fordeaning flw washout can be sigrMcantly figher than that for gauge fwle.

NOMENCLATURE

AF

@Ile Factor f%dde 1)

CFR

CdUcalFlow Rate tcf hole cleanlng ~pm]

f.4w

Mud Weight [w]

RF

Rheology Factor (Figs.1a, 2a, 3a)

TI

Transpert Index, ddinwf by Eq.(1)

a

Flow rate corredianfactw {.x wadmwta (Table 2)

Discussions

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The hale deeming chmt.a have been deri;ed b-d on the original model preckfions by assuming a set of fixed drilling conditionswhich are comddered typical in the BP’S operating areas in the North Sea. The charts are CAYapproximationsof the original mcdel. It is eti”matad that the emor of the chat+n should be wifhii about 457. in terms of CFRS under mod drillingconditicmsIn the Bi%op+rating areaa inthe NorthSea.

502

pmnkdon to publishfhls work. l%nks are 430 dtw to ali the operation personnel, bdh BP and its contactars, who have providedccnsidwable suppmf throughoutfhlmwodr.

dtw to ali the operation personnel, bdh BP and its contactars, who have providedccnsidwable suppmf throughoutfhlmwodr.

,-----

684%s3%3

-

lAfX/SPE

27436

REFERENCES

Y. LUO, PA. BERN, B.D. CHAMBERS, D.S. KELLINGRAY

Ccmferencq New Orleans, Feb.13-21,1962

5

1.

Tormren, P. H., Iyoho, A.W. and Azar, J. J.: ‘An experimental study of cuttings transport in directional wells,- Paper SPE 12123, presented at the 19S2 SPE 5sfh Annual Technical *erence and Edibition, San Fr6nci6co,Oct. 5-3, 16S3

2.

ohajini, s.S. and Azw,JJ.: lle effects ofmt!d theolcgy on annular hole cleaning in directional wells,” SPE DrillingEng. (Aug. 16S6) P297-208

3.

Brown, N. P., Bern, P.A. and Weaver, A.: ‘Cleaning deviated holes: New experimental and theoretical studies,”paper SPE/lADC 16636, presented at the 1939 SPWIADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, Feb. 2B-March 3,1689

4.

Slfferman, T.R. and Beck6r, T. E.: “Hole cleaning in full-stall inclined wellbores,m paper SPE 20422, presented at the 199o SPE 85th Annual Technical Conferenm Z2Exhibhlon,New Orleans, SeptX-28, 1960

5.

Gavignet, A.A. and Sobey, I.J.: ‘Model aids cuttings transpotf prediction,”Paper SPE 15417, prsanted at the

 

SPE

61st Annwal Technical

Conference and Exhlbkions,

 

New Orleans, Oct. 5-3, 19S6

6.

Martin, M., et.d:

“Transport of cuttings in directional

wells,” paper SPE/fADC 13033, pr686nted at the 16S7

SPE IADC Drilling Conferen66, 15-1s, 1667

New Orfeans, March

7.

Peden, J. M., Ford, J.T. and Oyeneyin, M. B.:

“Comprehensive experimental investigations of drilled

cuttingstransport in inclimd wel16includingtie effects of rc+ationand eccenttidty,- paper SPE 20925, presented

at

tie Europec 60, The Hague, Netherlands, 0cL22-24,

 

1990

8.

f-amen, T.1., Pilehvad, AA. and Az.sr,JJ.: “Development of a new cuttings transport model for high-angle wellbc+es including herizonfd wells: paper SPE 25872, presented at the SPE rocky Mountain Regional/Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, April

12-14,1662

9.

A

new MTV computer package for hole cleaning design

and analysis,- Paper SPE 28217, presented at the SPE Petroleum Computer Conference, New Orleans, July

11-14,1693

10.

Luo, Y., Bern, P.A. and Chambers,

B.D.: “Flow rate

Lw6dltions for deanina deviated wells.”oaoer IADCXSPE

238S4,

presented

& the

1992

[A”DC;SPE Drilling

503

11. 8t6wwt, c.D. ard Williamson, D.R.: Tlcdzontal drilling sspect6 of the Hekfer fm!d redewlopme~ P8pr SPE 176S6, presented at the 20th Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston,Texas, May 2-5,1633

12. Abn,T.E., af.aLL“Pushingthe Iimti fff extmhl m.wh

wodd retard frun platform St6ffjordC, Well

drilllng New

C?-”,papr SPE 2S350, presented at the 63fh Armu61 Technical Conferetwa and Exhibiilcmof SPE, Homfon, 3-B, 1393

mob

TABLE 1:

Angle Factors for D6vfated Holes

Hole Angle (deg)

Ang16Fa6for6

25

1.51

30

1.39

35

1al

40

124

46

1.1s

50

1.14

55

1.10

so

1.07

65

1.05

70+0

1.02

S2-60

1.0

TASLE 2

Flow Rate C+xrection Factors for Washout Holes

ai~

12-1/4-

17-1/2”

9
10
13
14 11 12 T:

Wasi-?ald

Size

(ilwh)

a

1.12

1.3s

1.s5

1.64

2.24

2.55

Vashoti

siia

(inch)

13

14

15

16

17

16

1.1

1.24

1.39

1.53

1.s3

1.S2

Washout

sizea

(inch)

Is

19

20

21

22

23

1.03

1.09

1.16

122

126

1.24

(inch) 13 14 15 16 17 16 1.1 1.24 1.39 1.53 1.s3 1.S2 Washout sizea (inch)

40

35

5

(a)

(a)

SPE27486

-

FIGURE 1:

HOLE CLEANING CHARTS FOR 17-1/’2 HOLES

(b)

–. ,*D

(-:“~<!”4”’&

cm

-.

,,/ ~~=,,/= ~,.,,

““’ /--”/

,~~;:&

,,;,.*

:,,cO-

,/:,,

.PJ ,

.

~

,.

;;m.

.“:’”,,

5.”.

10

.15

.

.

.20,,

=

z,.”

mm 01Pe”diaw [mm

.=

.4.Q.

--

FIGURE 2“

HOLE CLEANING CHARTS FOR 12-1/4

HOLES

(b)

,“,/’‘/y/y//&<,=?I ‘w,~jz, <,, I , I 15 2, ,s .30 . 35. Q M. .
,“,/’‘/y/y//&<,=?I
‘w,~jz, <,,
I ,
I
15
2,
,s
.30
.
35.
Q
M.
.
,5
20.
25
5“
IQ
R,,.
d
Pe.em!m
mm
W*IC P.)”,
@bf/iw@,
FIGURE 3
HOLE CLEANING CHARTS FOR s-1~” HoLEs
(a)
(b)
=W.–
/1
~
095
0.9
.9s
r
1.05
,.1
.75;%’””
~.::;’=a””””
m.
.~.-.,”
,.
1
.
u&///~/’
.,.
I
_,;-
5
.10
,5
20
25
so
3.
40
.<0
.
5.
.
10.
.
.
.
15 .
.
.
.
Zc:
?2

,,

I

39

””””””

-

e

-,

-

S%2748

fig.4

EFscT

(8-1/2 Hole

600 .

500

I

1

“O—FY[ELb””POINT

FL.bw RATE_

ROP=SOnvhr,PV.19 -. CP and 1.45 sg Mud)

,

O“N cSiTic,IL

,

at 60deg,,

.

‘IIubuIcnt

FIW

,

I

kudnar

mow

200

“1

100

0

t

I

Low

5 10

Wscou,

Muds

15 20

Mud Yield Point

Hg.5: CRITICALFLOW RATE

1000

900

80;

’700

FOR

High VISCOUS

Muds

2S

30

(lbf/ 100sqft]

CLEANING

WASHDUT

I

S5

HOLES”

I

‘-

6

Soo

Bit

S,.-

8.1/2

Angle

-60

dW

ROP -20

 

17mr

500

Pv.

19 CP

 
 

w

.

10 Ibflloosqfl

400

Mud

Weight

 

.

1.45

sg

300

L

891011

12

1314

Washout Hole Size l!nchl

505

Ibflloosqfl 400 Mud Weight   . 1.45 sg 300 L 891011 12 1314 Washout Hole Size